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HANDBOOK ON COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
In 2 Volumes
Volume 1: Fuzzy Logic, Systems, Artifical Neural Networks, and Learning Systems
Volume 2: Evolutionary Computation, Hybrid Systems, and Applications
Copyright © 2016 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or
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ISBN 978-981-4675-00-0 (Set)
ISBN 978-981-4675-03-1 (Vol. 1)
ISBN 978-981-4675-04-8 (Vol. 2)
In-house Editors: Dipasri Sardar/Amanda Yun
Typeset by Stallion Press
Email: enquiries@stallionpress.com
Printed in Singapore
Dedication

Computational Intelligence is only possible if we have a Computer. This work is


dedicated to the inventor of the digital computer, John Vincent Atanasoff.
Contents

Introduction by the Editor


About the Editor
Acknowledgments
Prologue

Volume 1: Fuzzy Logic, Systems, Artificial Neural Networks, and


Learning Systems
Part I: Fuzzy Logic and Systems
1. Fundamentals of Fuzzy Set Theory
Fernando Gomide
2. Granular Computing
Andrzej Bargiela and Witold Pedrycz
3. Evolving Fuzzy Systems — Fundamentals, Reliability, Interpretability,
Useability, Applications
Edwin Lughofer
4. Modeling Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems
Rashmi Dutta Baruah and Diganta Baruah
5. Fuzzy Classifiers
Abdelhamid Bouchachia
6. Fuzzy Model-Based Control — Predictive and Adaptive Approaches
Igor Škrjanc and Sašo Blažič
7. Fuzzy Fault Detection and Diagnosis
Bruno Sielly Jales Costa

Part II: Artificial Neural Networks and Learning Systems


8. The ANN and Learning Systems in Brains and Machines
Leonid Perlovsky
9. Introduction to Cognitive Systems
Péter Érdi and Mihály Bányai
10. A New View on Economics with Recurrent Neural Networks
Hans-Georg Zimmermann, Ralph Grothmann and Christoph Tietz
11. Evolving Connectionist Systems for Adaptive Learning and Pattern Recognition: From
Neuro-Fuzzy-, to Spiking- and Neurogenetic
Nikola Kasabov
12. Reinforcement Learning with Applications in Automation Decision and Feedback
Control
Kyriakos G. Vamvoudakis, Frank L. Lewis and Draguna Vrabie
13. Kernel Models and Support Vector Machines
Denis Kolev, Mikhail Suvorov and Dmitry Kangin
Volume 2: Evolutionary Computation, Hybrid Systems, and Applications
Part III: Evolutionary Computation
14. History and Philosophy of Evolutionary Computation
Carlos A. Coello Coello, Carlos Segura and Gara Miranda
15. A Survey of Recent Works in Artificial Immune Systems
Guilherme Costa Silva and Dipankar Dasgupta
16. Swarm Intelligence: An Introduction, History and Applications
Fevrier Valdez
17. Memetic Algorithms
Qiangfu Zhao and Yong Liu

Part IV: Hybrid Systems


18. Multi-Objective Evolutionary Design of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems
Michela Antonelli, Pietro Ducange and Francesco Marcelloni
19. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Controllers
Oscar Castillo
20. Nature-Inspired Optimization of Fuzzy Controllers and Fuzzy Models
Radu-Emil Precup and Radu-Codru David
21. Genetic Optimization of Modular Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition with a
Granular Approach
Patricia Melin
22. Hybrid Evolutionary-, Constructive- and Evolving Fuzzy Neural Networks
Michael J. Watts and Nikola Kasabov

Part V: Applications
23. Applications of Computational Intelligence to Decision-Making: Modeling Human
Reasoning/Agreement
Simon Miller, Christian Wagner and Jonathan Garibaldi
24. Applications of Computational Intelligence to Process Industry
Jose Macias Hernández
25. Applications of Computational Intelligence to Robotics and Autonomous Systems
Adham Atyabi and Samia Nefti-Meziani
26. Selected Automotive Applications of Computational Intelligence
Mahmoud Abou-Nasr, Fazal Syed and Dimitar Filev
Index
Introduction by the Editor

The term Computational Intelligence was coined more recently (at the end of the last
century when a series of high profile conferences were organized by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) leading to the formation of the Computational
Intelligence Society within the IEEE), however, the disciplines and problems it covers
have been in existence for a much longer period of time. The very idea of developing
systems, devices, algorithms, techniques that possess characteristics of “intelligence” and
are computational (not just conceptual) dates back to the middle of the 20th century or
even earlier and is broadly associated with the so-called “artificial intelligence”. However,
“artificial intelligence” is nowadays rather linked with logic, cognition, natural language
processing, induction and so on, while “computational intelligence” has been developed in
a direction that can be described as “nature-inspired” alternatives to the
conventional/traditional computing approaches. This includes, but is not limited to:
• Fuzzy logic (as a more human-oriented approach to reasoning);
• Artificial neural networks (mimicking the human brain);
• Evolutionary algorithms (mimicking the population-based genetic evolution), and
• Dynamically evolving systems based on the above.
Some authors also attribute other areas of research such as belief-based Depmster–Shafer
theory, chaos theory, swarm and collective intelligence, etc. on the margins of
Computational Intelligence. It is also often the case that the application areas such as
pattern recognition, image processing, business and video analytics and so on are also
attributed or linked closely to Computational Intelligence; areas of research that are closer
to Statistical Learning (e.g., Support Vector Machines), probability theory, Bayesian,
Markov models etc. are also sometimes considered to be a part of Computational
Intelligence.
In this handbook, while not closing the door to all possible methods and alternatives,
we keep clear the picture of Computational Intelligence as a distinct area of research that
is based on the above mentioned pillars and we assume that the other areas are either
applications of Computational Intelligence methods, techniques or approaches or research
areas that gravitate around Statistical Learning.
The primary goal of the area of Computational Intelligence is to provide efficient
computational solutions to the existing open problems from theoretical and application
points of view in understanding, representation, modeling, visualization, reasoning,
decision, prediction, classification, analysis and control of physical objects, environmental
or social processes and phenomena to which the traditional methods, techniques and
theories (primarily, so-called “first principles”, deterministic, often expressed as
differential equations and stemming from mass-and energy-balance) cannot provide a
valid or useful/practical solution.
Another specific feature of Computational Intelligence is that it offers solutions that
bear characteristics of “intelligence” which is usually attributed to humans only. This has
to be considered broadly rather than literally as in the area of “artificial intelligence”. For
example, fuzzy logic systems can make decisions like humans do. This is in a stark
contrast with the deterministic type expert systems as well as with the probabilistic
associative rules. For artificial neural networks, one can argue that they process the data in
a manner which is more like what human Brain does. In evolutionary computation, the
population of candidate solutions “evolves” towards the optimum in a manner similar to
the way species and living organisms evolve in Nature. Finally, in dynamically evolving
systems, self-development is very much like in the real life, where we, humans, learn
individually from experience in a supervised (from parents, teachers, peers etc.) or
unsupervised (self-learning) manner. Learning from experience, we can develop a rule-
base starting from “scratch” and constantly update this rule-base by adding new rules or
removing the outdated ones; or similarly, the strengths of the links between neurons in our
brain can dynamically evolve and new areas of the brain can be activated or deactivated
(thus, dynamically evolving neural networks).
In this handbook, a mix of leading academics and practitioners in this area as well as
some of the younger generation researchers contributed to cover the main aspects of the
exciting area of Computational Intelligence. The overall structure and invitations to a
much broader circle of contributors were set up initially. After a careful peer review
process, a selected set of contributions was organized in a coherent end product aiming to
cover the main areas of Computational Intelligence; it also aims to cover both, the
theoretical basis and, at the same time, to give a flavor of the possible efficient
applications.
This handbook is composed of two volumes and five parts which contain 26 chapters.
Volume 1 includes Part I (Fuzzy Logic) and Part II (Artificial Neural Networks and
Learning Systems).
Volume 2 includes Part III (Evolutionary Computation), Part IV (Hybrid Systems) and
Part V (Applications).
In Part I, the readers can find seven chapters, including:
• Fundamentals of Fuzzy Set Theory
This chapter sets the tone with a thorough, step by step introduction to the theory of
fuzzy sets. It is written by one of the foremost experts in this area, Dr. Fernando
Gomide, Professor at University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.
• Granular Computing
Granular computing became a cornerstone of Computational Intelligence and the
chapter offers a thorough review of the problems and solutions. It is written by two of
the leading experts in this area, Dr. Andrzej Bargiela, Professor at Nottingham
University, UK (now in Christchurch University, New Zealand) and Dr. Witold Pedrycz,
Professor at University of Alberta, Canada.
• Evolving Fuzzy Systems — Fundamentals, Reliability, Interpretability, Useability,
Applications
Since its introduction around the turn of the centuries by the Editor, the area of evolving
fuzzy systems is constantly developing and this chapter offers a review of the problems
and some of the solutions. It is written by Dr. Edwin Lughofer, Key Researcher at
Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria, who quickly became one of the leading
experts in this area following an exchange of research visits with Lancaster University,
UK.
• Modeling of Fuzzy Rule-based Systems
This chapter covers the important problem of designing fuzzy systems from data. It is
written by Dr. Rashmi Dutta Baruah of Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India
and Diganta Baruah of Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India. Rashmi
recently obtained a PhD degree from Lancaster University, UK in the area of evolving
fuzzy systems.
• Fuzzy Classifiers
This chapter covers the very important problem of fuzzy rule-based classifiers and is
written by the expert in the field, Dr. Hamid Bouchachia, Associate Professor at
Bournemouth University, UK.
• Fuzzy Model based Control: Predictive and Adaptive Approach
This chapter covers the problems of fuzzy control and is written by the experts in the
area, Dr. Igor Škrjanc, Professor and Dr. Sašo Blažič, Professor at the University of
Ljubljana, Slovienia.
• Fuzzy Fault Detection and Diagnosis
This chapter is written by Dr. Bruno Costa, Professor at IFRN, Natal, Brazil who
specialized recently in Lancaster, UK.
Part II consists of six chapters, which cover:
• The ANN and Learning Systems in Brains and Machines
This chapter is written by Dr. Leonid Perlovsky from Harvard University, USA.
• Introduction to Cognitive Systems
This chapter is written by Dr. Peter Erdi, Professor at Kalamazoo College, USA, co-
authored by Dr. Mihaly Banyai (leading author) from Wigner RCP, Hungarian Academy
of Sciences.
• A New View on Economics with Recurrent Neural Networks
This chapter offers a rather specific view on the recurrent neural networks from the
point of view of their importance for modeling economic processes and is written by a
team of industry-based researchers from Siemens, Germany including Drs. Hans Georg
Zimmermann, Ralph Grothmann and Christoph Tietz.
• Evolving Connectionist Systems for Adaptive Learning and Pattern Recognition: From
Neuro-Fuzzy, to Spiking and Neurogenetic
This chapter offers a review of one of the cornerstones of Computational Intelligence,
namely, the evolving connectionist systems, and is written by the pioneer in this area Dr.
Nikola Kasabov, Professor at Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
• Reinforcement Learning with Applications in Automation Decision and Feedback
Control
This chapter offers a thorough and advanced analysis of the reinforcement learning from
the perspective of decision-making and control. It is written by one of the world’s
leading experts in this area, Dr. Frank L. Lewis, Professor at The University of Texas,
co-authored by Dr. Kyriakos Vamvoudakis from the same University (the leading
author) and Dr. Draguna Vrabie from the United Technologies Research Centre, USA.
• Kernel Models and Support Vector Machines
This chapter offers a very skilful review of one of the hottest topics in research and
applications linked to classification and related problems. It is written by a team of
young Russian researchers who are finishing their PhD studies at Lancaster University,
UK (Denis Kolev and Dmitry Kangin) and by Mikhail Suvorov. All three graduated
from leading Moscow Universities (Moscow State University and Bauman Moscow
State Technical University).
Part III consists of four chapters:
• History and Philosophy of the Evolutionary Computation
This chapter lays the basis for one of the pillars of Computational Intelligence, covering
its history and basic principles. It is written by one of the well-known experts in this
area, Dr. Carlos A. Coello-Coello from CINVESTAV, Mexico and co-authored by Dr.
Carlos Segura from the Centre of Research in Mathematics, Mexico and Dr. Gara
Miranda from the University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
• A Survey of Recent Works in Artificial Immune Systems
This chapter covers one of the important aspects of Computational Intelligence which is
associated with the Evolutionary Computation. It is written by the pioneer in the area
Dr. Dipankar Dasgupta, Professor at The University of Memphis, USA and is co-
authored by Dr. Guilherme Costa Silva from the same University who is the leading
author.
• Swarm Intelligence: An Introduction, History and Applications
This chapter covers another important aspect of Evolutionary Computation and is
written by Dr. Fevrier Valdez from The Institute of Technology, Tijuana, Mexico.
• Memetic Algorithms
This chapter reviews another important type of methods and algorithms which are
associated with the Evolutionary Computation and is written by a team of authors from
the University of Aizu, Japan led by Dr. Qiangfu Zhao who is a well-known expert in
the area of Computational Intelligence. The team also includes Drs. Yong Liu and Yan
Pei.
Part IV consists of five chapters:
• Multi-objective Evolutionary Design of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems
This chapter covers one of the areas of hybridization where Evolutionary Computation
is used as an optimization tool for automatic design of fuzzy rule-based systems from
data. It is written by the well-known expert in this area, Dr. Francesco Marcelloni,
Professor at the University of Pisa, Italy, supported by Dr. Michaela Antonelli and Dr.
Pietro Ducange from the same University.
• Bio-inspired Optimization of Type-2 Fuzzy Controllers
The chapter offers a hybrid system where a fuzzy controller of the so-called type-2 is
being optimized using a bio-inspired approach. It is written by one of the leading
experts in type-2 fuzzy systems, Dr. Oscar Castillo, Professor at The Institute of
Technology, Tijuana Mexico.
• Nature-inspired Optimization of Fuzzy Controllers and Fuzzy Models This
chapter also offers a hybrid system in which fuzzy models and controllers are being
optimized using nature-inspired optimization methods. It is written by the well-known
expert in the area of fuzzy control, Dr. Radu-Emil Precup, Professor at The Polytechnic
University of Timisoara, Romania and co-authored by Dr. Radu Codrut David.
• Genetic Optimization of Modular Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition with a
Granular Approach
This chapter describes a hybrid system whereby modular neural networks using a
granular approach are optimized by a genetic algorithm and applied for pattern
recognition. It is written by Dr. Patricia Melin, Professor at The Institute of Technology,
Tijuana, Mexico who is well-known through her work in the area of hybrid systems.
• Hybrid Evolutionary-, Constructive-, and Evolving Fuzzy Neural Networks
This is another chapter by the pioneer of evolving neural networks, Professor Dr. Nikola
Kasabov, co-authored by Dr. Michael Watts (leading author), both from Auckland, New
Zealand.
Part V includes four chapters:
• Applications of Computational Intelligence to Decision-Making: Modeling Human
Reasoning/Agreement
This chapter covers the use of Computational Intelligence in decision-making
applications, in particular, modeling human reasoning and agreement. It is authored by
the leading expert in this field, Dr. Jonathan Garibaldi, Professor at The Nottingham
University, UK and co-authored by Drs. Simon Miller (leading author) and Christian
Wagner from the same University.
• Applications of Computational Intelligence to Process Industry
This chapter offers the industry-based researcher’s point of view. Dr. Jose Juan Macias
Hernandez is leading a busy Department of Process Control at the largest oil refinery on
the Canary Islands, Spain and is also Associate Professor at the local University of La
Laguna, Tenerife.
• Applications of Computational Intelligence to Robotics and Autonomous Systems
This chapter describes applications of Computational Intelligence to the area of
Robotics and Autonomous Systems and is written by Dr. Adham Atyabi and Professor
Dr. Samia Nefti-Meziani, both from Salford University, UK.
• Selected Automotive Applications of Computational Intelligence
Last, but not least, the chapter by the pioneer of fuzzy systems area Dr. Dimitar Filev,
co-authored by his colleagues, Dr. Mahmoud Abou-Nasr (leading author) and Dr. Fazal
Sayed (all based at Ford Motors Co., Dearborn, MI, USA) offers the industry-based
leaders’ point of view.
In conclusion, this Handbook is composed with care aiming to cover all main aspects
of Computational Intelligence area of research offering solid background knowledge as
well as end-point applications from the leaders in the area supported by younger
researchers in the field. It is designed to be a one-stop-shop for interested readers, but by
no means aims to completely replace all other sources in this dynamically evolving area of
research.
Enjoy reading it.
Plamen Angelov
Lancaster, UK
About the Editor

Professor Plamen Angelov (www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/angelov) holds a


Personal Chair in Intelligent Systems and leads the Data Science
Group at Lancaster University, UK. He has PhD (1993) and Doctor
of Sciences (DSc, 2015) degrees and is a Fellow of both the IEEE
and IET, as well as a Senior Member of the International Neural
Networks Society (INNS). He is also a member of the Boards of
Governors of both bodies for the period 2014–2017. He also chairs
the Technical Committee (TC) on Evolving Intelligent Systems
within the Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society, IEEE and is a member of the TCs on
Neural Networks and on Fuzzy Systems within the Computational Intelligence Society,
IEEE. He has authored or co-authored over 200 peer-reviewed publications in leading
journals, peer-reviewed conference proceedings, five patents and a dozen books, including
two research monographs by Springer (2002) and Wiley (2012), respectively. He has an
active research portfolio in the area of data science, computational intelligence and
autonomous machine learning and internationally recognized results into online and
evolving learning and algorithms for knowledge extraction in the form of human-
intelligible fuzzy rule-based systems. Prof. Angelov leads numerous projects funded by
UK research councils, EU, industry, UK Ministry of Defence, The Royal Society, etc. His
research was recognized by ‘The Engineer Innovation and Technology 2008 Special
Award’ and ‘For outstanding Services’ (2013) by IEEE and INNS. In 2014, he was
awarded a Chair of Excellence at Carlos III University, Spain sponsored by Santander
Bank. Prof. Angelov is the founding Editor-in-Chief of Springer’s journal on Evolving
Systems and Associate Editor of the leading international scientific journals in this area,
including IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems and
half a dozen others. He was General, Program or Technical co-Chair of prime IEEE
conferences (IJCNN-2013, Dallas; SSCI2014, Orlando, WCCI2014, Beijing; IS’14,
Warsaw; IJCNN2015, Killarney; IJCNN/ WCCI2016, Vancouver; UKCI 2016, Lancaster;
WCCI2018, Rio de Janeiro) and founding General co-Chair of a series of annual IEEE
conferences on Evolving and Adaptive Intelligent Systems. He was a Visiting Professor in
Brazil, Germany, Spain, France, Bulgaria. Prof. Angelov regularly gives invited and
plenary talks at leading conferences, universities and companies.
Acknowledgments

The Editor would like to acknowledge the support of the Chair of Excellence programme
of Carlos III University, Madrid, Spain.
The Editor would also like to acknowledge the unwavering support of his family
(Rosi, Lachezar and Mariela).
Prologue

The Handbook on Computational Intelligence aims to be a one-stop-shop for the various


aspects of the broad research area of Computational Intelligence. The Handbook is
organized into five parts over two volumes:
(1) Fuzzy Sets and Systems (Vol. 1)
(2) Artificial Neural Networks and Learning Systems (Vol. 1)
(3) Evolutionary Computation (Vol. 2)
(4) Hybrid Systems (Vol. 2)
(5) Applications (Vol. 2)
In total, 26 chapters detail various aspects of the theory, methodology and applications of
Computational Intelligence. The authors of the different chapters are leading researchers
in their respective fields or “rising stars” (promising early career researchers). This mix of
experience and energy provides an invaluable source of information that is easy to read,
rich in detail, and wide in spectrum. In total, over 50 authors from 16 different countries
including USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Canada, Italy, Spain, Austria, Bulgaria, Brazil,
Russia, India, New Zealand, Hungary, Slovenia, Mexico, and Romania contributed to this
collaborative effort. The scope of the Handbook covers practically all important aspects of
the topic of Computational Intelligence and has several chapters dedicated to particular
applications written by leading industry-based or industry-linked researchers.
Preparing, compiling and editing this Handbook was an enjoyable and inspirational
experience. I hope you will also enjoy reading it and will find answers to your questions
and will use this book in your everyday work.
Plamen Angelov
Lancaster, UK
Volume 1
Part I

Fuzzy Logic and Systems


Chapter 1

Fundamentals of Fuzzy Set Theory


Fernando Gomide
The goal of this chapter is to offer a comprehensive, systematic, updated, and self-contained tutorial-like
introduction to fuzzy set theory. The notions and concepts addressed here cover the spectrum that contains, we
believe, the material deemed relevant for computational intelligence and intelligent systems theory and
applications. It starts by reviewing the very basic idea of sets, introduces the notion of a fuzzy set, and gives
the main insights and interpretations to help intuition. It proceeds with characterization of fuzzy sets,
operations and their generalizations, and ends discussing the issue of information granulation and its key
constituents.
1.1. Sets
A set is a fundamental concept in mathematics and science. Classically, a set is defined as
“any multiplicity which can be thought of as one and any totality of definite elements
which can be bound up into a whole by means of a law” or being more descriptive “any
collection into a whole M of definite and separate objects m of our intuition or our
thought” (Cantor, 1883, 1895).
Intuitively, a set may be viewed as the class M of all objects m satisfying any
particular property or defining condition. Alternatively, a set can be characterized by an
assignment scheme to define the objects of a domain that satisfy the intended property. For
instance, an indicator function or a characteristic function is a function defined on a
domain X that indicates membership of an object of X in a set A on X, having the value 1
for all elements of A and the value 0 for all elements of X not in A. The domain can be
either continuous or discrete. For instance, the closed interval [3, 7] constitutes a
continuous and bounded domain whereas the set N = {0, 1, 2,…} of natural numbers is
discrete and countable, but with no bound.
In general, a characteristic function of a set A defined in X assumes the following form

(1)

The empty set has a characteristic function that is identically equal to zero, (x) = 0
for all x in X. The domain X itself has a characteristic function that is identically equal to
one, X(x) = 1 for all x in X. Also, a singleton A = {a}, a set with only a single element, has
the characteristic function A(x) = 1 if x = a and A(x) = 0 otherwise.
Characteristic functions A : X → {0, 1} induce a constraint with well-defined
boundaries on the elements of the domain X that can be assigned to a set A.
1.2. Fuzzy Sets
The fundamental idea of a fuzzy set is to relax the rigid boundaries of the constraints
induced by characteristic functions by admitting intermediate values of class membership.
The idea is to allow assignments of intermediate values between 0 and 1 to quantify our
perception on how compatible the objects of a domain are with the class, with 0 meaning
incompatibility, complete exclusion, and 1 compatibility, complete membership.
Membership values thus express the degrees to which each object of a domain is
compatible with the properties distinctive to the class. Intermediate membership values
mean that no natural threshold exists and that elements of a universe can be a member of a
class and at the same time belong to other classes with different degrees. Gradual, less
strict membership degrees is the essence of fuzzy sets.
Formally, a fuzzy set A is described by a membership function mapping the elements
of a domain X to the unit interval [0, 1] (Zadeh, 1965)

(2)

Membership functions fully define fuzzy sets. Membership functions generalize


characteristic functions in the same way as fuzzy sets generalize sets. Fuzzy sets can be
also be seen as a set of ordered pairs of the form { x, A(x)} where x is an object of X and
A(x) is its corresponding degree of membership. For a finite domain X = {x1, x2,…, xn}, A
can be represented by an n-dimensional vector A = (a1, a2,…, an) with each component ai
= A(xi).
Being more illustrative, we may view fuzzy sets as elastic constraints imposed on the
elements of a universe. Fuzzy sets deal primarily with the concepts of elasticity,
graduality, or absence of sharply defined boundaries. In contrast, sets are concerned with
rigid boundaries, lack of graded belongingness, and sharp binary constraints. Gradual
membership means that no natural boundary exists and that some elements of the domain
can, contrary to sets, coexist (belong) to different fuzzy sets with different degrees of
membership. For instance, in Figure 1.1, x1 = 1.5 is compatible with the concept of short
and x2 = 2.0 belongs to the category of tall people, when assuming the model of sets, but
x1 simultaneously is 0.8 short and 0.2 tall and x2 simultaneously is 0.2 short and 0.8 tall
under the perspective of fuzzy sets.
Figure 1.1: Two-valued membership in characteristic functions (sets) and gradual membership represented by
membership functions (fuzzy sets).

