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NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS
GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

SUB STRUCTURE DESIGN REPORT


(Volume 1 of 1)
K489+031 SHORT BRIDGE

PESHAWAR-KARACHI MOTORWAY (PKM)


SUKKUR-MULTAN SECTION

OCT 2016
Super
Structure, ITS
Surve Sub Road
Section Main Geotechnical Underpass Traffic Pavement Hydraulic/ Environmenta &Road
Section y Structure Safety
Chainage Length Repor Investigation and Study Design Hydrologic l Management Side
No. Repor Design Audit
(km) t Report Culvert Report Report al Report Plan Report Facilitie
t Report Report
Design s
Report

1-1 K380+000~K383+000 3

1-2 K383+000~K387+000 4

Section 1-3 K387+000~K408+000 20.996


1
1-4 K408+000~K411+000 3
(54.99
6km) 1-5 K411+000~K423+000 12

1-6 K423+000~K428+000 5

1-7 K428+000~K435+000 7

2-1 K435+000~K438+000 3

2-2 K438+000~K448+000 10

Section 2-3 K448+000~K455+000 7


2
2-4 K455+000~K459+300 4.3
(56.15
1km) 2-5 K459+300~K478+000 18.7

2-6 K478+000~K488+000 10

2-7 K488+000~ K491+150.527 3.151 √

3-1 K490+981.670~K505+000 14.018

3-2 K505+000~K508+000 3
Section
3 3-3 K508+000~K520+000 12
(59.01
3-4 K520+000~K534+000 14
8km)
3-5 K534+000~K541+000 7

3-6 K541+000~K550+000 9

4-1 K550+000~K577+000 27
Section 4-2 K577+000~K584+000 7
4
(54km) 4-3 K584+000~K594+000 10

4-4 K594+000~K604+000 10

5-1 K604+000~K613+000 9

Section 5-2 K613+000~K619+000 6


5
5-3 K619+000~K640+000 21
(54.99
9km) 5-4 K640+000~K650+000 10

5-5 K650+000~K659+000 9

6-1 K659+000~K675+000 16
Section 6-2 K675+000~K688+600 13.6
6
(57km) 6-3 K688+600~K705+000 16.4

6-4 K705+000~K716+000 11

Section 7-1 K716+000~K745+000 29


7
7-2 K745+000~K755+000 10
(56.01
8km) 7-3 K755+000~K772+017.813 17.018

Project Manager

Design Chief
1 CONTENTS
1 Contents ........................................................................................................................ 1
2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................. 3
3 Structural Design Criteria ............................................................................................... 4
3.1 design life of bridges ............................................................................................... 4
3.2 Codes Of Practices ................................................................................................. 4
3.3 Material Properties .................................................................................................. 4
3.4 Loads ...................................................................................................................... 5
3.4.1 Dead Weight (DC) ............................................................................................ 5
3.4.2 Dead Weight Wearing Course (DW) ................................................................. 5
3.4.3 Live Loads (LL) ................................................................................................. 5
3.4.4 Pedestrian Load (LL) ........................................................................................ 8
3.4.5 Wind Loads (WS) and (WL) .............................................................................. 8
3.4.6 Seismic Loads (EQ) .......................................................................................... 8
3.4.7 Longitudinal Loads/Braking Force (BR) ............................................................ 9
3.4.8 Earth Pressure (EV and EH) ............................................................................. 9
3.4.9 Surcharge Load (LS) ........................................................................................ 9
3.5 Load Combination ................................................................................................. 11
3.6 Concrete Cover ..................................................................................................... 12
3.7 Pile Capacity ......................................................................................................... 12
3.8 Seismic Zone ........................................................................................................ 12
4 Structural System And Other Details............................................................................ 13
4.1 Configuration ......................................................................................................... 13
4.2 Expansion Joint ..................................................................................................... 13
4.3 Drainage ............................................................................................................... 13
4.4 Bearing pads ......................................................................................................... 14
4.5 Computer Modeling ............................................................................................... 14
4.5.1 Super Structure .............................................................................................. 14
4.5.2 Sub Structure ................................................................................................. 14
4.6 Design ................................................................................................................... 14
5 Bridge Typical long and cross sections ........................................................................ 15
6 Loading For Sub Structure ........................................................................................... 17
6.1 Breaking Force ...................................................................................................... 17
6.2 wind load ............................................................................................................... 18
6.3 Earth Pressure ...................................................................................................... 20
6.3.1 Lateral Earth Pressure(EH) ............................................................................ 20

1
6.3.2 Vertical Earth Pressure(EV) ............................................................................ 21
6.4 Surcharge Load (LS) ............................................................................................. 21
6.5 Seismic Analysis Calculaton .................................................................................. 22
6.6 Modulus Of Subgrade Reaction For Piles .............................................................. 24
6.7 Water Loads .......................................................................................................... 26
7 Design Of Pier Transom .............................................................................................. 43
8 Design Of Pier And Pier Piles ...................................................................................... 57
9 Design Of Back Wall .................................................................................................... 60
10 Design Of Wing Wall.................................................................................................... 65
11 Design Of Abutment Transom...................................................................................... 68
12 Minium Support Length ................................................................................................ 84
13 Design Of Abutment Pile.............................................................................................. 85
14 Approach Slab Design ................................................................................................. 88

2
2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Project

2×20m Bridge over Canal

Location

K489+031

Principal Engineer

China State Consultants Engineering Corportation

Design Team

China State Consultants Engineering Corportation

3
3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1 DESIGN LIFE OF BRIDGES


The design life of bridges is 75 years conform to AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
SPECIFICATIONS

3.2 CODES OF PRACTICES


Following is the summary of the codes used in designing:

• WEST PAKISTAN HIGHWAY CODE OF PRACTICE, HIGHWAY BRIDGES (1967)


used for Live Loads analysis, Braking Forces and Deck Slab Design.

• AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS, 6TH EDITION (2012) used for
all analysis, design and specifications of loads (including live loads, which ever
governs), load combinations. Local environmental parameters have been considered
in determining seismic, water, wind, temperature etc. as per AASHTO code
specifications.

• BUILDING CODE REQUIRMENT FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318-08)


used for design and detailing of reinforced concrete components where specifications
of AASHTO code are insufficient.

• PAKISTAN BUILDING CODE (2007) used for seismic zoning in addition to the
Seismic Risk Map of Pakistan developed by Geological Survey of Pakistan.

• ASTM standards used for material specifications and testing where AASHTO
specifications for material types and testing requirements are insufficient.

3.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES


a) 28 Days Compressive Strength of Concrete (Cylindrical)

Piles,Pile Caps,Pier Shaft,Abutment Shaft 28 MPa (4000 Psi)


Abutment Walls, Wing walls, Counterfort, Pier Transom 24 MPa (3500 Psi)
Abutment Transom

b) Reinforcement

High yield deformed steel bars conforming to AASHTO M31 (ASTM A615) Grade 60 with
minimum yield strength of 413 MPa shall be used.

c) Unit Weights

Reinforced Concrete 24 KN/m3 (150 Pcf) AASHTO Table 3.5.1-1


Wearing Course 23 KN/m3 (140 Pcf) AASHTO Table 3.5.1-1
Fill Soil 19 KN/m3 (120 Pcf) Geotechnical Report
d) Modulus of Elasticity

Concrete 4800√f’c Mpa AASHTO LRFD C5.4.2.4-1

4
Rebar 200000 Mpa AASHTO LRFD 5.4.3.2

3.4 LOADS
3.4.1 Dead Weight (DC)
It is the self-weight of Reinforced Concrete Structure. Barriers and Median weights to be
calculated according to their actual size and dimensions.

3.4.2 Dead Weight Wearing Course (DW)


It is super imposed dead weight of Asphalt wearing course (70mm) thick.

3.4.3 Live Loads (LL)


Following live loads from two codes will be used which ever generate maximum stresses in c
omponents for design of pre-stressed girders and loads to be transferred on bearing pads.
A) West Pakistan Code of Practice, Highway Bridges 1967.
• Class A, Truck Loading, Section 2, Figure 4.
• Class AA, Military Loading, Section 4, Figure 5.

Whichever of them produce maximum stress in Deck Slab, pre-stressed girders and
bearing pads. Impact for Class A will be as specified in Section 2.9 and for multi
presence of Trucks, the load intensity may be reduced as per Section 2.7.

B) AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 6th Edition (2012)


• Design Truck or design Tandem A3.6.1.2
• Design lane load A3.6.1.2

Specifications of design truck (A3.6.1.2.2)


and Specifications of design tandem
(A3.6.1.2.3) and Design Lane Load
(A3.6.1.2.4) are to be used. Number of
design lanes to be decided as per
(A3.6.1.1.1). Design Tandem or Design
Truck both cases coincident along with
Design Traffic Load whichever produces
maximum stresses in girder or load to be
transmitted to bearing pads.

5
6
7
The minimum clearance between the roadway face of
curb and the outer edge of the track shall be assumed
as follows:
Width of roadway 11’-6’’ to 13’-6’’ 1’-0’’
13’-6’’ to 18’-0’’ 2’-0’’
Above 18’-0’’ 4’-0’’
3.4.4 Pedestrian Load (LL)
Load of 75 psf will be applied on curb wider than 2 feet or 600 mm simultaneously along with
vehicular design load. If the side walk is to be removed in future than vehicle shall be placed
1 ft from the edge of the overhang. For the design of overhang and 2ft for design of all other
components. If vehicles can mount on side walk then side walk needs not to be considered
for pedestrian live load.

3.4.5 Wind Loads (WS) and (WL)


Winds and wind loads will assigned as per AASHTO article 3.15 (Design speed of 100 mph)

Wind on live to be taken 100 plf acting normal to traffic 6 ft above the road way.

3.4.6 Seismic Loads (EQ)


For single span bridge, according to AASHTO 4.7.4.2, seismic analysis is not required
regardless of seismic zone.

However for multi span bridge, AASHTO 4.7.4.3 will be used. Site specific data will be used
to calculate Site Factors, Elastic Seismic Response Coefficients as per AASHTO 3.10
specifications of Earth Quake Loading.

Method of calculating earth quake will be decided as per AASHTO Table 4.7.4.3.1-1.

Wind on substructure to be taken as base pressure of 40 psf.

8
SM/UL, MM, TH methods are provided in AASHTO 4.7.4.3.

3.4.7 Longitudinal Loads/Braking Force (BR)


They will be calculated based on which live loads produce maximum stresses.

From WPCPHB, Section 2.10, whichever produce maximum force.

• 30 percent of weight of vehicle Class A;

• 15 percent of weight of military vehicle Class AA.

The centre of gravity of this longitudinal force shall be assumed be located 6 ft above the
profile grade of the roadway slab.

From AASHTO 3.6.4, braking force shall be taken as the greater of :

• 25 percent of the axle weights of the design truck or design tandem or,
• 5 percent of the design truck plus lane load or five percent of the design tandem plus
lane load

And this braking force shall be placed in all design lanes which are comsidered to be loaded
in accordance with Article 3.6.1.1.1 and which are carrying traffic headed in the same
direction. These forces shall e assumed to act horizontally at a distance of 6.0 ft above the
roadway surface in either longitudinal direction to cause extreme force effects.

3.4.8 Earth Pressure (EV and EH)


Earth pressure will be calculated as per site specific data obtained from geo technical
investigation. The Soil Density is 19 KN/m3 for granular fill and angle of friction taken as 30°.

Vertical Earth pressure to be applied as super imposed load on any component filled with
soil directly above for example pile cap.

3.4.9 Surcharge Load (LS)


Retaining walls and abutments are designed for surcharge load as specified in AASHTO
3.11.6.4

9
10
3.5 LOAD COMBINATION
Load combinations are based on minimum specified load factors as specified in AASHTO
3.4.

γEQ will be based on site specific data else it is permissible to take it 0.5 according AASHTO
C3.4.1.
All notations are present in AASHTO 3.3.

11
3.6 CONCRETE COVER
Minimum concrete cover (as per article 8.22.1 and 9.26.1 of AASHTO standard
specifications ) to the nearest reinforcement shall be as follows:
l Deck Slab :
Top 50 mm
Bottom 25 mm
l Pre-stressed Girders

Top (Main Reinforcement) 40 mm


Bottom (Main Reinforcement) 40 mm
Stirrups 25 mm
l Diaphragm 40 mm
l Barriers/ Mediam 30 mm
l Transom 40 mm
l Piers 50 mm
l Piles
Top 75 mm

l Abutment/Approach slab:
Top 50 mm
Bottom 25 mm

3.7 PILE CAPACITY


The Safe Pile Capacity based on Geotechnical Report.
Assumed Pile Diameter 1.2 m Delete
Assumed Length 30m

3.8 SEISMIC ZONE


As per Seismic Risk Map developed by Geological Survey of Pakistan and Pakistan Building
Code, the seismic zone of the bridge is Zone 2A located at Sukkur-Multan.

12
4 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OTHER DETAILS

4.1 CONFIGURATION
The super structure of bridge is composed of Cast in Place Deck Slab and pre-cast post
tensioned simply Supported I- Girders. The deck slab is cast in place RCC.

Thickness of deck slab 225 mm

RCC approach slab thickness of 350 mm, 6 m long provided at each end of deck slab.

The substructure consists of multiple pier bents, supported either of pile caps and piles.

Diameter of pier 1200 mm

Diameter of pier shaft 1200 mm

Depth of pier transom 1200 mm

Width of pier transom 2700 mm

Diameter of pile 1200 mm

Thickness of pile cap 1050 mm

Thickness of wing wall 400 mm

4.2 EXPANSION JOINT


Expansion Joint
The design thermal movement range, ΔT, shall depend
upon the extreme bridge design temperatures defined in
Article 3.12.2.1 or 3.12.2.2, and be determined
as:
(LRFD 2012, A
ΔT = α L (TMaxDesign -TMinDesign) 3.12.2.3)

(LRFD 2012, A
Max rise in temp T= 70 F 3.12.2.1)

Linear Thermal Coefficient (LRFD 2012, A


α= 0.000006 /ºF 5.4.2.2)

Deck Length L= 45 m DecK Length is


20M. Please Check
Total Elongation ΔT= 18.9 mm

Per expansion joint


ΔT/2= 9.45 mm

Provide expansion joint 25 mm OK

4.3 DRAINAGE
Cross slope of 2% is provided on both sides of deck to ensure draining. Drainage pipe of
100 mm dia is provided at intervals of 5m.

13
4.4 BEARING PADS
Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pads conforming to AASHTO 14.6.5 and 14.6.6 provided at
each of girders.

4.5 COMPUTER MODELING


Following computer programs are used in calculations and modeling.

• CSI BRIDGE 2014

• MS Excel

4.5.1 Super Structure


The super structure modeled as combination of plate and beam members. Using and CSi
Bridge. The moving load analysis is done to calculate Live Load reaction forces of bearing
pads and moments and forces in girders.
Deck Slab is modeled on CSI BRIDGE to calculate all forces required to design slab. Self-
weight is calculated automatically.
The Structure has been analyzed for all possible position of Class AA loading, and multiple
presence of Class A and also AASHTO Trucks and Tandem loadings coincident with Traffic
Lane Loading. Critical loadings are identified with the help of software.
Barrier is design with the help of excel sheet conforming to AASHTO 13.2.

4.5.2 Sub Structure


The sub structure is models as 3D space frames comprising of plate, beams and column
elements using CSI BRIDGE 2014. All loads transferred from super structure and additional
loads are applied on sub structure including Earth pressure, Earth Weight, Live Load
Surcharge and Wind Forces.
Piles are supported by lateral and vertical springs, values calculated as per geotechnical
data.

4.6 DESIGN
Deck Slabs, precast post tensioned girders and bearing pads using in-house developed
worksheets.
Sub Structures are designed with the help of 3D model on CSI BRIDGE and with the help of
in-house developed worksheets.

