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NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS
GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

SUP STRUCTURE DESIGN REPORT


S7-3 K761+203.6 SHORT BRIDGE

PESHAWAR-KARACHI MOTORWAY (PKM)


SUKKUR-MULTAN SECTION

APR 2017
SUPER-STRUCTURE
DESIGN REPORT – 25 m – 40°
1 CONTENTS
2 Project Description........................................................................................................... 3
3 Structural Design Criteria ................................................................................................. 4
3.1 Codes Of Practices ................................................................................................... 4
3.2 Material Properties .................................................................................................... 4
3.3 Loads ........................................................................................................................ 5
3.3.1 Dead Weight (DC) .............................................................................................. 5
3.3.2 Dead Weight Wearing Course (DW) .................................................................. 5
3.3.3 Live Loads (LL)................................................................................................... 5
3.3.4 Dynamic Allowance (IM) ..................................................................................... 8
3.3.5 Multiple Presence Factors (m) ........................................................................... 8
3.3.6 Longitudinal Loads/Braking Force (BR) ............................................................. 8
3.3.7 Punching Shear .................................................................................................. 9
3.4 Load Combination ..................................................................................................... 9
3.5 Concrete Cover ....................................................................................................... 10
3.6 Design Life Of Bridges ............................................................................................ 10
4 Structural System and Other Details ............................................................................. 11
4.1 Configuration ........................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Computer Modeling ................................................................................................. 11
4.2.1 Super Structure ................................................................................................ 11
5 Bridge typical long and cross sections ........................................................................... 12
6 Deck Slab Design .......................................................................................................... 13
7 Girder Analysis and Design ........................................................................................... 23
7.1 Properties of Section of Girders .............................................................................. 23
7.2 Dead Load Analysis ................................................................................................ 23
7.3 Sundries Load Analysis ........................................................................................... 24
7.4 Live Load Analysis .................................................................................................. 25
7.5 Profile of the Prestressing Strands .......................................................................... 27
7.6 Prestress Tendon Analysis...................................................................................... 28
7.7 Losses of Prestress ................................................................................................. 29
7.8 Stress histories Analysis and Design ...................................................................... 38
7.9 Bursting Force ......................................................................................................... 41
7.10 Flexure Analysis and Design ................................................................................... 43
7.11 Shear Analysis and Design ..................................................................................... 44
8 Deflection Check @ Midspan ........................................................................................ 50
9 Diaphragm Analysis and Design .................................................................................... 51

1
9.1 End Diaphragm ....................................................................................................... 51
9.2 Interior Diaphragm .................................................................................................. 54
10 Bearing Pad Design ....................................................................................................... 59

2
2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Project
25m bridge 40 degree
Principal Engineer
China State Construction Engineering Corporation
Design Consultants
China State Construction Engineering Corporation
Design Team
GM Projects
Gong Yong
Senior Design Engineer
Lu Ao
Junior Design Engineer
Duan Baoshan

3
3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1 CODES OF PRACTICES


Following is the summary of the codes used in designing:
• WEST PAKISTAN HIGHWAY CODE OF PRACTICE, HIGHWAY BRIDGES (1967)
used for Live Loads analysis, Braking Forces and Deck Slab Design.
• AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS used for all analysis, design
and specifications of loads (including live loads, which ever governs), load
combinations. Local environmental parameters as per AASHTO code specifications.
• ASTM standards used for material specifications and testing where AASHTO
specifications for material types and testing requirements are insufficient.

3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES


a) 28 Days Compressive Strength of Concrete (Cylindrical)

Prestressed Girders 35 MPa (5000 Psi)


Deck Slab and Diaphragm 28 MPa (4000 Psi)

b) Reinforcement

High yield deformed steel bars conforming to ASTM A615Grade 60 with minimum yield
strength of 413 MPa shall be used.

c) Pre-Stressing Strands

Pre-stress strands will be (No.11 of strands), 12.7mmdiameter, normal relaxation strands,


conforming to ASTM A-416 having ultimate Strength of 1860 MPa (Grade 270) shall be
used. Minimum Yield Stress Fy = 1581 MPa.

The following parameters will be used for the calculation of Prestressing Losses:
Friction wobble coefficient K 6.60 e -07 per mm
Friction coefficient 0.25 per rad.
Draw in of wedge (Anchorage set, as per manufacturer’s data) 6mm
Modulus of Elasticity (Strands) 197000 Mpa

d) Unit Weights

Reinforced Concrete 24 KN/m3 (150 Pcf) AASHTO Table 3.5.1-1


Wearing Course 23 KN/m3 (140 Pcf) AASHTO Table 3.5.1-1

e) Modulus of Elasticity

Concrete 4800√f’c MPa AASHTO LRFD C5.4.2.4-1


Rebar 200,000MPa AASHTO LRFD 5.4.3.2

4
3.3 LOADS
3.3.1 Dead Weight (DC)
It is the self-weight of Reinforced Concrete Structure. Barriers weights to be calculated
according to their actual size and dimensions.
DC(barriers)=248950 mm2 x 24 KN/m3=5.97 KN/m

3.3.2 Dead Weight Wearing Course (DW)


It is super imposed dead weight of Asphalt wearing course (70mm) thick.
DW=70mmx23KN/m3=1.6 KN/m2

3.3.3 Live Loads (LL)


Following live loads from two codes will be used which ever generate maximum stresses in
components for design of pre-stressed girders and loads to be transferred on bearing pads.
A) West Pakistan Code of Practice, Highway Bridges 1967.
• Class A, Truck Loading, Section 2, Figure 4.
• Class AA, Military Loading, Section 4, Figure 5.

Whichever of them produce maximum stress in Deck Slab, pre-stressed girders and
bearing pads. Impact for Class A will be as specified in Section 2.9 and for multi
presence of Trucks, the load intensity may be reduced as per Section 2.7.
B) AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 6th Edition (2012)
• Design Truck or design Tandem A3.6.1.2
• Design lane load A3.6.1.2

Specifications of design truck (A3.6.1.2.2) and Specifications of design tandem


(A3.6.1.2.3) and Design Lane Load (A3.6.1.2.4) are to be used. Number of design
lanes to be decided as per (A3.6.1.1.1). Design Tandem or Design Truck both cases
coincident along with Design Traffic Load whichever produces maximum stresses in
girder or load to be transmitted to bearing pads.

5
6
7
The minimum clearance between the roadway face of
curb and the outer edge of the track shall be assumed
as follows:
Width of roadway 11’-6’’ to 13’-6’’ 1’-0’’
13’-6’’ to 18’-0’’ 2’-0’’
Above 18’-0’’ 4’-0’’
3.3.4 Dynamic Allowance (IM)
From WPCPHB, Section 2.9 (C), IM for Class A Truck:
IM=15/(L+20)≤30%, in which, L is span length (ft)
Span length of this 25m span bridge is 24.3m=79.7 ft
So IM for Class A is 15/(79.7+20)=15.0%<30%
From WPCPHB, Section 4.4 (A), IM for Class AA Tank:
IM=25% for span <30 ft
IM=10% for 30 ft≤ span ≤150 ft
IM=8.8% for span > 150ft
So IM for Class AA is 10%
From AASHTO 3.6.2, IM for HL-93 should be provided in Table 3.6.2.1-1.
Table 3.6.2.1-1 Dynamic Load Allowance, IM
Component IM
Deck Joints – All Limit States 75%
All Other Components:
• Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 15%
• All Other Limit States 33%

3.3.5 Multiple Presence Factors (m)


Multiple presence factors applied to HL-93 are specified in AASHTO Table 3.6.1.1.2-1.
Table 3.6.1.1.2-1 Multiple Presence Factors, m
Multiple Presence
Number of Loaded Lanes
Factors, m
1 1.20
2 1.00
3 0.85
>3 0.65

Multiple presence factors applied to LiveA are specified in WPCPHB section 2.7.
Where maximum stresses are produced in any member by more than one simultaneous
truck-train load, the following percentages of the resultant live load stresses shall be used in
view of improbable coincident maximum loading:
Percent
One or two truck train Loadings 100
Three truck train Loadings 90
Four or more 75

3.3.6 Longitudinal Loads/Braking Force (BR)


They will be calculated based on which live loads produce maximum stresses.
From WPCPHB, Section 2.10, whichever produce maximum force.
• 30 percent of weight of vehicle Class A, the truck loads in one lane only being
considered;
• 15 percent of weight of military vehicle Class AA.

8
The centre of gravity of this longitudinal force shall be assumed be located 6 ft above
the profile grade of the roadway slab.
From AASHTO 3.6.4, braking force shall be taken as the greater of :
• 25 percent of the axle weights of the design truck or design tandem or,
• 5 percent of the design truck plus lane load or five percent of the design
tandem plus lane load
And this braking force shall be placed in all design lanes which are comsidered to be
loaded in accordance with Article 3.6.1.1.1 and which are carrying traffic headed in
the same direction. These forces shall e assumed to act horizontally at a distance of
6.0 ft above the roadway surface in either longitudinal direction to cause extreme
force effects.

3.3.7 Punching Shear


Additionally the bridge deck slab shall be checked in punching shear for a wheel load
of 21,000 pounds (105 KN) on 0.25 x 0.25 m2 tyre contact area.

3.4 LOAD COMBINATION


Load combinations are based on minimum specified load factors as specified in
AASTO 3.4.

9
γEQ will be based on site specific data else it is permissible to take it 0.5 according
AASHTO C3.4.1.
All notations are present in AASHTO 3.3.

3.5 CONCRETE COVER


Minimum concrete cover (as per article 8.22.1 and 9.26.1 of AASHTO standard
specifications ) to the nearest reinforcement shall be as follows:
z Deck Slab :

Top 50 mm
Bottom 25 mm
z Pre-stressed Girders

Top (Main Reinforcement) 40 mm


Bottom (Main Reinforcement) 40 mm
Stirrups 25 mm
z Diaphragm 40 mm

3.6 DESIGN LIFE OF BRIDGES


The design life of bridges is 75 years conform to AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
SPECIFICATIONS

10
4 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OTHER DETAILS

4.1 CONFIGURATION
The super structure of bridge is composed of Cast in Place Deck Slab and pre-cast
post tensioned simply Supported I- Girders. The deck slab is cast in place RCC.
Thickness of deck slab 225 mm

4.2 COMPUTER MODELING


Following computer programs are used in calculations and modeling.
• CSi Bridge v 15.2
• MS Excel

4.2.1 Super Structure


The super structure modeled as combination of plate and beam members. The
moving load analysis is done to calculate moments and forces in girders.
Deck Slab is calculated using in-house developed worksheets.
The Structure has been analyzed for all possible position of Class A and Class AA
loading. Critical loadings are identified with the help of software.