1.2.1. Interpretation of Fuzzy Sets


In fuzzy set theory, fuzziness has a precise meaning. Fuzziness primarily means lack of
precise boundaries of a collection of objects and, as such, it is a manifestation of
imprecision and a particular type of uncertainty.
First, it is worth noting that fuzziness is both conceptually and formally different from
the fundamental concept of probability. In general, it is difficult to foresee the result of
tossing a fair coin as it is impossible to know if either head or tail will occur for certain.
We may, at most, say that there is a 50% chance to have a head or tail, but as soon as the
coin falls, uncertainty vanishes. On the contrary, when we say that a person is tall we are
not being precise, and imprecision remains independently of any event. Formally,
probability is a set function, a mapping whose universe is a set of subsets of a domain. In
contrast, fuzzy sets are membership functions, mappings from some given universe of
discourse to the unit interval.
Secondly, fuzziness, generality, and ambiguity are distinct notions. A notion is general
when it applies to a multiplicity of objects and keeps only a common essential property.
An ambiguous notion stands for several unrelated objects. Therefore, from this point of
view, fuzziness does not mean neither generality nor ambiguity and applications of fuzzy
sets exclude these categories. Fuzzy set theory assumes that the universe is well defined
and has its elements assigned to classes by means of a numerical scale.
Applications of fuzzy set in areas such as data analysis, reasoning under uncertainty,
and decision-making suggest different interpretations of membership grades in terms of
similarity, uncertainty, and preference (Dubois and Prade, 1997, 1998). Membership value
A(x) from the point of view of similarity means the degree of compatibility of an element
x ∈ X with representative elements of A. This is the primary and most intuitive
interpretation of a fuzzy set, one that is particularly suitable for data analysis. An example
is the case when we question on how to qualify an environment as comfortable when we
know that current temperature is 25°C. Such quantification is a matter of degree. For
instance, assuming a domain X = [0, 40] and choosing 20°C as representative of
comfortable temperature, we note, in Figure 1.2, that 25°C is comfortable to the degree of
0.2. In the example, we have adopted piecewise linearly decreasing functions of the
distance between temperature values and the representative value 20°C to determine the
corresponding membership degree.
Figure 1.2: Membership function for a fuzzy set of comfortable temperature.

Now, assume that the values of a variable x is such that A(x) > 0. Then given a value υ
of X, A(υ) expresses a possibility that x = υ given that x is in A is all that is known. In this
situation, the membership degree of a given tentative value υ to the class A reflects the
degree of plausibility that this value is the same as x. This idea reflects a type of
uncertainty because if the membership degree is high, our confidence about the value of x
may still be low, but if the degree is low, then the tentative value may be rejected as an
implausible candidate. The variable labeled by the class A is uncontrollable. This allows
assignment of fuzzy sets to possibility distributions as suggested in possibility theory
(Zadeh, 1978). For instance, suppose someone said he felt comfortable in an environment.
In this situation the membership degree of a given tentative temperature value, say 25°C,
reflects the degree of plausibility that this value of temperature is the same as the one
under which the individual felt comfortable. Note that the actual value of the temperature
value is unknown, but there is no question if that value of temperature did occur or not.
Possibility concerns whether an event may occur and with what degree. On the contrary,
probability concerns whether an event will occur.
Finally, assume that A reflects a preference on the values of a variable x in X. For
instance, x can be a decision variable and fuzzy set A, a flexible constraint characterizing
feasible values and decision-maker preferences. In this case A(υ) denotes the grade of
preference in favor of υ as the value of x. This interpretation prevails in fuzzy optimization
and decision analysis. For instance, we may be interested in finding a comfortable value of
temperature. The membership degree of a candidate temperature value υ reflects our
degree of satisfaction with the particular temperature value chosen. In this situation, the
choice of the value is controllable in the sense that the value being adopted depends on our
choice.

1.2.2. Rationale for Membership Functions


Generally speaking, any function A : X →[0, 1] is qualified to serve as a membership
function describing the corresponding fuzzy set. In practice, the form of the membership
functions should reflect the environment of the problem at hand for which we construct
fuzzy sets. They should mirror our perception of the concept to be modeled and used in
problem solving, the level of detail we intend to capture, and the context in which the
fuzzy set are going to be used. It is essential to assess the type of fuzzy set from the
standpoint of its suitability when handling the design and optimization issues. Given these
reasons in mind, we review the most commonly used categories of membership functions.
All of them are defined in the universe of real numbers, that is X = R.

1.2.2.1. Triangular membership function


It is described by piecewise linear segments of the form

Using more concise notation, the above expression can be written down in the form A(x, a,
m, b) = max{min[(x − a)/(m − a), (b − x)/(b − m)], 0}, as in Figure 1.3. The meaning of the
parameters is straightforward: m is the modal (typical) value of the fuzzy set while a and b
are the lower and upper bounds, respectively. They could be sought as those elements of
the domain that delineate the elements belonging to A with non-zero membership degrees.
Triangular fuzzy sets (membership functions) are the simplest possible models of
grades of membership as they are fully defined by only three parameters. The semantics of
triangular fuzzy sets reflects the knowledge of the typical value of the concept and its
spread. The linear change in the membership grades is the simplest possible model of
membership one could think of. If the derivative of the triangular membership function
could be sought as a measure of sensitivity of A, then its sensitivity is constant for each of
the linear segments of the fuzzy set.

Figure 1.3: Triangular membership function.


1.2.2.2. Trapezoidal membership function

A piecewise linear function characterized by four parameters, a, m, n, and b each of which


defines one of the four linear parts of the membership function, as in Figure 1.4. It has the
following form

We can rewrite A using an equivalent notation as follows

Figure 1.4: Trapezoidal membership function.

1.2.2.3. Γ-membership function

This function has the form

where k > 0, as in Figure 1.5.

1.2.2.4. S-membership function

The function is expressed by


The point m = (a + b)/2 is the crossover point of the S-function, as in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.5: Γ-membership function.

Figure 1.6: S-membership function.


Figure 1.7: Gaussian membership function.

1.2.2.5. Gaussian membership function

This membership function is described by the following relationship

An example of the membership function is shown in Figure 1.7. Gaussian membership


functions have two important parameters. The modal value m represents the typical
element of A while σ denotes a spread of A. Higher values of σ corresponds to larger
spreads of the fuzzy sets.

1.2.2.6. Exponential-like membership function

It has the following form, as in Figure 1.8.

The spread of the exponential-like membership function increases as the value of k gets
lower.
1.3. Characteristics of Fuzzy Sets
Given the diversity of potentially useful and semantically sound membership functions,
there are certain common characteristics or descriptors that are conceptually and
operationally useful to capture the essence of fuzzy sets. We provide next a list of the
descriptors commonly encountered in practice.

Figure 1.8: Example of the exponential-like membership function.

Figure 1.9: Examples of normal and subnormal fuzzy sets.

1.3.1. Normality
We say that the fuzzy set A is normal if its membership function attains 1, that is,

(3)

If this property does not hold, we call the fuzzy set subnormal. An illustration of the
corresponding fuzzy set is shown in Figure 1.9. The supremum (sup) in the above
expression is also referred to as a height of the fuzzy set A. Thus, the fuzzy set is normal if
hgt(A) = 1. The normality of A has a simple interpretation: by determining the height of
the fuzzy set, we identify an element of the domain whose membership degree is the
highest. The value of the height being equal to 1 states that there is at least one element in
X fully typical with respect to A and which could be sought as entirely compatible with the
semantic category presented by A. A subnormal fuzzy set has height lower than 1, viz.
hgt(A) < 1, and the degree of typicality of elements in this fuzzy set is somewhat lower
(weaker) and we cannot identify any element in X which is fully compatible with the
underlying concept. In practice, while forming a fuzzy set we expect its normality.

1.3.2. Normalization
The normalization, denoted by Norm(·), is a mechanism to convert a subnormal non-
empty fuzzy set A into its normal counterpart. This is done by dividing the original
membership function by its height

(4)

While the height describes the global property of the membership grades, the following
notions offer an interesting characterization of the elements of X regarding their
membership degrees.

1.3.3. Support
Support of a fuzzy set A, Supp(A), is a set of all elements of X with non-zero membership
degrees in A

(5)

In other words, support identifies all elements of X that exhibit some association with the
fuzzy set under consideration (by being allocated to A with non-zero membership
degrees).

1.3.4. Core
The core of a fuzzy set A, Core(A), is a set of all elements of the universe that are typical
to A: they come with unit membership grades.

(6)

The support and core are related in the sense that they identify and collect elements
belonging to the fuzzy set, yet at two different levels of membership. Given the character
of the core and support, we note that all elements of the core of A are subsumed by the
elements of the support of this fuzzy set. Note that both support and core, are sets, not
fuzzy sets. In Figure 1.10, they are intervals. We refer to them as the set-based
characterizations of fuzzy sets.
Figure 1.10: Support and core of A.

Figure 1.11: Example of α-cut and of strong α-cut.

While core and support are somewhat extreme, in the sense that they identify the
elements of A that exhibit the strongest and the weakest links with A, we may be also
interested in characterizing sets of elements that come with some intermediate
membership degrees. The notion of α-cut offers here an interesting insight into the nature
of fuzzy sets.

1.3.5. α-Cut
The α-cut of a fuzzy set A, denoted by Aα, is a set consisting of the elements of the domain
whose membership values are equal to or exceed a certain threshold level α ∈ [0, 1].
Formally Aα = {x ∈ X | A(x) ≥ α}. A strong α-cut identifies all elements in X for which
= {x ∈ X | A(x) > α}. Figure 1.11 illustrates the notion of α-cut and strong α-cut. Both
support and core are limit cases of α-cuts and strong α-cuts. From α = 0 and the strong α-
cut, we arrive at the concept of the support of A. The value α = 1 means that the
corresponding α-cut is the core of A.

1.3.6. Representation Theorem


Any fuzzy set can be viewed as a family of fuzzy sets. This is the essence of a result
known as the representation theorem. The representation theorem states that any fuzzy set
A can be decomposed into a family of α-cuts,

or, equivalently in terms of membership functions,


1.3.7. Convexity
We say that a fuzzy set is convex if its membership function satisfies the following
condition:

(7)

Relationship (7) says that, whenever we choose a point x on a line segment between x1 and
x2, the point (x, A(x)) is always located above or on the line passing through the two points
(x1, A(x1)) and (x2, A(x2)), as in Figure 1.12. Note that the membership function is not a
convex function in the conventional sense (Klir and Yuan, 1995).
The set S is convex if, for all x1, x2 ∈ S, then x = λx1 + (1 − λ)x2 ∈ S for all λ ∈ [0, 1].
Convexity means that any line segment identified by any two points in S is contained in S.
For instance, intervals of real numbers are convex sets. Therefore, if a fuzzy set is convex,
then all of its α-cuts are convex, and conversely, if a fuzzy set has all its α-cuts convex,
then it is a convex fuzzy set, as in Figure 1.13. Thus we may say that a fuzzy set is convex
if all its α-cuts are convex.
Fuzzy sets can be characterized by counting their elements and using a single numeric
quantity as a descriptor of the count. While in case of sets this sounds clear, with fuzzy
sets we have to consider different membership grades. In the simplest form this counting
comes under the name of cardinality.

Figure 1.12: Convex fuzzy set A.

Figure 1.13: Convex and non-convex fuzzy sets.

1.3.8. Cardinality
Given a fuzzy set A defined in a finite or countable universe X, its cardinality, denoted by
Card(A) is expressed as the following sum

(8)

or, alternatively, as the integral

(9)

assuming that the integral is well-defined. We also use the alternative notation Card(A) =
|A| and refer to it as a sigma count (σ-count).
The cardinality of fuzzy sets is explicitly associated with the concept of granularity of
information granules realized in this manner. More descriptively, the more the elements of
A we encounter, the higher the level of abstraction supported by A and the lower the
granularity of the construct. Higher values of cardinality come with the higher level of
abstraction (generalization) and the lower values of granularity (specificity).
So far we discussed properties of a single fuzzy set. Next we look at the
characterizations of relationships between two fuzzy sets.

1.3.9. Equality
We say that two fuzzy sets A and B defined in X are equal if and only if their membership
functions are identical, that is

(10)

Figure 1.14: Inclusion A ⊆ B.

1.3.10. Inclusion
Fuzzy set A is a subset of B (A is included in B), A ⊆ B, if and only if every element of A
also is an element of B. This property expressed in terms of membership degrees means
that the following inequality is satisfied

(11)
An illustration of these two relationships in the case of sets is shown in Figure 1.14. To
satisfy the relationship of inclusion, we require that the characteristic functions adhere to
Equation (11) for all elements of X. If the inclusion is not satisfied even for a single point
of X, the inclusion property does not hold. See (Pedrycz and Gomide, 2007) for alternative
notion of inclusion that captures the idea of degree of inclusion.

1.3.11. Specificity
Often, we face the issue to quantify how much a single element of a domain could be
viewed as a representative of a fuzzy set. If this fuzzy set is a singleton, then

(12)

and there is no hesitation in selecting xo as the sole representative of A. We say that A is


very specific and its choice comes with no hesitation. On the other extreme, if A covers the
entire domain X and has all elements with the membership grade equal to 1, the choice of
the only one representative of A becomes more problematic once it is not clear which
element to choose. These two extreme situations are shown in Figure 1.15. Intuitively, we
see that the specificity is a concept that relates with the cardinality of a set. The higher the
cardinality of the set (the more evident its abstraction) is, the lower its specificity.
One approach to quantify the notion of specificity of a fuzzy set is as follows (Yager,
1983). The specificity of a fuzzy set A defined in X, denoted by Spec(A), is a mapping
from a family of normal fuzzy sets in X into nonnegative numbers such that the following
conditions are satisfied, as in Figure 1.16.

Figure 1.15: Two extreme cases of sets with distinct levels of specificity.

Figure 1.16: Specificity of fuzzy sets: Fuzzy set A1 is less specific than A2.

1. Spec(A) = 1 if and only if there exists only one element xo of X for which A(xo) = 1 and
A(x) = 0 ∀ x ≠ xo;
2. Spec(A) = 0 if and only if A(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ X;
3. Spec(A1) ≤ Spec(A2) if A1 ⊃ A2.
A particular instance of specificity measure is (Yager, 1983)

where αmax = hgt(A). For finite domains, the integration is replaced by the sum

where Δαi = αi − αi−1 with αo = 0; m stands for the number of the membership grades of A.
1.4. Operations with Fuzzy Sets
As in set theory, we may combine fuzzy sets to produce new fuzzy sets. Generally,
combination must possess properties to match intuition, to comply with the semantics of
the intended operation, and to be flexible to fit application requirements. Next we provide
an overview of the main operations and their generalizations, interpretations, and
examples of realizations.

1.4.1. Standard Operations on Sets and Fuzzy Sets


To start, we review the familiar operations of intersection, union and complement of set
theory. Consider two sets A = {x ∈ R|1 ≤ x ≤ 3} and B = {x ∈ R|2 ≤ x ≤ 4}, closed
intervals of the real line. Their intersection is the set A ∩ B = {x ∈ R|2 ≤ x ≤ 3}. Figure
1.17 shows the intersection operation in terms of the characteristic functions of A and B.
Looking at the values of the characteristic function of A ∩ B that results when comparing
the individual values of A(x) and B(x) for each x ∈ R, we note that they correspond to the
minimum between the values of A(x) and B(x).
In general, given the characteristic functions of A and B, the characteristic function of
their intersection A ∩ B is computed using

(13)

where (A ∩ B)(x) denotes the characteristic function of the set A ∩ B.


The union of sets A and B in terms of the characteristic functions proceeds similarly. If
A and B are the same intervals as above, then A ∪ B = {x ∈ R|1 ≤ x ≤ 4}. In this case the
value of the characteristic function of the union is the maximum of corresponding values
of the characteristic functions A(x) and B(x) taken point wise, as in Figure 1.18.
Therefore, given the characteristic functions of A and B, we determine the
characteristic function of the union as

(14)

where(A ∪ B)(x) denotes the characteristic function of the set A ∪ B.

Figure 1.17: Intersection of sets in terms of their characteristic functions.


Figure 1.18: Union of two sets in terms of their characteristic functions.

Figure 1.19: Complement of a set in terms of its characteristic function.

Likewise, as Figure 1.19 suggests, the complement Ā of A, expressed in terms of its


characteristic function, is the one-complement of the characteristic function of A. For
instance, if A = {x ∈ R|1 ≤ x ≤ 3}, then Ā = {x ∈ R|4 < x < 1}.
Thus, the characteristic function of the complement of a set A is

(15)

Because sets are particular instances of fuzzy sets, the operations of intersection,
union and complement should equally well apply to fuzzy sets. Indeed, when we use
membership functions in expressions (13)–(15), these formulae serve as standard
definitions of intersection, union, and complement of fuzzy sets. Examples are shown in
Figure 1.20. Standard set and fuzzy set operations fulfill the properties of Table 1.1.
Figures 1.19 and 1.20 show that the laws of non-contradiction and excluded middle
hold for sets, but not for fuzzy sets under the standard operations. See also Table 1.2.
Particularly worth noting is a violation of the non-contradiction law once it shows the
issue of fuzziness from the point of view of the coexistence of a class and its complement,
one of the main source of fuzziness. This coexistence is impossible in set theory and
means a contradiction in conventional logic. Interestingly, if we consider a particular
subnormal fuzzy set A whose membership function is constant and equal to 0.5 for all
elements of the universe, then from Equations (13)–(15) we see that A = A ∪ Ā = A ∩ Ā =
Ā, a situation in which there is no way to distinguish the fuzzy set from its complement
and any fuzzy set that results from standard operations with them. The value 0.5 is a
crossover point representing a balance between membership and non-membership at
which we attain the highest level of fuzziness. The fuzzy set and its complement are
indiscernible.
Figure 1.20: Standard operations on fuzzy sets.

Table 1.1: Properties of operations with sets and fuzzy sets.

(1) Commutativity A ∪ B = B ∪ A
A ∩ B = B ∩ A
(2) Associativity A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C
A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C
(3) Distributivity A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)
A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)
(4) Idempotency A ∪ A = A
A ∩ A = A
(5) Boundary conditions A ∪ ϕ = A and A ∪ X = X
A ∩ ϕ = ϕ and A ∩ X = A
(6) Involution = A
(7) Transitivity if A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C, then A ⊂ C
Table 1.2: Non-contradiction and excluded middle for standard operations.