14
5 BRIDGE TYPICAL LONG AND CROSS SECTIONS

15
PILE LENGTH MENTIONED HERE ARE
NOT MATCHING WITH AS SHOWN IN
DRAWINGS. For Example at pile location
1, length mentioned here is 24M, where
as in detailed drawing No. It is different.
Kindly update sketch on calculations
sheet as per drawing.
16
Shear Key Shown
here are not
consistent with the
final drawing.
Replace with correct
sketch
6 LOADING FOR SUB STRUCTURE

6.1 BREAKING FORCE


LONGITUDINAL FORCE(LIVE A/AA)
Span 20 m

Deck Slab Thickness 225 mm

C/l above deck (6ft) 1828.8 mm

Depth of Girder 1600 mm

Σ 3653.8 mm
12.0 ft

Total Truck train load on Abutment (one lane) 544 Kn

Number of Lanes 4

Longitudinal Force (30% of Class A load) 489.6 Kn Article 2-10, WPHC

Total Tank load on Abutment 700 Kn

Longitudinal Force (15% of Class AA load) 105 Kn Article 2-10, WPHC

Governing Longitudinal Force 244.8 Kn

894.5 Kn-m
No. of Girders 6
Load per Girder 41 Kn

Vertical loading due to Longitudinal Moment 7 Kn

LONGITUDINAL FORCE(HL-93M/K)
Span 20 m

Deck Slab Thickness 225 mm

C/l above deck (6ft) 1828.8 mm

Depth of Girder 1600 mm

Σ 3653.8 mm
13.3 ft

Total Design Truck load on Abutment 1281 Kn

17
(25% of the axle weights ) 320 Kn (LRFD 2012, A 3.6.4)

Total Design Tandem load on Abutment 890 Kn


(25% of the axle weights ) 222 Kn (LRFD 2012, A 3.6.4)

5% Of The Design Truck Plus Lane Load 101 Kn (LRFD 2012, A 3.6.4)

5% Of The Design Tandem Plus Lane Load 82 Kn (LRFD 2012, A 3.6.4)

Governing Longitudinal Force 104 Kn

380.3 Kn-m
No. of Girders 6
Load per Girder 17 Kn

Vertical loading due to Longitudinal Moment 3 Kn

6.2 WIND LOAD


Design Wind Pressure = PD= PB(VDZ2/25600) (A.3.8.1.2.1-1)
PB= base wind pressure
PB= 0.0024 MPa
PBTmax
0.0024 MPa (A.3.8.1.2.2)
=
PBLmax
0.0009 MPa
=
PBTmax
0.0008 MPa
=
VDZ=2.5V0(V10/VB)ln(Z/Z0)
(Table 3.8.1.1-1)(open
V0= 13.2 Km/hr
country)
Z0= 0.07 m
V10=VB= 160 Km/hr
m≥30
Z= 9.5
ft
VDZ= 162.0 Km/hr
0.00246
PDTmax=PBTVDZ2/25600= MPa (3.8.1.2.1-1)
2
51.4 psf
2 0.00092
PDLmax=PBLVDZ /25600= MPa
3
19.3 psf
2 0.00082
PDTmax=PBLVDZ /25600= MPa
1
17.1 psf
No. of Girders 6
Span of Girder 20 m
Height of Barrier above Deck 940 mm
Deck Slab Thickness 225 mm

18
Depth of Girder 1600 mm
Total Depth 2765 mm
9.1 ft
1.Maximum Transverse Load (no longitudinal load)
WS(transverse) 51.417 psf
466.427 per ft
w 6.941 KN/m
w x span 138.824 KN
Wx 2.765/2 191.924 KN-m
Load per
23 KN
Girder
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
d 6.625 3.975 1.325 -1.325 -3.975 -6.625
43.890 1.75562 1.75562
d2 15.8006 15.8006 43.890625
6 5 5
122.89
Σd2
4
F 10 6 2 -2 -6 -10
Vertical loading due to Wind Moment
2.Minimum Transverse and Max. longitudinal Load
WS(Longitudinal) 19.3 psf
174.910 per ft
w 2.603 KN/m
w x span 52.059 KN
Load per
9 KN
Girder
1.Maximum Transverse Load (no longitudinal load)
WS(transverse) 17.139 psf
155.476 per ft
w 2.314 KN/m
w x span 46.275 KN
Wx 2.765/2 63.975 KN-m
Load per
8 KN
Girder
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6
d 6.625 3.975 1.325 -1.325 -3.975 -6.625
43.890 1.75562 1.75562
d2 15.8006 15.8006 43.890625
6 5 5
122.89
Σd2
4
F 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3
Vertical loading due to Wind Moment
Wind Load on Live Load (3.8.1.3)
1. Maximum Transverse Lad (no longitudinal load)
WL (transverse)
applied
w 1.46 KN/m 1.8 m above deck
at
W 27.594 KN
e 4.565 m
m 126.0 KN-m/m

19
Load per
5 KN
Girder

122.89
Σd2
4
F 7 4 1 -1 -4 -7
Vertical loading due to Wind Moment
2. Minimum Transverse and Max. longitudinal Load
WL (transverse)
w 0.50 KN/m
W 9.45 KN
e 4.57 m
m 43.14 KN-m/m
Load per
1.6 KN
Girder
122.89
Σd2
4
F 2 1 0 0 -1 -2
Vertical loading due to Wind Moment
WL (longitudinal)
w 0.55 KN/m
W 10.40 KN
e 4.57 m
m 47.45 KN-m/m
Load per
1.7 KN
Girder
Wind load acting on pier according to the force acting on the B abutment double
consider it.

6.3 EARTH PRESSURE


6.3.1 Lateral Earth Pressure(EH)
Lateral earth pressure shall be assumed to be linearly proportional to the depth of earth and
taken as:

P=Kγs·Z LRFD 2012-A 3.11.5.1-1

Where :
P = lateral earth pressure
K = coefficient of lateral earth pressure taken as ko, specified in Article 3.11.5.2, for walls that
do not deflect or move, ka, specified in Articles 3.11.5.3, 3.11.5.6 and 3.11.5.7, for walls that
deflect or move sufficiently to reach minimum active conditions, or kp, specified in Article
3.11.5.4, for walls that deflect or move sufficiently to reach a passive condition

γs = unit weight of soil

Z = depth below the surface of earth


Calculation of Active Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, ka=0.333

20
Delete Assumed
Word

Soil Density is assumed 19 KN/m3 for granular fill and angle of friction taken as 30°. The
lateral earth pressure is assumed as area pressure in the SAP2000 model.

Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
P(KN/m2) 6.327 12.654 18.981 25.308 31.635 37.962 44.289 50.616 56.943

6.3.2 Vertical Earth Pressure(EV)


Vertical Earth pressure to be applied as super imposed load on any component filled with
soil directly above for example pile cap.

EV = γs·Z = 19 x 9 = 172 kN/m2

6.4 SURCHARGE LOAD (LS)


The increase in horizontal pressure due to live load surcharge may be estimated as:

ΔP=Kγs·heq LRFD 2012-A 3.11.5.1-1

Where :

ΔP = constant horizontal earth pressure due to live load surcharge

γs = total unit weight of soil

K = coefficient of lateral earth pressure


heq = equivalent height of soil for vehicular load

Abutment Height(m) Heq P(KN/m2)


1.5 1.2 7.6
3 0.9 5.7
≥6 0.6 3.8
Parallel to Traffic

Heq
Retaining Wall Height(m) P(KN/m2)
0 ≥0.3
1.5 1.5 0.6 3.8
3 1.05 0.6 3.8
≥6 0.6 0.6 3.8

21
6.5 SEISMIC ANALYSIS CALCULATON

22
23
6.6 MODULUS OF SUBGRADE REACTION FOR PILES
Dia of Pile 1.2 m
d 4.5 m
ks=As+BsZn refer pg. 933 bowles
where
As=constant for either horizontal or vertical members
Bs=coefficient for depth variation
Z=depth of interest below ground
n=exponent to give ks the best fit

24
Spring Values scour at piers
Node Z Kxy Kz Kxy Kz
1 0 21000 9228 0 0
2 1.5 46936 12769 0 0
3 3 55721 18224 0 0
4 4.5 77719 26775 68391 14473
5 6 141600 34709 141600 22407
6 7.5 167732 44188 167732 31886
7 9 176367 53497 176367 41195
8 10.5 172515 58589 172515 46287
9 12 182749 65657 182749 53354
10 13.5 172464 76718 172464 64416
11 15 153157 86215 153157 73913
12 16.5 239979 97265 239979 84963
13 18 329426 115317 329426 103015
14 19.5 341244 120700 341244 108398
15 21 333847 124217 333847 111915
16 22.5 374125 135897 374125 123594
17 24 429138 150962 429138 138660
18 25.5 450565 159965 450565 147663
19 27 452626 167183 452626 154880
20 28.5 354106 168603 354106 156301
21 30 280707 171611 280707 159309
22 31.5 378391 177152 378391 164850
23 33 557962 197519 557962 185217
24 34.5 684989 210530 684989 198228
25 36 834323 211049 834323 198747

25
26 37.5 802756 220540 802756 208238
27 39 781346 229313 781346 217011
28 40.5 732478 247464 732478 235162
29 42 729595 256427 729595 244125
30 43.5 758570 271284 758570 258982
31 45 408234 285799 408234 273497

6.7 WATER LOADS


ANALYSIS IN LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION

The lateral, uniformly distributed pressure on a substructure due to water flowing


at an angle, θ, to the longitudinal axis of the pier shall be taken as:

(A.3.7.3.2-1)

Where:

p=Lateral pressure(Mpa)
CL=lateral drag coefficient as specified in Table 3.7.3-2-1
V2=design velocity of water for the design flood in strength and service limit

states and for the check flood in the extreme event limit state (m/s)

6.8 - Scour Depth Calculation

ADD CALCULATIONS FOR SCOUR DEPTH HERE.


SAMPLE CALCULATIONS HAVE BEEN SENT IN
ATTACHED EXCEL SHEET
26
The lateral drag force shall be taken as the product of the lateral stream
pressure and the surface exposed thereto.

PlateralL=p×Projected surface

Projected surface= 1.2 m

θ= 4.2 °

CL= 0.5

V= 0.6 m/s

p= 9.252E-05 Mpa

Plateral= 0.11 Kn/m


Px=SINθ*Platera= 0.008 Kn/m
Py=COSθ*Platera= 0.111 Kn/m

27
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:31:38
CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - 3-D View - KN, m, C Units
CSiBridge 2014 9/28/16 14:59:17

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (Braking) (As Defined) - KN, m, C Units
CSiBridge 2014 9/28/16 14:58:59

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (BF-H) - KN, m, C Units


CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:34:32

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind structure transverse) (As Defined) - KN, m
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:34:47

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind structure longitudinal) (As Defined) - KN,
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:35:01

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind live load Transverse) (As Defined) - KN, m
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:35:12

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind live load longitudinal) (As Defined) - KN,
CSiBridge 2014 9/28/16 15:02:17

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (Braking) (As Defined) - KN, m, C Units
CSiBridge 2014 9/28/16 15:02:27

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (BF-H) (As Defined) - KN, m, C Units
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:40:39

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind structure transverse) (As Defined) - KN, m
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:40:57

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind structure longitudinal) (As Defined) - KN,
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:41:09

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind live load Transverse) (As Defined) - KN, m
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:41:20

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Joint Loads (wind live load longitudinal) (As Defined) - KN,
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:42:18

-19.9 -18.4 -16.9 -15.3 -13.8 -12.3 -10.7 -9.2 -7.7 -6.1 -4.6 -3.1 -1.5 0.0

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Area Surface Pressure - Face Top (Earth horizontal) - KN, m
CSiBridge 2014 9/16/16 15:42:46

-5.60 -5.17 -4.74 -4.31 -3.88 -3.45 -3.02 -2.58 -2.15 -1.72 -1.29 -0.86 -0.43 0.00

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+133 - Area Surface Pressure - Face Top (live surcharge) - KN, m,
7 DESIGN OF PIER TRANSOM
(1)Check Fof Moment
f'c 3500psi

24.13Mpa
fy 60000psi
413Mpa

β1 0.85
fr = 0.24(f'c)^0.5 LRFD 2012, 5.4.2.6
fr = 0.45Ksi
3.10Mpa
b= 2700mm
106.30in
h= 1200mm
47.24in
I= 388800000000mm4
934096in4

Mcr = γ3[(γ1fr+γ2 fcpe)Sc-Mdnc{Sc/Snc-1}] LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1

γ1 = 1.6

γ2 = 1.1

γ3 = 0.67
Sc = 39543.4in3
Snc = 39543.4in3
Mcr = 19033Kip-in
2150KN-m

BOTTOM REINFORCEMENT

Mu = 1288KN-m
Mcr = 2150KN-m
1.33Mu = 1713KN-m
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 1713KN-m LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
b 2700mm

43
h 1200mm
Dia 25mm
Cover 60mm
Layer 1
d 1127.5mm
Ab 491sqmm
Nos 22
As 10799sqmm
f'c 27.59Mpa

fy 413Mpa
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 70mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 4715KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 4243KN-m
As Mr >Mu
And Mr >Mmin OK

TOP REINFORCEMENT
Mu = 1862KN-m
Mcr = 2150KN-m
1.33Mu = 2476KN-m
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 2150KN-m LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
b 2700mm
h 1200mm
Dia 25mm
Cover 60mm
Layer 1
d 1127.5mm
Ab 491sqmm
Nos 22
As 10799sqmm
f'c 27.59Mpa

fy 413Mpa

44
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 70mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 4715KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 4243KN-m
As Mr >Mu
And Mr >Mmin OK

(2)Check For Crack Width


Crack Width Calculation for +ve Moments
Service Load Moment 867 KN-m
Cover 60 mm
b 2700 mm
h 1200 mm
47.244 in
f'c 24.130 N/mm2
3500 Psi
fy 413 N/mm2
60,000 Psi
Es 29,000,000 Psi

Effective Depth "dl" 1140 mm


44.882 in
(+ve) As Provided 25 mm Dia Bar
Nos 22
Spacing Provided 123 mm c/c
4.843in c/c
dc = Cocrete Cover 60 mm
2.362in
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 44.882in

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)-2dc Ref : LRFD 5.7.3.4

in which

45
βs= 1+{dc/0.7(h-dc)}
Where

γe=exposure factor,

=1 for Class 1 exposure condition

=0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition

γe=0.75 for Class 2

fssTensile Stress in steel reinforcement at the Service limit state.


hoverall thickness or depth of component (in)
distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of
dlextreme
tension element (in)
Thickness of concrete cover measured from Extreme Tension
dcFibre
to Center of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto
(in)

βs=1.0752

0.6fy 36,000 Psi 5221619


Es 29,000,000 Psi
Ec = 57000(f'c)1/2 3372165 Psi
n = Es/Ec 8.6
8.6
Area of One bar 490.87mm2
Total Area of All Bars
As 10799.22mm2
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 1140mm
0.5*b*x2 = n*As*(d-x)

Where
bWidth of Strip. = 2700mm
nModular Ratio
Distance of Cracked Section from Extreme Compression
xFace.

46
AsArea of steel of bars in 1m Strip.
d(Depth of Slab) - dc
a 1.00
For Quadratic Equation b 68.79
c -78424.68

(+ve) and (-ve) Values x1 247.75


of "x" x2 -316.55 mm
x 247.75 mm
Icr =(bx3/3)+(n*As)*(d-x)2
Where
IcrMoment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section.
Icr 87,622,025,639 mm4
M 867.0KN-m/m
fss = n*M*(d-x)/Icr 0.076KN / mm2
fss= 11.0KSI

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)- 2dc

s< 39.6 in
s provided = 4.8 in Ok

47
Crack Width Calculation for -ve Moments
Service Load Moment 1302 KN-m
Cover 60 mm
b 2700 mm
h 1200 mm
47.24409449 in
f'c 24.13 N/mm2
3500 Psi
fy 413 N/mm2
60000 Psi
Es 29000000 Psi

Effective Depth "dl" 1140 mm


44.882 in
(+ve) As Provided 25 mm Dia Bar
Nos 22
Spacing Provided 123 mm c/c
4.843in c/c
dc = Cocrete Cover 60 mm
2.362in
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 44.882in

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)-2dc Ref : LRFD 5.7.3.4

in which

βs= 1+{dc/0.7(h-dc)}
Where

γe=exposure factor,

=1 for Class 1 exposure condition

=0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition

γe=0.75 for Class 2

fssTensile Stress in steel reinforcement at the Service limit state.