11
5 BRIDGE TYPICAL LONG AND CROSS SECTIONS

Figure 1 Mid-span cross section

Figure 2 Elevation of P.C.Girder

12
6 DECK SLAB DESIGN
6.1. Slab flexure

Span of Bridge = 25 m
C/c distance b/w supports = 2.65 m
Width of Top Flange of Girder = 0.9 m
Clear Span of deck slab across girders = 1.75 m
Span Length (as per WPHBC 3.2(A)) = 2.65 m
Thickness of Deck slab Td = 225 mm
Thickness of Asphalt Pavement Ta = 70 mm
Density of Concrete dc = 24 KN/m3
Density of Asphalt da = 23 KN/m3
Dead Load "Dc" = Td x dc
= 5.4 KN/m
Wearing surface Load "Dw" = Ta x da
= 1.61 KN/m
Applying a reduction factor of 0.8 as the deck slab is continuous over girders

Dead load "Dc" Moment @ mid span MDL = 0.8 x wLc^2/8


= 3.79 KN.m/m
Dead load "Dw" Moment @ mid span MDw 0.8 x wLc^2/8
= 1.13 KN.m/m

Dead load "Dc" Moment @ support MDLs = 0.8 x wL^2/8


3.79 KN.m/m
Dead load "Dw" Moment @ Support MDws 0.8 x wLc^2/8
= 1.13 KN.m/m
Live Load Moment due to Class AA Loading

For the Slabs in which main reinforcement is perpendicular to traffic, live load moment (at
mid span and at support ) shall be calculated by :

MLL = 0.8(1.1x Lc-0.5)


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 4.5 (c)

Span length of deck slab across girders Lc = 2.65 m


= 8.69 ft
MLL = 7.25 K. ft/ft
= 32.25 KN M/M

Since span of Slab<30, Impact Factor = 25%


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 4.4 (a)

MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 1.25 x 32.25


= 40.32 KN M/M

Live Load Moment due to Class A Loading

As the Main reinforcement is perpendicular to traffic, live load moment (at mid span & at
support) shall be calculated by :

MLL = 0.8 {(L+2) P}/25


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 3.2 (c)

P = Load on one Wheel of truck(heaviest) = 12.5 Kips

Span length of deck slab across girders Lc = 8.69 ft

MLL = 4.28 K. ft/ft


= 19.03 KN M/M

Impact Factor I = 15/(Lc+20)


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 2.9 (c)

Impact Factor I = 0.52 > 0.3

= 0.30

MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 1.30 x 19.03


= 24.74 KN M/M

Design for Flexure

Design of Reinforcement at Mid span and at Support

MDc = 3.79 KN.m/m


MDw = 1.13 KN.m/m
MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 40.32 KN M/M (Class AA Loading) governs
MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 24.74 KN M/M (Class A Loading) -

Minimum required Flexural Strength with the Group Combination-Strength-I of LRFD.

Mu = 1.25MDc+1.5MDw+1.75MLL

13
= 76.99 KN M/M

Select reinforcement dia 16 @ 150 c/c

As = 201.06 x 1000
150

As = 1340.412866 mm2/m

Cover in Deck slab (as per LRFD Art 5.12.3) = 25 mm


Effective Depth = 225 - 25 - 8
= 192 mm

a = As fy (LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4)
0.85β1 f'c b

f'c = 27.57901916 N/mm2


fy = 410 N/mm2
b = 1000 mm
β1 = 0.853007006
a = 27.48 mm

Phi = 0.9 for flexure

Phi x Mn = Phi x As fy [d-a/2] (LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1)

Phi x Mn = 88.17 > Mu (O.K)

Provide 16 @ 150 c/c


(Top & Bottom Layers in Shortway)

The reinforcement as per flexure design shall be followed.

Distribution Reinforcement

As the Main Reinforcement is perpendicular to Traffic, distribution reinforcement shall be


the percentage of main reinforcement required for positive moment shall be:

Percentage = 220/(S)^0.5 Max. 67%

WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 3.2 (e)

S (Clear Span of Deck Slab) = Lc 8.69 ft

Percentage = 75% > 67%

Percentage = 67%

Area of Distribution Reinforcement = 0.67 x As (main)


= 0.67 x 1,340
= 898.08 mm2/m

Provide 12 @ 125 c/c


Steel area As= 904.77868 mm2/m O.K
(Bottom Layer- Longway)

Minimum Reinforcement requirements


Empirical Method of Design
As per Empirical Design 9.7.2.5 of AASHTO LRFD Design Specification 2007

Four layers of Isotropic reinforcement shall be provided in empirically designed slabs. The
minimum amount reinforcement shall be 0.27 sq.in/ft of steel in each bottom layer and
0.18 sq.in/ft of steel for each top layer which corresponds to 0.3 % of the gross area in the
positive moment area and 0.2% in the negative moment area.

Bottom layer of steel = 0.3% of the gross area = 576.0 sq.mm OK


Top layer of steel = 0.2% of the gross area = 384.0 sq.mm OK

FOR ACUTE CORNERS


Do NOT Apply reduction factor of 0.8

Dead load "Dc" Moment @ mid span MDL = wLc^2/8


= 4.74 KN.m/m
Dead load "Dw" Moment @ mid span MDw wLc^2/8
= 1.41 KN.m/m

Dead load "Dc" Moment @ support MDLs = wL^2/8


4.74 KN.m/m
Dead load "Dw" Moment @ Support MDws wLc^2/8
= 1.41 KN.m/m
Live Load Moment due to Class AA Loading

For the Slabs in which main reinforcement is perpendicular to traffic, live load moment (at
mid span and at support ) shall be calculated by :

MLL = 1.1x Lc-0.5


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 4.5 (c)

14
Span length of deck slab across girders Lc = 2.65 m
= 8.69 ft
MLL = 9.06 K. ft/ft
= 40.32 KN M/M

Since span of Slab<30, Impact Factor = 25%


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 4.4 (a)

MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 1.25 x 40.32


= 50.40 KN M/M

Live Load Moment due to Class A Loading

As the Main reinforcement is perpendicular to traffic, live load moment (at mid span & at
support) shall be calculated by :

MLL = (L+2) P/25


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 3.2 (c)

P = Load on one Wheel of truck(heaviest) = 12.5 Kips

Span length of deck slab across girders Lc = 8.69 ft

MLL = 5.35 K. ft/ft


= 23.79 KN M/M

Impact Factor I = 15/(Lc+20)


WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 2.9 (c)

Impact Factor I = 0.52 > 0.3

= 0.30

MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 1.30 x 23.79


= 30.92 KN M/M

Design for Flexure

Design of Reinforcement at Mid span and at Support

MDc = 4.74 KN.m/m


MDw = 1.41 KN.m/m
MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 50.40 KN M/M (Class AA Loading) governs
MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 30.92 KN M/M (Class A Loading) -

Minimum required Flexural Strength with the Group Combination-Strength-I of LRFD.

Mu = 1.25MDc+1.5MDw+1.75MLL
= 96.24 KN M/M

Select reinforcement dia 19 @ 150 c/c

As = 283.53 x 1000
150

As = 1890.19158 mm2/m

Cover in Deck slab (as per LRFD Art 5.12.3) = 25 mm


Effective Depth = 225 - 25 - 19
= 181 mm

a = As fy (LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4)
0.85β1 f'c b

f'c = 27.58 N/mm2


fy = 410 N/mm2
b = 1000 mm
β1 = 0.85
a = 38.76 mm

Phi = 0.9 for flexure

Phi x Mn = Phi x As fy [d-a/2] (LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1)

Phi x Mn = 112.73 > Mu (O.K)

Provide 19 @ 150 c/c


(Top & Bottom Layers in Shortway)

Distribution Reinforcement

As the Main Reinforcement is perpendicular to Traffic, distribution reinforcement shall be


the percentage of main reinforcement required for positive moment shall be:

Percentage = 220/(S)^0.5 Max. 67%

15
WPHC for Bridges 1967 Clause 3.2 (e)

S (Clear Span of Deck Slab) = Lc 8.69 ft

Percentage = 75% > 67%

Percentage = 67%

Area of Distribution Reinforcement = 0.67 x As (main)


= 0.67 x 1,890
= 1,266.43 mm2/m

Provide 16 @ 125 c/c


Steel area As= 1608.4954 mm2/m O.K
(Bottom Layer- Longway)

6.2. Check for Punching Shear


(As per AASHTO 5.13.3.6.3)

for 21 Kips Wheel Load


f'c = 4 KSI
h = Thickness of Slab
h= 225
Effective Depth dv = 225 - 25 - 8
= 192 mm
dv 7.02 in
f= 0.9 (As per LRFD 2012, A 5.5.4.2.1)
L= 500 + dv
B= 250 + dv

L= 678 mm
B= 428 mm

bo = Perimeter = 2(L+B)
= 2213.03 mm
= 87.13 in

Abnormal Wheel Load = 21 Kips

Vu = (1.75x 21)
= 36.75 Kips

Allowable Nominal Punching Shear Vn = (0.063+0.126/bc)*bo*dv*(f'c)0.5 < 0.126(f'c)0.5*bo*dv (LRFD 2012, A 5.13.3.6.3-1)
bc = Ratio of long side to short side of the rectangle through which load is transmitted
1.58
Vn = 174.34 < 154
Vn = 154 Kips
f Vn= 139 Kips
>
36.75 Kips
O.K

Figure 3 Dispersed Area of Wheel

6.3. Design of Cantilever portion of deck slab

The cantilever slab shall be considered fix at the edge of the top flange of girder

Width of top flange of girder = 900 mm


Width of cantilever from CL girder = 1,237.5 mm
Span of Cantilever Ls = 1,237.5 mm
Thickness of deck slab Td = 225 mm

Moment due to dead load

Moment due to self weight of deck slab= wl^2/2 Mdeck = 4.135 Kn-m/m

Thickness of surfacing Ta = 70 mm
Moment due to surfacing = wl^2/2 Msurf = 1.233 Kn-m/m

Area of barrier = 0.249 sq.m.


Selfweight of barrier = 5.975 Kn/m

16
Width of barrier Bw = 0.400 m
Moment due to selfweight of barrier Mcurb = 6.20 Kn-m/m

Total dead load moment = Mdeck+Msurf+Mcurb MDtotal = 11.566 Kn-m/m

Moment due to Class AA Loading

Contact area of Tank 3.657 x 0.838 Atank = 3.06 sq.m.


Tank load of one track = 35 tonne Wtank = 343.25 Kn
Load Intensity=Wtank/Atank LI = 112.00 Kn/sq.m

According to WPHC 4.5 B , centreline track shall be assumed to be minimum 1.5 ft (0.457m) from the face of curb.

Cantilever portion of span S=Ls-(457+Bw) = 380.500 mm


S1 = 0.381 m
Live load moment = = 35.722 Kn-m/m
Impact factor IF = 25 %

Live load moment with Impact= LI*S1^2/2*IF = 44.653 Kn-m/m

Moment due to Class A Loading

According to WPHC 3.2 H ,each wheel on the element perpendicular to traffic shall be distributed according to following
formula:

E = 0.6X+2.5

Where X= distance in feet from load to point of support

According to WPHC 3.2 B , the centre line of the wheel shall be assumed to be 1.0 ft (0.3m) from the face of the curb.

Width of cantilever from CL girder = 1,238 m


S = 4.060 ft.
Edge distance of wheel load = Bw*3.2808+1 Ed = 2.312 ft.
X = S-Ed = 1.748 ft.
E=0.6X+2.5 = 3.549 ft.
Moment due to Live load = PX/E where P=Load on one wheel of truck
As per WPHC 3.2H, one axle load of 36000 lbs may be substituted for the two 25000 lb tandem axle.

P /wheel P/w = 18 Kips


Live load moment ML=P/w*X/E = 8.865 Kip-ft/ft
Impact factor = 15/(L+20) < 0.3 IF = 0.623 > 0.3
IF = 0.300
Moment due to Live Load(w Impact) = 11.525 Kip-ft/ft
= 51.264 Kn-m/m

Moment due to Sidewalk Live Load

Sidewalk Live Load


sidewalk loading shall be 100 lb/sq.ft = 5 Kn/sq.m
Width of walkway = 0 m
walkway loading = 0 Kn/m
Sidewalk LL = - Kn/m

Flexure Design

MDc+ Mbarrier = 10.334 Kn-m/m


MDw = 1.233 Kn-m/m
Sidewalk LL = 0.000
MLL Class AA = 44.653 Kn-m/m -
MLL(impact) Class A = 51.264 Kn-m/m governs
MVC ( Moment due to vehicle collision) = - Kn-m/m

Minimum required Flexural Strength with the Group Combination-Strength-I of LRFD.


Mu=1.25MDc+1.5MDw+1.75MLL = 104.478 Kn-m/m

MDL = 10.33 KN.m/m


MDw 1.23 KN.m/m
MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 44.65 KN.m/m (Class AA Loading) -
MLL+Impact = MLL x Impact 51.26 KN.m/m (Class A Loading) governs
MVC ( Moment due to vehicle collision) - KN.m/m

Minimum required Flexural Strength with the Group Combination-I of AASHTO.

