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CHAPTER THREE

Seven Environmental Principles

I. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO. 1: Nature Knows Best

In the environment, there are natural processes or cycles that maintained ecological balance. Any disruption in these
processes affects the environment.

As an example, we have the disruption on:

A. Carbon Dioxide-Oxygen Cycle

Carbon Dioxide is absorbed by the plants for photosynthesis and in return, releases oxygen which is a
byproduct of photosynthesis. On the other hand, animals take in oxygen for respiration and release carbon dioxide that in turn
used by the plants. Therefore, excessive cutting of trees without replacement and deforestation, with the rapid growth of
population disrupts this cycle.

B. Natural Flow of Materials

Plastics are non-biodegradable; humans litter the land and clog drains causing floods. Even buried, it won’t
make the soil fertile. Toxic doesn’t only kill large aquatic but also the decomposers which are necessary for the natural breaking
down of materials.

C. Cyclic Flow of Materials

Chemical fertilizers also disrupt the cyclic flow of materials. A high rate of fertilizer application increases the
acidity of the soil which causes the some nutrients unavailable to plants. They also reach bodies of waters that may be a cause of
water pollution.

II. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO. 2: All Forms of Life are Important

A. Biological diversity refers to the variety of species in a given community. The term includes species diversity or the
number of species, genetic diversity or the variety of genes in the gene pool and community diversity or the number communities
in a given area. At the human lever, biological diversity also means cultural diversity. It means that human vary in religion,
political beliefs, tradition, language, and many others.

B. All living things or organisms were created by God to serve a purpose. These functions should be respected as they
are all part of the web of life. Disruption of these functions may lead to instability or imbalance, Each individual is a part of the
food chain, and the removal of one will upset eating patterns and may cause the extinction of another organism which feed on it.

C. An apitong or lauan tree in the forest is the habitat of various plants and animals from the branch to the roots.
Cutting the tree may mean the loss of all dependent species. Fungi, bacteria, and other destroyers of cellulosic materials help in
decomposition, without which all dead matter on Earth will pile up and suffocate us.

D. Living things give man some basic needs:

1. Food

2. Clothing
3. Shelter

E. Maintenance of biological diversity therefore results in:

1. Food security

2. Possible sources of medicine for cancer

3. AIDS

4. Fever

5. Colds and other diseases.

III. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO. 3: Everything is Related to Everything Else

A. This principle is best exemplified by the concept of ecosystem. An ecosystem is a unit of biosphere in which living
and non-living things interact. This definition shows that living and non-living things are interconnected. In an ecosystem the
possible interactions are:

1. Interaction between non-living factors;

2. Interaction between living factors; and

3. Interaction between living and non-living factors. Any outside interference may affect the
interconnectedness of these factors/ In a lake ecosystem for example, aside from the food relationship and chemical
factors involved, it is influenced by the terrestrial environment that surrounds it. If organic fertilizers are applied in
eroplands near the lake, there will be possible eutrophication of the lake as a result of that action.

B. Industrialization is one process that brings about pollution that may affect one's health. Vehicle gas emissions and
combustion of fossil fuels for industrial processing, power plants and factories cause air pollution that increase the incidence of
respiratory illness. Households also release raw sewage into bodies of water that pollute the water causing many aquatic
organisms to die and causing chronic health problems for people.

C. The Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) leads to ozone depletion that increase incidence of skin cancer. CFCs are
used as propelling agents of hairspray and paints and in refrigerators and air conditioning units.

D. Conversion of agricultural lands to subdivisions results in reduction in hectare for food production which results to
lower volume or quantity of crop harvest. Also agricultural land converted to urban and industrial uses account for the growing
loss of the country's best soil.