48
hoverall thickness or depth of component (in)
dldistance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of
extreme tension element (in)
dcThickness of concrete cover measured from Extreme Tension
Fibre to Center of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto (in)

βs=1.0752

0.6fy 36,000 Psi 5221619


Es 29,000,000 Psi
Ec = 57000(f'c)1/2 3372165 Psi
n = Es/Ec 8.6
8.6
Area of One bar 490.87mm2
Total Area of All Bars
As 10799.22mm2
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 1140mm
0.5*b*x2 = n*As*(d-x)

Where
bWidth of Strip. = 2700mm
nModular Ratio
Distance of Cracked Section from Extreme Compression
xFace.
AsArea of steel of bars in 1m Strip.
d(Depth of Slab) - dc
a 1.00
For Quadratic Equation b 68.79
c -78424.68

(+ve) and (-ve) Values x1 247.75


of "x" x2 -316.55 mm
x 247.75 mm
Icr =(bx3/3)+(n*As)*(d-x)2

49
Where
IcrMoment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section.
Icr 87,622,025,639 mm4
M 1302.0KN-m/m
fss = n*M*(d-x)/Icr 0.114KN / mm2
fss= 16.5KSI

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)- 2dc

s< 24.8 in

s provided = 4.8 in Ok

(3)Check for Shear


Shear Check (5.8.3.3)
Vu= 2077Kn
The nominal Shear Resistance Vn is lesser of:
1. Vn= Vc+Vs+Vp Article 5.8.3.3-1
2. Vn=0.25f'c bv dv +
Vp Article 5.8.3.3-2
where

Vc=0.083 β f'c1/2 bv dv Article 5.8.3.3-3

50
Vs=Av fy dv (cotθ+cotα)sinα /s Article 5.8.3.3-4

bv= effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth dv
dv= effective shear depth as determined in Article 5.8.2.9
dv= de-a/2
de= effective depth from extreme compression fibre to centroid of t
ensile reinforcement
1128mm
depth of compression stress block= a=
a= 70mm

i)dv =de-a/2 = 1092mm 1


ii) dv= 0.9de 2
1015mm
iii) dv = 0.72h
864mm 3
dv= largest of 1), 2) & 3
dv = 1092mm

1. Vn= Vc+Vs+Vp Article 5.8.3.3-1


2. Vn=0.25f'c bv dv +
Vp Article 5.8.3.3-2

Vc=0.083 β f'c1/2 bv dv
For non-prestressed member

β= 2 Article 5.8.3.4

θ 45degree
Vc= 2405Kn

φ= 0.9 Article 5.5.4.2

Vs= Av fy dv (cotθ+cotα)sinα/ s Dia 13 mm

α= 90o Av(8legs) 1062 sqmm


C-5.8.3.3.1
Assume s= 150mm

51
Vs= 2258kn
Vn= 4663Kn 1 As per eq. 5.8.3.3-1
17791Kn 2 As per eq. 5.8.3.3-2
Vn is lesser of 1 & 2
Vn = 4663Kn

φVn = 4197 > 2077OK

(4)Minimum Required Transverse


Reinforcement

Minimum Transverse reinforcement


Area

Av > 0.083(f'c)0.5 bvs/fy Article 5.8.2.5-1

Av = 400 mm2 < 1062 mm2


OK
(5)Maximum Spacing for Transverse Reinforcement

Shear Stress vu = (Vu)/φbvdv


vu= 0.78N/sqmm
Ratio of applied factored shear to concrete compressive
strength
vu / f'c 0.032

The spacing shall not exceed the max. permitted spacing


smax,
determined as Article 5.8.2.7
1. if vu<0.125 f'c, then smax= 0.8dv < 600mm
2. if vu>0.125 f'c, then smax= 0.4dv < 300mm
as vu/f'c = 0.032 < 0.125 condition 1 apply
smax= 874 and s< 600 mm
Provide s= 150mm OK

52
TABLE: Element Forces - Frames
Frame Station OutputCase CaseType StepType P V2 V3 T M2 M3
Text m Text Text Text KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m
287 0 COMB2 Combination Max 0 0 0 0 0 0
287 0.45967 COMB2 Combination Max 0 43.866 0 0 0 -7.259
287 0.91934 COMB2 Combination Max 0 87.733 0 0 0 -29.036
287 0 COMB2 Combination Min 0 0 0 0 0 0
287 0.45967 COMB2 Combination Min 0 31.584 0 0 0 -10.082
287 0.91934 COMB2 Combination Min 0 63.168 0 0 0 -40.328
288 0 COMB2 Combination Max 80.659 1995.258 61.085 436.9345 18.368 382.396
288 0.33433 COMB2 Combination Max 80.659 2027.163 61.085 436.9345 49.464 -45.47
288 0.66866 COMB2 Combination Max 80.659 2059.069 61.085 436.9345 87.151 -454.25
288 0 COMB2 Combination Min -87.502 674.756 -114.915 -430.696 -5.808 -493.1
288 0.33433 COMB2 Combination Min -87.502 697.728 -114.915 -430.696 -16.22 -1099.5
288 0.66866 COMB2 Combination Min -87.502 720.7 -114.915 -430.696 -35 -1718.1
289 0 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 -159.263 30.57 173.251 87.032 4.2562
289 0.51317 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 -124.003 30.57 173.251 74.367 122.051
289 1.02633 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 -88.743 30.57 173.251 61.703 221.751
289 1.5395 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 -53.483 30.57 173.251 49.136 303.358
289 1.5395 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 -53.483 30.57 173.251 49.136 303.358
289 2.05267 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 -18.224 30.57 173.251 38.437 508.297
289 2.56583 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 17.036 30.57 173.251 27.739 692.342
289 3.079 COMB2 Combination Max 49.435 52.296 30.57 173.251 18.497 936.381
289 0 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -995.367 -14.527 -457.095 -34.94 -1862
289 0.51317 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -946.396 -14.527 -457.095 -32.01 -1418.3
289 1.02633 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -897.424 -14.527 -457.095 -29.09 -999.76
289 1.5395 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -848.452 -14.527 -457.095 -26.26 -606.33
289 1.5395 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -848.452 -14.527 -457.095 -26.26 -606.33
289 2.05267 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -799.48 -14.527 -457.095 -24.42 -320.73
289 2.56583 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -750.508 -14.527 -457.095 -22.59 -57.457
289 3.079 COMB2 Combination Min -22.251 -701.536 -14.527 -457.095 -22.21 102.595
290 0 COMB2 Combination Max 102.649 1489.567 60.107 334.2712 30.332 1024.01
290 0.42367 COMB2 Combination Max 102.649 1529.998 60.107 334.2712 56.985 530.206
290 0.84733 COMB2 Combination Max 102.649 1570.428 60.107 334.2712 89.159 108.699
290 1.271 COMB2 Combination Max 102.649 1610.859 60.107 334.2712 121.33 -303.13
290 0 COMB2 Combination Min -77.429 466.883 -77.641 -584.603 -20.21 6.393
290 0.42367 COMB2 Combination Min -77.429 495.993 -77.641 -584.603 -39.55 -378.29
290 0.84733 COMB2 Combination Min -77.429 525.103 -77.641 -584.603 -64.4 -864.72
290 1.271 COMB2 Combination Min -77.429 554.213 -77.641 -584.603 -89.26 -1385.9
291 0 COMB2 Combination Max 83.033 -269.472 43.752 242.4806 121.23 -132.99
291 0.49533 COMB2 Combination Max 83.033 -235.438 43.752 242.4806 102.86 134.078
291 0.99067 COMB2 Combination Max 83.033 -201.403 43.752 242.4806 84.481 386.54
291 1.486 COMB2 Combination Max 83.033 -167.369 43.752 242.4806 66.106 665.651
291 1.98133 COMB2 Combination Max 83.033 -133.334 43.752 242.4806 47.73 945.308
291 2.47667 COMB2 Combination Max 83.033 -99.3 43.752 242.4806 33.489 1268.69
291 0 COMB2 Combination Min -51.769 -1147.991 -29.039 -643.418 -89.18 -1500.1
291 0.49533 COMB2 Combination Min -51.769 -1100.721 -29.039 -643.418 -78.22 -1071.3
291 0.99067 COMB2 Combination Min -51.769 -1053.451 -29.039 -643.418 -67.26 -665.79
291 1.486 COMB2 Combination Min -51.769 -1006.181 -29.039 -643.418 -56.3 -327.25
291 1.98133 COMB2 Combination Min -51.769 -958.911 -29.039 -643.418 -45.34 -29.531
291 2.47667 COMB2 Combination Min -51.769 -911.641 -29.039 -643.418 -38.51 184.196
292 0 COMB2 Combination Max 102.475 1149.6 52.522 296.4916 41.429 1256.05
292 0.46833 COMB2 Combination Max 102.475 1194.294 52.522 296.4916 58.216 831.82
292 0.93667 COMB2 Combination Max 102.475 1238.987 52.522 296.4916 80.079 422.115
292 1.405 COMB2 Combination Max 102.475 1283.68 52.522 296.4916 101.94 86.0187
292 1.87333 COMB2 Combination Max 102.475 1328.374 52.522 296.4916 123.86 -259.98
292 0 COMB2 Combination Min -71.206 292.71 -49.159 -690.652 -33.55 156.836
292 0.46833 COMB2 Combination Min -71.206 324.89 -49.159 -690.652 -52.14 -135.56
292 0.93667 COMB2 Combination Min -71.206 357.069 -49.159 -690.652 -75.81 -469.19
292 1.405 COMB2 Combination Min -71.206 389.248 -49.159 -690.652 -99.48 -901.2
292 1.87333 COMB2 Combination Min -71.206 421.427 -49.159 -690.652 -123.2 -1354.9

53
293 0 COMB2 Combination Max 101.719 -397.122 52.598 298.1402 123.77 -234.85
293 0.46858 COMB2 Combination Max 101.719 -364.926 52.598 298.1402 99.812 97.5444
293 0.93717 COMB2 Combination Max 101.719 -332.729 52.598 298.1402 76.127 420.21
293 1.40575 COMB2 Combination Max 101.719 -300.533 52.598 298.1402 52.474 805.45
293 1.87433 COMB2 Combination Max 101.719 -268.337 52.598 298.1402 33.739 1195.89
293 0 COMB2 Combination Min -71.392 -1341.974 -48.539 -678.482 -123.1 -1380.3
293 0.46858 COMB2 Combination Min -71.392 -1297.256 -48.539 -678.482 -101 -915.3
293 0.93717 COMB2 Combination Min -71.392 -1252.539 -48.539 -678.482 -79.21 -471.9
293 1.40575 COMB2 Combination Min -71.392 -1207.822 -48.539 -678.482 -57.43 -127.11
293 1.87433 COMB2 Combination Min -71.392 -1163.105 -48.539 -678.482 -40.57 176.434
294 0 COMB2 Combination Max 83.834 908.98 43.357 242.3724 38.796 1288.25
294 0.49513 COMB2 Combination Max 83.834 956.231 43.357 242.3724 45.5 988.741
294 0.99027 COMB2 Combination Max 83.834 1003.482 43.357 242.3724 56.829 692.366
294 1.4854 COMB2 Combination Max 83.834 1050.733 43.357 242.3724 68.158 396.385
294 1.98053 COMB2 Combination Max 83.834 1097.984 43.357 242.3724 79.487 127.09
294 2.47567 COMB2 Combination Max 83.834 1145.235 43.357 242.3724 90.817 -156.99
294 0 COMB2 Combination Min -52.069 117.894 -29.442 -636.535 -32.44 204.366
294 0.49513 COMB2 Combination Min -52.069 151.914 -29.442 -636.535 -46.26 -40.872
294 0.99027 COMB2 Combination Min -52.069 185.935 -29.442 -636.535 -64.7 -329.49
294 1.4854 COMB2 Combination Min -52.069 219.956 -29.442 -636.535 -83.14 -658.74
294 1.98053 COMB2 Combination Min -52.069 253.976 -29.442 -636.535 -101.6 -1054.9
294 2.47567 COMB2 Combination Min -52.069 287.997 -29.442 -636.535 -120 -1474.5
295 0 COMB2 Combination Max 101.996 -523.17 60.449 336.0676 90.743 -281.03
295 0.424 COMB2 Combination Max 101.996 -494.037 60.449 336.0676 65.883 113.919
295 0.848 COMB2 Combination Max 101.996 -464.904 60.449 336.0676 41.023 517.131
295 1.272 COMB2 Combination Max 101.996 -435.77 60.449 336.0676 21.413 992.774
295 0 COMB2 Combination Min -77.653 -1628.263 -77.06 -564.661 -119.9 -1413.2
295 0.424 COMB2 Combination Min -77.653 -1587.8 -77.06 -564.661 -87.76 -878.55
295 0.848 COMB2 Combination Min -77.653 -1547.338 -77.06 -564.661 -55.6 -378.63
295 1.272 COMB2 Combination Min -77.653 -1506.875 -77.06 -564.661 -28.69 19.3598
296 0 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 700.129 30.821 173.3343 23.369 932.743
296 0.513 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 749.085 30.821 173.3343 23.597 707.013
296 1.026 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 798.041 30.821 173.3343 25.417 513.104
296 1.539 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 846.997 30.821 173.3343 27.236 298.157
296 1.539 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 846.997 30.821 173.3343 27.236 298.157
296 2.052 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 895.953 30.821 173.3343 30.278 208.744
296 2.565 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 944.909 30.821 173.3343 33.413 101.248
296 3.078 COMB2 Combination Max 50.104 993.865 30.821 173.3343 36.548 -24.331
296 0 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 -36.79 -14.685 -442.802 -17.88 116.739
296 0.513 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 -1.542 -14.685 -442.802 -27.08 -65.817
296 1.026 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 33.707 -14.685 -442.802 -37.88 -323.39
296 1.539 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 68.955 -14.685 -442.802 -48.68 -603.12
296 1.539 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 68.955 -14.685 -442.802 -48.68 -603.12
296 2.052 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 104.203 -14.685 -442.802 -60.99 -991
296 2.565 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 139.451 -14.685 -442.802 -73.39 -1404
296 3.078 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 174.7 -14.685 -442.802 -85.79 -1842.1
297 0 COMB2 Combination Max 79.85 -691.049 62.046 440.4924 36.48 -431.09
297 0.33483 COMB2 Combination Max 79.85 -668.042 62.046 440.4924 17.497 -49.057
297 0.66966 COMB2 Combination Max 79.85 -645.036 62.046 440.4924 6.6233 347.405
297 0 COMB2 Combination Min -87.923 -2076.972 -114.224 -394.07 -85.67 -1753.1
297 0.33483 COMB2 Combination Min -87.923 -2045.019 -114.224 -394.07 -48.16 -1118.3
297 0.66966 COMB2 Combination Min -87.923 -2013.066 -114.224 -394.07 -17.12 -495.63
298 0 COMB2 Combination Max 0 -63.168 0 0 0 -29.036
298 0.45967 COMB2 Combination Max 0 -31.584 0 0 0 -7.259
298 0.91934 COMB2 Combination Max 0 0 0 0 0 0
298 0 COMB2 Combination Min 0 -87.733 0 0 0 -40.328
298 0.45967 COMB2 Combination Min 0 -43.866 0 0 0 -10.082
298 0.91934 COMB2 Combination Min 0 0 0 0 0 0
Max 102.649 2059.069 62.046 440.4924 123.86 1288.25
Min -87.923 -2076.972 -114.915 -690.652 -123.2 -1862

54
TABLE: Element Forces - Frames
Frame Station OutputCase CaseType StepType P V2 V3 T M2 M3
Text m Text Text Text KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m
287 0 COMB1 Combination Max 0 0 0 0 0 0
287 0.45967 COMB1 Combination Max 0 35.093 0 0 0 -8.0656
287 0.91934 COMB1 Combination Max 0 70.186 0 0 0 -32.2623
287 0 COMB1 Combination Min 0 0 0 0 0 0
287 0.45967 COMB1 Combination Min 0 35.093 0 0 0 -8.0656
287 0.91934 COMB1 Combination Min 0 70.186 0 0 0 -32.2623
288 0 COMB1 Combination Max 62.257 1390.693 44.294 249.7888 11.8241 197.3326
288 0.33433 COMB1 Combination Max 62.257 1416.218 44.294 249.7888 32.1944 -195.2566
288 0.66866 COMB1 Combination Max 62.257 1441.742 44.294 249.7888 59.0176 -581.6029
288 0 COMB1 Combination Min -67.632 823.889 -81.441 -241.2922 -3.1657 -294.5981
288 0.33433 COMB1 Combination Min -67.632 849.413 -81.441 -241.2922 -9.5787 -726.6345
288 0.66866 COMB1 Combination Min -67.632 874.938 -81.441 -241.2922 -23.4677 -1167.5447
289 0 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -271.592 20.763 70.3892 58.946 -221.1135
289 0.51317 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -232.414 20.763 70.3892 50.0187 -66.0159
289 1.02633 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -193.237 20.763 70.3892 41.0914 68.9771
289 1.5395 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -154.059 20.763 70.3892 32.1641 183.8655
289 1.5395 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -154.059 20.763 70.3892 32.1641 183.8655
289 2.05267 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -114.882 20.763 70.3892 24.296 336.262
289 2.56583 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -75.704 20.763 70.3892 16.428 468.5539
289 3.079 COMB1 Combination Max 32.129 -36.527 20.763 70.3892 10.8543 628.6975
289 0 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -710.13 -9.544 -262.3021 -23.4334 -1302.431
289 0.51317 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -670.953 -9.544 -262.3021 -21.124 -979.2299
289 1.02633 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -631.775 -9.544 -262.3021 -18.8147 -676.1333
289 1.5395 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -592.598 -9.544 -262.3021 -16.5054 -393.1414
289 1.5395 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -592.598 -9.544 -262.3021 -16.5054 -393.1414
289 2.05267 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -553.42 -9.544 -262.3021 -14.756 -154.3053
289 2.56583 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -514.243 -9.544 -262.3021 -13.0066 64.4261
289 3.079 COMB1 Combination Min -11.671 -475.065 -9.544 -262.3021 -13.5516 215.0968
290 0 COMB1 Combination Max 74.596 1060.134 44.386 163.3414 18.4318 674.5352
290 0.42367 COMB1 Combination Max 74.596 1092.479 44.386 163.3414 35.8514 315.7139
290 0.84733 COMB1 Combination Max 74.596 1124.824 44.386 163.3414 59.5142 -55.7636
290 1.271 COMB1 Combination Max 74.596 1157.168 44.386 163.3414 83.177 -438.4478
290 0 COMB1 Combination Min -55.455 575.504 -56.744 -330.2481 -11.9334 154.9393
290 0.42367 COMB1 Combination Min -55.455 607.848 -56.744 -330.2481 -24.1806 -212.8332
290 0.84733 COMB1 Combination Min -55.455 640.193 -56.744 -330.2481 -42.6711 -595.3562
290 1.271 COMB1 Combination Min -55.455 672.538 -56.744 -330.2481 -61.1616 -991.5825
291 0 COMB1 Combination Max 55.464 -387.384 31.192 98.7174 83.1174 -313.3839
291 0.49533 COMB1 Combination Max 55.464 -349.568 31.192 98.7174 69.5506 -49.8125
291 0.99067 COMB1 Combination Max 55.464 -311.752 31.192 98.7174 55.9839 196.3146
291 1.486 COMB1 Combination Max 55.464 -273.936 31.192 98.7174 42.4171 423.7102
291 1.98133 COMB1 Combination Max 55.464 -236.12 31.192 98.7174 28.8504 632.3743
291 2.47667 COMB1 Combination Max 55.464 -198.304 31.192 98.7174 19.9619 855.5382
291 0 COMB1 Combination Min -31.326 -822.956 -21.074 -366.7703 -61.1167 -1073.033
291 0.49533 COMB1 Combination Min -31.326 -785.14 -21.074 -366.7703 -52.6342 -747.8352
291 0.99067 COMB1 Combination Min -31.326 -747.324 -21.074 -366.7703 -44.1517 -441.3689
291 1.486 COMB1 Combination Min -31.326 -709.508 -21.074 -366.7703 -35.6692 -153.6341
291 1.98133 COMB1 Combination Min -31.326 -671.692 -21.074 -366.7703 -27.1867 115.3692
291 2.47667 COMB1 Combination Min -31.326 -633.876 -21.074 -366.7703 -23.3825 332.4096
292 0 COMB1 Combination Max 70.828 816.028 38.808 129.7734 25.0583 847.0025
292 0.46833 COMB1 Combination Max 70.828 851.782 38.808 129.7734 35.797 552.1415
292 0.93667 COMB1 Combination Max 70.828 887.537 38.808 129.7734 52.5779 246.4035
292 1.405 COMB1 Combination Max 70.828 923.292 38.808 129.7734 69.3589 -69.6617
292 1.87333 COMB1 Combination Max 70.828 959.046 38.808 129.7734 86.1399 -399.9425
292 0 COMB1 Combination Min -46.67 389.909 -36.75 -392.9502 -19.8361 315.7355
292 0.46833 COMB1 Combination Min -46.67 425.664 -36.75 -392.9502 -31.671 15.8454
292 0.93667 COMB1 Combination Min -46.67 461.418 -36.75 -392.9502 -49.5483 -301.348
292 1.405 COMB1 Combination Min -46.67 497.173 -36.75 -392.9502 -67.4256 -635.2866
292 1.87333 COMB1 Combination Min -46.67 532.928 -36.75 -392.9502 -85.3028 -985.9703