Sets Fuzzy sets


8-Non-contradiction A ∩ Ā = ϕ A ∩ Ā ≠ ϕ
9-Excluded middle A ∪ Ā = X A ∪ Ā ≠ X
As we will see next, there are types of operations for which non-contradiction and
excluded middle are recovered. While for sets these types produce the same result as the
standard operators, this is not the case with fuzzy sets. Also, A = A ∪ Ā = A ∩ Ā = Ā does
not hold for any choice of intersection, union and complement operators.
Operations on fuzzy sets concern manipulation of their membership functions.
Therefore, they are domain dependent and different contexts may require their different
realizations. For instance, since operations provide ways to combine information, they can
be performed differently in image processing, control, and diagnostic systems applications
for example. When developing realizations of intersection and union of fuzzy sets it is
useful to require commutativity, associativity, monotonicity, and identity. The last
requirement (identity) has different forms depending on the operation. For instance, the
intersection of any fuzzy set with domain X should return the fuzzy set itself. For the
union, identity implies that the union of any fuzzy set and an empty fuzzy set returns the
fuzzy set itself. Thus, in principle, any two place operator [0, 1]×[0, 1] → [0, 1] which
satisfies the collection of the requirements can be regarded as a potential candidate to
realize the intersection or union of fuzzy sets, identity acting as boundary conditions
meaning. In general, idempotency is not strictly required, however the realizations of
union and intersection could be idempotent as this happens with the minimum and
maximum operators (min [a, a] = a and max [a, a] = a).

1.4.2. Triangular Norms and Conorms


Triangular norms and conorms constitute general forms of operations for intersection and
union. While t-norms generalize intersection of fuzzy sets, t-conorms (or s-norms)
generalize the union of fuzzy sets (Klement et al., 2000).
A triangular norm is a two place operation t: [0, 1]×[0, 1] → [0, 1] that satisfies the
following properties
1. Commutativity: a t b = b t a,
2. Associativity: a t (b t c) = (a t b) t c,
3. Monotonicity: if b ≤ c then a t b ≤ a t c,
4. Boundary conditions: a t 1 = a a t 0 = 0,
where a, b, c ∈ [0, 1].
There is a one-to-one correspondence between the general requirements outlined
above and the properties of t-norms. The first three reflect the general character of set
operations. Boundary conditions stress the fact that all t-norms attain the same values at
boundaries of the unit square [0, 1] × [0, 1]. Thus, for sets, any t-norm produces the same
result.
Examples of t-norms are
Minimum: a tmb = min(a, b) = a ∧ b,
Product: a tpb = a b,
Lukasiewicz: a tlb = max(a + b − 1, 0),

Drastic product:

The minimum(tm), product(tp), Lukasiewicz(tl), and drastic product(td) operators are


shown in Figure 1.21, with examples of the union of the triangular fuzzy sets on X = [0,
8], A = (x, 1, 3, 6) and B = (x, 2.5, 5, 7).
Triangular conorms are functions s: [0, 1]×[0, 1] → [0, 1] that serve as generic
realizations of the union operator on fuzzy sets.
One can show that s: [0, 1]×[0, 1] → [0, 1] is a t-conorm if and only if there exists a t-
norm, called dual t-norm, such that for ∀ a, b ∈ [0, 1] we have
(16)

For the corresponding dual t-norm, we have

(17)

The duality expressed by Equations (16) and (17) can be viewed as alternative definition
of t-conorms. Duality allows us to deduce the properties of t-conorms on the basis of the
analogous properties of t-norms. From Equations (16) and (17), we get

and

These two relationships can be expressed symbolically as

which are the De Morgan laws. Commonly used t-conorms include


Maximum: asmb = max(a, b) = a ∨ b,
Algebraic sum: aspb = a + b − a b,
Lukasiewicz: aslb = min(a + b, 1),

Drastic sum:

The maximum(sm), algebraic sum(sp), Lukasiewicz(sl), and drastic sum(sd) operators are
shown in Figure 1.22, which also include the union of the triangular fuzzy sets on [0, 8], A
= (x, 1, 3, 6) and B = (x, 2.5, 5, 7).
The properties A ∪ Ā = X and the excluded middle hold for the drastic sum.
Figure 1.21: The (a) minimum, (b) product, (c) Lukasiewicz, (d) drastic product t-norms and the intersection of fuzzy
sets A and B.
Figure 1.22: The (a) maximum, (b) algebraic sum, (c) Lukasiewicz, (d) drastic sum s-norms and the union of fuzzy sets
A and B.

1.4.3. Triangular Norms as Categories of Logical Operators


Fuzzy propositions involve combination of linguistic statements (or their symbolic
representations) such as in
(1) temperature is high and humidity is low,
(2) velocity is low or noise level is high.
These sentences use logical operations ∧ (and), ∨ (or) to combine linguistic statements
into propositions. For instance, in the first example we have a conjunction (and, ∧) of
linguistic statements while in the second there is a disjunction (or, ∨) of the statements.
Given the truth values of each statement, the question is how to determine the truth value
of the composite statement or, equivalently, the truth value of the proposition.
Let truth (P) = p ∈ [0, 1], the truth value of proposition P. Thus, p = 0 means that the
proposition is false, while p = 1 means that P is true. Intermediate values p ∈ (0, 1)
indicate partial truth of the proposition. To compute the truth value of composite
propositions coming in the form of P ∧ Q, P ∨ Q given the truth values p and q of its
components, we have to come up with operations that transforms truth values p and q into
the corresponding truth values p ∧ q and p ∨ q. To make these operations meaningful, we
require that they satisfy some basic requirements. For instance, it is desirable that p ∧ q
and q ∧ p (similarly, p ∨ q and q ∨ p) produce the same truth values. Likewise, we require
that the truth value of (p ∧ q) ∧ r is the same as the following combination p ∧ (q ∧ r). In
other words, the conjunction and disjunction operations are commutative and associative.
Also, when the truth value of an individual statement increases, the truth values of their
combinations also increase. Moreover, if P is absolutely false, p = 0, then P ∧ Q should
also be false no matter what the truth value of Q is. Furthermore, the truth value of P ∨ Q
should coincide with the truth value of Q. On the other hand, if P is absolutely true, p = 1,
then the truth value of P ∧ Q should coincide with the truth value of Q, while P ∨ Q
should also be true. Triangular norms and conorms are the general families of logic
connectives that comply with these requirements. Triangular norms provide a general
category of logical connectives in the sense that t-norms are used to model conjunction
operators while t-conorms serve as models of disjunctions.
Let L = {P, Q,…, } be a set of single (atomic) statements P, Q,…, and truth: L → [0, 1]
a function which assigns truth values p, q,…, ∈ [0, 1] to each element of L. Thus, we have:
truth(P and Q) ≡ truth(P ∧ Q) → p ∧ q = p t q,
truth(P orQ) ≡ truth(P ∨ Q) → p ∨ q = p s q.
Table 1.3 shows examples of truth values for P, Q, P ∧ Q and P ∨ Q, when we
selected the minimum and product t-norms, and the maximum and albegraic sum t-
conorms, respectively. For p, q ∈ {0, 1}, the results coincide with the classic interpretation
of conjunction and disjunction for any choice of the triangular norm and conorm. The
differences are present when p, q ∈ (0, 1).
Table 1.3: Triangular norms as generalized logical connectives.
Table 1.4: φ operator for binary values of its arguments.

A point worth noting here concerns the interpretation of set operations in terms of
logical connectives. By being supported by the isomorphism between set theory and
propositional two-valued logic, the intersection and union can be identified with
conjunction and disjunction, respectively. This can also be realized with triangular norms
viewed as general conjunctive and disjunctive connectives within the framework of
multivalued logic (Klir and Yuan, 1995). Triangular norms also play a key role in different
types of fuzzy logic (Klement and Navarra, 1999).
Given a continuous t-norm t, let us define the following φ operator

This operation can be interpreted as an implication induced by some t-norm,

and therefore it is, like implication, an inclusion. The operator φ generalizes the classic
implication. As Table 1.4 suggests, the two-valued implication arises as a special case of
the φ operator in case when a, b ∈ {0, 1}.
Note that a φ b(a ⇒ b), returns 1, whenever a ≤ b. If we interpret these two truth values as
membership degrees, we conclude that a φ b models a multivalued inclusion relationship.

1.4.4. Aggregation of Fuzzy Sets


Several fuzzy sets can be combined (aggregated) to provide a single fuzzy set forming the
result of such an aggregation operation. For instance, when we compute intersection and
union of fuzzy sets, the result is a fuzzy set whose membership function captures the
information carried by the original fuzzy sets. This fact suggests a general view of
aggregation of fuzzy sets as a certain transformations performed on their membership
functions. In general, we encounter a wealth of aggregation operations (Dubois and Prade,
1985; Bouchon-Meunier, 1998; Calvo et al., 2002; Dubois and Prade, 2004; Beliakov et
al., 2007).
Aggregation operations are n-ary functions g: [0, 1]n → [0, 1] with the following
properties:
1. Monotonicity g(x1, x2,…, xn) ≥ g(y1, y2,…, yn) if xi > yi
2. Boundary conditions g(0, 0,…, 0) = 0
g(1, 1,…, 1) = 1.
Since triangular norms and conorms are monotonic, associative, satisfy the boundary
conditions, and then they provide a class of associative aggregation operations whose
neutral elements are equal to 1 and 0, respectively. We are, however, not restricted to those
as the only available alternatives. The following operators constitute important examples.

1.4.4.1. Averaging operations

In addition to monotonicity and the satisfaction of the boundary conditions, averaging


operations are idempotent and commutative. They can be described in terms of the
generalized mean (Dyckhoff and Pedrycz, 1984)

Generalized mean subsumes well-known averages and operators such as

The following relationship holds

Therefore, generalized means range over the values not being covered by triangular norms
and conorms.

1.4.4.2. Ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operations

OWA is a weighted sum whose arguments are ordered (Yager, 1988). Let w = [w1, w2,…,
wn]T, wi ∈ [0, 1], be weights such that
Let a sequence of membership values {A(xi)} be ordered as follows A(x1) ≤ A(x2) ≤ ··· ≤
A(xn). The family of OWA (A,w) is defined as the

By choosing certain forms of w, we can show that OWA includes several special cases of
aggregation operators mentioned before. For instance
1. If w = [1, 0,…, 0]T then OWA (A,w) = min(A(x1), A(x2),…, A(xn)),

2. If w = [0, 0,…, 1]T then OWA (A,w) = max(A(x1), A(x2),…, A(xn)),

3. If w = [1/n,…, 1/n]T then OWA = arithmetic mean.


Varying the values of the weights wi results in aggregation values located in between
minimum and maximum,

and OWA behaves as a compensatory operator, similar to the generalized mean.

1.4.4.3. Uninorms and nullnorms

Triangular norms provide one of possible ways to aggregate membership grades. By


definition, the identity elements are 1 (t-norms) and 0 (t-conorms). When used in the
aggregation operations, these elements do not affect the result of aggregation (that is, a t 1
= a and a t 0 = a).
Uninorms generalize and unify triangular norms by allowing the identity element to be
any value in the unit interval that is e ∈ (0, 1). Uninorms become t-norms when e = 1 and
t-conorms when e = 0. They exhibit some intermediate characteristics for all remaining
values of e. Therefore, uninorms share the same properties as triangular norms with the
exception of the identity (Yager and Rybalov, 1996).
A uninorm is a two place operation u: [0, 1]×[0, 1] → [0, 1] that satisfies the following
1. Commutativity: a u b = b u a,
2. Associativity: a u (b u c) = (a u b) u c,
3. Monotonicity: if b ≤ c then a u b ≤ a u c,
4. Identity: a u e = a, ∀ a ∈ [0, 1],
where a, b, c ∈ [0, 1].
Examples of uninorm include conjunctive uc and disjuntive ud forms of uninorms.
They can be obtained in terms of a t-norm t and a conorm s as follows:
(a) If (0 u 1) = 0, then

(b) If (0 u 1) = 1, then
1.5. Fuzzy Relations
Relations represent and quantify associations between objects. They provide a mechanism
to model interactions and dependencies between variables, components, modules, etc.
Fuzzy relations generalize the concept of relation in the same manner as fuzzy set
generalizes the fundamental idea of set. Fuzzy relations have applications especially in
information retrieval, pattern classification, modeling and control, diagnostics, and
decision-making.

1.5.1. Relations and Fuzzy Relations


Fuzzy relation is a generalization of the concept of relations by admitting the notion of
partial association between elements of domains. Intuitively, a fuzzy relation can be seen
as a multidimensional fuzzy set. For instance, if X and Y are two domains of interest, a
fuzzy relation R is any fuzzy subset of the Cartesian product of X and Y (Zadeh, 1971).
Equivalently, a fuzzy relation on X × Y is a mapping

The membership function of R for some pair (x, y), R(x, y) = 1, denotes that the two
objects x and y are fully related. On the other hand, R(x, y) = 0 means that these elements
are unrelated while the values in between, 0 < R(x, y) < 1, underline a partial association.
For instance, if dfs, dnf, dns, dgf are documents whose subjects concern mainly fuzzy
systems, neural fuzzy systems, neural systems and genetic fuzzy systems, with keywords
wf, wn and wg, respectively, then a relation R on D ×W , D = {dfs, dnf, dns, dgf } and W =
{wf, wn, wg} can assume the matrix form with the following entries

Since the universes are discrete, R can be represented as a 4 × 3 matrix (four documents
and three keywords) and entries are degrees of memberships. For instance R(dfs, wf) = 1
means that the document content dfs is fully compatible with the keyword wf whereas
R(dfs, wn) = 0 and R(dfs, wg) = 0.6 indicate that dfs does not mention neural systems, but
does have genetic systems as part of its content. As with relations, when X and Y are finite
with Card(X) = n and Card(Y) = m, then R can be arranged into a certain n × m matrix R =
[rij ], with rij ∈ [0, 1] being the corresponding degrees of association between xi and yj .
The basic operations on fuzzy relations, union, intersection, and complement, are
analogous to the corresponding operations on fuzzy sets once fuzzy relations are fuzzy
sets formed on multidimensional spaces. Their characterization and representation also
mimics fuzzy sets.
1.5.1.1. Cartesian product

A procedure to construct fuzzy relations is through the use of Cartesian product extended
to fuzzy sets. The concept closely follows the one adopted for sets once they involve pairs
of points of the underlying universes, added with a membership degree.
Given fuzzy sets A1, A2,…, An on the respective domains X1, X2, …,Xn, their Cartesian
product A1 × A2×···× An is a fuzzy relation R on X1×X2×···×Xn with the following
membership function
R(x1, x2,…, xn) = min{A1(x1), A2(x2),…, An(xn)}∀ x1 ∈ X1, ∀ x2 ∈ X2, …, ∀ xn ∈ Xn.
In general, we can generalize the concept of this Cartesian product using t-norms:
R(x1, x2,…, xn) = A1(x1) t A2(x2) t,…, t An(xn) ∀ x1 ∈ X1, ∀ x2 ∈ X2,…, ∀ xn ∈ Xn.

1.5.1.2. Projection of fuzzy relations


Contrasting with the concept of the Cartesian product, the idea of projection is to construct
fuzzy relations on some subspaces of the original relation.
If R is a fuzzy relation on X1 × X2 × ··· × Xn, its projection on X = Xi × X j ×···×Xk, is
a fuzzy relation RX whose membership function is (Zadeh, 1975a, 1975b)

where I = {i, j,…, k} is a subsequence of the set of indexes N = {1, 2,…, n}, and J = {t, u,
…,υ} is a subsequence of N such that I ∪ J = N and I ∩ J = . Thus, J is the complement
of I with respect to N. Notice that the above expression is computed for all values of (x1,
x2,…, xn) ∈ X1 × X2 × ··· × Xn. Figure 1.23 illustrates projection in the two-dimensional X
× Y case.

1.5.1.3. Cylindrical extension

The notion of cylindrical extension aims to expand a fuzzy set to a multidimensional


relation. In this sense, cylindrical extension can be regarded as an operation
complementary to the projection operation (Zadeh, 1975a, 1975b).
The cylindrical extension on X × Y of a fuzzy set of X is a fuzzy relation cylA whose
membership function is equal to

Figure 1.24 shows the cylindrical extension of a triangular fuzzy set A.


Figure 1.23: Fuzzy relation R and its projections on X and Y .

Figure 1.24: Cylindrical extension of a fuzzy set.


1.6. Linguistic Variables
One frequently deals with variables describing phenomena of physical or human systems
assuming a finite, quite small number of descriptors.
In contrast to the idea of numeric variables as commonly used, the notion of linguistic
variable can be understood as a variable whose values are fuzzy sets. In general, linguistic
variables may assume values consisting of words or sentences expressed in a certain
language (Zadeh, 1999a). Formally, a linguistic variable is characterized by a quintuple 〈X,
T (X), X, G, M〉 where X is the name of the variable, T (X) is a term set of X whose
elements are labels L of linguistic values of X, G is a grammar that generates the names of
X, and M is a semantic rule that assigns to each label L ∈ T (X) a meaning whose
realization is a fuzzy set on the universe X with base variable x. Figure 1.25 gives an
example.
1.7. Granulation of Data
The notion of granulation emerges as a need to abstract and summarize data to support the
processes of comprehension and decision-making. For instance, we often sample an
environment for values of attributes of state variables, but we rarely process all details
because of our physical and cognitive limitations. Quite often, just a reduced number of
variables, attributes, and values are considered because those are the only features of
interest given the task under consideration. To avoid all necessary and highly distractive
details, we require an effective abstraction procedure. Detailed numeric information is
aggregated into a format of information granules where the granules themselves are
regarded as collections of elements that are perceived as being indistinguishable, similar,
close, or functionally equivalent.

Figure 1.25: An example of the linguistic variable temperature.

Figure 1.26: Discretization, quantization, and fuzzy granulation.

There are different formalisms and concepts of information granules. For instance,
granules can be realized as sets (intervals), rough sets, probability densities (Lin, 2004).
Typical examples of the granular data are singletons and intervals. In these two special
cases we typically refer to discretization and quantization, as in Figure 1.26. As the
specificity of granules increases, intervals become singletons and in this case limit the
quantization results in a discretization process.
Fuzzy sets are examples of information granules. When talking about a family of
fuzzy sets, we are typically concerned with fuzzy partitions of X. Given the nature of
fuzzy sets, fuzzy granulation generalizes the notion of quantization as in Figure 1.26 and
emphasizes a gradual nature of transitions between neighboring information granules
(Zadeh, 1999b). When dealing with information granulation we often develop a family of
fuzzy sets and move on with the processing that inherently uses all the elements of this
families. The existing terminology refers to such collections of data granules as frames of
cognition (Pedrycz and Gomide, 2007). In what follows, we briefly review the concept
and its main properties.

1.7.1. Frame of Cognition


A frame of cognition results from information granulation when we encounter a finite
collection of fuzzy sets—information granules that represent the entire universe of
discourse and satisfy a system of semantic constraints. The frame of cognition is a notion
of particular interest in fuzzy modeling, fuzzy control, classification, and data analysis.
A frame of cognition consists of several labeled, normal fuzzy sets. Each of these
fuzzy sets is treated as a reference for further processing. A frame of cognition can be
viewed as a codebook of conceptual entities. We may view them as a family of linguistic
landmarks, say small, medium, high, etc. More formally, a frame of cognition Φ

(18)

is a collection of fuzzy sets defined in the same universe X that satisfies at least two
requirements of coverage and semantic soundness.

1.7.2. Coverage
We say that Φ covers X if any element x ∈ X is compatible with at least one fuzzy sets Ai
in Φ, i ∈ I = {1, 2,…, m} meaning that it is compatible (coincides) with Ai to some non-
zero degree, that is

(19)

Being stricter, we may require a satisfaction of the so-called δ-level coverage which means
that for any element of X, fuzzy sets are activated to a degree not lower than δ

(20)

where δ ∈ [0, 1]. From application perspective, the coverage assures that each element of
X is represented by at least one of the elements of Φ, and guarantees any absence of gaps,
that is, elements of X for which there is no fuzzy set being compatible with it.

1.7.3. Semantic Soundness


The notion of semantic soundness is more complicated and difficult to quantify. In
principle, we are interested in information granules of Φ that are meaningful. While there
is far more flexibility in a way in which a number of detailed requirements could be
structured, we may agree upon a collection of several fundamental properties.
Each Ai, i ∈ I, is a unimodal and normal fuzzy set.
Fuzzy sets Ai, i ∈ I, are disjoint enough to assure that they are sufficiently distinct to
become linguistically meaningful. This imposes a maximum degree λ of overlap between
any two elements of Φ. In other words, given any x ∈ X, there is no more than one fuzzy
set Ai such that Ai (x) ≥ λ, λ ∈ [0, 1].
The number of elements of Φ is low; following the psychological findings reported by
Miller and others we consider the number of fuzzy sets forming the frame of cognition to
be maintained in the range of 7 ± 2 items.
Coverage and semantic soundness (Oliveira, 1993) are the two essential conditions
that should be fulfilled by the membership functions of Ai to achieve interpretability. In
particular, δ-coverage and λ-overlapping induce a minimal (δ) and maximal (λ) level of
overlap between fuzzy sets, as in Figure 1.27.

Figure 1.27: Coverage and semantic soundness of a cognitive frame.

Figure 1.28: Two frames of cognition; Φ1 is coarser (more general) than Φ2.

Considering the families of linguistic labels and associated fuzzy sets embraced in a
frame of cognition, several characteristics are worth emphasizing.
1.7.3.1. Specificity

We say that the frame of cognition Φ1 is more specific than Φ2 if all the elements of Φ1
are more specific than the elements of Φ2, as in Figure 1.28. Here the specificity Spec(Ai)
of the fuzzy sets that compose the cognition frames can be evaluated as suggested in
Section 1.3. The less specific cognition frames promotes granulation realized at the higher
level of abstraction (generalization). Subsequently, we are provided with the description
that captures less details.

1.7.3.2. Granularity

Granularity of a frame of cognition relates to the granularity of fuzzy sets used there. The
higher the number of fuzzy sets in the frame is, the finer the resulting granulation.
Therefore, the frame of cognition Φ1 is finer than Φ2 if |Φ1| > |Φ2|. If the converse holds,
Φ1 is coarser than Φ2, as in Figure 1.28.

1.7.3.3. Focus of attention

A focus of attention induced by a certain fuzzy set A = Ai in Φ is defined as a certain α-cut


of this fuzzy set. By moving A along X while keeping its membership function unchanged,
we can focus attention on a certain selected region of X, as shown in Figure 1.29.