Mu=1.25MDc+1.5MDw+1.75MLL
104.48 KN.m/m

Select reinforcement dia 16 @ 150 c/c


12 @ 150
As = 314.16 x 1000
150

17
As = 2,094 mm2/m= 0.99 in2/ft

Cover in Deck slab (as per LRFD Art 5.12.3) = 50 mm


Effective Depth = 225 - 50 - 8
= 167 mm

a = As fy (LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4)
0.85β1 f'c b

f'c = 27.579 N/mm2


fy = 410.000 N/mm2
b = 1000.000 mm
β1 = 0.853007006
a = 42.94 mm

Phi = 0.9 for flexure

Phi x Mn = Phi x As fy [d-a/2] (LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1)

Phi x Mn = 112.47 > Mu (O.K)

Provide 16 @ 150 c/c plus


12 @ 150 additional bars
(Top Layers in Shortway)
6.4. Check For Crack Width

(+ve) Moment 45.24 KN-m Ref : Design of Highway Bridges


(-ve) Moment 62.83 KN-m By Richard M. Barker and Jay A. Puckett
Cover 25 mm Page No. 558
b 1000 mm M=MDC+MDW+IMxMLL
h 225 mm
8.858 in
f'c 27.579 N/mm2
4,000 Psi
fy 410.000 N/mm2
60,000 Psi
Es 29,000,000 Psi

Effective Depth "dl" 200 mm


7.874 in
(+ve) As Provided 16 mm Dia Bar (-ve) As Provided 16 mm Dia Bar
plus 12 mm Dia Bar
Spacing Provided 150 mm c/c Spacing Provided 150 mm c/c
5.906 in c/c 5.906 in c/c
Crack Width Calculation for +ve Moments

dc = Cocrete Cover 25 mm
0.984 in
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 7.874 in
Condition s < 700 ge /(b sfss)-2dc Ref : LRFD 5.7.3.4

in which
b s = 1+{dc/0.7(h-dc)}
Where
g e= exposure factor, 1 for Class 1 exposure condition & 0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition
g e= 0.75 for Class 2
f ss Tensile Stress in steel reinforcement at the Service limit state.
h overall thickness or depth of component (in)
dl distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of extreme tension element (in)
dc Thickness of concrete cover measured from Extreme Tension Fibre to Center of the flexural reinforcement located closest the

b s = 1.1786

0.6fy 36,000 Psi 5221618.705


Es 29,000,000 Psi
Ec = 57000(f'c)1/2 3604997 Psi
n = Es/Ec 8.0
8.0
2
Area of One bar 201.06 mm

2
Total Area of All Bars As 1340.41 mm /m 1000 mm

d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 200 mm


0.5*b*x 2 = n*As*(d-x)

18
Where
b Width of Strip. = 1000 mm
n Modular Ratio Width of Slab Cracked Section
x Distance of Cracked Section from Extreme Compression Face.
As Area of steel of bars in 1m Strip.
x
d (Depth of Slab) - dc
a 1.00
For Quadratic Equation b 21.57
c -4313.12
x1 55.77 Effective depth
(+ve) and (-ve) Values of "x"
x2 -77.34 mm Thickness of Slab
x 55.77 mm
Icr =(bx /3)+(n*As)*(d-x)2
3

Where
I cr Moment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section. Figure 4 Cracked Section Calculation
fc
Icr 282,127,404 mm/m
M 45.2 KN-m/m
fss = n*M*(d-x)/Icr 0.186 KN / mm2 Cracked Section x
fss= 27.0 KSI
Condition s < 700 ge /(b sfss)- 2dc
d-x
s< 14.5 in
s provided = 5.9 Ok

Figure 5 Stress Calculation Diagram fs/n


Crack Width Calculation for -ve Moments
Ref : Design of Highway Bridges
(-ve) Moment 62.83 KN-m By Richard M. Barker and Jay A. Puckett
Cover 50 mm Page No. 558
b 1000 mm
h 225 mm
8.858 in
f'c 27.579 N/mm2
4,000 Psi
fy 410.000 N/mm2
60,000 Psi
Es 29,000,000 Psi

Effective Depth "dl" 175 mm


6.890 in
(+ve) As Provided 16 mm Dia Bar (-ve) As Provided 16 mm Dia Bar
plus 12 mm Dia Bar
Spacing Provided 150 mm c/c Spacing Provided 150 mm c/c
5.9 in c/c 5.9 in c/c
Crack Width Calculation for-ve Moments

dc = Cocrete Cover 50 mm
1.97 in
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 6.890 in
Condition s < 700 ge /(b sfss)-2dc Ref : LRFD 5.7.3.4

in which
b s = 1+{dc/0.7(h-dc)}
Where
g e= exposure factor, 1 for Class 1 exposure condition & 0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition
g e= 0.75 for Class 2
f ss Tensile Stress in steel reinforcement at the Service limit state.
h overall thickness or depth of component (in)
dl distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of extreme tension element (in)
dc Thickness of concrete cover measured from Extreme Tension Fibre to Center of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto (in)

b s = 1.4082

0.6xfy 36,000 Psi 5221618.705


Es 29,000,000 Psi
Ec = 57000x(f'c)1/2 3604997 Psi
n = Es/Ec 8.0
8.0
2
Area of One bar 314.16 mm

2
Total Area of All Bars 2094.40 mm /m 1000 mm

d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 175 mm


0.5*b*x2 = n*As*(d-x)

Where
b Width of Strip. = 1000 mm
n Modular Ratio Width of Slab Cracked Section
x Distance of Cracked Section from Extreme Compression Face.
As Area of steel of bars in 1m Strip.
x
d (Depth of Slab) - dc
a 1.00
For Quadratic Equation b 33.70
c -5896.85
x1 61.77 mm Effective depth
(+ve) and (-ve) Values of "x"
x2 -95.47 mm Thickness of Slab
x 61.77 mm
Icr =(bx /3)+(n*As)*(d-x)2
3

Where
I cr Moment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section. Figure 6 Cracked Section Calculation

19
Icr 294,572,279 mm/m fc
M 62.8 KN-m/m
fss = n*M*(d-x)/Icr 0.194 KN / mm2 Cracked Section x
fss= 28.2 KSI
Condition s < 700 ge /(b sfss)-2dc
d-x
s< 9.3 in
s provided = 5.9 Ok

Figure 7 Stress Calculation Diagram fs/n

6.5. Design Overhang for Horizontal Vehicular Collision Force


The horizontal vehicular collision force must be checked at the inside face of the barrier, at the design section in the overhang, and at the design section in the first bay.

CASE 1A - Check at Inside Face of Barrier


The overhang must be designed for the vehicular collision plus dead load moment acting concurrently with the axial tension force from vehicular collision.

For the extreme event limit state


Fext= 1 (S1.3.2.1)
gpDC= 1.25 (S Table 3.4.1-2)

Mc = 52.32 KN-m/m
MDCdeck= gpDC*ts*dc*tb2/2
Where, ts is deck thickness (mm) as given above and tb is the barrier thickness at base (mm)
ts = 225 mm
tb= 400 mm
MDCdeck= 0.54 KN-m/m
MDcpar=gpDc*W par*(tb-x)
Where, x is the distance form outside face of barrier to its c.g.
x= 146.68 mm
Area of barrier 0.25 mm2
W par =Area *dc= 6.00 KN/m
MDcpar 1.90 KN-m/m
Mu total = Mc + MDCdeck + MDCpar
Mu total = 54.76 KN-m/m = 12.31 K-ft/ft
The axial Tensile force is :
T=Rw/(Lc + 2*H) (SA 13.4.2)

Where, Lc is the critical wall length over which yield line mechanism occurs and Rw is the
total transverse resistance of the barrier. Both values for the interior region are listed below as
calculated in the barrier design calculations.

Lc= 3459.44 mm
Rw= 385.13 KN
H= 940 mm
T= 72.13 KN/m = 4.94 K/ft

Design
b= 12 in
d= 6.89 in 175 mm
Ru = Mu /( b * d2 )
Ru = 0.259 KSI
Ru=f*r*fy*[1-r*fy/(1.7fc')]
f= 1
fy= 60,000 psi
fc'= 4000 psi
r= 0.004501
Ast=r*b*d
Ast= 0.37 in2/ft

For Tensile force the required area of Steel will be As ten=T/Ffy


As ten= 0.08 in2/ft
As total, req= 0.45 in2/ft OK

CASE 1B - Check at Design Section in Overhang


The collision forces are distributed over a distance Lc for moment and Lc+2H for axial force. When the design section is moved to 1/3 bf (flange width) away
from the girder center line in the overhang, the distribution length will increase based on a 30 degree angle from the face of the barrier.

For the extreme event limit state:


gpDW = 1.5
increased length bi= 310 mm
McB=Mc*Lc/(Lc+2*bi)
McB= 44.36 KN-m/m

MDCdeck=gpDC*ts*gc*yb2/2
Where, yb is the distance form outside face of barrier to the overhang design section
yb = overhang length - flange width/3 = 937.5 mm
Overhang Length = 1,237.5 mm
Flange Width /3 = 300.00 mm ≤15 in.
MDCdeck= 2.97 KN-m/m

MDCpar = gpDC*W par*(yb-x)


MDCpar = 5.93 KN-m/m

MDWfws = gpDW * tfws * gfws * (yb - tb)2 /2


tfws = 70 mm
MDWfws = 0.35 KN-m/m

Mu total = McB + MDCdeck + MDCpar + MDWfws


Mu total = 53.61 KN-m/m = 12.05 K-ft/ft

20
The axial Tensile force is
T=Rw/(Lc+2H+2*bi)
T= 64.62 KN/m = 4.43 K/ft

Design
b= 12 in
d= 6.89 in 175 mm
Ru = Mu /( b * d2 )
Ru = 0.254 KSI
Ru=f*r*fy*[1-r*fy/(1.7fc')]
f= 1
fy= 60000 psi
fc'= 4000 psi
r= 0.004402
Ast=r*b*d
Ast= 0.36 in2/ft

For Tensile force the required area of Steel will be As ten=T/Ffy


As ten= 0.07 in2/ft
As total, req= 0.44 in2/ft OK

CASE 1C - Check at Design Section in First Span


The moment ratio, M2/M1, can be calculated for the design strip. One way to approximate this moment is to set it equal to the
moments produced by the parpet selfweight at the start points of the first and second bay. The collision moments per unit width
can then be determined by using the increased distribution length based on the 30 degree angle distribution.
The dead loads moments at this section can be obtained directly from the CSIBridge analysis file.

Collision Moment at Exterior Girder:


Mc = 52.32 KN-m/m M1=Mc

Barrier selfweight moment at Girder 1 (start of Bay 1)


Mbar1= 14.98 KN-m/m From CSI model

Barrier selfweight moment at Girder 2 (start of Bay 2)


Mbar2= 0.47 KN-m/m From CSI model

Collision Moment at 1/3bf in Bay 1


M2 = M1 (Mbar2 / Mbar1 )
M2 = 1.64 KN-m/m

By interpolation for a design section at 1/3 bf in Bay 1, the total collision moment is :
McM1M2 = Mc+bf/3*(-Mc+M2)/S
Where S is the girder spacing
S= 2.65 m
McM1M2 = 46.58 KN-m/m

As in the Case 1C, the 30 degree angle distribution will be used


increased length bi= 657 mm
McC = McM1M2 * Lc / (Lc +2*bi)
McC= 33.76 KN-m/m

Dead Load Moments from CSIBridge Output:


MDCdeck = 11.83 KN-m/m
MDCpar = 14.98 KN-m/m
MDWfws = 3.71 KN-m/m
Mu total = McC + gpDc * MDCdeck + gpDc * MDCpar + gpDW * MDWfws
Mu total = 72.84 KN-m/m 16.38 K-ft/ft

The axial Tensle force is


T=Rw/(Lc+2H+2*bi)
T= 57.89 KN/m = 3.97 K/ft

Design
b= 12 in
d= 6.89 in 175 mm
Ru = Mu /( b * d2 )
Ru = 0.345 KSI
Ru=f*r*fy*[1-r*fy/(1.7fc')]
f= 1
fy= 60000 psi
fc'= 4000 psi
r= 0.006075
Ast=r*b*d
Ast= 0.50 in2/ft

For Tensile force the required area of Steel will be As ten=T/Ffy


As ten= 0.07 in2/ft
As total, req= 0.57 in2/ft OK

6.6. Design Overhang for Vertical Vehicular Collision Force


The vertical collision force must be checked at the design section in the overhang.