55
293 0 COMB1 Combination Max 70.332 -519.06 38.974 130.3267 86.0862 -385.8687
293 0.46858 COMB1 Combination Max 70.332 -483.286 38.974 130.3267 68.1659 -63.3031
293 0.93717 COMB1 Combination Max 70.332 -447.513 38.974 130.3267 50.2456 245.2207
293 1.40575 COMB1 Combination Max 70.332 -411.739 38.974 130.3267 32.3253 536.9815
293 1.87433 COMB1 Combination Max 70.332 -375.965 38.974 130.3267 20.3096 812.5475
293 0 COMB1 Combination Min -46.892 -966.814 -36.25 -385.3717 -85.2491 -1000.6699
293 0.46858 COMB1 Combination Min -46.892 -931.04 -36.25 -385.3717 -68.5869 -643.4823
293 0.93717 COMB1 Combination Min -46.892 -895.266 -36.25 -385.3717 -51.9247 -303.0577
293 1.40575 COMB1 Combination Min -46.892 -859.492 -36.25 -385.3717 -35.2625 20.604
293 1.87433 COMB1 Combination Min -46.892 -823.719 -36.25 -385.3717 -24.505 326.9345
294 0 COMB1 Combination Max 55.967 632.278 30.905 99.0781 23.5989 866.5837
294 0.49513 COMB1 Combination Max 55.967 670.079 30.905 99.0781 27.6737 657.1695
294 0.99027 COMB1 Combination Max 55.967 707.88 30.905 99.0781 36.424 438.9707
294 1.4854 COMB1 Combination Max 55.967 745.68 30.905 99.0781 45.1742 202.0555
294 1.98053 COMB1 Combination Max 55.967 783.481 30.905 99.0781 53.9244 -53.576
294 2.47567 COMB1 Combination Max 55.967 821.282 30.905 99.0781 62.6746 -326.75
294 0 COMB1 Combination Min -31.414 208.776 -21.422 -363.3869 -19.0388 343.7144
294 0.49513 COMB1 Combination Min -31.414 246.577 -21.422 -363.3869 -27.9355 108.7268
294 0.99027 COMB1 Combination Min -31.414 284.377 -21.422 -363.3869 -41.5075 -154.909
294 1.4854 COMB1 Combination Min -31.414 322.178 -21.422 -363.3869 -55.0796 -437.2612
294 1.98053 COMB1 Combination Min -31.414 359.979 -21.422 -363.3869 -68.6516 -738.3299
294 2.47567 COMB1 Combination Min -31.414 397.779 -21.422 -363.3869 -82.2237 -1058.1149
295 0 COMB1 Combination Max 74.141 -654.689 44.762 164.1399 62.633 -426.0614
295 0.424 COMB1 Combination Max 74.141 -622.319 44.762 164.1399 44.061 -52.9754
295 0.848 COMB1 Combination Max 74.141 -589.949 44.762 164.1399 25.4889 308.1481
295 1.272 COMB1 Combination Max 74.141 -557.579 44.762 164.1399 12.9338 656.6033
295 0 COMB1 Combination Min -55.735 -1167.02 -56.231 -318.2888 -82.165 -1007.3016
295 0.424 COMB1 Combination Min -55.735 -1134.65 -56.231 -318.2888 -58.5835 -603.3605
295 0.848 COMB1 Combination Min -55.735 -1102.28 -56.231 -318.2888 -35.002 -213.1442
295 1.272 COMB1 Combination Min -55.735 -1069.91 -56.231 -318.2888 -17.4374 162.2906
296 0 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 474.119 20.89 70.7888 14.2627 626.4419
296 0.513 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 513.284 20.89 70.7888 13.8385 476.8635
296 1.026 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 552.449 20.89 70.7888 15.6168 338.9541
296 1.539 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 591.613 20.89 70.7888 17.3951 180.9532
296 1.539 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 591.613 20.89 70.7888 17.3951 180.9532
296 2.052 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 630.778 20.89 70.7888 19.8619 61.7309
296 2.565 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 669.943 20.89 70.7888 22.3287 -77.583
296 3.078 COMB1 Combination Max 32.535 709.108 20.89 70.7888 24.7955 -236.9883
296 0 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 45.202 -9.708 -254.4405 -10.3199 222.8604
296 0.513 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 84.367 -9.708 -254.4405 -16.0328 59.425
296 1.026 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 123.531 -9.708 -254.4405 -23.9482 -155.8624
296 1.539 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 162.696 -9.708 -254.4405 -31.8637 -391.2414
296 1.539 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 162.696 -9.708 -254.4405 -31.8637 -391.2414
296 2.052 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 201.861 -9.708 -254.4405 -40.6315 -670.9665
296 2.565 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 241.026 -9.708 -254.4405 -49.3993 -970.7831
296 3.078 COMB1 Combination Min -11.86 280.19 -9.708 -254.4405 -58.1671 -1290.6913
297 0 COMB1 Combination Max 61.609 -857.655 45.118 252.0005 24.7605 -568.4879
297 0.33483 COMB1 Combination Max 61.609 -832.093 45.118 252.0005 10.6617 -197.3127
297 0.66966 COMB1 Combination Max 61.609 -806.53 45.118 252.0005 3.8298 177.4406
297 0 COMB1 Combination Min -67.986 -1451.782 -80.863 -220.0413 -58.0937 -1187.6113
297 0.33483 COMB1 Combination Min -67.986 -1426.219 -80.863 -220.0413 -31.4267 -737.3515
297 0.66966 COMB1 Combination Min -67.986 -1400.657 -80.863 -220.0413 -11.0814 -296.0012
298 0 COMB1 Combination Max 0 -70.186 0 0 0 -32.2623
298 0.45967 COMB1 Combination Max 0 -35.093 0 0 0 -8.0656
298 0.91934 COMB1 Combination Max 0 0 0 0 0 0
298 0 COMB1 Combination Min 0 -70.186 0 0 0 -32.2623
298 0.45967 COMB1 Combination Min 0 -35.093 0 0 0 -8.0656
298 0.91934 COMB1 Combination Min 0 0 0 0 0 0
Max 74.596 1441.742 45.118 252.0005 86.1399 866.5837
Min -67.986 -1451.782 -81.441 -392.9502 -85.3028 -1302.431

56
8 DESIGN OF PIER AND PIER PILES
Design Load

Design Load on pile at NSL level is230 tonns


Test Load is 230*2.0=460tonns

Ultmate load is 314 tonns

57
CSiBridge 2014 10/7/16 17:10:10

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+031 - Longitudinal Rebar (Percentage) (ACI 318-08/IBC2009) - Kip,
As per image the maximum provided steel is1.92%
Area of pier =1130973mm2
Area needed=1130973*1.92%=21715mm2
Number of bars needed =21715/(Area of 32 Dia bar)
=21715/804
=28 Bars

59
9 DESIGN OF BACK WALL
f'c 3500 psi
24.13 Mpa
fy 60000 psi
413 Mpa
β1 0.85
fr = 0.24(f'c)^0.5 LRFD 2012, 5.4.2.6
fr = 0.45 Ksi
3.10 Mpa
b= 1000 mm
39.37 in
h= 400 mm
15.75 in
I= 5333333333 mm4
12813 in4
Mcr = γ3[(γ1fr+γ2 fcpe)Sc-Mdnc{Sc/Snc-1}] LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
γ1 = 1.6
γ2 = 1.1
γ3 = 0.67
Sc = 1627.3 in3
Snc = 1627.3 in3
Mcr = 783 Kip-in
88 KN-m

HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT
EARTH FACE
Mu = 141 KN-m
Mcr = 88 KN-m
1.33Mu = 188 KN-m
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 88 KN-m LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
b 1000 mm
h 400 mm
Dia 16 mm
Cover 57.3 mm
Layer 1
d 334.7 mm
Ab 201 sqmm
spacing 150 mm
As 1340 sqmm
f'c 24.13 Mpa
fy 413 Mpa
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 27 mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 170 KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 153 KN-m

60
As Mr > Mu
And Mr > Mmin OK

VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT
EARTH FACE

Mu = 141 KN-m
Mcr = 88 KN-m
1.33Mu = 188 KN-m
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 88 KN-m LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
b 1000 mm
h 400 mm
Dia 16 mm
Cover 57.3 mm
Layer 1
d 334.7 mm
Ab 201 sqmm
spacing 150 mm
As 1340 sqmm
f'c 24.13 Mpa
fy 413 Mpa
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 27 mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 170 KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 153 KN-m
As Mr > Mu
And Mr > Mmin OK

61
TABLE: Element Forces - Area Shells
Area ShellType Joint OutputCase CaseType StepType F11 F22 M11 M22
Text Text Text Text Text Text KN/m KN/m KN-m/m KN-m/m
2906 Shell-Thin 3186 COMB2 Combination Max -68.78 -13.15 57.3673 4.517
2906 Shell-Thin 3254 COMB2 Combination Max -70.08 -18.74 34.1548 -0.8264
2906 Shell-Thin 3255 COMB2 Combination Max 18.49 -2.77 29.749 6.2021
2906 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Max 20.27 5.67 54.6727 15.7388
2906 Shell-Thin 3186 COMB2 Combination Min -95.96 -18.65 43.7291 3.3977
2906 Shell-Thin 3254 COMB2 Combination Min -97.35 -26.52 25.1857 -1.0943
2906 Shell-Thin 3255 COMB2 Combination Min 0.16 -5.45 21.9961 4.4148
2906 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Min 1.11 -0.23 41.8231 11.4084
2938 Shell-Thin 3203 COMB2 Combination Max 161.4 36.81 35.9559 84.1493
2938 Shell-Thin 3216 COMB2 Combination Max 196.4 229.11 13.6399 90.9878
2938 Shell-Thin 3315 COMB2 Combination Max 62.77 201.21 19.9 64.2452
2938 Shell-Thin 3314 COMB2 Combination Max 47.65 17.4 7.9525 57.8738
2938 Shell-Thin 3203 COMB2 Combination Min 54.16 8.86 19.3598 65.3025
2938 Shell-Thin 3216 COMB2 Combination Min 66.65 41.82 -7.1968 62.4448
2938 Shell-Thin 3315 COMB2 Combination Min -6.51 29.92 12.7577 49.4664
2938 Shell-Thin 3314 COMB2 Combination Min -34.57 -11.42 1.9607 42.1707
2939 Shell-Thin 3216 COMB2 Combination Max 153.69 211.22 62.0244 95.3935
2939 Shell-Thin 3201 COMB2 Combination Max 76.43 -186.36 19.5561 94.8995
2939 Shell-Thin 3316 COMB2 Combination Max 18.73 -201.17 38.6754 64.5809
2939 Shell-Thin 3315 COMB2 Combination Max 105.96 209.63 12.9662 63.5194
2939 Shell-Thin 3216 COMB2 Combination Min -78.7 27.25 16.6177 72.0708
2939 Shell-Thin 3201 COMB2 Combination Min -190.78 -519.68 -29.1069 62.7204
2939 Shell-Thin 3316 COMB2 Combination Min -135.85 -503.29 21.6311 50.3611
2939 Shell-Thin 3315 COMB2 Combination Min -37.72 23.56 -1.0058 46.0607
2940 Shell-Thin 3201 COMB2 Combination Max -50.27 -235.5 70.6319 103.0489
2940 Shell-Thin 3215 COMB2 Combination Max 22.34 -6.13 -7.8352 91.0498
2940 Shell-Thin 3317 COMB2 Combination Max 74.11 4.1 21.1999 70.6656
2940 Shell-Thin 3316 COMB2 Combination Max 0.86 -202.27 16.227 61.9851
2940 Shell-Thin 3201 COMB2 Combination Min -449.69 -544.25 41.5706 78.5759
2940 Shell-Thin 3215 COMB2 Combination Min -416.93 -253.45 -30.4963 66.3399
2940 Shell-Thin 3317 COMB2 Combination Min -89.06 -187.19 14.3869 53.4781
2940 Shell-Thin 3316 COMB2 Combination Min -121.72 -502.73 9.155 46.1455
2943 Shell-Thin 3213 COMB2 Combination Max 264.85 344.34 59.4965 99.3092
2943 Shell-Thin 3200 COMB2 Combination Max 208.93 -47.63 -1.4567 96.9911
2943 Shell-Thin 3320 COMB2 Combination Max 34.43 -80.83 29.8167 72.2203
2943 Shell-Thin 3319 COMB2 Combination Max 127.82 325.71 4.1837 65.6604
2943 Shell-Thin 3213 COMB2 Combination Min -94.77 65.93 33.5354 68.4137
2943 Shell-Thin 3200 COMB2 Combination Min -207.1 -349.76 -24.3256 66.1741
2943 Shell-Thin 3320 COMB2 Combination Min -185.09 -351.3 20.2742 54.0204
2943 Shell-Thin 3319 COMB2 Combination Min -110.11 51.04 -0.4333 48.1572
2944 Shell-Thin 3200 COMB2 Combination Max -71.18 -125.09 81.3212 110.9033
2944 Shell-Thin 3212 COMB2 Combination Max -48.11 -75.27 -8.9421 94.9472
2944 Shell-Thin 3321 COMB2 Combination Max 87.36 -51.7 26.0078 74.654
2944 Shell-Thin 3320 COMB2 Combination Max 66.59 -78.76 9.8938 68.4879
2944 Shell-Thin 3200 COMB2 Combination Min -563.44 -401.24 43.7959 81.2912
2944 Shell-Thin 3212 COMB2 Combination Min -562.59 -332.91 -41.1288 69.9391
2944 Shell-Thin 3321 COMB2 Combination Min -188.3 -259.23 16.2365 56.7189
2944 Shell-Thin 3320 COMB2 Combination Min -192.66 -344.71 1.4077 50.2682
2945 Shell-Thin 3212 COMB2 Combination Max 169.88 -58.42 69.5384 112.5102
2945 Shell-Thin 3211 COMB2 Combination Max 214.84 90.79 -2.3487 89.776
2945 Shell-Thin 3322 COMB2 Combination Max 148.3 77.29 22.0156 75.6078
2945 Shell-Thin 3321 COMB2 Combination Max 103.04 -58.92 6.1612 70.1352
2945 Shell-Thin 3212 COMB2 Combination Min -283.96 -256.64 31.7816 83.7795
2945 Shell-Thin 3211 COMB2 Combination Min -240.97 -6.95 -33.7844 64.8425
2945 Shell-Thin 3322 COMB2 Combination Min -175.72 1.08 12.9773 52.7667
2945 Shell-Thin 3321 COMB2 Combination Min -218.4 -254.63 -1.0531 53.2998
2946 Shell-Thin 3211 COMB2 Combination Max 479.45 146.78 126.4154 114.8761
2946 Shell-Thin 3219 COMB2 Combination Max 519.51 350.93 -15.1964 92.6305
2946 Shell-Thin 3323 COMB2 Combination Max 241.01 294.66 48.0955 74.4493
2946 Shell-Thin 3322 COMB2 Combination Max 200.7 90.42 -0.1719 68.5192
2946 Shell-Thin 3211 COMB2 Combination Min -103.05 19.11 40.8253 75.9242
2946 Shell-Thin 3219 COMB2 Combination Min -100.23 22.86 -88.5894 61.9538
2946 Shell-Thin 3323 COMB2 Combination Min -114.8 15.37 23.4095 50.3988
2946 Shell-Thin 3322 COMB2 Combination Min -117.98 11.54 -22.4243 49.55