1.7.3.4. Information hiding

Information hiding is closely related to the notion of focus of attention and manifests
through a collection of elements that are hidden when viewed from the standpoint of
membership functions. By modifying the membership function of A = Ai in Φ we can
produce an equivalence of the elements positioned within some region of X. For instance,
consider a trapezoidal fuzzy set A on R and its 1-cut (core), the closed interval [a2, a3], as
depicted in Figure 1.30.

Figure 1.29: Focus of attention; two regions of focus of attention implied by the corresponding fuzzy sets.
Figure 1.30: A concept of information hiding realized by the use of trapezoidal fuzzy set A. Points in [a2, a3] are made
indistinguishable. The effect of information hiding is not present in case of triangular fuzzy set B.

All points within the interval [a2, a3] are made indistinguishable and through the use
of this specific fuzzy set they are made equivalent. Hence, more detailed information, a
position of a certain point falling within this interval, is hidden. In general, by increasing
or decreasing the level of the α-cut, we can accomplish a so-called α-information hiding
through normalization.
1.8. Conclusion
The chapter has summarized the fundamental notions and concepts of fuzzy set theory.
The goal was to offer basic and key contents of interest for computational intelligence and
intelligent systems theory and applications. Currently, a number of outstanding books and
journals are available to help researchers, scientists and engineers to master the fuzzy set
theory and the contributions it brings to develop new approaches through hybridizations
and new applications. The references section includes some of them. The remaining
chapters of this book provide the readers with a clear picture of the current state of the art
in the area.
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Springer.
Calvo, T., Kolesárová, A., Komorníková, M. and Mesiar, R. (2002). Aggregation Operators: Properties, Classes and
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Verlag.
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Jersey, USA: Wiley Intercience.
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Zadeh, L. (1965). Fuzzy sets. Inf. Control, 8, pp. 338–353.
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Chapter 2

Granular Computing
Andrzej Bargiela and Witold Pedrycz
Research into human-centered information processing, as evidenced through the development of fuzzy sets
and fuzzy logic, has brought an additional insight into the transformative nature of the aggregation of
inaccurate and/or fuzzy information in terms of the semantic content of data aggregates. This insight has led to
the suggestion of the development of the granular computing (GrC) paradigm some 15 years ago and takes as a
point of departure, an empirical validation of the aggregated data in order to achieve the closest possible
correspondence of the semantics of data aggregates and the entities in the problem domain. Indeed, it can be
observed that information abstraction combined with empirical validation of abstractions has been deployed as
a methodological tool in various scientific disciplines. This chapter is focused on exploring the foundations of
GrC and casting it as a structured combination of algorithmic and non-algorithmic information processing that
mimics human, intelligent synthesis of knowledge from imprecise and/or fuzzy information.
2.1. Introduction
Granular Computing (GrC) is frequently defined in an informal way as a general
computation theory for effectively using granules such as classes, clusters, subsets,
groups, and intervals to build an efficient computational model for complex applications
which process large volumes of information presented as either raw data or aggregated
problem domain knowledge. Though the GrC term is relatively recent, the basic notions
and principles of granular computing have appeared under different names in many related
fields, such as information hiding in programming, granularity in artificial intelligence,
divide and conquer in theoretical computer science, interval computing, cluster analysis,
fuzzy and rough set theories, neutrosophic computing, quotient space theory, belief
functions, machine learning, databases, and many others. In the past few years, we have
witnessed a renewed and fast growing interest in GrC. GrC has begun to play important
roles in bioinformatics, e-Business, security, machine learning, data mining, high-
performance computing, and wireless mobile computing in terms of efficiency,
effectiveness, robustness and structured representation of uncertainty.
With the vigorous research interest in the GrC paradigm (Bargiela and Pedrycz,
2002a, 2002b, 2003, 2005a, 2005b; Bargiela, 2004; Bargiela et al., 2004a, 2004b;
Inuiguchi et al., 2003; Lin, 1998; Lin et al., 2002; Pedrycz, 1989; Pedrycz and Gomide,
1998; Pedrycz et al., 2000; Pedrycz and Bargiela, 2002; Skowron and Stepaniuk, 2001;
Yao and Yao, 2002; Yao, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; Zadeh, 1965, 1979, 1997, 2002; Dubois et
al., 1997), it is natural to see that there are voices calling for clarification of the
distinctiveness of GrC from the underpinning constituent disciplines and from other
computational paradigms proposed for large-scale/complex information possessing
Pawlak (1991). Recent contributions by Yao and Yao (2002), Yao (2004a, 2004b, 2005)
attempt to bring together various insights into GrC from a broad spectrum of disciplines
and cast the GrC framework as a structured thinking at the philosophical level and
structured problem solving at the practical level.
In this chapter, we elaborate on our earlier proposal (Bargiela and Pedrycz, 2006) and
look at the roots of GrC in the light of the original insight of Zadeh (1997) stating, “…
fuzzy information granulation in an intuitive form underlies human problem solving …”.
We suggest that the human problem solving has strong foundations in axiomatic set theory
and theory of computability and it underlies some recent research results linking
intelligence to physical computation (Bains, 2003, 2005). In fact, re-examining human
information processing in this light brings GrC from a domain of computation and
philosophy to one of physics and set theory.
The set theoretic perspective on GrC adopted in this chapter offers also a good basis
for the evaluation of other human-centered computing paradigms such as the generalized
constraint-based computation recently communicated by Zadeh.
2.2. Set Theoretical Interpretation of Granulation
The commonly accepted definition of granulation introduced in Inuiguchi et al. (2003),
Lin et al. (2002), and Yao (2004a) is:
Definition 1: Information granulation is a grouping of elements based on their
indistinguishability, similarity, proximity or functionality.
This definition serves well the purpose of constructive generation of granules but it does
little to differentiate granulation from clustering. More importantly however, Definition 1
implies that the nature of information granules is fully captured by their interpretation as
subsets of the original dataset within the Intuitive Set Theory of Cantor (1879).
Unfortunately, an inevitable consequence of that is that the inconsistencies (paradoxes)
associated with intuitive set theory, such as “cardinality of set of all sets” (Cantor, 1879) or
“definition of a set that is not a member of itself” (Russel, 1937) are imported into the
domain of information granulation.
In order to provide a more robust definition of information granulation we follow the
approach adopted in the development of axiomatic set theory. The key realization there
was that the commonly accepted intuition, that one can form any set one wants, should be
questioned. Accepting the departure point of intuitive set theory we can say that, normally,
sets are not members of themselves, i.e., normally, ∼(y in y). But, the axioms of intuitive
set theory do not exclude the existence of “abnormal” sets, which are members of
themselves. So, if we consider a set of all “normal” sets: x = {y| ∼ (y in y)} we can
axiomatically guarantee the existence of set x:

If we then substitute x for y, we arrive at a contradiction:

So, the unrestricted comprehension axiom of the intuitive set theory leads to
contradictions and cannot therefore serve as a foundation of set theory.

2.2.1. Zermelo–Fraenkel (ZF) Axiomatization


An early attempt at overcoming the above contradiction was an axiomatic scheme
developed by Ernst Zermelo and Abraham Fraenkel (Zermelo, 1908). Their idea was to
restrict the comprehension axiom schema by adopting only those instances of it, which are
necessary for reconstruction of common mathematics. In other words, the standard
approach, of using a formula F(y) to collect the set y having the property F, leads to
generation of an object that is not a set (otherwise we arrive at a contradiction). So,
looking at the problem the other way, they have concluded that the contradiction
constitutes a de-facto proof that there are other semantical entities in addition to sets.
The important observation that we can make here is that the semantical transformation
of sets through the process of applying some set-forming formula applies also to the
process of information granulation and consequently, information granules should be
considered as being semantically distinct from the granulated entities. We therefore arrive
at a modified definition of information granulation as follows:
Definition 2: Information granulation is a semantically meaningful grouping of elements
based on their indistinguishability, similarity, proximity or functionality.
Continuing with the ZF approach we must legalize some collections of sets that are
not sets. Let F(y, z1, z2,…, zn) be a formula in the language of set theory (where z1, z2,…, zn
are optional parameters). We can say that for any values of parameters z1, z2,…, zn the
formula F defines a “class” A

which consists of all y’s possessing the property F. Different values of z1, z2,…, zn give
rise to different classes. Consequently, the axiomatization of set theory involves
formulation of axiom schemas that represent possible instances of axioms for different
classes.
The following is a full set of axioms of the ZF set theory:
Z1, Extensionality:

Asserts that if sets x and y have the same members, the sets are identical.
Z2, Null Set:

Asserts that there is a unique empty set.


Z3, Pair Set:

Asserts that for any set x and y, there exists a pair set of x and y, i.e., a set that has only x
and y as members.
Z4, Unions:

Asserts that for any set x there is a set y containing every set that is a member of some
member of x.
Z5, Power Set:
Asserts that for any set x, there is a set y which contains as members all those sets whose
members are also elements of x, i.e., y contains all of the subsets of x.
Z6, Infinite Set:

Asserts that there is a set x which contains Ø as a member and which is such that,
whenever y is a member of x, then y ∪{y} isamember of x.
Z7, Regularity:

Asserts that every set is “well-founded”, i.e., it rules out the existence of circular chains of
sets as well as infinitely descending chains of sets. A member y of a set x with this
property is called a “minimal” element.
Z8, Replacement Schema:

Asserts that given a formula F(x, y) and Fx,y[s, r] as a result of substituting s and r for x
and y, every instance of the above axiom schema is an axiom. In other words, given a
functional formula F and a set u we can form a new set υ by collecting all of the sets to
which the members of u are uniquely related by F. It is important to note that elements of
υ need not be elements of u.
Z9, Separation Schema:

Asserts that there exists a set υ which has as members precisely the members of u which
satisfy the formula F. Again, every instance of the above axiom schema is an axiom.
Unfortunately, the presence of the two axiom schemas, Z6 and Z7, implies infinite
axiomatization of the ZF set theory. While it is fully acknowledged that the ZF set theory,
and its many variants, has advanced our understanding of cardinal and ordinal numbers
and has led to the proof of the property of “well-ordering” of sets (with the help of an
additional “Axiom of Choice”) (ZFC), the theory seems unduly complex for the purpose
of set-theoretical interpretation of information granules.

2.2.2. von Neumann–Bernays–Goedel (NBG) Axiomatization


A different approach to the axiomatization of set theory designed to yield the same results
as ZF but with a finite number of axioms (i.e., without the reliance on axiom schemas) has
been proposed by von Neumann in 1920 and subsequently has been refined by Bernays in
1937 and Goedel in 1940 (Goedel, 1940). The defining aspect of NBG set theory is the
introduction of the concept of “proper class” among its objects. NBG and ZFC are very
closely related and, in fact, NBG is a conservative extension of ZFC.
In NBG, the proper classes are differentiated from sets by the fact that they do not
belong to other classes. Thus, in NBG we have

which can be phrased as x is a set if it belongs to either a set or a class.


The basic observation that can be made about NBG is that it is essentially a two-sorted
theory; it involves sets (denoted here by lower-case letters) and classes (denoted by upper-
case letters). Consequently, the above statement about membership assumes one of the
forms

and statements about equality are in the form

Using this notation, the axioms of NBG are as follows


N1, Class Extensionality:

Asserts that classes with the same elements are the same.
N2, Set Extensionality:

Asserts that sets with the same elements are the same.
N3, Pairing:

Asserts that for any set x and y, there exists a set {x, y} that has exactly two elements x and
y. It is worth noting that this axiom allows definition of ordered pairs and taken together
with the Class Comprehension axiom, it allows implementation of relations on sets as
classes.
N4, Union:
Asserts that for any set x, there exists a set which contains exactly the elements of x.
N5, Power Set:

Asserts that for any set x, there is a set which contains exactly the subsets of x.
N6, Infinite Set:

Asserts there is a set x, which contains an empty set as an element and contains y ∪{y} for
each of its elements y.
N7, Regularity:

Asserts that each non-empty set is disjoined from one of its elements.
N8, Limitation of size:

Asserts that if the cardinality of x equals to the cardinality of the set theoretic universe V, x
is not a set but a proper class. This axiom can be shown to be equivalent to the axioms of
Regularity, Replacement and Separation in NBG. Thus the classes that are proper in NBG
are in a very clear sense big, while sets are small.
It should be appreciated that the latter has a very profound implication on
computation, which processes proper classes. This is because the classes built over
countable sets can be uncountable and, as such, do not satisfy the constraints of the
formalism of the Universal Turing Machine.
N9, Class Comprehension schema:
Unlike in the ZF axiomatization, this schema consists of a finite set of axioms (thus giving
finite axiomatization of NBG).
Axiom of Sets: For any set x, there is a class X such that x = X.
Axiom of Complement: For any class X, the complement V − X = {x | x ∉ X}
Axiom of Intersection: For any class Xand Y the intersection X ∩ Y = {x | x ∈ X ∧ x
∈ Y } is a class.
Axiom of Products: For any classes X and Y, the class X × Y = {(x, y) | x ∈ X ∧x ∈ Y
} is a class. This axiom provides actually for more than what is needed for
representing relations on classes. What is actually needed is just that V × Y is a class.
Axiom of Converses: For any class X, the classes Conv1(X) = {(y, x) | (x, y) ∈ X}
and Conv2(X) = {(y,(x, z)) | (x,(y, z)) ∈ X} exist.
Axiom of Association: For any class X, the classes Assoc1(X) = {((x, y), z) | (x,(y, z))
∈ X} and Assoc2(X) = {(w, (x,(y, z))) | (w, ((x, y), z)) ∈ X} exist.
Axiom of Ranges: For any class X, the class Rng(X) = {y | (∃x(x, y) ∈ X} exists.
Axiom of Membership: The class [∈] = {(x, y) | x ∈ y} exists.
Axiom of Diagonal: The class [=] = {(x, y) | x = y} exists. This axiom can be used to
build a relation asserting the equality of any two of its arguments and consequently
used to handle repeated variables.
With the above finite axiomatization, the NBG theory can be adopted as a set theoretical
basis for GrC. Such a formal framework prompts a powerful insight into the essence of
granulation namely that the granulation process transforms the semantics of the
granulated entities, mirroring the semantical distinction between sets and classes.
The semantics of granules is derived from the domain that has, in general, higher
cardinality than the cardinality of the granulated sets. Although, at first, it might be a bit
surprising to see that such a semantical transformation is an essential part of information
granulation, in fact, we can point to a common framework of many scientific disciplines
which have evolved by abstracting from details inherent to the underpinning scientific
discipline and developing a vocabulary of terms (proper classes) that have been verified
by the reference to real-life (ultimately to the laws of physics). An example of granulation
of detailed information into semantically meaningful granules might be the consideration
of cells and organisms in Biology rather than consideration of molecules, atoms or sub-
atomic particles when studying the physiology of living organisms.
The operation on classes in NBG is entirely consistent with the operation on sets in the
intuitive set theory. The principle of abstraction implies that classes can be formed out of
any statement of the predicate calculus, with the membership relation. Notions of equality,
pairing and such, are thus matters of definitions (a specific abstraction of a formula) and
not of axioms. In NBG, a set represents a class if every element of the set is an element of
the class. Consequently, there are classes that do not have representations.
We suggest therefore that the advantage of adopting NBG as a set theoretical basis for
GrC is that it provides a framework within which one can discuss a hierarchy of different
granulations without running the risk of inconsistency. For instance, one can denote a
“large category” as a category of granules whose collection and collection of morphisms
can be represented by a class. A “small category” can be denoted as a category of granules
contained in sets. Thus, we can speak of “category of all small categories” (which is a
“large category”) without the risk of inconsistency.
A similar framework for a set-theoretical representation of granulation is offered by
the theory of types published by Russell in 1937 (Russell, 1937). The theory assumes a
linear hierarchy of types: with type 0 consisting of objects of undecided type and, for each
natural number n, type n+1 objects are sets of type n objects. The conclusions that can be
drawn from this framework with respect to the nature of granulation are exactly the same
as that drawn from the NBG.

2.2.3. Mereology
An alternative framework for the formalization of GrC, that of mereology, has been
proposed by other researchers. The roots of mereology can be traced to the work of
Edmund Husserl (Husserl, 1901) and to the subsequent work of Polish mathematician,
Stanislaw Lesniewski, in the late 1920s (Lesniewski, 1929a, 1929b). Much of this work
was motivated by the same concerns about the intuitive set theory that have spurred the
development of axiomatic set theories (ZF, NBG and others) (Goedel, 1940; Zermelo,
1908).
Mereology replaces talk about “sets” with talk about “sums” of objects, objects being
no more than the various things that make up wholes. However, such a simple replacement
results in an “intuitive mereology” that is analogous to “intuitive set theory”. Such
“intuitive mereology” suffers from paradoxes analogous to Russell’s paradox (we can ask:
If there is an object whose parts are all the objects that are not parts of themselves; is it a
part of itself?). So, one has to conclude that the mere introduction of the mereological
concept of “partness” and “wholeness” is not sufficient and that mereology requires
axiomatic formulation.
Axiomatic formulation of mereology has been proposed as a first-order theory whose
universe of discourse consists of wholes and their respective parts, collectively called
objects (Simons, 1987; Tarski, 1983). A mereological system requires at least one
primitive relation, e.g., dyadic Parthood, x is a part of y, written as Pxy. Parthood is nearly
always assumed to partially order the universe. An immediate defined predicate is x is a
proper part of y, written PPxy, which holds if Pxy is true and Pyx is false. An object
lacking proper parts is an atom. The mereological universe consists of all objects we wish
to consider and all of their proper parts. Two other predicates commonly defined in
mereology are Overlap and Underlap. These are defined as follows:
— Oxy is an overlap of x and y if there exists an object z such that Pzx and Pzy both hold.
— Uxy is an underlap of x and y if there exists an object z such that xand y are both parts
of z (Pxz and Pyz hold).
With the above predicates, axiomatic mereology defines the following axioms:
M1, Parthood is Reflexive: Asserts that object is part of itself.
M2, Parthood is Antisymmetric: Asserts that if Pxy and Pyx both hold, then x and y are
the same object.
M3, Parthood is Transitive: Asserts that if Pxy and Pyz hold then Pxz hold.
M4, Weak Supplementation: Asserts that if PPxy holds, there exists z such that Pzy
holds but Ozx does not.
M5, Strong Supplementation: Asserts that if Pyx does not holds, there exists z such that
Pzy holds but Ozx does not.
M5a, Atomistic Supplementation: Asserts that if Pxy does not hold, then there exists an
atom z such that Pzx holds but Ozy does not.
Top: Asserts that there exists a “universal object”, designated W, such that PxW
holds for any x.
Bottom: Asserts that there exists an atomic “null object”, designated N, such that
PNx hold for any x.
M6, Sum: Asserts that if Uxy holds, there exists z, called the “sum of x and y”, such that
the parts of z are just those objects which are parts of either x or y.
M7, Product: Asserts that if Oxy holds, there exists z, called the “Product of x and y”,
such that the parts of z are just those objects which are parts of both x and y.
M8, Unrestricted Fusion: Let f be a first order formula having one free variable. Then the
fusion of all objects satisfying f exists.
M9, Atomicity: Asserts that all objects are either atoms or fusions of atoms.
It is clear that if “parthood” in mereology is taken as corresponding to “subset” in set
theory, there is some analogy between the above axioms of classical extensional
mereology and those of standard ZF set theory. However, there are some philosophical and
common sense objections to some of the above axioms; e.g., transitivity of Parthood (M3).
Also, the set of above axioms is not minimal since it is possible to derive Weak
Supplementation axiom (M4) from Strong Supplementation axiom (M5).
Axiom M6 implies that if the universe is finite or if Top is assumed, then the universe
is closed under sum. Universal closure of product and of supplementation relative to W
requires Bottom. W and N are evidently the mereological equivalents of the universal and
the null sets. Because sum and product are binary operations, M6 and M7 admit the sum
and product of only a finite number of objects. The fusion axiom, M8, enables taking the
sum of infinitely many objects. The same holds for product. If M8 holds, then W exists for
infinite universes. Hence, Top needs to be assumed only if the universe is infinite and M8
does not hold. It is somewhat strange that while the Top axiom (postulating W) is not
controversial, the Bottom axiom (postulating N) is. Lesniewski rejected Bottom axiom and
most mereological systems follow his example. Hence, while the universe is closed under
sum, the product of objects that do not overlap is typically undefined. Such defined
mereology is equivalent to Boolean algebra lacking a 0. Postulating N generates
mereology in which all possible products are definable but it also transforms extensional
mereology into a Boolean algebra without a null-element (Tarski, 1983).
The full mathematical analysis of the theories of parthood is beyond the intended
scope of this chapter and the reader is referred to the recent publication by Pontow and
Schubert (2006) in which the authors prove, by set theoretical means, that there exists a
model of general extensional mereology where arbitrary summation of attributes is not
possible. However, it is clear from the axiomatization above that the question about the
existence of a universal entity containing all other entities and the question about the
existence of an empty entity as part of all existing entities are answered very differently by
set theory and mereology. In set theory, the existence of a universal entity is contradictory
and the existence of an empty set is mandatory, while in mereology the existence of a
universal set is stipulated by the respective fusion axioms and the existence of an empty
entity is denied. Also, it is worth noting that in mereology there is no straightforward
analog to the set theoretical is-element-of relation (Pontow and Schubert, 2006).
So taking into account the above, we suggest the following answer to the underlying
questions of this section: Why granulation is necessary? Why the set-theoretical
representation of granulation is appropriate?
— The concept of granulation is necessary to denote the semantical transformation of
granulated entities in a way that is analogous to semantical transformation of sets into
classes in axiomatic set theory;
— Granulation interpreted in the context of axiomatic set theory is very different from
clustering, since it deals with semantical transformation of data and not limits itself to
a mere grouping of similar entities; and
— The set-theoretical interpretation of granulation enables consistent representation of a
hierarchy of information granules.
2.3. Abstraction and Computation
Having established an argument for semantical dimension to granulation, one may ask;
how is the meaning (semantics) instilled into real-life information granules? Is the
meaning instilled through an algorithmic processing of constituent entities or is it a feature
that is independent of algorithmic processing?
The answers to these questions are hinted by von Neumann’s limitation of size
principle, mentioned in the previous section, and are more fully informed by Turing’s
theoretical model of computation. In his original paper, Turing (1936), he has defined
computation as an automatic version of doing what people do when they manipulate
numbers and symbols on paper. He proposed a conceptual model which included: (a) an
arbitrarily long tape from which one could read as many symbols as needed (from a
countable set); (b) means to read and write those symbols; (c) a countable set of states
storing information about the completed processing of symbols; and (d) a countable set of
rules that governed what should be done for various combinations of input and system
state. A physical instantiation of computation, envisaged by Turing, was a human operator
(called computer) who was compelled to obey the rules (a)–(d) above. There are several
important implications of Turing’s definition of computation. First, the model implies that
computation explores only a subset of capabilities of human information processing.
Second, the constraint that the input and output is strictly symbolic (with symbols drawn
from a countable set) implies that the computer does not interact directly with the
environment. These are critical limitations meaning that Turing’s computer on its own is
unable (by definition) to respond to external, physical stimuli. Consequently, it is not just
wrong but essentially meaningless to speculate on the ability of Turing machines to
perform human-like intelligent interactions with the real world.
To phrase it in mathematical terms, the general form of computation, formalized as a
Universal Turing Machine (UTM), is defined as mapping of sets that have at most
cardinality N0 (infinite, countable) onto sets with cardinality N0. The practical instances of
information processing, such as clustering of data, typically involve a finite number of
elements both in the input and output sets and represent therefore a more manageable
mapping of a finite set with cardinality max1 onto another finite set with cardinality max2.
The hierarchy of computable clustering can be therefore represented as in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Cardinality of sets in a hierarchy of clustering implemented on UTM.