Fv= 80 KN
Lv= 5500 mm
Mv = Fv * (Overhang Length - bf/3) / Lv
Mv = 13.64 KN-m/m

Dead Load Moments from CSIBridge Output:


MDCdeck = 11.83 KN-m/m
MDCpar = 14.98 KN-m/m

21
MDWfws = 3.71 KN-m/m
Mu total = Mv + gpDc * MDCdeck + gpDc * MDCpar + gpDW * MDWfws
Mu total = 52.71 KN-m/m 11.85 K-ft/ft

The above Moment is less than that of Case 1 so this case will not govern.

22
7 GIRDER ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

7.1 PROPERTIES OF SECTION OF GIRDERS

Figure 8 Cross section of P.C. Girder


END MID
2
Area(mm ) 1111950 648500
Yt (mm) 832.121 803.612
Yb (mm) 917.879 946.388
Ixx (mm4) 3.03E+11 2.49E+11
St (mm3) 3.64E+08 3.10E+08
Sb (mm3) 3.30E+08 2.63E+08

7.2 DEAD LOAD ANALYSIS

Figure 9 Girder Moment of Dead Load

23
Figure 10 Girder Shear of Dead Load

7.3 SUNDRIES LOAD ANALYSIS

Figure 11 Girder Moment of Sundries Load

Figure 12 Girder Shear of Sundries Load

24
7.4 LIVE LOAD ANALYSIS

Figure13 Girder Moment of Live Load Class A Truck

Figure 14 Girder Shear of Live Load Class A Truck

Figure 15 Girder Moment of Live Load Class AA Tank

25
Figure 16 Girder Shear of Live Load Class AA Tank

Figure 17 Girder Moment of Live Load Class HL-93K

Figure 18 Girder Shear of Live Load Class HL-93K

26
Figure 19 Girder Moment of Live Load Class HL-93M

Figure 20 Girder Shear of Live Load Class HL-93M

7.5 PROFILE OF THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS

Figure 21 Profiles of Prestressing Strands

27
7.6 PRESTRESS TENDON ANALYSIS

Figure 22 Girder Moment of Prestress Tendon

Figure 23 Girder Shear of Prestress Tendon

28
7.7 LOSSES OF PRESTRESS
Girder stressing Data
No.of Cable 3
aps 98.7mm² k 0.000661/m
No.of Strands/Cable 11 μ 0.25
Dia of Duct 63mm Es(prestressing steel) 197000Mpa 5.4.4.2
Aps 1085.7mm² f'c(slab) 28Mpa
fpu 270ksi 4000psi
1862Mpa f'c(girder) 35Mpa
Stress 75% 5000psi
P0 1516kN Ec slab 25399Mpa
Length of Girder 24145mm Ec girder 28397Mpa C5.4.2.4-1
Half Length of Girder 12072.5mm

CABLE DATA

Lc= Curved Length of Pre-stressing steel cable


Y= Cable co-ordinate at jacking end
dC= Cable co-ordinate at mid span
a=(Y-C)/L²
θ angular change of pre-stressing steel=
rad= arctan(2×a×Lc)

Cable No. St.length at end Y(at end of girder) Y(at end of st.length) C Lc L a θ rad θ deg
1 1981 344 230 130 3463.3 23810 8.34E-06 0.058 3.31
2 2314 689 430 130 5373 23851 1.04E-05 0.111 6.37
3 529 1031 935 130 8803 23916 1.04E-05 0.181 10.36

LOSS DUE TO FRICTION


Px = P0 × e − ( kx + μα ) LRFD 2012,Article5.9.5.2.2b
Δθ AT LOSS AT
29
Cable No. P0 12 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0
1 1516 0.058 0 25 28 31 33 31 28 25 0
2 1516 0.111 0 44 47 50 53 50 47 44 0
3 1516 0.181 0 70 73 76 78 76 73 70 0
0 139 148 156 165 156 148 139 0

Pre-Stress Loss due to Friction Δ Pfr = 165kN

LOSS DUE TO ANCHORAGE SET


W = ( ΔL ⋅ Es ⋅ Ap ) / ΔP
ΔP = ( Pj − Px) / ( L / 2)
ΔPLin = 2(W − x ) ΔP
ΔL = 6
LOSS AT
Cable No. ΔP = ( Pj − Px) / ( L / 2), (kN / m) W(m) 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
1 2.790 21.448 120 103 86 69 52 69 86 103 120
2 4.439 17.002 151 124 97 71 44 71 97 124 151
3 6.556 13.991 183 144 104 65 25 65 104 144 183
454 371 288 204 121 204 288 371 454

Pre-Stress Loss due to Pull in Δ PLin-anchorag e = 454kN

Initail Force immediately at transfer= Pj − Δ PLin-anchorage − Δ Pfr = 3928 kN


Stress Limit at Anchorages and couplers
4244 kN OK
immediately after anchor set=0.7

SECTION PROPERTIES

SECTION PROPERTIES OF THE NET


SECTION
D 1750 mm

30
A 0.63915 m²
Yb 958 mm
Yt 792 mm
Ix 0.24257 m4
Zb 0.25313 m³
Zt 0.30639 m³

SECTION PROPERTIES OF THE COMPOSITE SECTION(AFTER CASTING OF THE DECK SLAB)


D 2025 mm
A 1.18388 m²
Yb 1332 mm
Yt 418 mm
Ydt 643 mm
Ix 0.52111 m4
Zb 0.39123 m³
Zt 0.81044 m³
h 1750 mm

LOSS due to Elastic Shortening


Number of Identical Tendons N= 3
Area of the section Aps= 3257.1 mm²
Moment of Inertia Ig= 2.4257E+11 mm4
Avg. Eccentricity of the Tendons at midspan e= 828 mm
Area of the net section A= 639148 mm²
Moment at midspan due to Girder self weight Mo= 1.26E+09 N.mm
Modulus of Elasticity of Tendons Ep= 197000 Mpa
Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete Eci= 26940 Mpa
Pre-Stressing Force after jacking Pj − Δ PLin-anchorage − Δ Pfr = 3928 kN
Stress in Concrete at the cg of steel due to Self-weight of Girder after
fcgp= -13.0 Mpa
jacking
Pre-Stress Loss due to Elastic Shortening Δpes = 102.87 kN

31
Summary of Immediate Losses at critical sections
0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Jacking Force Pj 4548 4548 4548 4548 4548 4548 4548 4548 4548
Pre-Stress Loss due to Anchorage Slip Δ PLin = 454 371 288 204 121 204 288 371 454
Pre-Stress Loss due to Friction Δ Pfr = 0 139 148 157 165 157 148 139 0
Pre-Stress Loss due to Elastic Shortening Δpes = 102.87 102.87 102.87 102.87 102.87 102.87 102.87 102.87 102.87
Initial Pre-Stressing Force Pi 3991 3935 4009 4084 4158 4084 4009 3935 3991
Initial Pre-Stressing Stress at transfer fpi 1225.2 1208.0 1230.9 1253.8 1276.6 1253.8 1230.9 1208.0 1225.2
Maximum Pre-Stressing Stress at transfer fi 1303.1 Mpa OK

TIME DEPENDENT LOSSES(LONG TERM LOSSES)


Δ f pLT = ( Δ f p SR + Δ f p C R + Δ f p R 1 ) id + ( Δ f p SD + Δ f p C D + Δ f p R 2 − Δ f p SS ) df A5.9.5.4.1-1
For Post tensioning ( Δ f pSR + Δ f p C R + Δ f pR 1 ) id = 0 A5.9.5.4.5
Ks = 1.45 - 0.13 * (V/S) ≥ 1.0 A5.4.2.3.2-2
V/S = Volume to Surface Ratio (in.)
V/S = 1
Ks = 1.45 - 0.13*1 = 1.32
Khs = 2.00-0.014H A5.9.5.4.5
Relative Humidity in percentage may be taken from f igure
H =
5.4.2.3.3-1
H = 50
Khs = 2.00-0.014*50 = 1.3
Kf = 35/(7+f 'ci) = 0.909 A5.4.2.3.2-4
f'ci = 4.5 ksi
Khc = 1.56-0.008 H
Khc = 1.56-0.008*50 = 1.16
Ktd = t/(61-0.58*f'ci+t)
ψ (t f ,t i ) = 1.9 * Ks * Khc * Kf * Ktd * ti − 0.118

32
Ktd=t/(61- Creep Coefficient
Age t
0.58*f'ci+t) 1.9 * Ks * Khc * Kf * Ktd * ti − 0.118
SHRINKAGE OF ti 3 ψ (t f ,t i ) =
(tf,ti)=tf-ti 4197 0.99 2.30
GIRDER CONCRETE tf 4200
CREEP OF GIRDER ti 3 ψ (t d ,t i ) =
(td,ti)=td-ti 57 0.57 1.32
CONCRETE td 60
SHRINKAGE OF DECK td 60 ψ (t f ,t d ) =
(tf,td)=tf-td 4140 0.99 0.98
CONCRETE tf 4200

LOSSES:TIME OF TRANSFER TO DECK PLACEMENT


SHRINKAGE OF GIRDER CONCRETE
The prestress loss due to shrinkage of girder concrete between time of transfer and deck placement, Δ f p S R shall be as
Δ f pSR = ε bid * E p * K id
ε bid = Ks * Khs * Kf * Ktd * 0.48 *10 − 3
Ktd= t/(61-0.58*f'ci+t)= 0.57
ε bid = 0.00043
Δ f pSR = 66 Mpa

CREEP OF GIRDER CONCRETE


Δ f pC R = E p / E ci * f cg p * ψ ( t d , t i ) * K id
ψ (t f ,t i ) = 1.9 * Ks * Khc * Kf * Ktd * ti − 0.118 1.32
Khc= 1.16
Ks= 1.32
Kf= 0.909
Ktd= 0.57
Δ f pC R = 99 Mpa

RELAXATION OF PRESTRESSING STRANDS


Δ f pR1 = f pt / K L′ * log(24 t ) / log(24 t i ) * ( f pt / f py − 0.55) * [1 − 3 * ( Δ f pSR + Δ f pC R ) / f pt ] * K id
fpt= 1206 Mpa
fpy= 1581 Mpa
K'L= 10
33
1
Kid=
1 + E p / Eci * Aps / Ag * (1 + Ag * e 2pg / I g )[1 + 0.7 *ψ b (t f , ti )]
Ep= 197000 Mpa
Eci= 26940 Mpa
Aps= 3257.1 mm²
Ag= 0.639 m²
epg 2 = 0.686 m²
Ig= 0.243 m4
Ktd= t/(61-0.58*f'ci+t)= 0.99
ψ (t f ,t i ) = 1.9 * Ks * Khc * Kf * Ktd * ti − 0.118 2.3
Kid= 0.786
Δ f pR1 = 32.07 Mpa