62
2947 Shell-Thin 3219 COMB2 Combination Max 574.07 361.82 97.0966 121.9746
2947 Shell-Thin 3210 COMB2 Combination Max 580.46 393.9 -26.4639 80.2584
2947 Shell-Thin 3324 COMB2 Combination Max 205.16 315.01 31.8852 73.7669
2947 Shell-Thin 3323 COMB2 Combination Max 200.8 282.87 4.1962 66.4758
2947 Shell-Thin 3219 COMB2 Combination Min -60.63 32.44 54.1003 77.895
2947 Shell-Thin 3210 COMB2 Combination Min -50.8 77.46 -61.5204 50.2191
2947 Shell-Thin 3324 COMB2 Combination Min -125.92 63.33 20.4841 50.3949
2947 Shell-Thin 3323 COMB2 Combination Min -137.37 18.39 -2.4662 45.9511
2948 Shell-Thin 3210 COMB2 Combination Max 278.4 316.72 75.4941 101.2392
2948 Shell-Thin 3199 COMB2 Combination Max 218.78 -40.72 -11.7471 95.6573
2948 Shell-Thin 3325 COMB2 Combination Max 107.28 -55.74 30.917 73.1118
2948 Shell-Thin 3324 COMB2 Combination Max 185.73 312.92 2.6967 68.4095
2948 Shell-Thin 3210 COMB2 Combination Min -251.68 67.42 43.1321 67.8557
2948 Shell-Thin 3199 COMB2 Combination Min -353.61 -371.1 -41.2066 64.5106
2948 Shell-Thin 3325 COMB2 Combination Min -233 -352.5 18.6922 54.4102
2948 Shell-Thin 3324 COMB2 Combination Min -155.58 59.77 -4.3765 45.7494
2949 Shell-Thin 3199 COMB2 Combination Max -24.24 -94.58 85.0216 113.5732
2949 Shell-Thin 3209 COMB2 Combination Max -12.93 -72.89 -8.6652 93.1998
2949 Shell-Thin 3326 COMB2 Combination Max 116.95 -50.64 27.5053 75.4455
2949 Shell-Thin 3325 COMB2 Combination Max 104.89 -56.95 5.5885 68.669
2949 Shell-Thin 3199 COMB2 Combination Min -578.96 -401.2 41.276 82.9698
2949 Shell-Thin 3209 COMB2 Combination Min -578.62 -332.75 -46.5141 70.2674
2949 Shell-Thin 3326 COMB2 Combination Min -220.39 -266.55 14.8996 55.4694
2949 Shell-Thin 3325 COMB2 Combination Min -218.86 -344.37 -2.6615 49.8438
2950 Shell-Thin 3209 COMB2 Combination Max 328.09 -46.39 100.4842 118.0577
2950 Shell-Thin 3218 COMB2 Combination Max 421.84 346.64 -7.0003 89.8998
2950 Shell-Thin 3327 COMB2 Combination Max 201.93 303.06 31.5548 76.5166
2950 Shell-Thin 3326 COMB2 Combination Max 117.09 -57.26 2.0933 68.8118
2950 Shell-Thin 3209 COMB2 Combination Min -253.39 -231.89 33.8726 82.6178
2950 Shell-Thin 3218 COMB2 Combination Min -211.05 24.72 -64.5979 61.7034
2950 Shell-Thin 3327 COMB2 Combination Min -185.62 29.78 15.6413 51.0923
2950 Shell-Thin 3326 COMB2 Combination Min -236.91 -261.02 -10.6016 52.4145
2951 Shell-Thin 3218 COMB2 Combination Max 612.42 387.25 140.9536 125.9242
2951 Shell-Thin 3208 COMB2 Combination Max 600.74 306.3 -39.2748 80.9898
2951 Shell-Thin 3328 COMB2 Combination Max 220.06 231.23 52.7616 76.068
2951 Shell-Thin 3327 COMB2 Combination Max 236.32 312.77 -3.2942 66.4724
2951 Shell-Thin 3218 COMB2 Combination Min -106.47 45.35 63.1787 77.2758
2951 Shell-Thin 3208 COMB2 Combination Min -123.04 -1.65 -104.5716 52.0134
2951 Shell-Thin 3328 COMB2 Combination Min -157.61 -11.39 29.0872 49.372
2951 Shell-Thin 3327 COMB2 Combination Min -146.78 35.95 -25.3479 46.8289
2961 Shell-Thin 3220 COMB2 Combination Max 125.08 -8.57 36.7143 73.6316
2961 Shell-Thin 3195 COMB2 Combination Max 86.6 -0.75 18.4276 140.9999
2961 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Max 43.35 9.71 7.877 8.1749
2961 Shell-Thin 3337 COMB2 Combination Max 50.81 -2.18 14.664 54.5209
2961 Shell-Thin 3220 COMB2 Combination Min -20.12 -85.43 11.7028 44.4137
2961 Shell-Thin 3195 COMB2 Combination Min -17.01 -270.06 0.7254 78.1304
2961 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Min 1.89 -285.4 2.95 -7.7314
2961 Shell-Thin 3337 COMB2 Combination Min 29.78 -96.69 7.9886 31.9348
2962 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Max 19.55 -58.85 15.6047 39.4306
2962 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Max 16.8 -59.23 15.2499 19.7132
2962 Shell-Thin 3338 COMB2 Combination Max 44.14 -4.99 18.2376 26.711
2962 Shell-Thin 3337 COMB2 Combination Max 55.83 -4.62 13.2542 43.2715
2962 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Min -17.84 -434.47 6.9994 21.3975
2962 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Min -29.57 -436.99 7.5484 9.0015
2962 Shell-Thin 3338 COMB2 Combination Min 26.53 -74.06 11.4475 15.4357
2962 Shell-Thin 3337 COMB2 Combination Min 29.3 -71.54 6.2296 26.8626
2963 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Max 33.89 -8.47 15.5742 23.003
2963 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Max 40.07 -7.57 22.2018 8.3748
2963 Shell-Thin 3339 COMB2 Combination Max 48.43 -19.92 17.9886 15.4727
2963 Shell-Thin 3338 COMB2 Combination Max 37.55 -20.82 18.0464 25.7551
2963 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Min 6.12 -223.8 8.1502 10.2974
2963 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Min 19.12 -220.86 15.2889 4.5567
2963 Shell-Thin 3339 COMB2 Combination Min 28.43 -120.67 12.557 8.733
2963 Shell-Thin 3338 COMB2 Combination Min 19.94 -123.61 11.3728 15.0455

63
2964 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Max 49.83 10.56 22.8365 12.555
2964 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Max 40.97 10.16 29.9571 7.1859
2964 Shell-Thin 3340 COMB2 Combination Max 37.18 -21.54 21.0877 10.0499
2964 Shell-Thin 3339 COMB2 Combination Max 51.86 -20.81 17.7652 14.3553
2964 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Min 34.66 -112.76 15.8008 5.9998
2964 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Min 24.72 -116.12 22.3249 4.5937
2964 Shell-Thin 3340 COMB2 Combination Min 23.7 -107.94 15.1694 5.9627
2964 Shell-Thin 3339 COMB2 Combination Min 27.92 -104.92 12.4769 8.3349
2965 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Max 44.96 9.05 30.4242 10.1999
2965 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Max 37.82 8.77 38.0714 8.4095
2965 Shell-Thin 3341 COMB2 Combination Max 32.49 -17.6 24.1896 8.1041
2965 Shell-Thin 3340 COMB2 Combination Max 42.39 -17.03 20.9298 9.2612
2965 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Min 32.42 -56.17 22.7053 5.7844
2965 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Min 20.25 -59.77 29.1874 5.9229
2965 Shell-Thin 3341 COMB2 Combination Min 16.85 -76.9 17.9561 5.3379
2965 Shell-Thin 3340 COMB2 Combination Min 26.58 -73.57 15.1039 5.6417
2966 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Max 38.09 3.37 38.3986 10.0338
2966 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Max 26.56 1.85 46.3347 10.619
2966 Shell-Thin 3342 COMB2 Combination Max 22.43 -16.53 27.472 8.2397
2966 Shell-Thin 3341 COMB2 Combination Max 33.83 -15.01 24.0986 7.6478
2966 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Min 26.08 -24.32 29.3152 6.5639
2966 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Min 7.73 -28.74 35.5776 7.4683
2966 Shell-Thin 3342 COMB2 Combination Min 3.4 -52.7 20.3577 5.7807
2966 Shell-Thin 3341 COMB2 Combination Min 21.76 -48.28 17.9152 5.1309
2967 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Max 27.38 2.65 46.7528 12.7236
2967 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Max 19.35 1.05 54.7192 15.9724
2967 Shell-Thin 3255 COMB2 Combination Max 15 -16.96 29.7212 6.0631
2967 Shell-Thin 3342 COMB2 Combination Max 23.04 -15.73 27.379 7.7731
2967 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Min 11.25 -7.91 35.862 8.874
2967 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Min -0.91 -10.34 41.878 11.6825
2967 Shell-Thin 3255 COMB2 Combination Min -4.78 -33.42 21.97 4.2846
2967 Shell-Thin 3342 COMB2 Combination Min 7.37 -30.6 20.296 5.4722
Max 612.42 393.9 140.9536 141
Min -578.96 -544.25 -104.572 -7.7314

64
10 DESIGN OF WING WALL
f'c 3500 psi
24.13 Mpa
fy 60000 psi
413 Mpa
β1 0.85
fr = 0.24(f'c)^0.5 LRFD 2012, 5.4.2.6
fr = 0.45 Ksi
3.10 Mpa
b= 1000 mm
39.37 in
h= 400 mm
15.75 in
I= 5333333333 mm4
12813 in4
LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-
Mcr = γ3[(γ1fr+γ2 fcpe)Sc-Mdnc{Sc/Snc-1}] 1
γ1 = 1.6
γ2 = 1.1
γ3 = 0.67
Sc = 1627.3 in3
Snc = 1627.3 in3
Mcr = 783 Kip-in
88 KN-m

HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT
EARTH FACE
Mu = 58 KN-m
Mcr = 88 KN-m
1.33Mu = 77 KN-m
LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 77 KN-m 1
b 1000 mm
h 400 mm
Dia 16 mm
Cover 51.3 mm
Layer 1
d 340.7 mm
Ab 201 sqmm
spacing 150 mm
As 1340 sqmm
f'c 24.13 Mpa
fy 413 Mpa

65
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 27 mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 174 KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 156 KN-m
As Mr > Mu
And Mr > Mmin OK

VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT
EARTH FACE

Mu = 42 KN-m
Mcr = 88 KN-m
1.33Mu = 56 KN-m
LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 56 KN-m 1
b 1000 mm
h 400 mm
Dia 16 mm
Cover 51.3 mm
Layer 1
d 340.7 mm
Ab 201 sqmm
spacing 150 mm
As 1340 sqmm
f'c 24.13 Mpa
fy 413 Mpa
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 27 mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 174 KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 156 KN-m
As Mr > Mu
And Mr > Mmin OK

66
TABLE: Element Forces - Area Shells
Area ShellType Joint OutputCase CaseType StepType F11 F22 M11 M22
Text Text Text Text Text Text KN/m KN/m KN-m/m KN-m/m
2873 Shell-Thin 3186 COMB2 Combination Max 130.66 26.98 58.0721 6.365
2873 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Max 60.89 12.7 54.1284 5.8333
2873 Shell-Thin 3222 COMB2 Combination Max 56.45 -4.26 30.5075 4.3326
2873 Shell-Thin 3194 COMB2 Combination Max 126.66 8.49 33.2975 -1.2469
2873 Shell-Thin 3186 COMB2 Combination Min 95.39 19.29 44.2112 4.8492
2873 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Min 41.04 8.82 41.3921 4.2267
2873 Shell-Thin 3222 COMB2 Combination Min 38.4 -9.33 23.3615 3.1458
2873 Shell-Thin 3194 COMB2 Combination Min 92.2 2.87 25.628 -1.6413
2881 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Max 11.54 -1.67 46.6481 7.3003
2881 Shell-Thin 3237 COMB2 Combination Max 12.19 5.3 27.5425 4.0486
2881 Shell-Thin 3222 COMB2 Combination Max 59.25 14.02 30.3579 3.3417
2881 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Max 58.59 6.72 54.6227 8.9904
2881 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Min 4.05 -8.14 35.6764 5.2678
2881 Shell-Thin 3237 COMB2 Combination Min 5.42 -5.11 21.1708 2.4811
2881 Shell-Thin 3222 COMB2 Combination Min 41.67 2.91 23.2033 2.6093
2881 Shell-Thin 3223 COMB2 Combination Min 40.36 0.13 41.9326 6.1604
2900 Shell-Thin 3236 COMB2 Combination Max 160.64 758.66 25.0183 -20.4548
2900 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Max -68.25 -241.15 6.7401 -20.5652
2900 Shell-Thin 3195 COMB2 Combination Max 160.79 -212.05 43.4622 33.6418
2900 Shell-Thin 3236 COMB2 Combination Min 58.15 449.46 9.6842 -31.5821
2900 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Min -165.83 -815.04 -3.6875 -42.3802
2900 Shell-Thin 3195 COMB2 Combination Min 45.21 -756 15.6962 -23.3031
2901 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Max 7.44 -1.39 46.5357 8.3251
2901 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Max -4.56 -3.69 38.2646 6.1494
2901 Shell-Thin 3246 COMB2 Combination Max -1.1 8.63 23.2768 2.3976
2901 Shell-Thin 3237 COMB2 Combination Max 12 11.22 27.5743 3.7221
2901 Shell-Thin 3238 COMB2 Combination Min 3.82 -30.07 35.8635 4.6132
2901 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Min -10.46 -33.03 29.06 4.0408
2901 Shell-Thin 3246 COMB2 Combination Min -6.69 -8.84 18.1277 0.8406
2901 Shell-Thin 3237 COMB2 Combination Min 6.59 -6.13 21.1169 2.678
2902 Shell-Thin 3236 COMB2 Combination Max 155.71 230.46 29.297 -6.9582
2902 Shell-Thin 3245 COMB2 Combination Max -22.59 193.8 13.8492 -6.2554
2902 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Max -72.68 -77.08 17.088 -3.7109
2902 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Max 28.4 -63.37 8.1405 -9.3398
2902 Shell-Thin 3236 COMB2 Combination Min 24.69 80.8 11.7606 -13.5366
2902 Shell-Thin 3245 COMB2 Combination Min -48.81 67.11 8.823 -10.3702
2902 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Min -158.92 -462.91 9.9338 -9.9854
2902 Shell-Thin 3249 COMB2 Combination Min -8.77 -426.25 1.2006 -22.2185
2903 Shell-Thin 3245 COMB2 Combination Max -45.26 64.01 13.6428 -7.3983
2903 Shell-Thin 3247 COMB2 Combination Max -19.94 70.14 16.7691 -2.8801
2903 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Max -38.09 -21.42 21.9343 0.6841
2903 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Max -62.51 -26.31 17.6682 -3.4675
2903 Shell-Thin 3245 COMB2 Combination Min -60.7 23.18 8.4462 -12.212
2903 Shell-Thin 3247 COMB2 Combination Min -30.23 28.2 11.8305 -5.1269
2903 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Min -84.39 -243.33 14.8508 -4.0568
2903 Shell-Thin 3251 COMB2 Combination Min -116.28 -249.71 10.3045 -5.6819
2904 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Max -4.12 1.71 38.1697 7.8262
2904 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Max -18.36 -1.15 30.5106 4.6505
2904 Shell-Thin 3248 COMB2 Combination Max -16.43 8.72 18.8471 0.0191
2904 Shell-Thin 3246 COMB2 Combination Max -1.94 11.87 23.3213 1.9045
2904 Shell-Thin 3250 COMB2 Combination Min -16.87 -68.5 29.3962 3.7103
2904 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Min -36.3 -72.38 22.6707 2.2963
2904 Shell-Thin 3248 COMB2 Combination Min -25.44 -18.35 14.5762 -2.0932
2904 Shell-Thin 3246 COMB2 Combination Min -6.38 -14.76 18.0316 1.0633
2905 Shell-Thin 3247 COMB2 Combination Max -28.16 20.2 16.7705 -2.7391
2905 Shell-Thin 3248 COMB2 Combination Max -15.06 23.98 18.8628 -0.3741
2905 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Max -18.18 -0.04 30.4102 5.207
2905 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Max -34.46 -3.3 22.1286 0.547
2905 Shell-Thin 3247 COMB2 Combination Min -40.13 -14.96 11.6864 -6.0017
2905 Shell-Thin 3248 COMB2 Combination Min -22.67 -12.58 14.6034 -1.5166
2905 Shell-Thin 3253 COMB2 Combination Min -48.26 -132.33 22.6648 1.3185
2905 Shell-Thin 3252 COMB2 Combination Min -62.77 -135.23 15.1892 -1.1634
Max 160.79 758.66 58.0721 33.6418
Min -165.83 -815.04 -3.6875 -42.38