The functions F1(x1) → x2, F2(x2) → x3, F3(x3) → x4 represent mappings of


— infinite (countable) input set onto infinite (countable) output set;
— infinite (countable) input set onto finite output set; and
— finite input set onto finite output set, respectively.
The functional mappings, deployed in the process of clustering, reflect the criteria of
similarity, proximity or indistinguishability of elements in the input set and, on this basis,
grouping them together into a separate entity to be placed in the output set. In other words,
the functional mappings generate data abstractions on the basis of pre-defined criteria and
consequently represent UTM computation. However, we need to understand how these
criteria are selected and how they are decided to be appropriate in any specific
circumstance. Clearly, there are many ways of defining similarity, proximity or
indistinguishability. Some of these definitions are likely to have good real-world
interpretation, while others may be difficult to interpret or indeed may lead to physically
meaningless results.
We suggest that the process of instilling the real-world interpretation into data
structures generated by functional mappings F1(x1) → x2, F2(x2) → x3, F3(x3) → x4,
involves reference to the real-world, as illustrated in Figure 2.2. This is represented as
execution of “experimentation” functions E∗(x0). These functions map the real-world
domain x0, which has cardinality N1 (infinite, continuum), onto sets x1, x2, x3, x4,
respectively.
At this point, it is important to underline that the experimentation functions E1(x0) →
x1, E2(x0) → x2, E3(x0) → x3, E4(x0) → x4, are not computational, in UTM sense, because
their domain have cardinality N1. So, the process of defining the criteria for data
clustering, and implicitly instilling the meaning into information granules, relies on the
laws of physics and not on the mathematical model of computation. Furthermore, the
results of experimentation do not depend on whether the experimenter understands or is
even aware of the laws of physics. It is precisely because of the fact that we consider the
experimentation functions as providing objective evidence.

Figure 2.2: Mapping of abstractions from the real-world domain (cardinality N1) onto the sets of clusters.
2.4. Experimentation as a Physical Computation
Recent research (Siegelmann, 1999) has demonstrated that analog computation, in the
form of recurrent analog neural networks (RANN) can exceed the abilities of a UTM, if
the weights in such neural networks are allowed to take continuous rather than discrete
weights. While this result is significant in itself, it relies on the assumptions about the
continuity of parameters that are difficult to verify. So, although the brain looks
remarkably like a RANN, drawing any conclusions about the hyper-computational
abilities of the brain, purely on the grounds of structural similarities, leads to the same
questions about the validity of the assumptions about continuity of weights. Of course, this
is not to say that these assumptions are not valid, they may well be valid, but we just
highlight that this has not been demonstrated yet in a conclusive way.
A pragmatic approach to bridging the gap between the theoretical model of hyper-
computation, as offered by RANN, and the human, intelligent information processing
(which by definition is hyper-computational) has been proposed by Bains (2003, 2005).
Her suggestion was to reverse the original question about hyper-computational ability of
systems and to ask: if the behavior of physical systems cannot be replicated using Turing
machines, how can they be replicated? The answer to this question is surprisingly simple:
we can use inherent computational ability of physical phenomena in conjunction with the
numerical information processing ability of UTM. In other words, the readiness to refine
numerical computations in the light of objective evidence coming from a real-life
experiment, instills the ability to overcome limitations of the Turing machine. We have
advocated this approach in our earlier work (Bargiela, 2004), and have argued that the
hyper-computational power of GrC is equivalent to “keeping open mind” in intelligent,
human information processing.
In what follows, we describe the model of physical computation, as proposed in Bains
(2003), and cast it in the framework of GrC.

2.4.1. A Model of Physical Computation


We define a system under consideration as an identifiable collection of connected
elements. A system is said to be embodied if it occupies a definable volume and has a
collective contiguous boundary. In particular, a UTM with its collection of input/output
(I/O) data, states and collection of rules, implementing some information processing
algorithm, can be considered a system G whose physical instantiations may refer to
specific I/O, processing and storage devices as well as specific energy states. The matter,
space and energy outside the boundaries of the embodied system are collectively called
the physical environment and will be denoted here by P.
A sensor is any part of the system that can be changed by physical influences from the
environment. Any forces, fields, energy, matter, etc., that may be impinging on the system,
are collectively called the sensor input (i ∈ X), even where no explicitly-defined sensors
exist.
An actuator is any part of the system that can change the environment. Physical
changes to the embodied system that manifest themselves externally (e.g., emission of
energy, change of position, etc.) are collectively called the actuator output (h ∈ Y) of G. A
coupled pair of sensor input it and actuator output ht represents an instance of
experimentation at time t and is denoted here as Et .
Since the system G, considered in this study, is a computational system (modeled by
UTM) and since the objective of the evolution of this system is to mimic human intelligent
information processing we will define Gt as the computational intelligence function
performed by the embodied system G. Function Gt maps the I/O at specific time instances
t, resolved with arbitrarily small accuracy δt > 0, so as not to preclude the possibility of a
continuous physical time. We can thus formally define the computational intelligence
function as

In the proposed physical model of computation, we stipulate that Gt causes only an


immediate output in response to an immediate input. This stipulation does not prevent one
from implementing some plan over time but it implies that a controller that would be
necessary to implement such plan is part of the intelligence function. The adaptation of Gt
in response to evolving input it can be described by the computational learning function,
LG : LG (Gt, it) → Gt+δt.
Considering now the impact of the system behavior on the environment we can define
the environment reaction function mapping system output h (environment input) to
environment output i (system input) as

The adaptation of the environment P over time can be described by the environment
learning function, LP : LP (Pt, ht) → Pt+δt.

2.4.2. Physical Interaction between P and G


The interaction between the system G and its physical environment P may be considered
to fall into one of the two classes: real interaction and virtual interaction. Real interaction
is a pure physical process in which the output from the environment P is in its entirety
forwarded as an input to the system G and conversely the output from G is fully utilized as
input to P.
Figure 2.3: Evolution of a system in an experiment with physical interaction.

Referring to the notation in Figure 2.3, real interaction is one in which ht = and it =
for all time instances t. Unfortunately, this type of interaction does not accept the
limitations of the UTM, namely, the processing of only a pre-defined set of symbols rather
than a full spectrum of responses from the environment. Consequently, this type of
interaction places too high demands on the information processing capabilities of G and,
in practical terms, is limited to interaction of physical objects as governed by the laws of
physics. In other words the intelligence function and its implementation are one and the
same.

2.4.3. Virtual Interaction


An alternative mode of interaction is virtual interaction, which is mediated by symbolic
representation of information. Here, we use the term symbol as it is defined in the context
of UTM: a letter or sign taken from a finite alphabet to allow distinguishability.
We define Vt as the virtual computational intelligence function, analogous to Gt in
terms of information processing, and as the complementary computational intelligence
function, analogous to Gt in terms of communication with the physical environment. With
the above definitions, we can lift some major constraints of physical interactions, with
important consequences. The complementary function can implement an interface to the
environment, filtering real-life information input from the environment and facilitating
transfer of actuator output, while the virtual intelligence function Vt can implement UTM
processing of the filtered information. This means that it does not need to be equal to
and ht does not need to be equal to . In other words, I/O may be considered selectively
rather than in their totality. The implication being that many physically distinguishable
states may have the same symbolic representation at the virtual computational intelligence
function level. The relationship between the two components of the computational
intelligence is illustrated in Figure 2.4.
Figure 2.4: Evolution of a system in an experiment with virtual interaction.

Figure 2.5: The paradigm of computing with perceptions within the framework of virtual interaction.

It should be pointed out that typically we think of the complementary function as


some mechanical or electronic device (utilizing the laws of physics in its interaction with
the environment) but a broader interpretation that includes human perception, as discussed
by Zadeh (1997), is entirely consistent with the above model. In this broader context, the
UTM implementing the virtual computational intelligence function can be referred to as
computing with perceptions or computing with words (see Figure 2.5).
Another important implication of the virtual interaction model is that V and P need not
have any kind of conserved relationship. This is because only range/modality of subsets of
and attach to V and these subsets are defined by the choice of sensor/actuator
modalities. So, we can focus on the choice of modalities, within the complementary
computational intelligence function, as a mechanism through which one can exercise the
assignment of semantics to both I/O of the virtual intelligence function. To put it
informally, the complementary function is a facility for defining a “language” in which we
chose to communicate with the real world.
Of course, to make the optimal choice (one that allows undistorted perception and
interaction with the physical environment), it would be necessary to have a complete
knowledge of the physical environment. So, in its very nature the process of defining the
semantics of I/O of the virtual intelligence function is iterative and involves evolution of
our understanding of the physical environment.
2.5. Granular Computation
An important conclusion from the discussion above is that the discovery of semantics of
information abstraction, referred to sometimes as structured thinking, or a philosophical
dimension of GrC, can be reduced to physical experimentation. This is a very welcome
development as it gives a good basis for the formalization of the GrC paradigm.
We argue here that GrC should be defined as a structured combination of
algorithmic abstraction of data and non-algorithmic, empirical verification of the
semantics of these abstractions. This definition is general in that it neither prescribes the
mechanism of algorithmic abstraction nor it elaborates on the techniques of experimental
verification. Instead, it highlights the essence of combining computational and non-
computational information processing. Such a definition has several advantages:
— it emphasizes the complementarity of the two constituent functional mappings;
— it justifies the hyper-computational nature of GrC;
— it places physics alongside set theory as the theoretical foundations of GrC;
— it helps to avoid confusion between GrC and purely algorithmic data processing while
taking full advantage of the advances in algorithmic data processing.
2.6. An Example of Granular Computation
We illustrate here an application of the granular computation, cast in the formalism of set
theory, to a practical problem of analyzing traffic queues. A three-way intersection is
represented in Figure 2.7. The three lane-occupancy detectors (inductive loops), labeled
here as “east”, “west” and “south” provide counts of vehicles passing over them. The
counts are then integrated to yield a measure of traffic queues on the corresponding
approaches to the junction. A representative sample of the resulting three-dimensional
time series of traffic queues is illustrated in Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.6: An instance of GrC involving two essential components: algorithmic clustering and empirical evaluation of
granules.

Figure 2.7: A three-way intersection with measured traffic queues.

Figure 2.8: A subset of 100 readings from the time series of traffic queues data.
Figure 2.9: FCM prototypes as subset of the original measurements of traffic queues.

It is quite clear that, on its own, data depicted in Figure 2.8 reflects primarily the
signaling stages of the junction. This view is reinforced, if we plot the traffic queues on a
two-dimensional plane and apply some clustering technique [such as Fuzzy C-Means
(FCM)] to identify prototypes that are the best (in terms of the given optimality criterion)
representation of data. The prototypes, denoted as small circles in Figure 2.9, indicate that
the typical operation of the junction involves simultaneously increasing and decreasing
queues on the “east” and “west” junction. This of course corresponds to “red” and “green”
signaling stages. It is worth emphasizing here that the above prototypes can be considered
as a simple subset of the original numerical data since the nature of the prototypes is
entirely consistent with that of the original data.
Unfortunately, within this framework, the interpretation of the prototype indicating
“zero” queue in both “east” and “west” direction is not very informative. In order to
uncover the meaning of this prototype, we resort to a granulated view of data. Figure 2.10
represents traffic queue data that has been granulated based on maximization of
information density measure discussed in Bargiela et al. (2006). The semantics of the
original readings is now changed from point representation of queues into interval
(hyperbox) representation of queues. In terms of set theory, we are dealing here with a
class of hyperboxes, which is semantically distinct from point data.
Applying FCM clustering to granular data results in granular prototypes denoted, in
Figure 2.10, as rectangles with bold boundaries overlaid on the granulated data. In order to
ascertain that the granulation does not distort the essential features of the data, different
granulation parameters have been investigated and a representative sample of two
granulations is depicted in Figure 2.10. The three FCM prototypes lying in the areas of
simultaneous increase and decrease of traffic queues have identical interpretation as the
corresponding prototypes in Figure 2.9. However, the central prototype highlights a
physical property of traffic that was not captured by the numerical prototype.
Figure 2.10: Granular FCM prototypes representing a class that is semantically distinct from the original point data.

Figure 2.11: Granular prototype capturing traffic delays for “right turning” traffic.

Figure 2.11 illustrates the richer interpretation of the central prototype. It is clear that
the traffic queues on the western approach are increasing while the traffic queues on the
eastern approach are decreasing. This is caused by the “right turning” traffic being blocked
by the oncoming traffic from the eastern junction. It is worth noting that the prototype is
unambiguous about the absence of a symmetrical situation where an increase of traffic
queues on the eastern junction would occur simultaneously with the decrease of the
queues on the western junction. The fact is that this is a three-way junction with no right
turn for the traffic from the eastern junction and has been captured purely from the
granular interpretation of data. Note that the same cannot be said about the numerical data
illustrated in Figure 2.9.
As we have argued in this chapter, the essential component of GrC is the experimental
validation of the semantics of the information granules. We have conducted a planned
experiment in which we placed counting devices on the entrance to the “south” link. The
proportion of the vehicles entering the “south” junction (during the green stage of the
“east–west” junction) to the count of vehicles on the stop line on the “west” approach,
represents a measure of the right turning traffic. The ratio of these numerical counts was
0.1428. A similar measurement derived from two different granulations depicted in Figure
2.10 was 0.1437 and 0.1498. We conclude therefore that the granulated data captured the
essential characteristics of the right turning traffic and that, in this particular application,
the granulation parameters do not affect the result to a significant degree (which is clearly
a desirable property).
A more extensive experimentation could involve verification of the granular
measurement of right turning traffic for drivers that have different driving styles in terms
of acceleration and gap acceptance. Although we do not make any specific claim in this
respect, it is possible that the granulation of traffic queue data would need to be
parameterized with the dynamic driver behavior data. Such data could be derived by
differentiating the traffic queues (measurement of the speed of change of queues) and
granulating the resulting six-dimensional data.
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Chapter 3

Evolving Fuzzy Systems—Fundamentals, Reliability,


Interpretability, Useability, Applications
Edwin Lughofer
This chapter provides a round picture of the development and advances in the field of evolving fuzzy systems
(EFS) made during the last decade since their first appearance in 2002. Their basic difference to conventional
fuzzy systems (discussed in other chapters in this book) is that they can be learned from data on-the-fly (fast)
during online processes in an incremental and mostly single-pass manner. Therefore, they stand for a very
emerging topic in the field of soft computing for addressing modeling problems in the quickly increasing
complexity of real-world applications, more and more implying a shift from batch offline model design phases
(as conducted since the 80s) to permanent online (active) model teaching and adaptation. The focus will be
placed on the definition of various model architectures used in the context of EFS, on providing an overview
about the basic learning concepts, on listing the most prominent EFS approaches (fundamentals), and on
discussing advanced aspects toward an improved stability, reliability and useability (usually must-to-haves to
guarantee robustness and user-friendliness) as well as an educated interpretability (usually a nice-to-have to
offer insights into the systems’ nature). It will be concluded with a list of real-world applications where various
EFS approaches have been successfully applied with satisfactory accuracy, robustness and speed.
3.1. Introduction—Motivation
Due to the increasing complexity and permanent growth of data acquisition sites in today’s
industrial systems, there is an increasing demand of fast modeling algorithms from online
data streams (Gama, 2010). Such algorithms are ensuring that models can be quickly
adapted to the actual system situation and thus are able to provide reliable outputs at any
time during online real-world processes. Their changing operating conditions,
environmental influences and new unexplored system states may trigger quite a dynamic
behavior, causing previously trained models to become inefficient or even inaccurate
(Sayed-Mouchaweh and Lughofer, 2012). In this sense, conventional static models which
are trained once in an offline stage and are not able to adapt dynamically to the actual
system states are not an adequate alternative for coping with these demands (severe
downtrends in accuracy have been examined in previous publications). A list of potential
real-world application examples relying on online dynamic aspects and thus demanding
flexible modeling techniques can be found in Table 3.3 (Section 3.6.5).
Another challenge which has recently become a very hot topic within the machine
learning community and is given specific attention in the new European framework
programme Horizon 2020, is the processing and mining of the so-called Big Data,1
usually stemming from very large databases (VLDB).2 Theoccurrenceof Big Data takes
place in many areas such as meteorology, genomics, connectomics, complex physics
simulations and biological and environmental research (Reichmann et al., 2011). This data
is that big (exabytes) such that it cannot be handled in a one-shot experience, such as
exceeding virtual memory of nowadays conventional computers. Thus, standard batch
modeling techniques are not applicable.
In order to tackle the aforementioned requirements, the field of “evolving intelligent
systems (EISs)”3 or, in a wider machine learning sense, the field of “learning in dynamic
environments (LDE)” enjoyed increasing attraction during the last years (Angelov et al.,
2010). This even lead to the emergence of their own journal in 2010, termed as “Evolving
Systems” at Springer (Heidelberg).4 Both fields support learning topologies which operate
in single-pass manner and are able to update models and surrogate statistics on-the-fly and
on demand. Single-pass nature and incrementality of the updates assure online and in most
cases even real-time learning and model training capabilities. While EIS focuses mainly
on adaptive evolving models within the field of soft computing, LDE goes a step further
and also joins incremental machine learning and data mining techniques, originally
stemming from the area of “incremental heuristic search”.5 The update in these
approaches concerns both parameter adaptation and structural changes depending on the
degree of change required. The structural changes are usually enforced by evolution and
pruning components, and finally responsible for the terminus Evolving Systems. In this
context, Evolving should be not confused with Evolutionary (as sometimes happened in
the past, unfortunately). Evolutionary approaches are usually applied in the context of
complex optimization problems to learn parameters and structures based on genetic
operators, but they do this by using all the data in an iterative optimization procedure
rather than integrating new knowledge permanently on-the-fly.
Apart from the requirements and demands in industrial (production and control)
systems, another important aspect about evolving models is that they provide the
opportunity for self-learning computer systems and machines. In fact, evolving models are
permanently updating their knowledge and understanding about diverse complex
relationships and dependencies in real-world application scenarios by integrating new
system behaviors and environmental influences (which are manifested in the captured
data). Their learning follows a life-long learning context and is never really terminated,
but lasts as long as new information arrives. Therefore, they can be seen as a valuable
contribution within the field of computational intelligence (Angelov and Kasabov, 2005)
or even in artificial intelligence (Lughofer, 2011a).
There are several possibilities for using an adequate model architecture within the
context of an evolving system. This strongly depends on the learning problem at hand, in
particular, whether it is supervised or unsupervised. In case of the later, techniques from
the field of clustering, usually termed as incremental clustering (Bouchachia, 2011) are a
prominent choice. In case of classification and regression models, the architectures should
support decision boundaries respectively approximation surfaces with an arbitrary
nonlinearity degree. Also, the choice may depend on past experience with some machine
learning and data mining tools: for instance, it is well-known that SVMs are usually
among the top-10 performers for many classification tasks (Wu et al., 2006), thus are a
reasonable choice to be used in an online classification setting as well [in form of
incremental SVMs (Diehl and Cauwenberghs, 2003; Shilton et al., 2005)]; whereas in a
regression setting they are usually performing much weaker. Soft computing models such
as neural networks (Haykin, 1999), fuzzy systems (Pedrycz and Gomide, 2007) or genetic
programming (Affenzeller et al., 2009) and any hybrid concepts of these [e.g., neuro-
fuzzy systems (Jang, 1993)] are all known to be universal approximators (Balas et al.,
2009) and thus able to resolve nonlinearities implicitly contained in the systems’ behavior
(and thus reflected in the data streams). Neural networks suffer from their black box
nature, i.e., not allowing operators and users any insight into the models extracted from
the streams. This may be essential in many contexts for the interpretation of model outputs
to realize why certain decisions have been made etc. Genetic programming is a more
promising choice in this direction, however, it is often expanding unnecessarily complex
formulas with many nested functional terms [suffering from the so-called bloating effect
(Zavoianu, 2010)], which are again hard to interpret.
Fuzzy systems are specific mathematical models which build upon the concept of
fuzzy logic, firstly introduced in 1965 by Lotfi A. Zadeh (Zadeh, 1965), are a very useful
alternative, as they contain rules which are linguistically readable and interpretable. This
mimicks the human thinking about relationships and structural dependencies being present
in a system. This will become more clear in the subsequent section when mathematically
defining possible architecture variants within the field of fuzzy systems, which have been
also used in the context of data stream mining and evolving systems. Furthermore, the
reader may refer to Chapter 1 in this book, where the basic concepts of fuzzy sets and
systems are introduced and described in detail.
3.2. Architectures for Evolving Fuzzy Systems (EFSs)
The first five subsections are dedicated to architectures for regression problems, for which
EFS have been preliminary used. Then, various variants of fuzzy classification model
structures are discussed, as have been recently introduced for representing of decision
boundaries in various forms in evolving fuzzy classifiers (EFCs).