E. Interconnectedness may be viewed both in a local and global sense, Environmental problems of one country may be
confined only in that area or it may affect many countries. With this on-going global scenario, it is quite "urgent" those world
leaders should now work hand in hand to address and find solutions to problems about the global environment .
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO.4: Changes

A. Types of Natural Changes

Since the Earth began, it has been undergoing change. From a ball of gas and gas to its present state with a distinct
lithosphere, hydrosphere, from the soupy oceanic bowl of quasi-life molecules to exuberant diversity that now inhabits the
Earth. Such physical and evolution is Linear.

The movement of the Earth as an astronomical body results in the occurrence of the seasons, and the days
and nights. With this rythmn also occurrs rythmn in plants and animal life. Such changes are cyclic.

The catastrophic forces like volcanic eruption, earthquakes, tsunami, and typhoons bring about Random
changes.

Human activities have impacted on natural system in several ways. Change can be accelerated as in siltation
of lakes due to rapid soil erosion, eroding of metals because of air pollution and development of cancer cells because of modern
chemicals. Changes can be inhibited e.g., the non-complete development of fetuses because radiation of bird’s egg because the
DDT in the food chain. Change that is totally different from nature’s cycle can be also introduced, such as non-systems like
urban communities.

B. Human activities in Bringing about Change

Modern times are exemplified by changes brought about their interaction of natural and human systems.
One big change is the population explosion that has been brought about by modern medicine resulting in increase of life
expectancy and decreased mortality. Another important change in lifestyle has been made possible by new resource consuming
technology and is accompanied by materialistic values. These cultural changes have caused significant changes in the natural
world such as the destruction of forests coral reefs and other ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, leveling of mountains due to
quarrying, and poisoning of the seas and oceans by toxic waste and oil spills.

V. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO.5: Everything Must Go Somewhere

A. It is important that everyone becomes aware of the different types of wastes whether they are biodegradable or non-
biodegradable, whether they are hazardous or not. Classification of wastes facilities their proper disposal and
minimizes if not prevents the entry of toxic wastes into the vital ecosystems and ensures reconversion into useful
forms. For the proper management of wastes, we have to refer to the three R’s which mean reduction, reutilization and
recycling.

B. Three R’s

1. Reduction-there are numerous ways in which you can reduce the amount of wastes that you
release into the environment. One method is reducing the amount of wastes material that you produce in science
laboratory. The current trend in laboratory work is to go micro. What can be done with 50g of reagent might be done
with 5g of the same reagent. What can be done with 100ml of liquid might be done with 10ml of the same liquid.

2. Reutilization-most of the work you do in grade school, high school and even on introductory
college science course is not quantitative and therefore will not require the use of very accurate equipment. You may
encourage teachers, technicians and students to improvise in the laboratory when the activity in question allows it.

3. Recycling-a usual sight in waste segregation is the separation of waste into two kinds:
a. Biodegradable-you can gather biodegradable waste, then compost it and use it as
fertilizer.

b. Non-biodegradable-it should be further segregated as to the kind of material.

C. Some Thoughts on wastes Segregation

1. A thought educational campaign must accompany the program.

2. The destination of different kinds of waste must be considered when planning the program.

3. Some waste may need further segregation.

4. The fate of segregated waste should be determined.

D. How to Segregate your garbage

1. Food-to be used to feed pet dogs and chicken(leftover food,free of bones and shells)

2 . Compost-to be feef to compostworms to produce fertiizers.

3. Fruits and vegetable peel

4. Used toilet papers

5. Cotton filling of used sanitary napkins, disposable diapers.

E. Compost-to buried in the ground and left there

1. Bones from chicken, pig, cows and fish

2. Seeds from fruits

3. Seafood’s shells

F. Non-biodegradable, but reusable materials

1. Plastic bottles (plastic containers, alumni cans, clean dry plastic shopping bags)

G. Non-biodegradable, but recyclable materials-for selling to junk foods (plastic ware, disposable utensils such as
cups, fork and spoons)