67
11 DESIGN OF ABUTMENT TRANSOM
(1)Check Fof Moment
f'c 3500psi

24.13Mpa
fy 60000psi
413Mpa

β1 0.85
fr = 0.24(f'c)^0.5 LRFD 2012, 5.4.2.6
fr = 0.45Ksi
3.10Mpa
b= 2100mm
82.68in
h= 1050mm
41.34in
I= 202584375000mm4
486711in4

Mcr = γ3[(γ1fr+γ2 fcpe)Sc-Mdnc{Sc/Snc-1}] LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1

γ1 = 1.6

γ2 = 1.1

γ3 = 0.67
Sc = 23547.5in3
Snc = 23547.5in3
Mcr = 11334Kip-in
1281KN-m

BOTTOM REINFORCEMENT

Mu = 760KN-m
Mcr = 1281KN-m
1.33Mu = 1011KN-m
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 1011KN-m LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
b 2100mm

68
h 1050mm
Dia 25mm
Cover 70mm
Layer 1
d 967.5mm
Ab 491sqmm
Nos 14
As 6872sqmm
f'c 27.59Mpa

fy 413Mpa
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 58mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 2582KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 2324KN-m
As Mr >Mu
And Mr >Mmin OK

TOP REINFORCEMENT
Mu = 940KN-m
Mcr = 1281KN-m
1.33Mu = 1250KN-m
Mmin =min(Mcr,1.33Mu) 1250KN-m LRFD 2012, A 5.7.3.3.2-1
b 2100mm
h 1050mm
Dia 25mm
Cover 70mm
Layer 1
d 967.5mm
Ab 491sqmm
Nos 14
As 6872sqmm
f'c 27.59Mpa

fy 413Mpa

69
a=Asfy/(0.85fc'b) 58mm
Mn=Asfy(d-a/2) 2582KN-m
Mr=ΦMn 2324KN-m
As Mr >Mu
And Mr >Mmin OK

(2)Check For Crack Width


Crack Width Calculation for +ve Moments
Service Load Moment 498 KN-m
Cover 70 mm
b 2100 mm
h 1050 mm
41.339 in
f'c 24.130 N/mm2
3500 Psi
fy 413 N/mm2
60,000 Psi
Es 29,000,000 Psi

Effective Depth "dl" 980 mm


38.583 in
(+ve) As Provided 25 mm Dia Bar
Nos 14
Spacing Provided 150mm c/c
5.906 in c/c
dc = Cocrete Cover 70 mm
2.756in
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 38.583in

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)-2dc Ref : LRFD 5.7.3.4

in which

70
βs= 1+{dc/0.7(h-dc)}
Where

γe=exposure factor,

=1 for Class 1 exposure condition

=0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition

γe=0.75 for Class 2


fssTensile Stress in steel reinforcement at the Service limit state.
hoverall thickness or depth of component (in)
dldistance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of extreme
tension element (in)
dcThickness of concrete cover measured from Extreme Tension Fibre
to Center of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto (in)

βs=1.1020

0.6fy 36,000Psi 5221619


Es 29,000,000Psi
Ec = 57000(f'c)1/2 3372165 Psi
n = Es/Ec 8.6
8.6
Area of One bar 490.87mm2
Total Area of All Bars As 6872.23mm2
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 980mm
0.5*b*x2 = n*As*(d-x)

Where
bWidth of Strip. = 2100mm
nModular Ratio
xDistance of Cracked Section from Extreme Compression Face.
AsArea of steel of bars in 1m Strip.
d(Depth of Slab) - dc
For Quadratic Equation a 1.00

71
b 56.29
c -55159.95

(+ve) and (-ve) Values x1 208.40


of "x" x2 -264.68 mm
x 208.40 mm
Icr =(bx3/3)+(n*As)*(d-x)2
Where
IcrMoment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section.
Icr 41,521,779,238 mm4
M 498.0KN-m/m
fss = n*M*(d-x)/Icr 0.080KN / mm2
fss= 11.5KSI

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)- 2dc

s< 35.8 in
s provided = 5.9 in Ok

Crack Width Calculation for -ve Moments


Service Load Moment 679 KN-m
Cover 70 mm

72
b 2100 mm
h 1050 mm
41.33858268 in
f'c 24.13 N/mm2
3500 Psi
fy 413 N/mm2
60000 Psi
Es 29000000 Psi

Effective Depth "dl" 980 mm


38.583 in
(+ve) As Provided 25 mm Dia Bar
Nos 14
Spacing Provided 150mm c/c
5.906in c/c
dc = Cocrete Cover 70 mm
2.756in
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 38.583in

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)-2dc Ref : LRFD 5.7.3.4

in which

βs= 1+{dc/0.7(h-dc)}
Where

γe=exposure factor,

=1 for Class 1 exposure condition

=0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition

γe=0.75 for Class 2


fssTensile Stress in steel reinforcement at the Service limit state.
hoverall thickness or depth of component (in)
dldistance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of
extreme tension element (in)

73
dcThickness of concrete cover measured from Extreme Tension
Fibre to Center of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto (in)

βs=1.1020

0.6fy 36,000Psi 5221619


Es 29,000,000Psi
Ec = 57000(f'c)1/2 3372165 Psi
n = Es/Ec 8.6
8.6
Area of One bar 490.87mm2
Total Area of All Bars As 6872.23mm2
d = (Depth of Slab) - dc 980mm
0.5*b*x2 = n*As*(d-x)

Where
bWidth of Strip. = 2100mm
nModular Ratio
xDistance of Cracked Section from Extreme Compression Face.
AsArea of steel of bars in 1m Strip.
d(Depth of Slab) - dc
a 1.00
For Quadratic Equation b 56.29
c -55159.95

(+ve) and (-ve) Values x1 208.40


of "x" x2 -264.68 mm
x 208.40 mm
Icr =(bx3/3)+(n*As)*(d-x)2
Where
IcrMoment of Inertia of Transformed Cracked Section.
Icr 41,521,779,238 mm4
M 679.0KN-m/m
fss = n*M*(d-x)/Icr 0.109KN / mm2

74
fss= 15.7KSI

Condition s < 700 γe /(β sfss)- 2dc

s< 24.8 in

s provided = 5.9 in Ok

(3)Check for Shear


Shear Check (5.8.3.3)
Vu= 1717Kn
The nominal Shear Resistance Vn is lesser of:
1. Vn= Vc+Vs+Vp Article 5.8.3.3-1
2. Vn=0.25f'c bv dv + Vp Article 5.8.3.3-2
where

Vc=0.083 β f'c1/2 bv dv Article 5.8.3.3-3

Vs=Av fy dv (cotθ+cotα)sinα /s Article 5.8.3.3-4

bv= effective web width taken as the minimum web width within the depth dv
dv= effective shear depth as determined in Article 5.8.2.9
dv= de-a/2
de= effective depth from extreme compression fibre to centroid of t

75
ensile reinforcement
968mm
depth of compression stress block= a=
a= 58mm

i)dv =de-a/2 = 939mm 1


ii) dv= 0.9de 2
871mm
iii) dv = 0.72h
756mm 3
dv= largest of 1), 2) & 3
dv = 939mm

1. Vn= Vc+Vs+Vp Article 5.8.3.3-1


2. Vn=0.25f'c bv dv + Vp Article 5.8.3.3-2

Vc=0.083 β f'c1/2 bv dv
For non-prestressed member

β= 2 Article 5.8.3.4

θ 45degree
Vc= 1607Kn

φ= 0.9 Article 5.5.4.2

Vs= Av fy dv (cotθ+cotα)sinα/ s Dia 13 mm

α= 90o Av(6legs) 796 sqmm


C-5.8.3.3.1
Assume s= 150mm
Vs= 1455kn
Vn= 3063Kn 1 As per eq. 5.8.3.3-1
11891Kn 2 As per eq. 5.8.3.3-2
Vn is lesser of 1 & 2
Vn = 3063Kn

φVn = 2757 > 1717OK

76
(4)Minimum Required Transverse Reinforcement

Minimum Transverse reinforcement Area

Av > 0.083(f'c)0.5 bvs/fy Article 5.8.2.5-1

Av = 311 mm2 < 796 mm2


OK
(5)Maximum Spacing for Transverse Reinforcement

Shear Stress vu = (Vu)/φbvdv


vu= 0.97N/sqmm
Ratio of applied factored shear to concrete compressive strength
vu / f'c 0.040

The spacing shall not exceed the max. permitted spacing smax,
determined as Article 5.8.2.7
1. if vu<0.125 f'c, then smax= 0.8dv < 600mm
2. if vu>0.125 f'c, then smax= 0.4dv < 300mm
as vu/f'c = 0.040 < 0.125 condition 1 apply
smax= 751 and s< 600 mm
Provide s= 150mm OK

77
TABLE: Element Forces - Frames
Frame Station OutputCase CaseType StepType P V2 V3 T M2 M3
Text m Text Text Text KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m
262 0 COMB2 Combination Max 4.057 181.544 9.783 -11.6844 13.5378 176.2472
262 0.52918 COMB2 Combination Max 4.057 209.366 9.783 -11.6844 8.7436 72.8153
262 0 COMB2 Combination Min -4.846 46.247 -4.562 -159.0561 -13.4429 26.2391
262 0.52918 COMB2 Combination Min -4.846 66.279 -4.562 -159.0561 -11.4103 -3.5342
263 0 COMB2 Combination Max 35.363 321.662 33.92 -22.9922 10.8314 178.7
263 0.53046 COMB2 Combination Max 35.363 349.551 33.92 -22.9922 -3.8473 15.288
263 0 COMB2 Combination Min 12.367 111.384 15.687 -234.6777 -27.0924 31.1335
263 0.53046 COMB2 Combination Min 12.367 131.464 15.687 -234.6777 -38.7425 -47.8947
264 0 COMB2 Combination Max 80.456 478.698 61.856 -55.9345 -1.6828 131.7323
264 0.34535 COMB2 Combination Max 80.456 496.855 61.856 -55.9345 -18.1991 -14.1091
264 0.34535 COMB2 Combination Max 80.456 496.855 61.856 -55.9345 -18.1991 -14.1091
264 0.69069 COMB2 Combination Max 80.456 515.011 61.856 -55.9345 -34.7081 -118.5203
264 0 COMB2 Combination Min 28.897 195.601 37.277 -332.8786 -68.1951 25.2658
264 0.34535 COMB2 Combination Min 28.897 208.674 37.277 -332.8786 -85.9655 -67.1231
264 0.34535 COMB2 Combination Min 28.897 208.674 37.277 -332.8786 -85.9655 -67.1231
264 0.69069 COMB2 Combination Min 28.897 221.747 37.277 -332.8786 -103.7375 -211.9146
265 0 COMB2 Combination Max 152.37 1698.012 122.851 -113.5321 -51.0585 -10.5211
265 0.36866 COMB2 Combination Max 152.37 1717.394 122.851 -113.5321 -88.6887 -258.1658
265 0 COMB2 Combination Min 24.75 617.231 -22.894 -426.2314 -177.617 -102.7807
265 0.36866 COMB2 Combination Min 24.75 631.187 -22.894 -426.2314 -181.3907 -712.6119
266 0 COMB2 Combination Max 169.157 -86.442 -25.511 -288.1707 3.9884 0.6581
266 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Max 169.157 -65.147 -25.511 -288.1707 19.8103 51.3371
266 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Max 169.157 -65.147 -25.511 -288.1707 19.8103 51.3371
266 1.12514 COMB2 Combination Max 169.157 -43.851 -25.511 -288.1707 35.656 128.2671
266 0 COMB2 Combination Min 70.7 -353.021 -94.004 -597.8507 -142.4156 -365.3617
266 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Min 70.7 -323.444 -94.004 -597.8507 -95.0274 -199.8692
266 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Min 70.7 -323.444 -94.004 -597.8507 -95.0274 -199.8692
266 1.12514 COMB2 Combination Min 70.7 -293.867 -94.004 -597.8507 -51.2273 -86.8184
267 0 COMB2 Combination Max 209.593 -29.346 37.727 -240.3596 129.7254 62.1802
267 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max 209.593 -8.053 37.727 -240.3596 110.0609 152.9329
267 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max 209.593 -8.053 37.727 -240.3596 110.0609 152.9329
267 1.125 COMB2 Combination Max 209.593 13.24 37.727 -240.3596 90.5982 269.2608
267 0 COMB2 Combination Min 64.972 -323.63 -23.333 -484.9445 -15.9259 -116.9373
267 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min 64.972 -294.057 -23.333 -484.9445 -8.0983 -29.3101
267 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min 64.972 -294.057 -23.333 -484.9445 -8.0983 -29.3101
267 1.125 COMB2 Combination Min 64.972 -264.483 -23.333 -484.9445 -3.7904 22.5922
268 0 COMB2 Combination Max 248.699 66.427 121.724 -201.9076 212.9798 135.3859
268 0.56443 COMB2 Combination Max 248.699 96.102 121.724 -201.9076 158.1565 264.8137
268 0.56443 COMB2 Combination Max 248.699 96.102 121.724 -201.9076 158.1565 264.8137
268 1.12886 COMB2 Combination Max 248.699 125.777 121.724 -201.9076 104.7117 427.994
268 0 COMB2 Combination Min 42.329 -341.248 40.892 -403.8875 35.91 -9.4685
268 0.56443 COMB2 Combination Min 42.329 -319.882 40.892 -403.8875 1.2379 19.2709
268 0.56443 COMB2 Combination Min 42.329 -319.882 40.892 -403.8875 1.2379 19.2709
268 1.12886 COMB2 Combination Min 42.329 -298.516 40.892 -403.8875 -38.0814 -31.0543
269 0 COMB2 Combination Max 315.999 1158.421 218.949 -176.2743 204.935 478.8203
269 0.5605 COMB2 Combination Max 315.999 1187.89 218.949 -176.2743 82.6225 -50.6649
269 0.5605 COMB2 Combination Max 315.999 1187.89 218.949 -176.2743 82.6225 -50.6649
269 1.121 COMB2 Combination Max 315.999 1217.358 218.949 -176.2743 -11.8087 -317.1749
269 0 COMB2 Combination Min 34.847 383.436 70.244 -539.9684 -45.9759 105.3958
269 0.5605 COMB2 Combination Min 34.847 404.653 70.244 -539.9684 -85.6034 -322.5591
269 0.5605 COMB2 Combination Min 34.847 404.653 70.244 -539.9684 -85.6034 -322.5591
269 1.121 COMB2 Combination Min 34.847 425.87 70.244 -539.9684 -153.373 -940.1074
270 0 COMB2 Combination Max 324.657 -153.75 37.192 -323.5434 153.1048 -65.6617
270 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Max 324.657 -132.454 37.192 -323.5434 134.6037 26.3291
270 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Max 324.657 -132.454 37.192 -323.5434 134.6037 26.3291
270 1.12514 COMB2 Combination Max 324.657 -111.158 37.192 -323.5434 116.1253 294.0915
270 0 COMB2 Combination Min 30.79 -624.928 -37.113 -747.9034 -87.9424 -467.1667
270 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Min 30.79 -595.351 -37.113 -747.9034 -68.776 -190.4737
270 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Min 30.79 -595.351 -37.113 -747.9034 -68.776 -190.4737
270 1.12514 COMB2 Combination Min 30.79 -565.774 -37.113 -747.9034 -53.9508 -41.8414
271 0 COMB2 Combination Max 277.954 -104.856 116.499 -251.6027 260.6901 44.5704
271 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max 277.954 -83.563 116.499 -251.6027 198.2524 365.35
271 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max 277.954 -83.563 116.499 -251.6027 198.2524 365.35
271 1.125 COMB2 Combination Max 277.954 -62.27 116.499 -251.6027 148.4587 707.6555
271 0 COMB2 Combination Min 6.718 -708.031 24.71 -497.3763 34.2566 -108.6566
271 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min 6.718 -678.458 24.71 -497.3763 11.9518 15.7513
271 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min 6.718 -678.458 24.71 -497.3763 11.9518 15.7513
271 1.125 COMB2 Combination Min 6.718 -648.884 24.71 -497.3763 -20.0885 103.6278