LOSSES:TIME OF DECK PLACEMENT TO FINAL TIME

SHRINKAGE OF GIRDER CONCRETE


The prestress loss due to shrinkage of girder concrete between time of deck placement and final time Δ f p S D shall be determined as:
Δ f pSD = ε bdf * E p * K df
ε bdf = ε sh = Ks * Khs * Kf * Ktd * 0.48 *10 − 3
Ktd =4140/(61-4*4.5+4140) =0.99
ε bdf = ε sh = 0.00074
1
Kdf=
1 + E p / Eci * Aps / Ac * (1 + Ac * e 2pc / I c )[1 + 0.7 *ψ (t f , ti )]
Ep= 197000 Mpa
Eci= 26940 Mpa
Aps= 3257.1 mm²
Ac= 1.18388 m²
epc2 = 1.444804 m²
Ic= 0.52111 m4
ψ (t f ,t i ) = 2.3
34
Kdf= 0.816
Δ f pSD = 119.1967726 Mpa

CREEP OF GIRDER CONCRETE


The prestress loss due to creep of girder concrete between time of deck placement and final time, Δ f pC D shall be determined as:
Δ f pC D = E p / E ci * f cgp * ψ ( t f , t i ) − ψ ( t d , t i ) * K d f + E p / E c * Δ f pcd * ψ ( t f , t d ) * K d f
Ep= 197000 Mpa
Eci= 26940 Mpa
Ec= 28397 Mpa
fcgp= 12.95 Mpa
Kdf= 0.781
Δ f p cd = change in concrete stress at centroid of prestressing strands due to long-term lossed between transfer and deck
placement combined with deck weight and superimposed loads(ksi)
Long Term Losses between ( Δ f pSR + Δ f p C R + Δ f pR 1 ) id = 0
transfer and deck placement
Δ f p cd = Msdl*e/I= 5.96MPa
Δ f pC D = 108.47 Mpa

RELAXATION OF PRESTRESSING STRANDS


The prestress loss due to relaxation of prestressing strands in composite section between time of deck placement and final time, Δ f p R 2 shall be determined as:
Δ f pR1 = Δ f pR 2
Δ f pR 2 = 32.07 Mpa

SHRINKAGE OF DECK CONCRETE


The prestress gain due to shrinkage of deck composite section, Δ f p S S shall be determined as:
Δ f pSS = E p /E c *Δ f cdf *K df [1+ 0.7*ψ b (t f ,t d )]
Ep= 197000 Mpa
Ec= 28397 Mpa
Kdf= 0.816

35
ψ (t f ,t d ) = 0.98
Δ f cdf = ε ddf *A d *E cd *(1/A c-e pc *e d /I c )/[1+ 0.7*ψ (t f ,t d )]
ε ddf = Ks * Khs * Kf * Ktd * 0.48 *10 − 3
Ktd= t/(61-4*4.5+t)= 0.99
ε ddf = 0.000741103
Ad= 0.54473 m²
Ecd= 25399 Mpa
Ac= 1.18 m²
epc= 1.202 m
ed= 0.5305 m
Ic= 0.52111 m4
Δ f cdf = -2.30665297 Mpa
Δ f pSS = -22.00895112 Mpa

SUMMARY OF LONG TERM LOSSES


Δ f pLT = ( Δ f pSR + Δ f pC R + Δ f pR 1 ) id + ( Δ f pSD + Δ f pC D + Δ f pR 2 − Δ f pSS ) df
( Δ f p S R + Δ f p C R + Δ f p R 1 ) id = - Mpa
( Δ f p SD + Δ f p C D + Δ f p R 2 − Δ f p SS ) d f = 281.7 Mpa

Summary of long term losses


0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Initial Pre-stressing Stress at transfer fpi(MPa)= 1225.2 1208.0 1230.9 1253.8 1276.6 1253.8 1230.9 1208.0 1225.2
Initial Pre-stressing Force at transfer Fpi(kN)= 3991 3935 4009 4084 4158 4084 4009 3935 3991
Total Long Term Losses Δ f p L(
T M Pa) = 281.7 281.7 281.7 281.7 281.7 281.7 281.7 281.7 281.7
Final Pre-stressing stress after all losses Fpe(MPa)= 943.4 926.3 949.1 972.0 994.9 972.0 949.1 926.3 943.4
Final Pre-stressing force after all losses Fpe(kN)= 3073 3017 3091 3166 3240 3166 3091 3017 3073
R= 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.77

CABLE ELONGATION
ELONGATION=PL'/AE
36
Where:
L' =Length of tendon
P =Average force in tendon i.e. Pj − Δ Pfr / 2
A =Area of tendon
E =Modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel
Ext. =600,Jack over length beyond anchorage

Cable cable1 cable2 cable3


ext= 600 600 600
L'= 24061 23996 23955
P= 1499 1489 1477
Elongation= 168.6 167.1 165.4

37
7.8 STRESS HISTORIES ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
STRESSES AT SERVICE:
STRESS HISTORY
Moment due to construction load (Ms) 20psf, qs= 2.535944 kN/m

AT 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0


Ms(kN*m) 0 80 137 171 183 171 137 80 0

Moment due to Girder self weight (Mo) q= 17.27 kN/m


AT 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Mo(kN*m) 0 551 944 1180 1259 1180 944 551 0

Moment due to self weight of the deck slab and the diaphragm
(Mdp)
thickness of the deck 225 mm
girder top width 900 mm
girder web width 200 mm
thickness of the haunch 50 mm
diaphragm height 1307 mm
diaphragm thickness 250 mm
diaphragm num. 4

deck self weight q1= 14.31 kN/m


haunch self weight q2= 1.08 kN/m
diaphragm self weight q3= 3.20 kN/m
total qo= 18.59
AT 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Mdp(kN*m) 0 592 1015 1269 1353 1269 1015 592 0

self weight of the pavement and the rail(Mdc)


AT 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1

38
Mdc(kN*m) 1.3 287.9 450.6 527.2 580.0 529.1 450.9 289.1 1.6

Live load moment (M1)


AT 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
M1(kN*m) 117.2 962.5 1555.0 1835.4 1909.2 1834.2 1552.5 960.7 130.9

Fatigue load moment (Mf)(FROM CSI)


AT 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Mf(kN*m) 52.6 410.3 599.6 680.9 718.7 681.0 599.2 410.7 52.7

LOCATION 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0
Cg. Of the tendons e= 270 590 778 828 828 828 778 590 270

Stage1:At Yard 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.1 12.1 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Pi(kN) = 4093 4038 4112 4186 4261 4186 4112 4038 4093
Ft=Pi/Ac-Pi*e/Zt+Mo/Zt(kN/m²) = 2793 345 -926 -907 -744 -907 -926 345 2793
Fb=Pi/Ac+Pi*e/Zb-Mo/Zb(kN/m²) = 10776 13547 15342 15576 15636 15576 15342 13547 10776
tension limit=-0.63√fci'(kN/m²) = -3536 OK
compressive limit=0.6fci'(kN/m²) = 18900 OK
Stage2:Intermediate Conditon
Pe(kN) = 3176 3120 3194 3269 3343 3269 3194 3120 3176
Ft=Pe/Ac-Pe*e/Zt+(Mo+Mdp+Ms)/Zt(kN/m²) = 2167 2871 3734 4843 5322 4843 3734 2871 2167
Fb=Pe/Ac+Pe*e/Zb-(Mo+Mdp+Ms)/Zb(kN/m²) = 8360 7314 6528 5442 5121 5442 6528 7314 8360
tension limit=-0.25√fci'(kN/m²)<1.38MPa = -3536 OK
compressive limit=0.6fci'(kN/m²) = 18900 OK
Stage3:At Service Loads
Pe(kN) = 3176 3120 3194 3269 3343 3269 3194 3120 3176
Ft=Pe/Ac-Pe*e/Zt+(Mo+Mdp)/Zt+(Mdc+M1)/Ztc(kN/m²) = 2313 4150 5756 7193 7790 7194 5754 4150 2331
Fb=Pe/Ac+Pe*e/Zb-(Mo+Mdp)/Zb-(Mdc+M1)/Zbc(kN/m²) = 8057 4438 1949 88 -512 86 1954 4439 8021
tension limit=-0.5√fc'(kN/m²) = -2930 OK
compressive limit=0.6Φwfc'(kN/m²) = 15750 OK
Deck slab top stress under full load:
Fdt=(Mdc+M1)*Ydt/Ix = 146 1543 2475 2915 3071 2916 2472 1542 164
39
compressive limit=0.6Φwfc'(kN/m²) = 12600 OK
Fatigue Load
Pe(kN) = 3176 3120 3194 3269 3343 3269 3194 3120 3176
Ft=Pe/Ac-Pe*e/Zt+(Mo+Mdp)/Zt+(Mdc+1.5Mf)/Ztc(kN/m²) = 2266 3722 4947 6189 6765 6191 4947 3724 2267
Fb=Pe/Ac+Pe*e/Zb-(Mo+Mdp)/Zb-(Mdc+1.5Mf)/Zbc(kN/m²) = 8155 5325 3625 2169 1613 2164 3625 5320 8154
ALL Ft and Fb are greater than 0,no need to check Fatigue Limit State.

40
7.9 BURSTING FORCE
anchor plate a' 240 mm
space of anchor plate 350 mm
< 1.5a'= 360 treat as group of devices
N.O. of tendons 3
depth of beam h 1750 mm
width of beam w 600 mm
lateral dimension of anchor device a 940 mm
distance from centorid of bottom anchor to beam bottom 350 mm
Pj 1520 KN
Pu=1.2Pj 1824 KN
centroid of girder 925.44 mm

cable dbrust=0.5(h-
Y C Lc αrad α deg Pu Sinα PuSinα e
No. 2e)+5esinα
1 344 130 3463.3 0.06 3.31 1824 -0.06 -105.73 581.44 125.04
2 689 130 5373 0.11 6.37 1824 -0.11 -202.05 236.44 507.61
3 1031 130 8803 0.18 10.36 1824 0.18 328.34 105.56 864.45
sum 5472 0.01 20.56 499.03

Layer decide(Horizontal):
24d= 312 mm
300mm 300 mm
2.5dburst= 1247.58 mm
1.5w= 900 mm
distributed distance 900 mm
number of layers 3

Layer decide(Vertical):
24d= 384 mm
300mm 300 mm
2.5dburst= 1247.58 mm
1.5h= 2625 mm
distributed distance 1247.58 mm
number of layers 5
So, number of layers is 6 OK

Horizontal Reinforcement:
Tburst=0.25∑Pu(1-a'/w)+0.5∣∑(Pusinα)∣ 831.08 KN
fy= 400 N/mm2
fs=0.6fy= 240 N/mm2
As=Tburst/fs 3462.84 mm2
= 1154.28 for each layer
Assume 13mm bars
Av= 132.7mm mm2
No. of bars 8.70 for each layer
Provide 10 OK

41
Vertical Reinforcement:
Tburst=0.25∑Pu(1-a/h)+0.5∣∑(Pusinα)∣ 643.47 KN
fy= 400 N/mm2
fs=0.6fy= 240 N/mm2
As=Tburst/fs 2681.13 mm2
= 446.85 for each layer
Assume 16mm bars
Av= 201.1mm mm2
No. of bars 2.22 for each layer
Provide 4 OK
Design of local zones
Φ= 0.8
A= 210000 mm2
Ag= 122500 mm2
No. of strands 11
Area of strand 98.7 mm2
Ab= 121414.30 mm2
fci'= 35 MPa
fn=0.7fci'(A/Ag)^0.5= 32.08 MPa
fn=2.25fci'= 78.75 MPa
so, fn= 32.08 MPa
Pr=ΦfnAb= 3115.79 KN (5.10.9.7.2-1)
Pj= 1520 KN
So, Pr > Pj OK

Transverse dimension:
concrete cover 25 mm
confining reinforcement
205 mm
dimension
1. plate size+ twice concrete
400 mm
cover
2. outer dimension of confining
reinforcement + concrete cover 230 mm
Transverse dimension = 400 mm < 600 mm OK