H. Cans-for selling to junk shops (tin cans)

I. Bottles-for selling to junk shops (glass bottles, broken glass)

J. Paper-for selling to junk shops (paper and cardboard)

K. Non-biodegradable and Non-recyclable materials- these are for warehousing and for recycling and for reuse. Plastic
bags, food packets and rapper, juice packets, shampoo sachets, drinking straw, plastic straw, string, Styrofoam, worn
out slippers, and shoes, human hair.
VI. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO. 6: Finiteness of Resources

The Fitness of Earth’s resources can be seen in the following ways:

A. Limits to the Earth’s carrying capacity.

The amount of life the Earth can support. Over population of one species can lead to an imbalance. An environmental
issue brought about by exceeding the threshold level of an ecosystem is extinction.

B. Limits of the Earth’s absorptive capacity, the ability to assimilate its waste products.

Anything in excess which will alter the habitat is a pollutant. The waste that comes from the Earth i recycled by the
Earth (except those that are non-biodegradable).

C. Limits to the Earth’s supply.

The Earth is about 70% water about 30% land. Of this water, only 0.6% is drinkable. Of this land. 13% is cultivable.
These resources are considered renewable but there is still a limit of what it can provide to human living.

D. Limits to economic value.

Some of the things we buy in the market used to be free. Now because of scarcity of food source, they are being sold.
Even air which is still an unlimited supply becomes a commodity. One has to spend money to go to a place to breath fresh air.

E. Limits overtime.

A tree when cut down today cannot be logged in the future, although a sapling can be planted to replace the tree. But
at the rate some people are cutting trees in our Philippine forest, they will gone in 30 to 35 years. The world’s supply of oil is
projected to last for 50 years.

F. Limits to the distribution of resources.

The Earth’s resources are like a pie. Nations and individuals partake a slice of it. The developing world has 3/4 of the
world population but shares in 1/10 of the resource pie. There is highly unequal distribution of the Earth’s wealth. Industrialized
nations have consumed most of their resources and are looking at the developing world or countries as their source of raw
materials. When supply becomes acute or gone, they crossed oceans and mountains and overcame natural barriers to conquer
the world.

VII. ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLE NO. 7: Nature is Beautiful and We are Stewards of God’s Creation

Among all creatures, humans are the only ones made in God’s image and have been given the right to have dominion
over all his creations. being the most intelligent and gifted with reasons, humans are capable of manipulating creation to their
own advantage. Yet, creation exists not to be ravaged or abused but to be taken care of. Humans cannot exist without nature.
They are co-natural with the environment they live in.
PROFILES:

Noel Christian D. Angeles


COMM 2-A
Age: 16
Birth date: December 28, 1997
Address: Calayaan, Gerona, Tarlac
09275253510

Laniette Jo Jimenez
COMM 2-A
Age: 17
Birth date: June 21, 1997
Address: Tarlac City
09305003985

Jea Neva Lansangan


COMM 2-A
Age: 17
Birth date: February 16, 1997
Address: Capas, Tarlac
09771720048

Liezel Cunanan
COMM 2-A
Age: 18
Birth date: May 8, 1996
Address: Tarlac
09471631853
Rochelle Gomez
COMM 2-A
Age: 17
Birth date: May 4, 1997
Address: Fiesta Communities, Matatalaib, Tarlac City
09063255862

Aira Mikee
WORK Joy Sison
DISTRIBUTION:
COMM 2-A
Age: 17
Birth date: December 24, 1996
Address: Tarlac
09126844024

Noel Christian D. Angeles: Jea Neva Lansangan


* Compilation of 7 Principles. * Summarization of P. 5.
* Minor edits.
* Profiles. Rochelle Gomez
* Summarization of Principle 1. * Summarization of P. 3.
* Summarization of Principle 7.
* PowerPoint Presentation. Aira Mikee Joy Sison
* Insertion of Pictures. * Summarization of P. 4.
* Printing.
Liezel Cunanan
Laniette Jo Jimenez * Summarization of P. 6.
* Summarization of Principle 2.