78
272 0 COMB2 Combination Max 234.571 -47.67 140.627 -55.9727 191.2448 423.6136
272 0.37653 COMB2 Combination Max 234.571 -33.417 140.627 -55.9727 158.3137 708.6496
272 0 COMB2 Combination Min -24.702 -810.29 48.185 -358.5755 20.4118 44.27
272 0.37653 COMB2 Combination Min -24.702 -790.494 48.185 -358.5755 -13.5213 84.221
273 0 COMB2 Combination Max 211.908 759.582 216.812 56.143 256.9134 622.7704
273 0.37424 COMB2 Combination Max 211.908 779.258 216.812 56.143 183.2739 370.1876
273 0.37424 COMB2 Combination Max 211.908 779.258 216.812 56.143 183.2739 370.1876
273 0.74847 COMB2 Combination Max 211.908 798.934 216.812 56.143 112.0543 143.1119
273 0 COMB2 Combination Min -57.448 171.295 92.132 -369.9011 34.5812 103.0702
273 0.37424 COMB2 Combination Min -57.448 185.461 92.132 -369.9011 -0.2453 -27.2708
273 0.37424 COMB2 Combination Min -57.448 185.461 92.132 -369.9011 -0.2453 -27.2708
273 0.74847 COMB2 Combination Min -57.448 199.628 92.132 -369.9011 -36.7421 -199.2524
274 0 COMB2 Combination Max 217.016 1070.025 293.761 -131.7602 221.3792 366.2573
274 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Max 217.016 1099.595 293.761 -131.7602 66.6793 -91.6626
274 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Max 217.016 1099.595 293.761 -131.7602 66.6793 -91.6626
274 1.12486 COMB2 Combination Max 217.016 1129.165 293.761 -131.7602 -34.9846 -292.109
274 0 COMB2 Combination Min -40.957 321.952 151.803 -557.0324 -9.9681 21.8303
274 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Min -40.957 343.242 151.803 -557.0324 -98.1366 -380.0173
274 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Min -40.957 343.242 151.803 -557.0324 -98.1366 -380.0173
274 1.12486 COMB2 Combination Min -40.957 364.532 151.803 -557.0324 -234.116 -920.1261
275 0 COMB2 Combination Max 173.781 -197.078 75.287 -247.0688 153.8779 -81.4087
275 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Max 173.781 -175.782 75.287 -247.0688 122.1945 109.0184
275 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Max 173.781 -175.782 75.287 -247.0688 122.1945 109.0184
275 1.12514 COMB2 Combination Max 173.781 -154.487 75.287 -247.0688 93.7862 476.9375
275 0 COMB2 Combination Min -79.058 -776.892 -6.789 -614.4238 -78.762 -437.1081
275 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Min -79.058 -747.315 -6.789 -614.4238 -82.1938 -148.1467
275 0.56257 COMB2 Combination Min -79.058 -747.315 -6.789 -614.4238 -82.1938 -148.1467
275 1.12514 COMB2 Combination Min -79.058 -717.737 -6.789 -614.4238 -88.917 19.962
276 0 COMB2 Combination Max 93.189 -143.398 134.104 -148.9943 199.3013 169.4046
276 0.3746 COMB2 Combination Max 93.189 -129.218 134.104 -148.9943 157.0552 465.894
276 0.3746 COMB2 Combination Max 93.189 -129.218 134.104 -148.9943 157.0552 465.894
276 0.74919 COMB2 Combination Max 93.189 -115.038 134.104 -148.9943 118.1812 760.4132
276 0 COMB2 Combination Min -100.409 -880.958 32.758 -421.0959 22.1403 -55.6947
276 0.3746 COMB2 Combination Min -100.409 -861.263 32.758 -421.0959 3.9231 52.0934
276 0.3746 COMB2 Combination Min -100.409 -861.263 32.758 -421.0959 3.9231 52.0934
276 0.74919 COMB2 Combination Min -100.409 -841.569 32.758 -421.0959 -17.6689 142.5473
277 0 COMB2 Combination Max 40.392 403.857 157.487 32.3967 149.5393 544.7393
277 0.37581 COMB2 Combination Max 40.392 423.616 157.487 32.3967 128.2581 412.1063
277 0 COMB2 Combination Min -156.374 39.059 48.756 -340.365 46.7336 92.5487
277 0.37581 COMB2 Combination Min -156.374 53.285 48.756 -340.365 1.8356 36.9615
278 0 COMB2 Combination Max 16.622 520.314 237.276 -18.93 229.9005 455.461
278 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max 16.622 549.888 237.276 -18.93 122.0294 194.2141
278 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max 16.622 549.888 237.276 -18.93 122.0294 194.2141
278 1.125 COMB2 Combination Max 16.622 579.462 237.276 -18.93 53.5709 -11.6413
278 0 COMB2 Combination Min -151.373 97.973 118.02 -355.1483 84.8705 74.7576
278 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min -151.373 119.266 118.02 -355.1483 7.7121 -55.9811
278 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min -151.373 119.266 118.02 -355.1483 7.7121 -55.9811
278 1.125 COMB2 Combination Min -151.373 140.559 118.02 -355.1483 -109.8099 -291.6731
279 0 COMB2 Combination Max -7.136 882.644 322.027 -224.5836 132.6012 199.4561
279 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Max -7.136 912.214 322.027 -224.5836 0.6761 -95.8274
279 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Max -7.136 912.214 322.027 -224.5836 0.6761 -95.8274
279 1.12486 COMB2 Combination Max -7.136 941.784 322.027 -224.5836 -101.5061 -272.7452
279 0 COMB2 Combination Min -148.636 272.455 180.641 -546.9316 6.8047 -12.2465
279 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Min -148.636 293.745 180.641 -546.9316 -130.3835 -420.2405
279 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Min -148.636 293.745 180.641 -546.9316 -130.3835 -420.2405
279 1.12486 COMB2 Combination Min -148.636 315.036 180.641 -546.9316 -297.3475 -927.9744
280 0 COMB2 Combination Max -37.109 -175.515 62.388 -219.9427 78.4195 -65.0027
280 0.561 COMB2 Combination Max -37.109 -154.278 62.388 -219.9427 60.3693 176.0447
280 0.561 COMB2 Combination Max -37.109 -154.278 62.388 -219.9427 60.3693 176.0447
280 1.122 COMB2 Combination Max -37.109 -133.042 62.388 -219.9427 42.3813 605.683
280 0 COMB2 Combination Min -200.651 -896.329 -40.122 -443.2968 -99.7229 -441.5064
280 0.561 COMB2 Combination Min -200.651 -866.834 -40.122 -443.2968 -85.2376 -72.4906
280 0.561 COMB2 Combination Min -200.651 -866.834 -40.122 -443.2968 -85.2376 -72.4906
280 1.122 COMB2 Combination Min -200.651 -837.34 -40.122 -443.2968 -79.6313 60.0611
281 0 COMB2 Combination Max -68.89 231.766 95.246 -30.9325 117.1092 366.9785
281 0.56407 COMB2 Combination Max -68.89 261.423 95.246 -30.9325 94.3621 231.1378
281 0.56407 COMB2 Combination Max -68.89 261.423 95.246 -30.9325 94.3621 231.1378
281 1.12814 COMB2 Combination Max -68.89 291.079 95.246 -30.9325 74.4891 132.9676
281 0 COMB2 Combination Min -211.774 -28.872 33.178 -320.9977 47.6424 36.2718
281 0.56407 COMB2 Combination Min -211.774 -7.519 33.178 -320.9977 -2.3629 40.3157
281 0.56407 COMB2 Combination Min -211.774 -7.519 33.178 -320.9977 -2.3629 40.3157
281 1.12814 COMB2 Combination Min -211.774 13.833 33.178 -320.9977 -56.0159 -7.9534

79
282 0 COMB2 Combination Max -91.944 428.925 181.008 -90.3747 113.2401 208.1228
282 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max -91.944 458.498 181.008 -90.3747 45.1522 46.0755
282 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Max -91.944 458.498 181.008 -90.3747 45.1522 46.0755
282 1.125 COMB2 Combination Max -91.944 488.072 181.008 -90.3747 -10.5929 -12.1201
282 0 COMB2 Combination Min -178.253 53.094 96.983 -317.5681 64.7858 49.8377
282 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min -178.253 74.387 96.983 -317.5681 -22.3804 -75.5624
282 0.5625 COMB2 Combination Min -178.253 74.387 96.983 -317.5681 -22.3804 -75.5624
282 1.125 COMB2 Combination Min -178.253 95.68 96.983 -317.5681 -123.9584 -316.1763
283 0 COMB2 Combination Max -83.383 799.459 263.009 -254.3721 26.9214 108.4863
283 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Max -83.383 829.029 263.009 -254.3721 -79.2938 -46.7515
283 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Max -83.383 829.029 263.009 -254.3721 -79.2938 -46.7515
283 1.12486 COMB2 Combination Max -83.383 858.599 263.009 -254.3721 -177.2261 -184.4371
283 0 COMB2 Combination Min -166.054 212.31 156.406 -529.8383 -30.806 8.7954
283 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Min -166.054 233.6 156.406 -529.8383 -158.5582 -406.3914
283 0.56243 COMB2 Combination Min -166.054 233.6 156.406 -529.8383 -158.5582 -406.3914
283 1.12486 COMB2 Combination Min -166.054 254.891 156.406 -529.8383 -293.9113 -880.6569
284 0 COMB2 Combination Max -60.971 -132.648 -44.539 -101.2781 -61.9435 50.7262
284 0.36966 COMB2 Combination Max -60.971 -118.655 -44.539 -101.2781 -36.5753 227.1374
284 0 COMB2 Combination Min -215.825 -1163.917 -182.78 -306.7474 -148.3358 -325.1619
284 0.36966 COMB2 Combination Min -215.825 -1144.482 -182.78 -306.7474 -90.3477 -16.8505
285 0 COMB2 Combination Max -88.125 7.949 -76.959 -129.9038 -26.4193 163.237
285 0.34524 COMB2 Combination Max -88.125 21.017 -76.959 -129.9038 2.0324 160.3751
285 0.34524 COMB2 Combination Max -88.125 21.017 -76.959 -129.9038 2.0324 160.3751
285 0.69048 COMB2 Combination Max -88.125 34.086 -76.959 -129.9038 30.4842 158.1336
285 0 COMB2 Combination Min -157.378 -76.89 -106.982 -221.7291 -83.4874 23.3859
285 0.34524 COMB2 Combination Min -157.378 -58.739 -106.982 -221.7291 -48.4418 44.5864
285 0.34524 COMB2 Combination Min -157.378 -58.739 -106.982 -221.7291 -48.4418 44.5864
285 0.69048 COMB2 Combination Min -157.378 -40.588 -106.982 -221.7291 -13.3962 54.5724
286 0 COMB2 Combination Max -43.395 27.093 -27.698 -82.7979 13.7287 135.2014
286 0.52993 COMB2 Combination Max -43.395 47.153 -27.698 -82.7979 30.7648 121.636
286 0.52993 COMB2 Combination Max -43.395 47.153 -27.698 -82.7979 30.7648 121.636
286 1.05986 COMB2 Combination Max -43.395 67.396 -27.698 -82.7979 52.4746 93.3164
286 0 COMB2 Combination Min -78.969 -27.844 -41.06 -143.8103 -11.2273 54.0313
286 0.52993 COMB2 Combination Min -78.969 0.017 -41.06 -143.8103 8.1646 55.2986
286 0.52993 COMB2 Combination Min -78.969 0.017 -41.06 -143.8103 8.1646 55.2986
286 1.05986 COMB2 Combination Min -78.969 27.695 -41.06 -143.8103 22.8897 45.8966
Max 324.657 1717.394 322.027 56.143 260.6901 760.4132
Min -215.825 -1163.917 -182.78 -747.9034 -297.3475 -940.1074

80
TABLE: Element Forces - Frames
Frame Station OutputCase CaseType StepType P V2 V3 T M2 M3
Text m Text Text Text KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m
262 0 COMB1 Combination Max 3.763 124.164 6.622 -33.7414 5.1884 117.366
262 0.52918 COMB1 Combination Max 3.763 146.422 6.622 -33.7414 1.6887 45.771
262 0 COMB1 Combination Min 0.63 60.919 -1.163 -108.443 -9.0127 42.6015
262 0.52918 COMB1 Combination Min 0.63 83.177 -1.163 -108.443 -8.4009 4.4749
263 0 COMB1 Combination Max 23.124 226.704 20.464 -57.2467 0.8756 117.0578
263 0.53046 COMB1 Combination Max 23.124 249.016 20.464 -57.2467 -9.9791 -9.1169
263 0 COMB1 Combination Min 13.488 136.365 13.505 -162.891 -19.3795 43.7244
263 0.53046 COMB1 Combination Min 13.488 158.676 13.505 -162.891 -26.552 -34.5319
264 0 COMB1 Combination Max 50.997 344.371 36.156 -105.069 -12.5745 83.6865
264 0.34535 COMB1 Combination Max 50.997 358.896 36.156 -105.069 -25.0467 -37.6006
264 0.34535 COMB1 Combination Max 50.997 358.896 36.156 -105.069 -25.0467 -37.6006
264 0.69069 COMB1 Combination Max 50.997 373.421 36.156 -105.069 -37.507 -139.418
264 0 COMB1 Combination Min 28.43 232.382 30.92 -237.065 -46.4157 30.9225
264 0.34535 COMB1 Combination Min 28.43 246.907 30.92 -237.065 -57.1375 -51.9695
264 0.34535 COMB1 Combination Min 28.43 246.907 30.92 -237.065 -57.1375 -51.9695
264 0.69069 COMB1 Combination Min 28.43 261.432 30.92 -237.065 -67.8681 -164.471
265 0 COMB1 Combination Max 100.383 1177.095 73.934 -172.744 -59.6797 -28.6786
265 0.36866 COMB1 Combination Max 100.383 1192.602 73.934 -172.744 -80.0335 -314.129
265 0 COMB1 Combination Min 26.515 731.42 -12.364 -314.872 -122.048 -81.2991
265 0.36866 COMB1 Combination Min 26.515 746.926 -12.364 -314.872 -126.994 -503.901
266 0 COMB1 Combination Max 99.743 -108.37 -25.754 -252.861 -7.0665 -22.0447
266 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Max 99.743 -84.709 -25.754 -252.861 8.8161 32.8645
266 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Max 99.743 -84.709 -25.754 -252.861 8.8161 32.8645
266 1.12514 COMB1 Combination Max 99.743 -61.047 -25.754 -252.861 25.2613 91.2909
266 0 COMB1 Combination Min 62.396 -246.373 -58.772 -381.556 -82.0692 -247.03
266 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Min 62.396 -222.711 -58.772 -381.556 -52.7002 -125.253
266 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Min 62.396 -222.711 -58.772 -381.556 -52.7002 -125.253
266 1.12514 COMB1 Combination Min 62.396 -199.049 -58.772 -381.556 -25.9304 -32.228
267 0 COMB1 Combination Max 121.604 -48.07 22.232 -211.545 82.7898 44.5444
267 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max 121.604 -24.411 22.232 -211.545 72.3444 105.5845
267 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max 121.604 -24.411 22.232 -211.545 72.3444 105.5845
267 1.125 COMB1 Combination Max 121.604 -0.752 22.232 -211.545 62.0144 175.2666
267 0 COMB1 Combination Min 62.778 -212.477 -11.4 -311.614 8.6164 -59.4112
267 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min 62.778 -188.818 -11.4 -311.614 10.8314 9.4475
267 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min 62.778 -188.818 -11.4 -311.614 10.8314 9.4475
267 1.125 COMB1 Combination Min 62.778 -165.159 -11.4 -311.614 11.035 53.5981
268 0 COMB1 Combination Max 145.411 38.172 75.541 -183.185 134.8159 97.5669
268 0.56443 COMB1 Combination Max 145.411 61.912 75.541 -183.185 101.2222 167.0496
268 0.56443 COMB1 Combination Max 145.411 61.912 75.541 -183.185 101.2222 167.0496
268 1.12886 COMB1 Combination Max 145.411 85.652 75.541 -183.185 68.5939 262.5855
268 0 COMB1 Combination Min 48.659 -205.328 41.851 -255.279 55.3971 20.6299
268 0.56443 COMB1 Combination Min 48.659 -181.588 41.851 -255.279 24.0397 42.0696
268 0.56443 COMB1 Combination Min 48.659 -181.588 41.851 -255.279 24.0397 42.0696
268 1.12886 COMB1 Combination Min 48.659 -157.848 41.851 -255.279 -10.1509 1.2266
269 0 COMB1 Combination Max 192.584 813.958 142.144 -211.196 125.1005 319.0472
269 0.5605 COMB1 Combination Max 192.584 837.533 142.144 -211.196 52.0492 -96.083
269 0.5605 COMB1 Combination Max 192.584 837.533 142.144 -211.196 52.0492 -96.083
269 1.121 COMB1 Combination Max 192.584 861.108 142.144 -211.196 -13.6236 -404.094
269 0 COMB1 Combination Min 45.5 478.921 65.537 -361.367 -6.415 132.075
269 0.5605 COMB1 Combination Min 45.5 502.495 65.537 -361.367 -49.6815 -235.824
269 0.5605 COMB1 Combination Min 45.5 502.495 65.537 -361.367 -49.6815 -235.824
269 1.121 COMB1 Combination Min 45.5 526.07 65.537 -361.367 -100.475 -679.102
270 0 COMB1 Combination Max 189.509 -184.32 23.817 -284.83 97.6904 -90.9311
270 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Max 189.509 -160.658 23.817 -284.83 86.6189 12.6696
270 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Max 189.509 -160.658 23.817 -284.83 86.6189 12.6696
270 1.12514 COMB1 Combination Max 189.509 -136.996 23.817 -284.83 76.8177 195.0317
270 0 COMB1 Combination Min 42.315 -419.479 -21.496 -474.221 -32.1147 -317.104
270 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Min 42.315 -395.817 -21.496 -474.221 -21.9435 -125.803
270 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Min 42.315 -395.817 -21.496 -474.221 -21.9435 -125.803
270 1.12514 COMB1 Combination Min 42.315 -372.156 -21.496 -474.221 -15.5104 3.7303

