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7/13/17

Human Anatomy and Physiology I


HEAL505

Tricia Lucas

PART 2: BASIC CELLS


Marieb Chapter 3

• 2.1. Identify the structure and


function of the cell and its organelles
• 2.2. Describe the structure and
capabilities of the cell membrane

• 2.1. Identify the structure and


function of the cell and its organelles

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Cells

• Basic structural unit,


• Smallest unit of life.
• Contain:
• Nucleus & cytoplasm
• Surrounded by a cell membrane
• Come in a variety of shapes & sizes

Fig 3.8 Marieb page 99

Er ythr ocytes

Fibr oblasts

Epithelial cells

(a) Cells that connect body par ts, for m linings, or tr anspor t gases

Skeletal
m uscle
cell
Ner ve cell
Sm ooth
m uscle cells
(b) Cells that m ove or gans and body par ts
(e) Cell that gather s infor m ation and contr ols
body functions
Fat cell Macr ophage

Sper m
(c) Cell that stor es (d) Cell that fights disease (f) Cell of r epr oduction
nutr ients

Fig. 3.4, p. 92, Marieb,

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Nucleus

• Every cell has one (almost every cell)


• Contains chromatin, nucleolus &
nucleoplasm surrounded by a nuclear
envelope
• Chromatin = DNA = genetic material
• It directs cell activities = cell division &
protein manufacture

Inside the nucleus

• Its full of chromatin


• If we unwind this we find each cell has
2 meters of DNA
• If we supercoil it, as occurs during cell
division, we get 46 chromosomes

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Cytoplasm

= cytosol + organelles
• Cytosol; clear gelatinous fluid inside
cell. Mostly water plus nutrients and
other dissolved substances.
• Organelles; Little organs inside cell.

Organelles Marieb; table 3.1 page 96 & 97

1. Endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth)


2. Ribosomes
3. Golgi apparatus
4. Mitochondria
5. Vesicles
6. Lysosomes
7. Peroxisomes
8. Centrosome with centrioles
9. Cytoskeleton

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1. Endoplasmic reticulum
(E.R.)

2 types
• Rough ER. Branching channels studded
with ribosomes. Transport & makes
proteins & phospholipids.
• Smooth ER. Branching channels. Makes,
transports & stores lipids (fats). Site of
chemical reactions. e.g. glycogen to
glucose. Detoxifies.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

2. Ribosomes

• Small granules
• Found free & attached to
endoplasmic reticulum
• Follow genetic
instructions for protein
synthesis during protein
manufacture

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3. Golgi apparatus

Modifies & packages proteins for external or


internal use.
Proteins may;
♦ become part of the cell
♦ be secreted from the cell
♦remain inside the cell
End product leaves in packages called vesicles

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4. Mitochondria

Glucose enters
cell &
mitochondria
convert it to ATP
(energy)

Other Organelles

5. Vesicles; transport bubbles


6. Lysosomes; contain lysozymes
& other digestive enzymes.
7. Peroxisomes; contain oxidase
enzymes for detoxification
8. Centrioles; used in cell division.

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9. Cytoskeleton

• Elaborate • Cell’s “bones and


network of muscles” producing
an internal
protein framework
structures • Cell shape
throughout the
• Organelle support
cytoplasm
• Internal transport
• See fig 3.7 pg. 95
• Cell movements

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Paper Objectives

• 2.1.Identify the structure and function of the


cell and its organelles

• 2.2. Describe the structure and


capabilities of the cell membrane

Cell membrane = plasma


membrane

• External boundary
• Regulates entry & exit = selectively permeable
• Double phospholipid layer with cholesterol &
proteins
• Phospholipids arrange themselves so their
water-loving (hydrophilic) end is outwards &
their water-hating (hydrophobic) end is
inwards, creating an oily film.

The Plasma Membrane – fluid mosaic model

carbohydrates
proteins

phospholipids

Cholesterol
cytoskeleton

Fig. 3.2, p. 66, Marieb 10th ed. See Fig. 3.2, p. 89.

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Cell membrane

Proteins may have


sugars attached to their
outside surface = the
glycocalyx
Cholesterol = maintains
membrane integrity & role
in cell signalling

Marieb Fig 3.2 page 89

Cell membrane proteins

Proteins are 1–10 % of membrane


Perform most of the specialised functions
Act as;
• Receptors; attachment point for messenger
molecules like neurotransmitters & hormones
• Channels; allow water & substances through &
act as gates
• Carriers; pumping things in or out of cell

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Cell membrane proteins

Proteins act as;


• Identity markers; identifying cells as yours.
• Motor molecules; enable cilia to beat, white
cells to move & flagella to whip
• Cytoskeleton anchors organelles to
membrane
• Allow cells to stick together

Membrane capability = transport across


membranes

♦Passive Transport: No ATP used


♦diffusion

♦facilitated diffusion
♦filtration

♦osmosis

♦Active transport: ATP used

Diffusion: random
movement.
If solutes can pass
through a cell
membrane they will
move down a
concentration
gradient (high to low).
Fig 3.10, p. 101, Marieb,
.

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Simple Diffusion
wMovement
of molecules
from area of
high to low
concentration
or pressure
e.g. O2 easily
diffuses into
any cell
Fig 3.9, p. 100, Marieb,

Facilitated diffusion:

• Protein assisted
movement of a
substance from
high to low.

Filtration

• Fluid passes
through a
membrane
• Pressure forces fluid
through
• High to low pressure
• Kidneys

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Osmosis

Movement
of water
from an area
of high water
to low water

Active transport

Active transport requires


ATP

Solute pump e.g. the


sodium potassium pump

Usually move against the


concentration gradient

Sodium potassium pump

Fig 3.11, p. 103, Marieb,

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Good luck with your study

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