3.2.1. Mamdani
Mamdani fuzzy systems (Mamdani, 1977) are the most common choice for coding expert
knowledge/experience into a rule-based IF-THEN form, examples can be found in
Holmblad and Ostergaard (1982); Leondes (1998) or Carr and Tah (2001); Reveiz and Len
(2010).
In general, assuming p input variables (features), the definition of the ith rule in a
single output Mamdani fuzzy system is as follows:

with Φi the consequent fuzzy set in the fuzzy partition of the output variable used in the
consequent li ( ) of the ith rule, and μi1,…,μip are the fuzzy sets appearing in the rule
antecedents. The rule firing degree (also called rule activation level) for a concrete input
vector = (x1,…, xp) is then defined by:

(1)

with a specific conjunction operator, denoted as t-norm Klement et al. (2000)—most


frequently, minimum or product are used, i.e.,

(2)

It may happen that Φi = Φj for some i ≠ j. Hence, a t-conorm (Klement et al., 2000) is
applied which combines the rule firing levels of those rules having the same consequents
to one output set. The most common choice for the t-conorm is the maximum operator. In
this case, the consequent fuzzy set is cut at the alpha-level:

(3)

with Ci the number of rules whose consequent fuzzy set is the same as for Rule i, and ji the
indices of these rules. This is done for the whole fuzzy rule-base and the various α-cut
output sets are joined to one fuzzy area employing the supremum operator. An example of
such a fuzzy output area is shown in Figure 3.1.
In order to obtain a crisp output value, a defuzzification method is applied, most
commonly used are the mean of maximum (MOM) over the whole area, the center of
gravity (COG) or the bisector (Leekwijck and Kerre, 1999) which is the vertical line that
will divide the whole area into two sub-regions of equal areas. For concrete formulas of
the defuzzification operators, please refer to Piegat (2001) and Nguyen et al. (1995).
MOM and COG are exemplarily shown in Figure 3.1.
Due to the defuzzification process, it is quite intuitive that the inference in Mamdani
fuzzy systems loses some accuracy, as an output fuzzy number is reduced to a crisp
number. Therefore, they have been hardly applied within the context of online modeling
and data stream mining, where the main purpose is to obtain an accurate evolving fuzzy
model in the context of precise evolving fuzzy modeling [an exception can be found in
Rubio (2009), termed as the SOFMLS approach]. On the other hand, they are able to
provide linguistic interpretability on the output level, thus may be preferable in the context
of interpretability demands for knowledge gaining and reasoning (see also Section 3.5).
The approach in Ho et al. (2010), tries to benefit from this while keeping the precise
modeling spirit by applying a switched architecture, joining Mamdani and Takagi–Sugeno
type consequents in form of a convex combination.

Figure 3.1: MOM and COG defuzzification for a rule consequent partition (fuzzy partition in output variable Y) in a
Mamdani fuzzy system, the shaded area indicates the joint consequents (fuzzy sets) in the active rules (applying
supremum operator); the cutoff points (alpha cuts) are according to maximal membership degrees obtained from the rule
antecedent parts of the active rules.

3.2.2. Takagi–Sugeno
Opposed to Mamdani fuzzy systems, Takagi–Sugeno (TS) fuzzy systems (Takagi and
Sugeno, 1985) are the most common architectorial choices in evolving fuzzy systems
approaches (Lughofer, 2011b). This has several reasons. First of all, they enjoy a large
attraction in many fields of real-world applications and systems engineering (Pedrycz and
Gomide, 2007), ranging from process control (Babuska, 1998; Karer and Skrjanc, 2013;
Piegat, 2001), system identification (Abonyi, 2003; Nelles, 2001), through condition
monitoring (Serdio et al., 2014a, 2014b) and chemometric calibration (Cernuda et al.,
2013; Skrjanc, 2009) to machine vision and texture processing approaches (Lughofer,
2011b; Riaz and Ghafoor, 2013). Thus, their robustness and applicability for the standard
batch modeling case has been already proven since several decades. Second, they are
known to be universal approximators (Castro and Delgado, 1996), i.e., being able to
model any implicitly contained nonlinearity with a sufficient degree of accuracy, while
their interpretable capabilities are still intact or may offer even advantages: while the
antecedent parts remain linguistic, the consequent parts can be interpreted either in a more
physical sense (see Bikdash, 1999; Herrera et al., 2005) or as local functional tendencies
(Lughofer, 2013) (see also Section 3.5). Finally, parts of their architecture (the
consequents) can be updated exactly by recursive procedures, as will be described in
Section 3.3.1. This is a strong point as they are converging to the same solution as when
(hypothetically) sending all data samples at once into the optimization process (true
optimal incremental solutions).

3.2.2.1. Takagi–Sugeno standard

A single rule in a (single output) standard TS fuzzy system is of the form

(4)

(5)

where = (x1,…, xp) is the p-dimensional input vector and μij the fuzzy set describing the
j-th antecedent of the rule. Typically, these fuzzy sets are associated with a linguistic label.
As in case of Mamdani fuzzy systems, the AND connective is modeled in terms of a t-
norm, i.e., a generalized logical conjunction (Klement et al., 2000). Again, the output li =
li ( ) is the so-called consequent function of the rule.
The output of a TS system consisting of C rules is a linear combination of the outputs
produced by the individual rules (through the li’s), where the contribution of each rule is
given by its normalized degree of activation Ψi, thus:

(6)

with μi( ) as in Equation (1). From a statistical point of view, a TS fuzzy model can be
interpreted as a collection of piecewise local linear predictors by a smooth (normalized)
kernel, thus in its local parts (rules) having some synergies with local weighted regression
(LWR) (Cleveland and Devlin, 1988). The difference is that in LWR the model is
extracted on demand based on the nearest data samples [also termed as the reference base
in an instance-based learning context for data streams (Shaker and Hüllermeier, 2012)]
while TS fuzzy systems are providing a global model defined over the whole feature space
(thus preferable in the context of interpretability issues and online prediction speed).
The most convenient choice for fuzzy sets in EFS and fuzzy systems design in general
are Gaussian functions, which lead to the so-called fuzzy basis function networks (Wang
and Mendel, 1992) and multi-variate kernels following normal distributions are achieved
for representing the rules’ antecedent parts:

(7)

In this sense, the linear hyper-planes li are connected with multi-variate Gaussians to form
an overall smooth function. Then, the output form in Equation (6) becomes some
synergies with Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) (Day, 1969; Sun and Wang, 2011),
often used for clustering and pattern recognition tasks (Bishop, 2007; Duda et al., 2000).
The difference is that li’s are hyper-planes instead of singleton weights and do not reflect
the degree of density of the corresponding rules (as mixing proportion), but the linear
trend of the approximation/regression surface in the corresponding local parts.

3.2.2.2. Takagi–Sugeno generalized

Recently, the generalized form of TS fuzzy systems has been offered to the evolving fuzzy
systems community, launching its origin in Lemos et al. (2011a) and Leite et al. (2012a);
latter explored and further developed in Pratama et al. (2014a) and Pratama et al. (2014b).
The basic principle is that it employs multi-dimensional normal (Gaussian) distributions in
arbitrary position for representing single rules. Thus, it overcomes the deficiency of not
being able to model local correlations between input and output variables appropriately, as
is the case with the t-norm operator used in standard rules (Klement et al., 2000)—these
may represent inexact approximations of the real local trends and finally causing
information loss in rules (Abonyi et al., 2002).

Figure 3.2: Left: Conventional axis parallel rules (represented by ellipsoids) achieve an inaccurate representation of the
local trends (correlations) of a nonlinear approximation problem (defined by noisy data samples). Right: Generalized
rules (by rotation) achieve a much more accurate representation.

An example for visualizing this problematic nature is provided in Figure 3.2: in the
left image, axis-parallel rules (represented by ellipsoids) are used for modeling the partial
tendencies of the regression curves which are not following the input axis direction, but
are rotated to some degree; obviously, the volume of the rules are artificially blown-up and
the rules do not represent the real characteristics of the local tendencies well →
information loss. In the right image, non axis-parallel rules using general multivariate
Gaussians are applied for a more accurate representation (rotated ellipsoids).
To avoid such information loss, the generalized fuzzy rules have been defined in
Lemos et al. (2011a) (there used for evolving stream mining), as

(8)

where Ψ denotes a high-dimensional kernel function, which in accordance to the basis


function networks spirit are given by the generalized multivariate Gaussian distribution:

(9)

with i the center and the inverse covariance matrix of the ith rule, allowing any
possible rotation and spread of the rule. It is also known in the neural network literature
that Gaussian radial basis functions are a nice option to characterize local properties
(Lemos et al., 2011a; Lippmann, 1991); especially, someone may inspect the inner core
part, i.e., all samples fulfilling , as the characteristic contour/spread
of the rule.
The fuzzy inference then becomes a linear combination of multivariate Gaussian
distributions in the form:

(10)

with C the number of rules, li ( ) the consequent hyper-plane of the ith rule and Φi the
normalized membership degrees, summing up to 1 for each query sample.
In order to maintain (input/output) interpretability of the evolved TS fuzzy models for
users/operators (see also Section 3.5), the authors in Lughofer et al. (2013) foresee a
projection concept to form fuzzy sets and classical rule antecedents. It relies on the angle
between the principal components directions and the feature axes, which has the effect that
long spread rules are more effectively projected than when using the inner contour spreads
(through axis parallel cutting points). The spread σi of the projected fuzzy set is set
according to:

(11)

with r the range of influence of one rule, usually set to 1, representing the (inner)
characteristic contour/spread of the rule (as mentioned above). The center of the fuzzy set
in the ith dimension is set equal to the ith coordinate of the rule center. Φ(ei, aj) denotes
the angle between principal component direction (eigenvector aj) and the ith axis ei, λj the
eigenvalue of the jth principal component.

3.2.2.3. Takagi–Sugeno extended

An extended version of Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems in the context of evolving systems


has been applied in Komijani et al. (2012). There, instead of a hyper-plane li = wi0 + wi1x1
+ wi2x2 +···+ wipxp, the consequent function for the ith rule is defined as LS_SVM model
according to Smola and Schölkopf (2004):

(12)

with K (.,.) a kernel function fulfilling the Mercer criterion (Mercer, 1909) for
characterizing a symmetric positive semi-definite kernel (Zaanen, 1960), N the number of
training samples and α and β the consequent parameters (support vectors and intercept) to
learn. The li’s can be, in principle, combined within in any inference scheme, either with
the standard one in Equation (6) or with the generalized one in Equation (10) [in Komijani
et al. (2012), they are combined with Equation (6)]. The advantage of these consequents is
that they are supposed to provide more accuracy, as a support vector regression modeling
(Smola and Schölkopf, 2004) is applied to each local region. Hence, nonlinearities within
local regions may be better resolved. On the other hand, the consequents are more difficult
to interpret.

3.2.3. Type-2
Type-2 fuzzy systems were invented by Lotfi Zadeh in 1975 (Zadeh, 1975) for the purpose
of modeling the uncertainty in the membership functions of usual (type-1) fuzzy sets. The
distinguishing feature of a type-2 fuzzy set versus its type-1 counterpart μij is that the
membership function values of are blurred, i.e., they are no longer a single number in
[0, 1], but are instead a continuous range of values between 0 and 1, say [a, b] ⊆ [0, 1].
One can either assign the same weighting or a variable weighting to membership function
values in [a, b]. When the former is done, the resulting type-2 fuzzy set is called an
interval type-2 fuzzy set. When the latter is done, the resulting type-2 fuzzy set is called a
general type-2 fuzzy set (Mendel and John, 2002).
The ith rule of an interval-based type-2 fuzzy system is defined in the following way
(Liang and Mendel, 2000; Mendel, 2001):
with a general type-2 uncertainty function.
In case of a Takagi–Sugeno-based consequent scheme (as e.g., used in Juang and Tsao
(2008), the first approach of an evolving type-2 fuzzy system), the consequent function
becomes:

(13)

with an interval set (instead of a crisp continuous value), i.e.,

(14)

In case of a Mamdani-based consequent scheme (as e.g., used in Tung et al. (2013), a
recent evolving approach), the consequent function becomes: li = i, with i a type two
fuzzy set.
An enhanced approach for eliciting the final output is applied, the so-called Karnik–
Mendel iterative procedure (Karnik and Mendel, 2001), where a type reduction is
performed before the defuzzification process. In this procedure, the consequent values
and
are sorted in ascending order
denoted as i and i for all i = 1,…, C. Accordingly, the membership values and
are sorted in ascending order denoted as and . Then, the outputs and are
computed by:

(15)

with L and R positive numbers, often L = and R = . Taking the average of these two
yields the final output value y.

3.2.4. Neuro-Fuzzy
Most of the neuro-fuzzy systems (Fuller, 1999) available in literature can be interpreted as
a layered structural form of Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy systems. Typically, the fuzzy
model is transformed into a neural network structure (by introducing layers, connections
and weights between the layers) and learning methods already established in the neural
network context are applied to the neuro-fuzzy system. A well-known example for this is
the ANFIS approach (Jang, 1993), where the back-propagation algorithm (Werbos, 1974)
is applied and the components of the fuzzy model (fuzzification, calculation of rule
fulfillment degrees, normalization, defuzzification), represent different layers in the neural
network structure. However, the inference scheme finally leads to the same model outputs
as for conventional TS fuzzy systems. A visualization example is presented in Figure 3.3.
This layered structure will be used by several EFS approaches as can be seen from Tables
3.1 and 3.2.
Recently, a new type of neuro-fuzzy architecture has been proposed by Silva et al.
(2014), termed as neo-fuzzy neuron network, and applied in evolving context. It relies on
the idea to use a set of TS fuzzy rules for each input dimension independently and then
connect these with a conventional sum for obtaining the final model output. The domain
of each input i is granulated into m complementary membership functions.

Figure 3.3: (a) Standard Takagi–Sugeno type fuzzy system, (b) Equivalent neural network structure.

3.2.5. Hierarchical Structures


Hierarchical architectures for evolving fuzzy modeling have been recently introduced in
Shaker et al. (2013) and Lemos et al. (2011b). Both architectures have been designed for
the purposes to provide a more slim, thus more transparent rule-base by inducing rules
with flexible lengths. This is opposed to all the flat model architectures which have been
presented above, always using all input features in all rules’ antecedent parts.
The first approach is an incremental extension of top-down induction of fuzzy pattern
trees (Senge and Huellermeier, 2011) and thus uses a hierarchical tree-like concept to
evolve nodes and leaves on demand. Thereby, a collection of fuzzy sets and aggregation
operators can be specified by the user as allowed patterns and conjunction operators in the
leaf nodes. In particular, a pattern tree has the outlook as shown in the example of Figure
3.4. Thereby, one basic difference to classical fuzzy systems is that the conjunction
operator do not necessarily have to be t-norms [can be a more general aggregation
operator (Saminger-Platz et al., 2007)] and the type of the fuzzy sets can be different in
different tree levels [as indicated in the rectangles in Figure 3.4 (left)], allowing a
composition of a mixture of patterns in hierarchical form. Another difference is the
possibility to obtain a single compact rule for describing a certain characteristics of the
output (a good house price quality with 0.9 in the example in Figure 3.4).
Figure 3.4: Left: Example of a fuzzy pattern tree which can be read as “IF ((Size is med AND Dist is high) AND Size
is HIGH) OR Age is LOW THEN Output (Quality) is 0.9”. Right: Example of a fuzzy decision tree with four rules, a
rule example is “IF x1 is LESS THAN 5 AND x2 is GREATER THAN 3 THEN y2 = −2x1 + x2 − 3x3 + 5”.

The second one (Lemos et al., 2011b) has some synergies to classical decision trees
for classification tasks [CART (Breiman et al., 1993) and C4.5 (Quinlan, 1994)], where,
however, the leafs are not class labels, but linear hyper-planes as used in classical TS
fuzzy systems. Thus, as the partitioning may be arbitrarily fine-granuled as is the case for
classical TS fuzzy systems, they still enjoy the favorable properties of being universal
approximators. A visual example of such a tree is shown in the right image in Figure 3.4.
It is notable that the nodes do not contain crisp decision rules, but fuzzy terms “Smaller
Than” and “Greater Than”, which are represented by sigmoidal fuzzy sets: e.g., “Less
Than 5” is a fuzzy set which cuts the fuzzy set “Greater than 5” at x = 5 with a
membership degree 0.5. One path from the root node to a terminal node represents a rule,
which is then similar to a classical TS fuzzy rule, but allowing an arbitrary length.

3.2.6. Classifiers
Fuzzy classifiers have been enjoyed a wide attraction in various applications since almost
two decades (Eitzinger et al., 2010; Kuncheva, 2000; Nakashima et al., 2006). Their
particular strength is the ability to model decision boundaries with arbitrary nonlinearity
degree while maintaining interpretability in the sense “which rules on the feature set imply
which output class labels (classifier decisions)”. In a winner-takes-it-all concept, the
decision boundary proceeds between rule pairs having different majority class labels. As
rules are usually nonlinear contours in the high-dimensional space, the nonlinearity of the
decision boundary is induced — enjoying arbitrary complexity due to a possible arbitrary
number of rules. If rules have linear contours, then overall nonlinearity is induced in form
of piecewise linear boundaries between rule pairs.

3.2.6.1. Classical and extended single-model

The rule in a classical fuzzy classification model architecture with singleton consequent
labels is a widely studied architecture in the fuzzy systems community (Ishibuchi and
Nakashima, 2001; Kruse et al., 1994; Kuncheva, 2000; Nauck and Kruse, 1998) and is
defined by:

(16)

where Li is the crisp output class label from the set {1,…, K } with K the number of
classes for the ith rule. This architecture precludes use of confidence labels in the single
classes per rule. In case of clean classification rules, when each single rule contains/covers
training samples from a single class, this architecture provides adequate resolution of the
class distributions. However, in real-world problems, classes usually overlap significantly
and therefore often rules are extracted containing samples from more than one class.
Thus, an extended fuzzy classification model that includes the confidence levels con
fi1,…,K of the ith rule in the single classes has been applied in evolving, adaptive learning
context (see e.g., Bouchachia, 2009; Bouchachia and Mittermeir, 2006):

(17)

Thus, a local region represented by a rule in the form of Equation (17) can better model
class overlaps in the corresponding part of the feature space: for instance, three classes
overlap with a support of 200, 100 and 50 samples in one single fuzzy rule; then, the
confidence in Class #1 would be intuitively 0.57 according to its relative frequency
(200/350), in Class #2 it would be 0.29 (100/350) and in Class #3 it would be 0.14
(50/350). A more enhanced treatment of class confidence levels will be provided in
Section 3.4.5 when describing options for representing reliability in class responses.
In a winner-takes-it-all context [the most common choice in fuzzy classifiers
(Kuncheva, 2000)], the final classifier output L will be obtained by

(18)

In a more enhanced (weighted) classification scheme as recently used for evolving


fuzzy classifiers (EFC) in Lughofer (2012a), the degree of purity is respected as well and
integrated into the calculation of the final classification response L:

(19)

with

(20)

and hi,k the class frequency of class k in rule i, and μ1( ) the membership degree of the
nearest rule (with majority class m), and μ2 ( ) the membership degree of the second
nearest rule with a different majority class m∗ ≠ m. This difference is important as two
nearby lying rules with the same majority class label do not induce a decision boundary
in-between them. The nearest rule and second nearest rule are obtained by sorting the
membership degrees of the current query point to all rules.
Figure 3.5 shows an example for decision boundaries induced by Equation (18) (left
image) and by Equation (19) (right image). Obviously, a more purified rule (i.e., having
less overlap in classes, right side) is favored among that with significant overlap (left
side), as the decision boundary moves away → more samples are classified to the majority
class in the purified rule, which is intended to obtain a clearer, less uncertain decision
boundary. A generalization of Equation (19) would be that k varies over all classes: then,
an overwhelmed but significant class in two nearby lying rules may become also the final
output class label L, although it has no majority in both rules. On the other hand, this
variant would then be able to output a certainty level for each class, an advantage which
could be used when calculating a kind of reliability degree overall classes (see Section
3.6.4) respectively when intending to normalize and study class certainty distributions.
This variant has not been studied under the scope of EFC so far.

Figure 3.5: (a) Classification according to the winner takes it all concepts using Equation (18); (b) The decision
boundary moves towards the more unpurified rule due to the gravitation concept applied in Equation (19).