Length of local zone:


1. maximum width of local zone 1750 mm
2. length of confining
1690 mm
reinforcement
length of local zone= 1750 mm < 1800 mm OK

42
7.10 FLEXURE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
M 1.25Dead 1.5Sundries 1.75Live load
M φM M
Follow equations should be satisfied:
M min 1.2M , 1.33M
And M M

Figure 24 Flexure Analysis of Prestressed Beams

Table 1 Moment of the Girders


Mid Span End Span
Max. Value Min. Value Max. Value Min. Value
(kNm) (kNm) (kNm) (kNm)
Left Exterior Girder 7841.47 2327.06 188.61 -66.87
Interior Girder 1 7132.87 2730.82 159.06 -22.41
Interior Girder 2 6832.80 2819.58 266.22 -39.30
Interior Girder 3 6826.86 2821.55 286.02 -41.55
Interior Girder 4 7150.64 2741.22 162.56 -18.13
Right Exterior Girder 7843.31 2329.10 190.00 -62.79
Moment Limit 12849.82 -3778.73 9477.22 -3778.73

43
7.11 SHEAR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
V 1.25Dead 1.5Sundries 1.75Live load
V φV 0.9V 0.9min V V V , 0.25f b d V
Follow equations should be satisfied:
V V

Figure 25 Shear Analysis of Prestressed Girders

Table 2 Shear Force Capacity Ratio of the Girders


Max. Value Min. Value
Shear Force Ratio 0.4629 0.1086
Shear Force Ratio Limit 1

Shear reinforcements needed are from CSI software and compared with
reinforcements provided in drawings in result table.
If Avf > AsVPerL, OK
Table 3 Shear reinforcement provided in drawings
Start(mm) Terminal(mm) Diameter(mm) Space(mm) No. Avf(mm2/mm)
0 1700 13 100 17 2.65
1700 5300 13 150 24 1.77
5300 10200 13 175 28 1.52
10200 14100 13 200 - 1.33
14100 19000 13 175 28 1.52
19000 22600 13 150 24 1.77
22600 24300 13 100 17 2.65

44
Interface shear calculation:
V
1. If ν ≤1.4MPa, the minimum reinforcement provisions specified shall be waived.

In which,
νui = the factored interface shear stress
V V /d ,
Vh = horizontal shear per unit length of the girder
Vu = the factored vertical shear
dv = the distance between the centroid of the steel in tension side of the beam to the
center of the compression blocks in the deck
2. If Vr=ΦVni≥Vh, calculation is OK.

V min cA µA f , K f A , K A

In which,
A b L
A = area of concrete considered to be engaged in interface shear transfer
A = area of interface shear reinforcement crossing the shear plane within the area A
b = interface width considered to be engaged in shear transfer, 900 mm
L = interface length considered to be engaged in shear transfer
c = cohesion factor, 1.9 MPa
μ = friction factor, 1.0
fy = yield stress of reinforcement, 410 MPa
f’c = specified 28-day compressive strength of the weaker concrete on either side of the
interface, 28 MPa
K1 = fraction of concrete strength available to resist interface shear, 0.3
K2 = limiting interface shear resistance, 12.4 MPa

Interface shear results are in result table.

45
Table 4 Result of shear rein. and interface shear
Station Location Girder Vu DepthEffV AsVPerL Avf Shear Vh vui 1.4/vui Vni0 Vni1 Vni2 Vni Vr=Φvni Vr/Vh
mm Text Text KN m mm2/mm mm2/mm rein. KN/m MPa >1, waived KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m >1, OK
0 After Left Exterior Girder -1394.53 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 956.47 1.06 1.32 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.63
0 After Interior Girder 1 -1332.44 1.46 1.54 2.65 OK 913.88 1.02 1.38 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.76
0 After Interior Girder 2 -1289.86 1.46 1.46 2.65 OK 884.68 0.98 1.42 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.85
0 After Interior Girder 3 -1304.83 1.46 1.49 2.65 OK 894.95 0.99 1.41 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.81
0 After Interior Girder 4 -1343.10 1.46 1.56 2.65 OK 921.19 1.02 1.37 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.73
0 After Right Exterior Girder -1462.07 1.46 1.78 2.65 OK 1002.79 1.11 1.26 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.51
2786.67 Before Left Exterior Girder -958.34 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 609.50 0.68 2.07 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.60
2786.67 Before Interior Girder 1 -899.50 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 571.51 0.64 2.20 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.84
2786.67 Before Interior Girder 2 -863.82 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 548.84 0.61 2.30 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.99
2786.67 Before Interior Girder 3 -893.97 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 568.00 0.63 2.22 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.86
2786.67 Before Interior Girder 4 -913.65 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 580.50 0.65 2.17 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.78
2786.67 Before Right Exterior Girder -1017.90 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 647.39 0.72 1.95 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.39
2786.67 After Left Exterior Girder -1043.81 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 663.87 0.74 1.90 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.30
2786.67 After Interior Girder 1 -986.35 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 626.69 0.70 2.01 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.50
2786.67 After Interior Girder 2 -943.36 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 599.38 0.67 2.10 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.66
2786.67 After Interior Girder 3 -970.74 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 616.77 0.69 2.04 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.55
2786.67 After Interior Girder 4 -997.96 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 634.07 0.70 1.99 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.46
2786.67 After Right Exterior Girder -1085.38 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 690.31 0.77 1.83 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.18
5573.33 Before Left Exterior Girder -756.52 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 434.26 0.48 2.90 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.83
5573.33 Before Interior Girder 1 -699.89 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 401.38 0.45 3.14 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.23
5573.33 Before Interior Girder 2 -681.89 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 391.06 0.43 3.22 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.37
5573.33 Before Interior Girder 3 -702.61 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 402.94 0.45 3.13 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.21
5573.33 Before Interior Girder 4 -729.36 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 418.28 0.46 3.01 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.02
5573.33 Before Right Exterior Girder -779.45 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 447.42 0.50 2.82 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.69
5573.33 After Left Exterior Girder -816.01 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 468.40 0.52 2.69 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.48
5573.33 After Interior Girder 1 -766.81 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 439.76 0.49 2.87 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.77
5573.33 After Interior Girder 2 -734.67 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 421.33 0.47 2.99 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.98
5573.33 After Interior Girder 3 -757.40 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 434.36 0.48 2.90 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.83
5573.33 After Interior Girder 4 -791.96 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 454.18 0.50 2.77 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.62

46
Station Location Girder Vu DepthEffV AsVPerL Avf Shear Vh vui 1.4/vui Vni0 Vni1 Vni2 Vni Vr=Φvni Vr/Vh
mm Text Text KN m mm2/mm mm2/mm rein. KN/m MPa >1, waived KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m >1, OK
5573.33 After Right Exterior Girder -815.54 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 468.13 0.52 2.69 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.48
8360 Before Left Exterior Girder -507.74 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 277.01 0.31 4.55 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.58
8360 Before Interior Girder 1 -485.29 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 264.53 0.29 4.76 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.93
8360 Before Interior Girder 2 -451.51 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 246.12 0.27 5.12 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 8.53
8360 Before Interior Girder 3 -469.29 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 255.81 0.28 4.93 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 8.20
8360 Before Interior Girder 4 -523.83 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 285.55 0.32 4.41 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.35
8360 Before Right Exterior Girder -496.49 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 270.88 0.30 4.65 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.75
8360 After Left Exterior Girder -629.95 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 343.69 0.38 3.67 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.11
8360 After Interior Girder 1 -598.53 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 326.26 0.36 3.86 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.43
8360 After Interior Girder 2 -611.75 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 333.47 0.37 3.78 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.29
8360 After Interior Girder 3 -607.74 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 331.29 0.37 3.80 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.34
8360 After Interior Girder 4 -629.48 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 343.13 0.38 3.67 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.12
8360 After Right Exterior Girder -636.48 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 347.25 0.39 3.63 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.04
10886.67 Before Left Exterior Girder -373.48 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 202.35 0.22 6.23 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.03
10886.67 Before Interior Girder 1 -340.55 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 184.35 0.20 6.83 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.01
10886.67 Before Interior Girder 2 -358.90 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 194.28 0.22 6.49 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.44
10886.67 Before Interior Girder 3 -346.14 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 187.38 0.21 6.72 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.83
10886.67 Before Interior Girder 4 -367.49 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 198.93 0.22 6.33 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.20
10886.67 Before Right Exterior Girder -376.08 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 203.76 0.23 6.18 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 9.96
10886.67 After Left Exterior Girder -350.37 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 189.83 0.21 6.64 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.69
10886.67 After Interior Girder 1 -314.20 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 170.08 0.19 7.41 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.93
10886.67 After Interior Girder 2 -335.72 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 181.73 0.20 6.93 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.16
10886.67 After Interior Girder 3 -320.98 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 173.75 0.19 7.25 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.68
10886.67 After Interior Girder 4 -344.96 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 186.74 0.21 6.75 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.86
10886.67 After Right Exterior Girder -339.82 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 184.11 0.20 6.84 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.02
13413.33 Before Left Exterior Girder 339.32 1.85 0.24 1.33 OK 183.84 0.20 6.85 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.04
13413.33 Before Interior Girder 1 342.31 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 185.30 0.21 6.80 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.95
13413.33 Before Interior Girder 2 318.79 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 172.57 0.19 7.30 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.76
13413.33 Before Interior Girder 3 332.80 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 180.15 0.20 6.99 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.26
13413.33 Before Interior Girder 4 311.46 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 168.60 0.19 7.47 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 12.03

47
Station Location Girder Vu DepthEffV AsVPerL Avf Shear Vh vui 1.4/vui Vni0 Vni1 Vni2 Vni Vr=Φvni Vr/Vh
mm Text Text KN m mm2/mm mm2/mm rein. KN/m MPa >1, waived KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m >1, OK
13413.33 Before Right Exterior Girder 350.11 1.85 0.24 1.33 OK 189.69 0.21 6.64 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.70
13413.33 After Left Exterior Girder 371.87 1.85 0.24 1.33 OK 201.48 0.22 6.25 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.07
13413.33 After Interior Girder 1 360.92 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 195.38 0.22 6.45 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.38
13413.33 After Interior Girder 2 339.94 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 184.02 0.20 6.85 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.02
13413.33 After Interior Girder 3 352.46 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 190.80 0.21 6.60 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.63
13413.33 After Interior Girder 4 333.89 1.85 0.00 1.33 OK 180.74 0.20 6.97 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 11.22
13413.33 After Right Exterior Girder 369.64 1.85 0.24 1.33 OK 200.27 0.22 6.29 2254.2 7560 11160 2254.2 2028.78 10.13
15940 Before Left Exterior Girder 632.51 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 345.09 0.38 3.65 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.08
15940 Before Interior Girder 1 623.38 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 339.81 0.38 3.71 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.18
15940 Before Interior Girder 2 602.99 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 328.69 0.37 3.83 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.39
15940 Before Interior Girder 3 605.49 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 330.06 0.37 3.82 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.36
15940 Before Interior Girder 4 592.62 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 323.04 0.36 3.90 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.50
15940 Before Right Exterior Girder 626.66 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 341.89 0.38 3.69 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 6.14
15940 After Left Exterior Girder 499.34 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 272.43 0.30 4.63 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.70
15940 After Interior Girder 1 525.79 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 286.61 0.32 4.40 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.32
15940 After Interior Girder 2 470.61 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 256.53 0.29 4.91 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 8.18
15940 After Interior Girder 3 453.11 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 246.99 0.27 5.10 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 8.50
15940 After Interior Girder 4 488.35 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 266.20 0.30 4.73 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.88
15940 After Right Exterior Girder 509.23 1.83 0.24 1.52 OK 277.83 0.31 4.54 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 7.55
18726.67 Before Left Exterior Girder 815.36 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 468.03 0.52 2.69 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.48
18726.67 Before Interior Girder 1 791.75 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 454.06 0.50 2.77 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.62
18726.67 Before Interior Girder 2 756.70 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 433.96 0.48 2.90 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.84
18726.67 Before Interior Girder 3 734.61 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 421.29 0.47 2.99 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.98
18726.67 Before Interior Girder 4 766.92 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 439.82 0.49 2.86 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.77
18726.67 Before Right Exterior Girder 815.46 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 468.09 0.52 2.69 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.48
18726.67 After Left Exterior Girder 778.98 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 447.15 0.50 2.82 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.69
18726.67 After Interior Girder 1 729.29 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 418.24 0.46 3.01 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.02
18726.67 After Interior Girder 2 701.73 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 402.44 0.45 3.13 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.22
18726.67 After Interior Girder 3 681.61 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 390.90 0.43 3.22 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.37
18726.67 After Interior Girder 4 699.96 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 401.42 0.45 3.14 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 5.23