81
271 0 COMB1 Combination Max 158.042 -139.543 73.684 -213.575 167.0764 30.1999
271 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max 158.042 -115.884 73.684 -213.575 130.3139 239.2227
271 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max 158.042 -115.884 73.684 -213.575 130.3139 239.2227
271 1.125 COMB1 Combination Max 158.042 -92.226 73.684 -213.575 100.8449 451.9117
271 0 COMB1 Combination Min 23.256 -456.678 28.799 -315.731 61.1661 -60.4088
271 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min 23.256 -433.019 28.799 -315.731 37.2462 53.9173
271 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min 23.256 -433.019 28.799 -315.731 37.2462 53.9173
271 1.125 COMB1 Combination Min 23.256 -409.36 28.799 -315.731 7.6948 145.7363
272 0 COMB1 Combination Max 129.101 -89.928 89.216 -81.3577 129.3076 274.4543
272 0.37653 COMB1 Combination Max 129.101 -74.091 89.216 -81.3577 109.081 448.5947
272 0 COMB1 Combination Min -1.877 -506.315 46.366 -207.584 44.0764 77.5685
272 0.37653 COMB1 Combination Min -1.877 -490.478 46.366 -207.584 15.669 126.739
273 0 COMB1 Combination Max 120.461 518.66 140.482 -27.0006 166.2517 401.2486
273 0.37424 COMB1 Combination Max 120.461 534.4 140.482 -27.0006 118.2418 230.6656
273 0.37424 COMB1 Combination Max 120.461 534.4 140.482 -27.0006 118.2418 230.6656
273 0.74847 COMB1 Combination Max 120.461 550.141 140.482 -27.0006 73.9182 55.0133
273 0 COMB1 Combination Min -25.051 236.392 80.463 -209.876 60.0333 137.9559
273 0.37424 COMB1 Combination Min -25.051 252.132 80.463 -209.876 29.4442 3.9528
273 0.37424 COMB1 Combination Min -25.051 252.132 80.463 -209.876 29.4442 3.9528
273 0.74847 COMB1 Combination Min -25.051 267.873 80.463 -209.876 -4.4029 -138.744
274 0 COMB1 Combination Max 130.04 750.881 188.039 -192.227 137.0426 237.297
274 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Max 130.04 774.537 188.039 -192.227 42.464 -132.937
274 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Max 130.04 774.537 188.039 -192.227 42.464 -132.937
274 1.12486 COMB1 Combination Max 130.04 798.193 188.039 -192.227 -39.513 -382.845
274 0 COMB1 Combination Min -15.644 407.42 129.209 -371.025 20.7908 52.377
274 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Min -15.644 431.076 129.209 -371.025 -58.6434 -277.915
274 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Min -15.644 431.076 129.209 -371.025 -58.6434 -277.915
274 1.12486 COMB1 Combination Min -15.644 454.732 129.209 -371.025 -147.693 -670.674
275 0 COMB1 Combination Max 93.029 -244.646 49.097 -226.245 100.8824 -111.072
275 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Max 93.029 -220.984 49.097 -226.245 80.3022 67.474
275 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Max 93.029 -220.984 49.097 -226.245 80.3022 67.474
275 1.12514 COMB1 Combination Max 93.029 -197.322 49.097 -226.245 62.2259 315.8839
275 0 COMB1 Combination Min -46.169 -523.307 -0.987 -390.978 -27.4471 -304.126
275 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Min -46.169 -499.645 -0.987 -390.978 -31.978 -94.9443
275 0.56257 COMB1 Combination Min -46.169 -499.645 -0.987 -390.978 -31.978 -94.9443
275 1.12514 COMB1 Combination Min -46.169 -475.983 -0.987 -390.978 -39.0221 66.4708
276 0 COMB1 Combination Max 38.993 -205.302 85.972 -138.507 135.1712 114.3385
276 0.3746 COMB1 Combination Max 38.993 -189.547 85.972 -138.507 110.7846 309.2612
276 0.3746 COMB1 Combination Max 38.993 -189.547 85.972 -138.507 110.7846 309.2612
276 0.74919 COMB1 Combination Max 38.993 -173.791 85.972 -138.507 86.4108 498.282
276 0 COMB1 Combination Min -65.883 -575.859 32.064 -252.338 45.3106 -15.1712
276 0.3746 COMB1 Combination Min -65.883 -560.103 32.064 -252.338 26.6484 91.9969
276 0.3746 COMB1 Combination Min -65.883 -560.103 32.064 -252.338 26.6484 91.9969
276 0.74919 COMB1 Combination Min -65.883 -544.348 32.064 -252.338 7.9718 189.4828
277 0 COMB1 Combination Max 5.037 272.479 101.111 -20.8676 109.504 355.2555
277 0.37581 COMB1 Combination Max 5.037 288.286 101.111 -20.8676 89.3789 266.2027
277 0 COMB1 Combination Min -105.067 86.937 45.175 -173.446 58.2338 130.3426
277 0.37581 COMB1 Combination Min -105.067 102.743 45.175 -173.446 29.8568 69.5935
278 0 COMB1 Combination Max -8.527 363.289 151.171 -63.7904 154.1074 299.8873
278 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max -8.527 386.948 151.171 -63.7904 83.5997 118.8914
278 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max -8.527 386.948 151.171 -63.7904 83.5997 118.8914
278 1.125 COMB1 Combination Max -8.527 410.606 151.171 -63.7904 24.8423 -60.2694
278 0 COMB1 Combination Min -100.357 153.324 101.08 -196.818 91.5749 111.2435
278 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min -100.357 176.983 101.08 -196.818 28.6629 -28.7449
278 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min -100.357 176.983 101.08 -196.818 28.6629 -28.7449
278 1.125 COMB1 Combination Min -100.357 200.641 101.08 -196.818 -46.5428 -209.156
279 0 COMB1 Combination Max -23.395 636.028 203.242 -244.223 86.5852 130.1737
279 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Max -23.395 659.684 203.242 -244.223 -7.6567 -141.535
279 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Max -23.395 659.684 203.242 -244.223 -7.6567 -141.535
279 1.12486 COMB1 Combination Max -23.395 683.34 203.242 -244.223 -93.7266 -361.113
279 0 COMB1 Combination Min -96.558 349.114 152.439 -364.442 23.318 10.6485
279 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Min -96.558 372.77 152.439 -364.442 -74.7128 -307.485
279 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Min -96.558 372.77 152.439 -364.442 -74.7128 -307.485
279 1.12486 COMB1 Combination Min -96.558 396.426 152.439 -364.442 -180.934 -677.371

82
281 0 COMB1 Combination Max -76.509 155.52 60.048 -55.7966 88.3382 247.6868
281 0.56407 COMB1 Combination Max -76.509 179.245 60.048 -55.7966 67.9725 153.4647
281 0.56407 COMB1 Combination Max -76.509 179.245 60.048 -55.7966 67.9725 153.4647
281 1.12814 COMB1 Combination Max -76.509 202.97 60.048 -55.7966 47.841 86.564
281 0 COMB1 Combination Min -142.009 8.421 31.043 -172.201 53.1721 76.6734
281 0.56407 COMB1 Combination Min -142.009 32.146 31.043 -172.201 21.9779 63.3451
281 0.56407 COMB1 Combination Min -142.009 32.146 31.043 -172.201 21.9779 63.3451
281 1.12814 COMB1 Combination Min -142.009 55.871 31.043 -172.201 -9.8927 4.0046
282 0 COMB1 Combination Max -85.193 305.061 114.139 -102.111 78.4869 141.1562
282 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max -85.193 328.72 114.139 -102.111 28.2785 15.3952
282 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Max -85.193 328.72 114.139 -102.111 28.2785 15.3952
282 1.125 COMB1 Combination Max -85.193 352.379 114.139 -102.111 -19.9114 -70.1535
282 0 COMB1 Combination Min -117.089 106.069 84.06 -187.366 63.4654 66.2765
282 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min -117.089 129.728 84.06 -187.366 2.8245 -53.6775
282 0.5625 COMB1 Combination Min -117.089 129.728 84.06 -187.366 2.8245 -53.6775
282 1.125 COMB1 Combination Min -117.089 153.387 84.06 -187.366 -61.0171 -230.603
283 0 COMB1 Combination Max -76.202 583.635 164.08 -260.776 18.082 72.9261
283 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Max -76.202 607.291 164.08 -260.776 -65.8111 -110.245
283 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Max -76.202 607.291 164.08 -260.776 -65.8111 -110.245
283 1.12486 COMB1 Combination Max -76.202 630.947 164.08 -260.776 -146.351 -293.973
283 0 COMB1 Combination Min -100.976 291.184 133.425 -363.951 -20.7961 16.6073
283 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Min -100.976 314.839 133.425 -363.951 -103.13 -298.163
283 0.56243 COMB1 Combination Min -100.976 314.839 133.425 -363.951 -103.13 -298.163
283 1.12486 COMB1 Combination Min -100.976 338.495 133.425 -363.951 -188.427 -646.37
284 0 COMB1 Combination Max -64.709 -309.887 -44.124 -106.773 -55.5374 -43.6111
284 0.36966 COMB1 Combination Max -64.709 -294.339 -44.124 -106.773 -29.9388 139.1993
284 0 COMB1 Combination Min -142.951 -785.271 -120.408 -198.069 -88.0501 -221.813
284 0.36966 COMB1 Combination Min -142.951 -769.722 -120.408 -198.069 -53.2131 1.1032
285 0 COMB1 Combination Max -81.159 -29.045 -65.126 -119.593 -25.5687 96.1273
285 0.34524 COMB1 Combination Max -81.159 -14.525 -65.126 -119.593 -2.1142 103.6525
285 0.34524 COMB1 Combination Max -81.159 -14.525 -65.126 -119.593 -2.1142 103.6525
285 0.69048 COMB1 Combination Max -81.159 -0.004 -65.126 -119.593 21.3403 106.2706
285 0 COMB1 Combination Min -102.595 -56.242 -67.952 -149.671 -46.737 30.0896
285 0.34524 COMB1 Combination Min -102.595 -41.721 -67.952 -149.671 -24.2511 46.9537
285 0.34524 COMB1 Combination Min -102.595 -41.721 -67.952 -149.671 -24.2511 46.9537
285 0.69048 COMB1 Combination Min -102.595 -27.2 -67.952 -149.671 -1.7653 58.8038
286 0 COMB1 Combination Max -40.789 -1.646 -24.453 -76.837 7.9368 86.8102
286 0.52993 COMB1 Combination Max -40.789 20.643 -24.453 -76.837 21.8319 81.7787
286 0.52993 COMB1 Combination Max -40.789 20.643 -24.453 -76.837 21.8319 81.7787
286 1.05986 COMB1 Combination Max -40.789 42.932 -24.453 -76.837 35.7323 64.9413
286 0 COMB1 Combination Min -52.245 -18.882 -26.293 -96.8304 -2.8218 50.9927
286 0.52993 COMB1 Combination Min -52.245 3.407 -26.293 -96.8304 10.1699 55.092
286 0.52993 COMB1 Combination Min -52.245 3.407 -26.293 -96.8304 10.1699 55.092
286 1.05986 COMB1 Combination Min -52.245 25.696 -26.293 -96.8304 23.1603 47.3575
Max 192.584 1192.602 203.242 -20.8676 167.0764 498.282
Min -142.951 -785.271 -120.408 -474.221 -188.427 -679.1

83
12 MINIUM SUPPORT LENGTH
Minimum Support Length(abutment)

Length of the bridge deck to the adjacent expansion


joint(ft) L= 20 m
65.62 ft
H=for abutments, average height of columns
supporting the bridge deck from the abutment
to the next expansion joint(ft)
for columns and/or piers, column, or pier height(ft)
for hinges within a span, average height of the
adjacent two columns or piers(ft)
for single-span bridges(H=0)
H= 5 m
16.40 ft
Skew of support measured from line normal to span (°) S= 45 degree

The empirical support length shall be taken as:


(LRFD 2012, A
N=(8+0.02L+0.08H)(1+0.000125S^2) 0.34 m 4.7.4.4)

The greater of the maximum displacement calculated in 0.11 m


accordance with the provisions of Article 4.7.4.3

The max support length 0.34 m

Provide support length 1.36 m OK

Minimum Support Length(pier)

length of the bridge deck to the adjacent L= 20 m


expansion joint 65.62 ft

average height of columns H= 5 m


supporting the bridge deck from the abutment 16.40 ft
to the next expansion joint
skew of support measured from line normal to S= 45 degree
span (°)

The empirical support length shall be taken as:


(LRFD 2012, A
N=(8+0.02L+0.08H)(1+0.000125S^2) 0.34 m 4.7.4.4)

the greater of the maximum displacement calculated in 0.11 m


accordance with the provisions of Article 4.7.4.3

The max support length 0.34 m

Provide support length 1.01 m OK

84
13 DESIGN OF ABUTMENT PILE
Design Load

Design Load on pile at NSL level is 165tonns


Test Load is 165*2.0=330 tonns

Ultmate load is 230 tonns

85
CSiBridge 2014 10/7/16 17:16:57

CSiBridge 2014 v16.1.0 - File:PAK-20+20m135d--K489+031 - Longitudinal Rebar (Percentage) (ACI 318-08/IBC2009) - Kip,
As per image the maximum provided steel is 1.51%
Area of pier =1130973mm2
Area needed=1130973*1.51%=17078 mm2
Number of bars needed =17078/(Area of 32 Dia bar)
=17078/804
=22 Bars

87
14 APPROACH SLAB DESIGN
Approach Slab Design
Geometry
Grids of Approach slab, as per construction joint in the slab:

Total width of the approach slab is 6m. The approach slab is modelled at 0 skew. Steel will
be adjusted accordingly for skew greater than 15 degrees.
Following is the grid of approach slab.

88
Live Load and design lanes
Three types of live loads are defined.

1) Class A
2) Class AA
3) HL93K and HL93M

Total design lanes are 4 with width of 4.08 m each.

Each color displays one lane.

Soil Springs
The soil compression springs are applied with value of 575 psi.

The lanes are shown as following:

Load combinations are taken from AASHTO as mentioned in design criteria. St 1 and St 3 are used.

Impact factors

1) Class AA……. 10 percent


2) Class A……… 8 percent
3) HL 93………. 33 percent

Construction Joint
The slab is 300 mm thick and modelled as thick shell. Divided at grid with edge constraints so that
construction joint can be taken into account.

Analysis Results

1. Shell Forces
For Combination Envelope

Max Moment in long Direction = 9.42 kft

Max Moment in transverse Direction = 15.2 kft

2. Allowable Settlement
Contour of settlement is set to be minimum -25 mm with value in purple. Blue shows all settlement
is less than 25 mm.

Design
Design Moments

9.42 long, 15.2 trans


Rebar
Effective depth of slab = 300 – 50 – 16*1.5 (assumed dia 16 bars in both directions)

d = 225 mm = 9 in
Mu long = 9.42 kip-ft

As = 9.42/3.84/9 = .27 in2/ft ------------- Dia 13 @ 175 mmc/c


Mu trans = 15.2 kip-ft

As = 15.2/3.84/9 = .44 in2/ft ------------- Dia 16 @ 150 mmc/c


Minimum Steel

= .002 * 12 * 12 = .29 in2/ft ------------ Dia 13 @ 200 mm c/c


Punching Shear Check

Concrete Strength = 3000 psi

bo = 42.708 in bo = 4*SQRT(Ac) (assumed shear perimeter)

fv actual = 11.48 psi fv(actual) = P/(t*(bo+4*t))

fv allowed = 133.1 psi Fv(allow) = 0.27*MR, MR = modulus of rapture.

Punching Shear check is okay.