3.2.6.2. Multi-model one-versus-rest

The first variant of multi-model architecture leans on the well-known one-versus-rest


classification scheme from the field of machine learning (Bishop, 2007) and has been
introduced in the fuzzy community and especially evolving fuzzy systems community in
Angelov et al. (2008). It diminishes the problematic of having complex nonlinear multi-
decision boundaries in case of multi-class classification problems, which is the case for
single model architecture as all classes are coded into one model. This is achieved by
representing K binary classifiers for the K different classes, each one for the purpose to
discriminate one single class from the others (→ one-versus-rest). Thus, during the
training cycle (batch or incremental), for the kth classifier all feature vectors resp. samples
belonging to the kth class are assigned a label of 1, and all other samples belonging to
other classes are assigned a label of 0.
The nice thing is that a (single model) classification model D(f) = C respectively any
regression model D(f) = R (such as Takagi–Sugeno variants discussed in this section) can
be applied for one sub-model in the ensemble. Interestingly, in Angelov et al. (2008), it
has been studied that, when using Takagi–Sugeno architecture for the binary classifiers by
regressing on {0, 1}, the masking problem as occurring in linear regression by indicator
matrix approach can be avoided (Hastie et al., 2009). This is due to the increased
flexibility of TS fuzzy systems, being able to resolve nonlinearities in the class regression
surfaces.
At the classification stage for a new query point , the model which is producing the
maximal model response is used as basis for the final classification label output L, i.e.,

(21)

Recently, a rule-based one-versus-rest classification scheme was proposed within the


context of a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) fuzzy system and applied in an
evolving classification context (Pratama et al., 2014c). There, a rule is defined by:

(22)

where

Thus, a complete hyper-plane for each class per rule is defined. This offers the flexibility
to regress on different classes within single rules, thus to resolve class overlaps in a single
region by multiple regression surfaces (Pratama et al., 2014c).

3.2.6.3. Multi-model all-pairs


The multi-model all-pairs (aka all-versus-all) classifier architecture, originally introduced
in the machine learning community (Allwein et al., 2001; Fürnkranz, 2002) and firstly
introduced for (evolving) fuzzy classifiers design in Lughofer and Buchtala (2013),
overcomes the often occurring imbalanced learning problems induced by one-versus-rest
classification scheme in case of multi-class (polychotomous) problems. On the other hand,
it is well known that imbalanced problems cause severe down-trends in classification
accuracy (He and Garcia, 2009). Thus, it is beneficial to avoid imbalanced problems while
still trying to enforce the decision boundaries as easy as possible to learn. This is achieved
by the all-pairs architecture, as for each class pair (k, l) an own classifier is trained,
decomposing the whole learning problem into binary less complex sub-problems.
Formally, this can be expressed by a classifier k,l which is induced by a training
procedure k,l when using (only) the class samples belonging to classes k and l:

(23)

with L( ) the class label associated with feature vector . This means that k,l is a classifier
for separating samples belonging to class k from those belonging to class l. It is notable
that any classification architecture as discussed above in Section 3.2.6.1 or any regression-
based model as defined in Section 3.2.2 can be used for k,l.
When classifying a new sample , each classifier outputs a confidence level con fk,l
which denotes the degree of preference of class k over class l for this sample. This degree
lies in [0, 1] where 0 means no preference, i.e., a crisp vote for class l, and 1 means a full
preference, i.e., a crisp vote for class k. This is conducted for each pair of classes and
stored into a preference relation matrix R:

(24)

If we assume reciprocal preferences, i.e., con fk,l = 1 − con fl,k, then the training of half of
the classifiers can be omitted, hence finally binary classifiers are obtained. The
preference relation matrix in Equation (24) opens another interpretation dimension on
output level: considerations may go into partial uncertainty reasoning or preference
relational structure in a fuzzy sense (Hüllermeier and Brinker, 2008). In the most
convenient way, the final class response is often obtained by:

(25)

i.e., the class with the highest score = highest preference degree summed up over all
classes is returned by the classifier.
In Fürnkranz (2002, 2001) it was shown that pairwise classification is not only more
accurate than one-versus-rest technique, but also more efficient regarding computation
times [see also Lughofer and Buchtala (2013)], which is an important characteristic for
fast stream learning problems. The reason for this is basically that binary classification
problems contain significantly lower number of samples, as each sub-problem uses only a
small subset of samples.
3.3. Fundamentals
Data streams are one of the fundamental reasons for the necessity of applying evolving,
adaptive models in general and evolving fuzzy systems in particular. This is simply
because streams are theoretically an infinite sequence of samples, which cannot be
processed at once within a batch process, even not in modern computers with high virtual
memory capacities. Data streams may not necessarily be online based on permanent
recordings, measurements or sample gatherings, but can also arise due to a block- or
sample-wise loading of batch data sites, e.g., in case of very large databases (VLDB)6 or
in case of big data problems (White, 2012); in this context, they are also often referred as
pseudo-streams. In particular, a data stream (or pseudo-stream) is characterized by the
following properties (Gama, 2010):
• The data samples or data blocks are continuously arriving online over time. The
frequency depends on the frequency of the measurement recording process.
• The data samples are arriving in a specific order, over which the system has no control.
• Data streams are usually not bounded in a size; i.e., a data stream is alive as long as
some interfaces, devices or components at the system are switched on and are collecting
data.
• Once a data sample/block is processed, it is usually discarded immediately, afterwards.
Changes in the process such as new operation modes, system states, varying
environmental influences etc. are usually implicitly also effecting the data stream in way
that for instance drifts or shifts may arise (see Section 3.4.1), or new regions in the
feature/system variable space are explored (knowledge expansion).
Formally, a stream can be defined as an infinite sequence of samples ( 1, 1), ( 2, 2), (
3, 3),…, where denotes the vector containing all input features (variables) and the
output variables which should be predicted. In case of unsupervised learning problems,
disappears—note that, however, in the context of fuzzy systems, only supervised
regression and classification problems are studied. Often y = , i.e., single output systems
are encouraged, especially as it is often possible to decast a MIMO (multiple input
multiple output problem) system into single independent MISO (multiple input single
output problem) systems (e.g., when the outputs are independent).
Handling streams for modeling tasks in an appropriate way requires the usage of
incremental learning algorithms, which are deduced from the concept of incremental
heuristic search (Koenig et al., 2004). These algorithms possess the property to build and
learn models in step-wise manner rather than with a whole dataset at once. From formal
mathematical point of view, an incremental model update I of the former model fN
(estimated from the N initial samples) is defined by
(26)

So, the incremental model update is done by just taking the new m samples and the old
model, but not using any prior data. Hereby, the whole model may also include some
additional statistical help measures, which needs to be updated synchronously to the ‘real’
model. If m = 1, we speak about incremental learning in sample mode or sample-wise
incremental learning, otherwise about incremental learning in block mode or block-wise
incremental learning. If the output vector starts to be missing in the data stream samples,
but a supervised model has been trained already before which is then updated with the
stream samples either in unsupervised manner or by using its own predictions, then
someone speaks about semi-supervised (online) learning (Chapelle et al., 2006).
Two update modes in the incremental learning process are distinguished:
(1) Update of the model parameters: In this case, a fixed number of parameters ΦN = {ϕ1,
…,ϕl}N of the original model fN is updated by the incremental learning process and the
outcome is a new parameter setting ΦN+m with the same number of parameters, i.e., |
ΦN+m| = | ΦN |. Here, we also speak about a model adaptation respectively a model
refinement with new data.
(2) Update of the whole model structure: This case leads to the evolving learning concept,
as the number of the parameters may change and also the number of structural
components may change automatically (e.g., rules are added or pruned in case of
fuzzy systems) according to the characteristics of the new data samples N+1,…,N+m.
This means that usually (but not necessarily) |ΦN+m | ≠ | ΦN | and CN+m ≠ CN with C
the number of structural components. The update of the whole model structure also
may include an update of the input structure, i.e., input variables/features may be
exchanged during the incremental learning process—see also Section 3.4.2.
An important aspect in incremental learning algorithms is the so-called plasticity-
stability dilemma (Abraham and Robins, 2005), which describes the problem of finding an
appropriate tradeoff between flexible model updates and structural convergence. This
strongly depends on the nature of the stream: in some cases, a more intense update is
required than in others (drifting versus life-long concepts in the stream). If an algorithm
converges to an optimal solution or at least to the same solution as the hypothetical batch
solution (obtained by using all data up to a certain sample at once), it is called a recursive
algorithm. Such an algorithm is usually beneficial as long as no drifts arise, which make
the older learned relations obsolete (see Section 3.4.1).
An initial batch mode training step with the first amount of training samples is,
whenever possible, usually preferable to incremental learning from scratch, i.e., a building
up of the model sample per sample from the beginning. This is because within a batch
mode phase, it is possible to carry out validation procedures [such as cross-validation
(Stone, 1974) or bootstrapping (Efron and Tibshirani, 1993)] in connection with search
techniques for finding an optimal set of parameters for the learning algorithm in order to
achieve a good generalization quality. The obtained parameters are then usually reliable
start parameters for the incremental learning algorithm to evolve the model further. When
performing incremental learning from scratch, the parameters have to be set to some blind
default values, which may be not necessarily appropriate for the given data stream mining
problem.
In a pure online learning setting, however, incremental learning from scratch is
indispensable. Then, often start default parameters of the learning engines need to be
parameterized. Thus, it is beneficial that the algorithms require as less as possible
parameters (see Section 3.3.5). Overcoming unlucky settings of parameters can be
sometimes achieved with dynamic structural changes such as component-based split-and-
merge techniques (as described in Section 3.6.2).

3.3.1. Recursive Learning of Linear Parameters


A lot of the EFS approaches available in literature (see Section 3.3.5) use the TS-type
fuzzy systems architecture with linear parameters in the consequents. The reason lies in
the highly accurate and precise models which can be achieved with these systems
(Lughofer, 2011b), and therefore enjoy a wide attraction in several application fields, see
Sections 3.2.2 and 3.6.5. Also, within several classification variants, TS-fuzzy systems
may be used as regression-based binary classifiers, e.g., in all-pairs technique (Lughofer
and Buchtala, 2013) as well as in one-versus-rest classification schemes (Angelov et al.,
2008). Sometimes, singleton numerical values in the consequents (native Sugeno systems)
or higher order polynomials (Takagi–Sugeno–Kang) are used in the consequents. These
just change the number of parameters to learn but not the way how to learn them.
The currently available EFS techniques rely on the optimization of the least-squares
error criterion, which is defined as the squared deviation between observed outputs y1,…,
yN and predicted outputs ŷ1,…, ŷN ; thus:

(27)

This problem can be written as a classical linear least squares problem with a weighted
regression matrix containing the global regressors

(28)

for i = 1,…, C, with C the current number of rules and k the kth data sample denoting the
kth row. For this problem, it is well known that a recursive solution exists which
converges to the optimal one within each incremental learning step, see Ljung (1999) and
Lughofer (2011b). Also Chapter 2 for its detailed derivation in the context of evolving TS
fuzzy systems.
However, the problem with this global learning approach is that it does not offer any
flexibility regarding rule evolution and pruning, as these cause a change in the size of the
regressors and thus a dynamic change in the dimensionality of the recursive learning
problem, which leads to a disturbance of the parameters in the other rules and to the loss
of optimality. Therefore, the authors in Angelov et al. (2008) emphasize the usage of local
learning approach which learns and updates the consequent parameters for each rule
separately. Adding or deleting a new rule therefore does not affect the convergence of the
parameters of all other rules; thus, optimality in least squares sense is preserved. The local
learning approach leads to a weighted least squares formulation for each rule given by
(without loss of generality the ith):

(29)

with
This problem can be written as a classical weighted least squares problem, where the
weighting matrix is a diagonal matrix containing the basis function values Ψi for each
input sample. Again, an exact recursive formulation can be derived [see Lughofer (2011b)
and Chapter 2], which is termed as recursive fuzzily weighted least squares (RFWLS). As
RFWLS is so fundamental and used in many EFS approaches, we explicitly deploy the
update formulas (from the kth to the k + 1st cycle):

(30)

(31)

(32)

with Pi (k) = (Ri (k)T Qi(k)Ri (k))−1 the inverse weighted Hessian matrix and (k + 1) = [1
x1(k + 1) x2(k + 1) … xp (k + 1)]T the regressor values of the k + 1st data sample, which is
the same for all i rules, and λ a forgetting factor, with default value equal to 1 (no
forgetting) — see Section 3.4.1 for a description and meaning of its usage. Whenever λ <
1, the following function is minimized: Ji = , instead of
Equation (29), thus samples which appeared a long time ago are almost completely out-
weighted. Obviously, the actual weight of the sample is Ψi (the membership degree to
Rule i), thus a sample receives a low weight when it does not fall into rule i: then, the
Kalman filter gain γ(k) in Equation (31) becomes a value close to 0 and the update of Pi
and i is marginal. Again, Equation (30) converges to the optimal solution within one
incremental learning step.
The assurance of convergence to optimality is guaranteed as long as there is not
structural change in the rules’ antecedents. However, due to rule center movements or
resettings in the incremental learning phase (see Section 3.3.4), this is usually not the case.
Therefore, a kind of sub-optimality is caused whose deviation degree to the real optimality
could have been bounded for some EFS approaches such as FLEXFIS (Lughofer, 2008)
and PANFIS (Pratama et al., 2014a).
Whenever a new rule is evolved by a rule evolution criterion, the parameters and
inverse weighted Hessian matrix (required for an exact update) have to be initialized. In
Ljung (1999), it is emphasized to set to 0 and Pi to αI with α big enough. However, this
is for the purpose of a global modeling approach starting with a faded out regression
surface over the whole input space. In local learning, the other rules defining other parts of
the feature space remain untouched. Thus, setting the hyper-plane of the new rule which
may appear somewhere inbetween the other rules to 0 would lead to an undesired muting
of one local region and to discontinuities in the online predictions (Cernuda et al., 2012).
Thus, it is more beneficial to inherit the parameter vector and the inverse weighted
Hessian matrix from the most nearby lying rule (Cernuda et al., 2012).
Recent extensions of RFWLS are as follows:
• In PANFIS (Pratama et al., 2014a), an additional constant α is inserted, conferring a
noteworthy effect to foster the asymptotic convergence of the system error and weight
vector being adapted, which acts like a binary function. In other words, the constant α is
in charge to regulate the current belief of the weight vectors i and depends on the
approximation and the estimation errors. It is 1 whenever the approximation error is
bigger than the system error, and 0 otherwise. Thus, adaptation takes fully place in the
first case and completely not place in the second case (which may have advantages in
terms of flexibility and computation time). A similar concept is used in the improved
version of SOFNN, see Leng et al. (2012).
• Generalized version of RFWLS (termed as FWGRLS) as used in GENEFIS (Pratama et
al., 2014b): This exploits the generalized RLS as derived in Xu et al. (2006) and adopts
it to the local learning context in order to favor from its benefits as discussed above. The
basic difference to RFWLS is that it adds a weight decay regularization term in the least
squares problem formulation in order to punish more complex models. In a final
simplification step, it ends up with similar formulas as in Equations (30)–(32), but with
the difference to subtract the term αPi(k + 1)∇ϕ( i(k)) in Equation (30), with α a
regularization parameter and ϕ the weight decay function: one of the most popular ones
in literature is the quadratic function defined as , thus ).
• In some approaches [e.g., eMG (Lemos et al., 2011a) or rGK (Dovzan and Skrjanc,
2011)], weights Ψi of the data samples are integrated in the second term of Equation
(30) as well, which however do not exactly follow the original derivation of recursive
weighted least-squares (Aström and Wittenmark, 1994; Ljung, 1999), but leads to a
similar effect.
Alternatively, Cara et al. (2013) proposes a different learning scheme for singleton
consequent parameters (in a Sugeno fuzzy system) within an evolving fuzzy controller
design, which relies on the prediction error of the current model. The update of the ith rule
singleton consequent parameter wi0 becomes:

(33)

with μi the activation degree of the ith rule as present in the previous time step k (before
being updated with the new sample (k + 1)), and C a normalization constant. Hence,
instead of γ, μi is used as update gain which is multiplied with the normalization constant.

3.3.2. Recursive Learning of Nonlinear Parameters


Nonlinear parameters occur in every model architecture as defined throughout Section
3.2.2, mainly only in the fuzzy sets included in the rules’ antecedent parts — except for
the extended version of TS fuzzy systems (Section 3.2.2.3), where they also appear in the
consequents. Often, the parameters in the fuzzy sets define their centers c and
characteristic spreads σ, but often the parameters may appear in a different form, for
instance, in case of sigmoid functions they define the slope and the point of gradient
change. Thus, we generally refer to a nonlinear parameter as ϕ and a whole set of
nonlinear parameters as Φ. The incremental update of nonlinear parameters is necessary in
order to adjust and move the fuzzy sets and rules composed by the sets to the actual
distribution of the data in order to achieve always the correct, well-placed positions. An
example is provided in Figure 3.6 where the initial data cloud (circles) in the left upper
part changes slightly the position due to new data samples (rectangles). Leaving the
original rule (marked with an ellipsoid) untouched, would cause a misplacement of the
rule. Thus, it is beneficial to adjust the rule center and its spread accordingly to the new
samples. This figure also shows the case of a rule evolution in the lower right part (new
samples significantly away from the old rule contour) — as will be discussed in the
subsequent section.
Figure 3.6: Three cases affecting rule contours (antecedents): The left upper part shows a case where a rule movement
is demanded to appropriately cover the joint partition (old and new samples), the lower right part shows a case where a
new rule should be evolved and the upper right part shows a case where sample-wise incremental learning may trigger a
new rule which may turn out to be superfluous later (as future samples are filling up the gap forming one cloud) →
(back-)merge requested as discussed in Section 3.3.4.

A possibility to update the nonlinear parameters in EFS is again, similar to the


consequent parameters, by applying a numerical incremental optimization procedure.
Relying on the least squares optimization problem as in case of recursive linear parameter
updates, its formulation in dependency of the nonlinear parameters Φ becomes:

(34)

In case of TS fuzzy systems, for instance, . Then, the linear


consequent parameters needs to be synchronously optimized to the nonlinear parameters
(thus, in optional braces), in order to guarantee optimal solution. This can be done either
in an alternating nested procedure, i.e., perform an optimization step for nonlinear
parameters first, see below, and then optimizing the linear ones, e.g., by Equation (30), or
within one joint update formula, e.g., when using one Jacobian matrix on all parameters,
see below).
Equation (34) is still a free optimization problem, thus any numerical, gradient-based
or Hessian-based technique for which a stable incremental algorithm can be developed is a
good choice: this is the case for steepest descent, Gauss–Newton method and Levenberg–
Marquardt. Interestingly, a common parameter update formula can be deduced for all three
variants (Ngia and Sjöberg, 2000):

(35)

where ) the partial derivative of the current model y after each


nonlinear parameter evaluated at the current input sample (k), e( (k), Φ) is the residual in
the kth sample: e( (k), Φ) = yk − ŷk. and μ(k)P(k)−1 the learning gain with P(k) an
approximation of the Hessian matrix, which is substituted in different ways:
• For the steepest descent algorithm, P(k) = I, thus the update depends only on first order
derivative vectors; furthermore, with (k) the current regression vector.
• For Gauss–Newton, μ(k) = 1 − λ and P(k) = (1 − λ)H(k) with H(k) the Hessian matrix
which can be approximated by JacT(k)Jac(k) with Jac the Jacobian matrix (including
the derivatives w.r.t. all parameters in all rules for all samples up to the kth) resp. by
JacT(k)diag(Ψi( (k)))Jac(k) in case of the weighted version for local learning (see also
Section 3.3.1) — note that the Jacobian matrix reduces to the regression matrix R in
case of linear parameters, as the derivatives are the original input variables (thus, H =
RTR in case of recursive linear parameter learning resulting in the native (slow)
recursive least squares without inverse matrix update). Additionally to updating the
parameters according to Equation (35), the update of the matrix P is required, which is
given by:

(36)

• For Levenberg–Marquardt, P(k) = (1 − λ)H(k) + αI with H(k) as in case of Gauss–


Newton and again μ(k) = 1 − λ. The update of the matrix P is done by:

(37)

Using matrix inversion lemma (Sherman and Morrison, 1949) and some reformulation
operations to avoid matrix inversion in each step (P−1 is required in Equation (35)) leads
to the well-known recursive Gauss–Newton approach, which is e.g., used in Komijani et
al. (2012) for recursively updating the kernel widths in the consequents and also for fine-
tuning the regularization parameter. It also results in the recursive least squares approach
in case of linear parameters (formulas for the local learning variant in Equation (30)). In
case of recursive Levenberg Marquardt (RLM) algorithm, a more complex reformulation
option is requested to approximate the update formulas for P(k)−1 directly (without
intermediate inversion step). This leads to the recursive equations as successfully used in
the EFP method by Wang and Vrbanek (2008) for updating centers and spreads in
Gaussian fuzzy sets (multivariate Gaussian rules), see also Lughofer (2011b) and Chapter
2.

3.3.3. Learning of Consequents in EFC


The most common choice in EFC design for consequent learning is simply to use the class
majority voting for each rule separately. This can be achieved by incrementally counting
the number of samples falling into each class k and rule i, hik (the rule which is the nearest
one in the current data stream process). The class with majority count is
the consequent class of the corresponding (ith) rule in case of the classical architecture in
Equation (16). The confidences in each class per rule can be obtained by the relative
frequencies among all classes in case of extended architecture in Equation
(17). For multi-model classifiers, the same strategy can be applied within each single
binary classifier. An enhanced confidence calculation scheme will be handled under the
scope of reliability in Section 3.4.5.