48
Station Location Girder Vu DepthEffV AsVPerL Avf Shear Vh vui 1.4/vui Vni0 Vni1 Vni2 Vni Vr=Φvni Vr/Vh
mm Text Text KN m mm2/mm mm2/mm rein. KN/m MPa >1, waived KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m >1, OK
18726.67 After Right Exterior Girder 755.68 1.74 0.24 1.52 OK 433.77 0.48 2.90 2331.9 7560 11160 2331.9 2098.75 4.84
21513.33 Before Left Exterior Girder 1084.54 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 689.77 0.77 1.83 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.18
21513.33 Before Interior Girder 1 999.63 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 635.13 0.71 1.98 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.45
21513.33 Before Interior Girder 2 971.19 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 617.06 0.69 2.04 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.55
21513.33 Before Interior Girder 3 944.54 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 600.13 0.67 2.10 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.65
21513.33 Before Interior Girder 4 987.43 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 627.38 0.70 2.01 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.49
21513.33 Before Right Exterior Girder 1045.32 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 664.82 0.74 1.90 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.30
21513.33 After Left Exterior Girder 1013.86 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 644.82 0.72 1.95 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.40
21513.33 After Interior Girder 1 912.55 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 579.80 0.64 2.17 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.78
21513.33 After Interior Girder 2 891.60 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 566.49 0.63 2.22 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.87
21513.33 After Interior Girder 3 862.22 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 547.82 0.61 2.30 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 4.00
21513.33 After Interior Girder 4 897.77 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 570.41 0.63 2.21 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.84
21513.33 After Right Exterior Girder 957.49 1.57 0.24 1.77 OK 608.97 0.68 2.07 2435.6 7560 11160 2435.6 2192.04 3.60
24300 Before Left Exterior Girder 1457.91 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 999.94 1.11 1.26 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.52
24300 Before Interior Girder 1 1343.24 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 921.29 1.02 1.37 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.73
24300 Before Interior Girder 2 1303.40 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 893.96 0.99 1.41 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.82
24300 Before Interior Girder 3 1290.74 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 885.28 0.98 1.42 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.84
24300 Before Interior Girder 4 1331.06 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 912.94 1.01 1.38 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.76
24300 Before Right Exterior Girder 1396.22 1.46 0.24 2.65 OK 957.62 1.06 1.32 2798.4 7560 11160 2798.4 2518.56 2.63

49
8 DEFLECTION CHECK @ MIDSPAN
Deflections are from CSIbridge Software.
1. Elastic Deflection due to Self Weight
Δg 11.48 mm

2. Camber due to Initial Prestressing


Δpi -27.32 mm

3. Net Initial Camber


Δi=1.85*Δg+1.8*Δpi -27.94 mm

4. Deflection due to Diaphragm &


Decking
Δdecking 6.09 mm

5. Deflection due to SDL (Wearing


Course)
ΔSDL 2.84 mm

6. Net Long Term in Composite Section due to Sustained


Loads
ΔLT=2.2*Δpi+2.4*Δg+2.3*Δdecking+3*ΔSDL -10.03 mm

7. Deflection due to Live Load


Δlive 8.5 mm
Allowable LL Deflection =1/800 30.38 mm OK

Total Deflection -Long Term


ΔT -1.53 mm
Allowable ΔT=1/480 50.63 mm OK

50
9 DIAPHRAGM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

9.1 END DIAPHRAGM


Check for rectangular section behavior
Span length 25 m
Skew angle 40 degree
phiΦ (5.5.4.2.1) 0.9
Yield strength of reinforcement fy 410 MPa
Compressive strength of concrete fc' 28 MPa
β1 0.85
Depth of slab h 225 mm
Depth of diaphragm hd 1550 mm
Effective span length le 2650 mm
Thickness of END diaphragm bwe 250 mm
Thickness of Interior diaphragm bwi 250 mm
Distance from end diaphragm to girder end 550 mm
Depth of compression flange hf 225 mm

End diaphragm interior diaphragm


Area 536562.5 536562.5 mm2
Yt 753.4435 753.4435 mm2
Yb 1021.5565 1021.5565 mm2
Ixx 1.63E+11 1.63E+11 mm4
St 2.16E+08 2.16E+08 mm3
Sb 1.60E+08 1.60E+08 mm3
Snc 5.59E+06 5.59E+06

1. End diaphragm flexure POSITIVE


Design Moments: POSITIVE
Mdead 4.64 KNm
Msundries -3.54 KNm
Mlive load 91.5 KNm

Mu= 163.63 KNm

reinforcement4- 25Φ
Area of tension steel As 1963.50 mm2

c=Asfy/(0.85fc'β1bwe) (5.7.3.1.1-4) 159.18 mm < hf


According to LRFD 5.7.3.1.1, Section is behaving as a rectangular section

Cover of diaphragm bottom 237.5 mm


distance between layers 110 mm
de=ds= 1550+225-237.5-25/2-110/2 1470 mm

Mn=Asfy(ds-a/2) (5.7.3.2.2-1)
a=cβ1 135.30
Mn= 1128.94 MPa
Mr=ΦMn=0.9Mn 1016.04 MPa

51
Mr > Mu OK

Check minimum required reinforcement, (LRFD 5.7.3.3.2)


Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component, the amount of
prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to develop
a factored flexural resistance, Mr, at least equal to the lesser of

1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution
and the modulus of rupture, fr, on the concrete as specified in S5.4.2.6
or
1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations specified in Table 3.4.1-1

The cracking moment, Mcr, is calculated as the total moment acting on the beam
when maximum tensile stress equals the modulus of rupture.
fr=Mdead/Sb+Msundries/Sbc+M/Sbc
where:
Mdead 4.64 KNm
Msundries -3.54 KNm
Sb 1.60E+08 mm3
fr=-0.97√fc' (5.4.2.6) 5.13 MPa
Mcr=fcSb 818.99 KNm
1.2Mcr 982.78 KNm
The applied factored moment, Mu (Strength I)
Mu 163.63 KNm
1.33Mu 217.63 KNm

Mr has to be greater than the lesser of 1.2Mcr and 1.33Mu, i.e., 217.63 KNm
Mr also has to be greater than the applied factored load Mu 163.63 KNm

Since, Mr= 1016.04 KNm therefore, both provisions are OK

2. End diaphragm flexure NEGATIVE


Design Moments: NEGATIVE
Mdead -4.64 KNm
Msundries 3.54 KNm
Mlive load 63.37 KNm

Mu= 112.03 KNm

reinforcement4- 16Φ
4- 22Φ
Area of tension steel As 2324.78 mm2

c=Asfy/(0.85fc'β1bwe) 188.46 mm < hf


According to LRFD 5.7.3.1.1, Section is behaving as a rectangular section

Cover of slab top 50 mm


distance between layers 52

52
de=ds= 1550+225-50-16/2-52/2 1691 mm

Mn=Asfy(ds-a/2) (5.7.3.2.2-1)
a=cβ1 160.19
Mn= 1535.45 MPa
Mr=ΦMn=0.9Mn 1381.90 MPa

Mr > Mu OK

Check minimum required reinforcement, (LRFD 5.7.3.3.2)


Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component, the amount of
prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to develop
a factored flexural resistance, Mr, at least equal to the lesser of

1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution
and the modulus of rupture, fr, on the concrete as specified in S5.4.2.6
or
1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations specified in Table 3.4.1-1

The cracking moment, Mcr, is calculated as the total moment acting on the beam
when maximum tensile stress equals the modulus of rupture.
fr=Mdead/Sb+Msundries/Sbc+M/Sbc
where:
Mdead -4.64 KNm
Msundries 3.54 KNm
St 2.16E+08 mm3
fr=-0.97√fc' (5.4.2.6) 5.13 MPa
Mcr=fcSt 1110.42 KNm
1.2Mcr 1332.51 KNm
The applied factored moment, Mu (Strength I)
Mu 112.03 KNm
1.33Mu 149.00 KNm

Mr has to be greater than the lesser of 1.2Mcr and 1.33Mu, i.e., 149.00 KNm
Mr also has to be greater than the applied factored load Mu 112.03 KNm

Since, Mr= 1381.90 KNm therefore, both provisions are OK

3. End diaphragm shear


Vdead 12.36 KN
Vsundries 4.61 KN
Vlive load 44.11 KN

Max. factored shear at critical section, Vu= 99.56 KN


unfactored shear due to dead load(DC+DW), Vd 16.97 KN
Factored shear corresp. Max, Vi 61.84 KN
Max. Fatored Moment, Mmax 163.63 KNm

53
reinforcement corresp. Mmax
Area of tension steel As 1963.50 mm2

The nominal Shear resistance, Vn shall be the lesser of


Vn=Vc+Vs+Vp (5.8.3.3-1)
Vn=0.25fc'bvdv+Vp (5.8.3.3-2)
in which, dv=Mn/(Asfy) (C5.8.2.9-1)
As= 1963.50 mm2
Mn= 1128.94 KNm
dv= 1402.35 mm
Using Article 5.8.3.4.3, Simplified procedure:
Vp 0 KN
Vc=lesser of Vci and Vcw
Vci=0.0535√fc'bvdv+Vd+ViMcre/Mmax
≥Vcw=0.16√fc'bvdv
Mcre=Sc(fr-Mdead/Snc) 1110.42 KNm
bv=bwe= 250 mm
dv= 1402.35 mm
Vci= 535.88 KN
Vcw= 296.82 KN
Vc= 296.82 KN > Vu
Provide minimum shear reinforcement

Vs=Avfydvcotθ/s

Vu=ΦVn
Vu/Φ=Vn=Vc+Vs
Vs=Vu/Φ-Vc
Vs= -186.20 KN
Assume spacing s= 300 mm
fpc= 9.46 MPa
cotθ= 1.8
AV= -53.97 mm2

Use, 2- legged 12 mm dia bars


Av= 226.19 mm2
Vs= 780.32 KN
ΦVn=Φ(Vc+Vs)= 969.43 > Vu OK

9.2 INTERIOR DIAPHRAGM


Check for rectangular section behavior
Span length 25 m
Skew angle 40 degree
phiΦ (5.5.4.2.1) 0.9
Yield strength of reinforcement fy 410 MPa
Compressive strength of concrete fc' 28 MPa
β1 0.85
Depth of slab h 225 mm

54
Depth of diaphragm hd 1550 mm
Effective span length le 2650 mm
Thickness of END diaphragm bwe 250 mm
Thickness of Interior diaphragm bwi 250 mm
Distance from end diaphragm to girder end 550 mm
Depth of compression flange hf 225 mm

End diaphragm interior diaphragm


Area 536562.5 536562.5 mm2
Yt 753.4435 753.4435 mm2
Yb 1021.5565 1021.5565 mm2
Ixx 1.63E+11 1.63E+11 mm4
St 216340044.1 216340044 mm3
Sb 159560435.5 159560435 mm3
Snc 5589843.75 5589843.75

1. Interior diaphragm flexure POSITIVE


Design Moments: POSITIVE
Mdead 15.05 KNm
Msundries -35.26 KNm
Mlive load 242.86 KNm

Mu= 420.90 KNm

reinforcement4- 25Φ
Area of tension steel As 1963.50 mm2

c=Asfy/(0.85fc'β1bwe) (5.7.3.1.1-4) 159.18 mm < hf


According to LRFD 5.7.3.1.1, Section is behaving as a rectangular section

Cover of diaphragm bottom 42.5 mm


distance between layers 110 mm
de=ds= 1550+225-42.5-25/2-110/2 1665 mm

Mn=Asfy(ds-a/2) (5.7.3.2.2-1)
a=cβ1 135.30
Mn= 1285.92 MPa
Mr=ΦMn=0.9Mn 1157.33 MPa

Mr > Mu OK

Check minimum required reinforcement, (LRFD 5.7.3.3.2)


Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component, the amount of
prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to develop
a factored flexural resistance, Mr, at least equal to the lesser of

1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution
and the modulus of rupture, fr, on the concrete as specified in S5.4.2.6
or
1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load

55
combinations specified in Table 3.4.1-1

The cracking moment, Mcr, is calculated as the total moment acting on the beam
when maximum tensile stress equals the modulus of rupture.
fr=Mdead/Sb+Msundries/Sbc+M/Sbc
where:
Mdead 15.05 KNm
Msundries -35.26 KNm
Sb 1.60E+08 mm3
fr=-0.97√fc' (5.4.2.6) 5.13 MPa (5.4.2.6)
Mcr=fcSb 818.99 KNm
1.2Mcr 982.78 KNm
The applied factored moment, Mu (Strength I)
Mu 420.90 KNm
1.33Mu 559.80 KNm

Mr has to be greater than the lesser of 1.2Mcr and 1.33Mu, i.e., 559.80 KNm
Mr also has to be greater than the applied factored load Mu 420.90 KNm

Since, Mr= 1157.33 KNm therefore, both provisions are OK

2. Interior diaphragm flexure NEGATIVE


Design Moments: NEGATIVE
Mdead -3.07 KNm
Msundries 52.76 KNm
Mlive load 168.88 KNm

Mu= 371.91 KNm

reinforcement4- 16Φ
3- 22Φ
Area of tension steel As 1944.65 mm2

c=Asfy/(0.85fc'β1bwe) 157.65 mm < hf


According to LRFD 5.7.3.1.1, Section is behaving as a rectangular section

Cover of slab top 50 mm


distance between layers 52
de=ds= 1550+225-50-16/2-52/2 1691 mm

Mn=Asfy(ds-a/2) (5.7.3.2.2-1)
a=cβ1 134.00
Mn= 1294.82 MPa
Mr=ΦMn=0.9Mn 1165.34 MPa

Mr > Mu OK

Check minimum required reinforcement, (LRFD 5.7.3.3.2)


Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component, the amount of
prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to develop

56
a factored flexural resistance, Mr, at least equal to the lesser of

1.2 times the cracking strength determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution
and the modulus of rupture, fr, on the concrete as specified in S5.4.2.6
or
1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations specified in Table 3.4.1-1

The cracking moment, Mcr, is calculated as the total moment acting on the beam
when maximum tensile stress equals the modulus of rupture.
fr=Mdead/Sb+Msundries/Sbc+M/Sbc
where:
Mdead -3.07 KNm
Msundries 52.76 KNm
St 2.16E+08 mm3
fr=-0.97√fc' (5.4.2.6) 5.13 MPa
Mcr=fcSt 1110.42 KNm
1.2Mcr 1332.51 KNm
The applied factored moment, Mu (Strength I)
Mu 371.91 KNm
1.33Mu 494.64 KNm

Mr has to be greater than the lesser of 1.2Mcr and 1.33Mu, i.e., 494.64 KNm
Mr also has to be greater than the applied factored load Mu 371.91 KNm

Since, Mr= 1165.34 KNm therefore, both provisions are OK

3. End diaphragm shear


Vdead 35.1 KN
Vsundries 37.82 KN
Vlive load 108.41 KN

Max. factored shear at critical section, Vu= 290.32 KN


unfactored shear due to dead load(DC+DW), Vd 72.92 KN
Factored shear corresp. Max, Vi 170.17 KN
Max. Fatored Moment, Mmax 420.90 KNm

reinforcement corresp. Mmax


Area of tension steel As 1963.50 mm2

The nominal Shear resistance, Vn shall be the lesser of


Vn=Vc+Vs+Vp (5.8.3.3-1)
Vn=0.25fc'bvdv+Vp (5.8.3.3-2)
in which, dv=Mn/(Asfy) (C5.8.2.9-1)
As= 1963.50 mm2
Mn= 1285.92 KNm
dv= 1597.35 mm
Using Article 5.8.3.4.3, Simplified procedure:
Vp 0 KN

57
Vc=lesser of Vci and Vcw
Vci=0.0535√fc'bvdv+Vd+ViMcre/Mmax
≥Vcw=0.16√fc'bvdv
Mcre=Sc(fr-Mdead/Snc) 1110.42 KNm
bv=bwe= 250 mm
dv= 1597.35 mm
Vci= 634.91 KN
Vcw= 338.10 KN
Vc= 338.10 KN > Vu
Provide minimum shear reinforcement

Vs=Avfydvcotθ/s

Vu=ΦVn
Vu/Φ=Vn=Vc+Vs
Vs=Vu/Φ-Vc
Vs= -15.52 KN
Assume spacing s= 300 mm
fpc= 9.46 MPa
cotθ= 1.8
AV= -3.95 mm2

Use, 2- legged 12 mm dia bars


Av= 226.19 mm2
Vs= 888.83 KN
ΦVn=Φ(Vc+Vs)= 1104.23 > Vu OK

58
10 BEARING PAD DESIGN
Bearing Pad Length = L 400 mm
Bearing Pad Width = W = 450 mm
Elastomer Cover thickness = 3 mm
No of Internal Elastomer Layers 6
Elastometric layer thickness = hri = 13 mm
Total elastomer thickness = hrt= 84 mm
Steel Plate thickness ( hs ) 3 mm
Steel Plate l 440 mm
Steel Plate w 390 mm
Gross Section Thickness = h 105 mm
0.9 to
Elastomer Shear Modulus= G = 1.38
G (avg.) = 1

Effective Size of Bearing Pad 390 mm x 440 mm

DL 484 kN
SDL 120 kN
RDL 603 kN
RLL-Moving 399 kN
ΣR 1003 kN

Shape Factor:

S= LxW/2hri (L+W) 14.7.5.1-1


S internal 8.0
Scover 34.5

CHECK For Compressive Stress


Total Load Stress σs <1.66GS< 11 MPa 14.7.5.3.2-1
σL < 0.66GS 14.7.5.3.2-2
σs= R/LW 5.84 N/sqmm
1.66 GS 13 N/sqmm O.K

σL 2.22 N/sqmm
0.66 GS 5 N/sqmm O.K

CHECK For Instantaneous Compressive Deflection


The instantaneous live load deflection shall be taken as:
δL= ΣεLi hri 14.7.5.3.3-1

The initial dead load deflection shall be taken as:

δd= Σεdi hri


where:
eLi =instantaneous compressive strain in ith

59
hri= thickness of ith elastomeric layer in a laminated

εi = σ /6GS2 C 14.7.5.3.3-1
S internal 8.0
Scover 34.5
σL = 2.2
εLi = 0.005846 (for interior layer)
εext = 0.000311 (for exterior layer)
δL= ΣεL hri = 0.5

σd = 3.35178
εdi = 0.008835 (for interior layer)
εd ext = 0.000470 (for exterior layer)
δd= Σεd hri = 0.6919

Long Term dead load deflection, including the effect of creep shall be taken as
αcr= 0.35
δLt d= δd + αcr δd = 0.9

δtotal= δL + δLtd < 0.07hrt


1.4 < 5.88 O.K

Check for Shear Deformation

hrt > 2 Δs
hrt = Total elastomer depth in elastometic bearing pad
Ds = Max Shear deformation of the elastomer at service limit state
Δs = Δsh+Δtmin+ΔES+ΔCR Case I
Δs = Δsh-Δtmax+ΔES+ΔCR Case II

Δsh = Change in length due to shrinkage


ΔT = Change in length due to temperature
ΔCR = Change in length due to creep
ΔES = Change in length due to Elastic shortening

hrt 84 mm

Deformation due to Shrinkage


Δsh = Δfsr L/Ep
Take 50% of Shrinkage losses
Δfsr= 59.6 MPa (Refer Girder Design)
L= 25000 mm
Width of Bridge = 15725 mm
Skew Angle 40 degree
Ep= 197000 MPa
Δsh = 7.563 mm

60
Deformation due to Temperature
ΔT = α ΔΤL
α= 1.08E-05 /Co
T max 25 Co change in temperature
Δ Tx= 4.74 mm
Δ Ty= 2.12 mm
T min 25 Co change in temperature
Δ Tx= 4.74 mm
Δ Ty= 2.12
Δ T max = 5.19 mm
Δ T min = 5.19 mm

Deformation due to Elastic shortening


ΔES = Δfpes L/Ep
Take 50% of Elastic Shortening losses
Δfpes= 15.79 Mpa (Refer Girder Design)
ΔES = 2.004 mm

Deformation due to Creep


ΔCR = ΔfpCR L/Ep
Take 50% of creep losses
ΔfpcR= 54.24 Mpa (Refer Girder Design)
ΔCR = 6.883 mm

Total Deformation

Δs = Δsh+Δtmin+ΔES+ΔCR Case I
Δs = 21.643
2 (1.2Δs) = 51.944 < hrt OK

Δs = Δsh-Δtmax+ΔES+ΔCR Case II
Δs = 11.257
2 (1.2Δs) = 27.016 < hrt OK

CHECK For Combined Compression and Rotation

a. Uplift
σs>σupmin =1.0 GS ( θs/n ) ( B/hri )2 14.7.5.3.5-1
where:
n= no. of interior layers of elastomer
θs = Max service rotation (RAD)
B= length of pad if rotation is about its transverse axis
θswt. of girder = 0
θ insitu = 0.00055
θ live load = 0.001
θ sundries = 0.00034

σs 5.842 N/sqmm

61
GH 1 N/sqmm
S 8.0
θs 0.00189 rad
Β 440 mm
hri 13 mm
No of Layers ( n ) 6
1.0 GS ( θs/n ) ( B/hri )2 2.869 N/sqmm O.K

b. Compression

σs< σCmax =1.875 GS [1 - 0.2 ( θs/n) ( B/hri)2] 14.7.5.3.5-2


σs = 5.84 N/sqmm
G= 1 N/sqmm
2
1.875 GS [1 - 0.2 ( θ/n) ( B/hri) ] 13.83 N/sqmm O.K

CHECK For Stability

σs<σCr = GS/( 2A-B) 14.7.5.3.6-4


A = (1.92(hrt/L)/(1+2L/W))^0.5 14.7.5.3.6-2
B = (2.67)/(S+2)(1+(L/(4W)) 14.7.5.3.6-3

σs 5.84 N/sqmm
A 0.2419
B 0.2195
G S/ ( 2A - B ) 30.08 N/sqmm O.K

CHECK For Reinforcement


hs> 3hmax σs/Fy 14.7.5.3.7-1
hs 3 mm
hmax 13 mm
σs 5.84 N/sqmm
Fy 410 N/sqmm

3hmax σs / Fy 0.56 mm O.K

At the fatigue limit state:


hs> 2hmax σL/△FTH 14.7.5.3.7-2
σL 2.22 N/sqmm
Constant-Amplitude Fatigue Thresholds for Detail Category A
△FTH 165 MPa
2hmax σL/△FTH 0.35 mm O.K

62