3.3.4. Incremental Partitioning of the Feature Space (Rule Learning)


A fundamental issue in evolving systems, which differs them from adaptive systems is that
they possess the capability to change their structure during online, incremental learning
cycles — adaptive systems are only able to update their parameters as described in the
preliminary two sub-sections. The evolving technology addresses the dynamic expansion
and contraction of the rule-base. Therefore, almost all of the EFS approaches foresee two
fundamental concepts for incremental partitioning of the feature space (only some foresee
only the first option):
• Rule evolution: It addresses the problem when and how to evolve new rules onthe-fly
and on demand → knowledge expansion.
• Rule pruning: It addresses the problem when and how to prune rules in the rule-base on-
the-fly and on demand → knowledge contraction, rule-base simplification.
The first issue guarantees to include new systems states, operation modes, process
characteristics in the models to enrich their knowledge and expand them to so far
unexplored regions in the feature space. The second issue guarantees that a rule-base
cannot grow forever and become extremely large, hence is responsible for smart
computation times and compactness of the rule-base which may be beneficial for
interpretability reasons, see Section 3.5. Also, it is a helpful engine for preventing model
over-fitting, especially in case when rules are evolved close to each other or are moving
together over time, thus turning out to be superfluous at a later stage. Whenever new rules
are evolved, the incremental update of their parameters (as described in the preliminary
sub-sections) can begin and continue in the subsequent cycles.
The current state-of-the-art in EFS is that both concepts are handled in different ways
in different approaches, see Lughofer (2011b) and “Evolving Systems” Journal by
Springer7 for recently published approaches. Due to space limitations of this book chapter
in the whole encyclopedia, it is not possible to describe the various options for rule
evolution and pruning anchored in the various EFS approaches. Therefore, we outline the
most important directions, which enjoy some common understanding and usage in various
approaches.
One concept which is widely used is the incremental clustering technique [see
Bouchachia (2011)] for a survey of methods], which searches for an optimal grouping of
the data into several clusters, ideally following the natural distribution of data clouds. In
particular, the aim is that similar samples contribute to the (formation of the) same cluster
while different samples should fall into different clusters (Gan et al., 2007). In case when
using clustering techniques emphasizing clusters with convex shapes (e.g., ellipsoids),
these can then be directly associated with rules. Due to their projection onto the axes, the
fuzzy sets appearing in the rule antecedents can be obtained. The similarity concept
applied in the various approaches differ: some are using distance-oriented criteria [e.g.,
DENFIS (Kasabov and Song, 2002), FLEXFIS (Lughofer, 2008) or eFuMo (Zdsar et al.,
2014)], some are using density-based criteria [e.g., eTS (Angelov and Filev, 2004) and its
extension eTS+ Angelov (2010), or Almaksour and Anquetil (2011)] and some others are
using statistical-oriented criteria [e.g., ENFM (Soleimani et al., 2010)]; this also affects
the rule evolution criterion, often being a threshold (e.g., a maximal allowed distance)
which decides whether a new rule is evolved or not. Distance-based criteria may be more
prone to outliers than density-based and statistical-based ones; on the other hand, the latter
ones can be quite lazy until new rules are evolved (e.g., a significant new dense area is
required such that a new rule is evolved there). A summary of EFS approaches and which
one applies which criterion will be given in Section 3.3.5.
Fundamental and quite common to many incremental clustering approaches is the
update of the centers defining the cluster prototype given by

(38)

and the update of the inverse covariance matrix Σ−1 defining the shape of clusters given by

with and N the number of samples seen so far. Usually, various clusters/rules are
updated, each representing an own covariance matrix , thus the symbol N = ki then
represents the number of samples “seen by the corresponding cluster so far”, i.e., falling
into the corresponding cluster so far (also denoted as the support of the cluster).
Other concepts rely
• On the degree of the coverage of the current input sample, i.e., when the coverage is
low, a new rule is evolved [e.g., SOFNN (Leng et al., 2005), the approach in Leng et al.
(2012)].
• On the system error criteria such as the one-step-ahead prediction, i.e., when this is
high, a new rule is evolved (e.g., as in SOFNN (Leng et al., 2005) or the approach in
Leng et al. (2012)) or even a split is performed as in AHLTNM (Kalhor et al., 2010).
• On the rule significance in terms of (expected) statistical contribution and influence, i.e.,
when a new rule is expected to significantly influence the output of the system it is
actually added to the system [e.g., SAFIS (Rong et al., 2006) and its extensions (Rong
et al., 2011; Rong, 2012) PANFIS (Pratama et al., 2014a), GENEFIS (Pratama et al.,
2014b)).
• On Yager’s participatory learning concept (Yager, 1990), comparing the arousal index
and the compatibility measure with thresholds [as in ePL (Lima et al., 2010; Lemos et
al., 2013), eMG (Lemos et al., 2011a)].
• On the goodness of fit tests based on statistical criteria (e.g., F-statistics) for candidate
splits. The leafs are replaced with a new subtree, inducing an expansion of the
hierarchical fuzzy model [e.g., in Lemos et al. (2011b) or incremental LOLIMOT
(Local Linear Model Tree) (Hametner and Jakubek, 2013)].
Furthermore, most of the approaches which are applying an adaptation of the rule
contours, e.g., by recursive adaptation of the nonlinear antecedent parameters, are
equipped with a merging strategy for rules. Whenever rules are forced to move together
due to the nature of data stream samples falling in-between these, they may become
inevitably overlapping, see the upper right case in Figure 3.6 for an example. The rule
evolution concepts cannot omit such occasions in advance, as streaming samples are
loaded in the same timely order as they are appearing/recorded in the system —
sometimes, originally it may seem that two clusters are contained in the data, which may
turn out later as erroneous assumption. Various criteria have been suggested to identify
such occurrences and to eliminate them, see Lughofer (2013) and Section 3.2 for a recent
overview. In Lughofer and Hüllermeier (2011); Lughofer et al. (2011a), a generic concept
has been defined for recognizing such overlapping situations based on fuzzy set and rule
level. It is applicable for most of the conventional EFS techniques as relying on a
geometric-based criterion employing a rule inclusion metric. This has been expanded in
Lughofer et al. (2013) to the case of adjacent rules in the feature space showing the same
trend in the antecedents and consequents, thus guaranteeing a kind of joint homogeneity.
Generic rule merging formulas have been established in Lughofer et al. (2011a) and go
hand in hand with consistency assurance, especially when equipped with specific merging
operations for rule consequent parts, see also Section 3.5.

3.3.5. EFS Approaches


In this section, we provide an overview of most important EFS approaches developed
since the invention of evolving fuzzy systems approximately 10 years ago. Due to space
limitations and the wide variety and manifold of the approaches, we are not able to give a
compact summary about the basic methodological concepts in each of these. Thus, we
restrict ourselves to report a rough comparison, which is based on the main characteristics
and properties of the EFS approaches. This comparison is provided in Table 3.1.
Additionally, we demonstrate a pseudo-code in Algorithm 3.1, which shows more or less a
common denominator of which steps are performed within the learning engines of the EFS
approaches.
Algorithm 3.1. Key Steps in an Evolving Fuzzy Systems Learning Engine
(1) Load new data sample .
(2) Pre-process data sample (e.g., normalization).
(3) If rule-base is empty, initialize the first rule with its center to the data sample =
and its spread (range of influence) to some small value; go to Step (1).
(4) Else, perform the following Steps (5–10):
(5) Check if rule evolution criteria are fulfilled
(a) If yes, evolve a new rule (Section 3.3.4) and perform body of Step (3) (without
if-condition).
(b) If no, proceed with next step.
(6) Update antecedents parts of (some or all) rules (Sections 3.3.4 and 3.3.2).
(7) Update consequent parameters (of some or all) rules (Sections 3.3.3 and 3.3.1).
(8) Check if the rule pruning/merging criteria are fulfilled
(a) If yes, prune or merge rules (Section 3.3.4); go to Step (1).
(b) If no, proceed with next step.
(9) Optional: Perform corrections of parameters towards more optimality.
(10) Go to Step (1).
One comment refers to the update of antecedents and consequents: some approaches may
only update those of some rules (e.g., the rule corresponding to the winning cluster),
others may always update those of all rules. The former may have some advantages
regarding the prevention of the unlearning effect in parts where actual samples do not fall
(Lughofer, 2010a), the latter achieves significance and thus reliability in the rule
parameters faster (more samples are used for updating).
Table 3.1: Comparison of properties and characteristics of important EFS approaches.
Although many of these have different facets with a large variety of pros and cons,
which cannot be strictly arranged in an ordered manner to say one method is for sure
better than the other, the number of parameters (last but one column) gives somehow a bit
clarification about the useability resp. the effort to tune the method and finally, to let it
run. Tendentially, the more parameters a method has, the more sensitive it is to a particular
result and the higher the effort to get it successfully run in an industrial installation. In
case when mentioning “X − Y ” number of parameters it means that Y parameters are the
case when forgetting is parameterized (fixed forgetting factor), which is often an optional
choice in many applications.
For further details about the concrete algorithms and concepts of the approaches listed
in Tables 3.1 and 3.2, please refer to Lughofer (2011b), describing approaches in a
compact detailed form from the origin of EFS up to June 2010 and to recently published
ones (since July 2010) in “Evolving Systems” Journal by Springer8 as well as papers in the
recent special issues “Evolving Soft Computing Techniques and Applications”
(Bouchachia et al., 2014) in Applied Soft Computing Journal (Elsevier) and “Online Fuzzy
Machine Learning and Data Mining” (Bouchachia et al., 2013) in Information Sciences
Journal (Elsevier), and also some recent regular contributions in “IEEE Transactions on
Fuzzy Systems”9 and “IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems”10
(neuro-fuzzy approaches).
3.4. Stability and Reliability
Two important issues when learning from data streams are the assurance of stability
during the incremental learning process and the investigation of reliability of model
outputs in terms of predictions, forecasts, quantifications, classification statements etc.
These usually leads to an enhanced robustness of the evolved models. Stability is usually
guaranteed by all the aforementioned approaches listed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 as long as the
data streams from which the models are learnt appear in a quite “smooth, expected”
fashion. However, specific occasions such as drifts and shifts (Klinkenberg, 2004) or high
noise levels may appear in these, which require a specific handling within the learning
engine of the EFS approaches. Another problem is dedicated to high-dimensional streams,
usually stemming from large-scale time-series (Morreale et al., 2013) embedded in the
data, and mostly causing a curse of dimensionality effect, which leads to over-fitting and
downtrends in model accuracy. As can be realized from Column #7 in Tables 3.1 and 3.2,
only a few approaches embed any online dimensionality reduction procedure so far in
order to diminish this effect. Although high noise levels can be automatically handled by
RFWLS, its spin-offs and modifications as well as by the antecedent learning engines
discussed in Sections 3.3.2 and 3.3.4, reliability aspects in terms of increasing the
certainty in model outputs respecting the noise are weakly discussed. Drift handling is
included in some of the methods by forgetting strategies, but these are basically only
applied for consequent learning in Takagi–Sugeno type fuzzy models (see Column 6 in
Tables 3.1 and 3.2).
Table 3.2: Comparison of properties and characteristics of important EFS approaches.
This section is dedicated to a summary of recent developments in stability, reliability
and robustness of EFS which can be generically used in combination with most of the
approaches listed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2.

3.4.1. Drift Handling in Streams


Drifts in data streams refer to a gradual evolution of the underlying data distribution and
therefore of the learning concept over time (Tsymbal, 2004; Widmer and Kubat, 1996) and
are frequent occurrences in nowadays non-stationary environments (Sayed-Mouchaweh
and Lughofer, 2012). Drifts can happen because the system behavior, environmental
conditions or target concepts dynamically change during the online learning process,
which makes the relations, concepts contained in the old data samples obsolete. Such
situations are in contrary to new operation modes or system states which should be
integrated into the models with the same weight as the older ones in order to extend the
models, but keeping the relations in states seen before untouched (still valid for future
predictions). Drifts, however, usually mean that the older learned relations (as parts of a
model) are not valid any longer and thus should be incrementally out-weighted, ideally in
a smooth manner to avoid catastrophic forgetting (French, 1999; Moe-Helgesen and
Stranden, 2005).
A smooth forgetting concept for consequent learning employing the idea of
exponential forgetting (Aström and Wittenmark, 1994), is used in approximately half of
the EFS approaches listed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 (refer to Column #6). The strategy in all of
these is to integrate a forgetting factor λ ∈ [0, 1[ for strengthening the influence of newer
samples in the Kalman gain γ—see Equation (31). Figure 3.7 shows the weight impact of
samples obtained for different forgetting factor values. This is also compared to a standard
sliding window technique, which weighs all samples up to a certain point of time in the
past equally, but forgets all others before completely → non-smooth forgetting. This
variant is also termed as decremental learning (Bouillon et al., 2013; Cernuda et al.,
2014), as the information contained in older samples falling out of the sliding window is
fully unlearned (= decremented) from the model. The effect of this forgetting factor
integration is that changes of the target concept in regression problems can be tracked
appropriately, i.e., a movement and shaping of the current regression surface towards the
new output behavior is enforced, see Lughofer and Angelov (2011). Decremental learning
may allow more flexibility (only the latest N samples are really used for model shaping),
but increases the likelihood of catastrophic forgetting.

Figure 3.7: Smooth forgetting strategies achieving different weights for past samples; compared to a sliding window
with fixed width → complete forgetting of older samples (decremental learning).

Regarding a drift handling in the antecedent part, several techniques may be used such
as a reactivation of rule centers and spreads from a converged situation by an increase of
the learning gain: this is conducted in Lughofer and Angelov (2011) for the two EFS
approaches eTS and FLEXFIS and has the effect that rules are helped out from their
stucked, converged positions to cover the new data cloud appearance of the drifted
situation. In eFuMo, the forgetting in antecedent learning is integrated as the degree of the
weighted movement of the rule centers . towards a new data sample N+1:

(39)
with si(N +1) = λsi(N) + μi ( N+1)η the sum of the past memberships μi( j), j = 1,…, N, η
the fuzziness degree also used as parameters in fuzzy c-means, and λ the forgetting factor.
Forgetting is also integrated in the inverse covariance matrix and determinant update
defining the shape of the clusters. All other EFS techniques in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 do not
embed an antecedent forgetting.
An important investigation is the question when to trigger forgetting and when to
apply the conventional life-long learning concept (all samples equally weighted) (Hamker,
2001). In Shaker and Lughofer (2014), it could be analyzed that when using a permanent
(fixed) forgetting factor respectively an increased model flexibility in case when no drift
happens, the accuracy of the evolved models may decrease over time. Thus, it is necessary
to install a drift indication concept, which is able to detect drifts and in ideal cases also to
quantify their intensity levels; based on these, it is possible to increase or decrease the
degree of forgetting, also termed as adaptive forgetting. A recent approach for EFS which
performs this by using an extended version of Page–Hinkley test (Mouss et al., 2004), (a
widely known and respected test in the field of drift handling in streams (Gama, 2010;
Sebastiao et al., 2013) is demonstrated in Shaker and Lughofer (2014). It is also the first
attempt to localize the drift intensity by quantifying drift effects in different local parts of
the features space with different intensities and smoothly: EFS is a perfect model
architecture to support such a local smooth handling (fuzzy rules with certain overlaps).

3.4.2. Online Curse of Dimensionality Reduction


For models including localization components as is the case of evolving fuzzy systems (in
terms of rules), it is well known that curse of dimensionality is very severe in case when a
high number of variables are used as model inputs (Pedrycz and Gomide, 2007), e.g., in
large-scale time-series, recorded in multi-sensor networks (Chong and Kumar, 2003). This
is basically because in high-dimensional spaces, someone cannot speak about locality any
longer (on which these types of models rely), as all samples are moving to the edges of the
joint feature space — see Hastie et al. (2009) and Chapter 1 for a detailed analysis of this
problem.
Therefore, the reduction of the dimensionality of the learning problem is highly
desired. In data stream sense, to ensure an appropriate reaction onto the system dynamics,
the feature reduction should be conducted online and be open for anytime changes. A
possibility is to track the importance levels of features over time and to cut out that ones
which become unnecessary — as has been used in connection with EFS for regression
problems in Angelov (2010); Pratama et al. (2014b) and for classification problems in a
first attempt in Bouchachia and Mittermeir (2006). However, features which are
unimportant at an earlier point of time may become important at a later stage (feature
reactivation). This means that crisply cutting out some features with the usage of online
feature selection and ranking approaches such as Li (2004); Ye et al. (2005) can fail to
represent the recent feature dynamics appropriately. Without a re-training cycle, which,
however slows down the process and causes additional sliding window parameters, this
would lead to discontinuities in the learning process (Lughofer, 2011b), as parameters and
rule structures have been learnt on different feature spaces before.
An approach which is addressing input structure changes incrementally onthe-fly is
presented in Lughofer (2011c) for classification problems using classical single model and
one-versus-rest based multi-model architectures (in connection with FLEXFIS-Class
learning engine). It operates on a global basis, hence features are either seen as important
or unimportant for the whole model. The basic idea is that feature weighs λ1,…,λp ∈ [0, 1]
for the p features included in the learning problem are calculated based on a stable
separability criterion (Dy and Brodley, 2004):

(40)

with Sw the within scatter matrix modeled by the sum of the covariance matrices for each
class, and Sb the between scatter matrix, modeled by the sum of the degree of mean shift
between classes. The criterion in Equation (40) is applied (1). Dimension-wise to see the
impact of each feature separately — note that in this case it reduces to a ratio of two
variances — and (2). For the remaining p − 1 feature subspace in order to gain the quality
of separation when excluding each feature. In both cases, p criteria J1,…, Jp according to
Equation (40) are obtained. For normalization purposes to [0, 1], finally the feature weighs
are defined by:

(41)

To be applicable in online learning environments, updating the weighs in incremental


mode is achieved by updating the within-scatter and between-scatter matrices using the
recursive covariance matrix formula (Hisada et al., 2010). This achieves a smooth change
of feature weighs = feature importance levels over time with new incoming samples.
Features may become out-weighted (close to 0) and reactivated (weighs significantly
larger than 0) at a later stage without “disturbing” the parameter and rule structure learning
process. Hence, this approach is also denoted as smooth and soft online dimension
reduction—the term softness comes from the decreased weighs instead of a crisp deletion.
Down-weighted features then play a marginal role during the learning process, e.g., the
rule evolution criterion relies more on the highly weighted features.
The feature weighs concept has been recently employed in Lughofer et al. (2014), in
the context of data stream regression problems, there with the usage of generalized rules
as defined in Section 3.2.2.2, instead of axis-parallel ones as used in Lughofer (2011c).
The features weights are calculated by a combination of future-based expected statistical
contributions of the features in all rules and their influences in the rules’ hyper-planes
(measured in terms of gradients), see Lughofer et al. (2014).
3.4.3. Incremental Smoothing
Recently, a concept for incremental smoothing of consequent parameters has been
introduced in Rosemann et al. (2009), where a kind of incremental regularization is
conducted after each learning step. This has the effect to decrease the level of over-fitting
whenever the noise level in the data is high. Indeed, when applying the local recursive
least squares estimator as in Equations (30)–(32) and some of its modifications, the
likelihood of over-fitting is small due to the enforcement of the local approximation and
interpretation property [as analyzed in Angelov et al. (2008)], but still may be present. The
approach in Rosemann et al. (2009) accomplishes the smoothing by correcting the
consequent functions of the updated rule(s) by a template T measuring the violation degree
subject to a meta-level property on the neighboring rules.
Finally, it should be highlighted that this strategy assures smoother consequent hyper-
planes over nearby lying or even touching rules, thus increases the likelihood of further
rule reduction through extended simplicity assurance concepts (adjacency, homogeneuity,
trend-continuation criteria) as discussed in Lughofer (2013) and successfully applied to
obtain compact rule bases in data stream regression problems in Lughofer et al. (2013),
employing generalized fuzzy rules, defined in Section 3.2.2.2.

3.4.4. Convergence Analysis/Ensurance


Another important criterion when applying EFS is some sort of convergence of the
parameters included in the fuzzy systems over time (in case of a regular stream without a
drift etc.)—this accounts for the stability aspect in the stability-plasticity dilemma
(Hamker, 2001), which is important in the life-long learning context. This is for instance
accomplished in the FLEXFIS approach, which, however only guarantees a sub-optimality
subject to a constant (thus guaranteeing finite solutions) due to a quasi-monotonic
decreasing intensity of parameter updates, but is not able to provide a concrete level of
this sub-optimality, see Lughofer (2008) and Lughofer (2011b) and Chapter 3. In the
approach by Rubio (2010), a concrete upper bound on the identification error is achieved
by the modified least squares algorithm to train both, parameters and structures, is
achieved with the support of Lyapunov function. The upper bound depends on the actual
certainty of the model output. Another approach which is handling the problem of
constraining the model error while assuring parameter convergence simultaneously is
applied within the PANFIS learning engine (Pratama et al., 2014a): This is achieved with
the usage of an extended recursive least squares approach.

3.4.5. Reliability
Reliability deals with the interpretation of the model predictions in terms of classification
statements, quantification outputs or forecasted values in time series. Reliability points to
the trustworthiness of the predictions of current query points which may be basically
influenced by two factors:
• The quality of the training data w.r.t data stream samples seen so far.
• The nature and localization of the current query point for which a prediction should be
obtained.
The trustworthiness/certainty of the predictions may support/influence the users/operators
during a final decision finding — for instance, a query assigned to a class may cause a
different user’s reaction when the trustworthiness about this decision is low, compared to
when it is high. In this sense, it is an essential add-on to the actual model predictions
which may also influence its further processing.
The first factor basically concerns the noise level in measurement data. This also may
cover aspects in the direction of uncertainties in users’ annotations in classification
problems: a user with lower experience level may cause more inconsistencies in the class
labels, causing overlapping classes, finally increasing conflict cases (see below); similar
occasions may happen in case when several users annotate samples on the same systems,
but have different opinions in borderline cases.
The second factor concerns the position of the current query point with respect to the
definition space of the model. A model can show a perfect trend with little uncertainty, but
a new query point appears far away from all training samples seen so far, yielding a severe
degree of extrapolation when conducting the model inference process. In a classification
context, a query point may also fall close in a highly overlapped region or close to the
decision boundary between two classes. The first problem is denoted as ignorance, the
second as conflict (Hüllermeier and Brinker, 2008; Lughofer, 2012a). A visualization of
these two occasions is shown in Figure 3.8(a) (for conflict) and 3.8(b) (for ignorance). The
conflict case is due to a sample falling in-between two classes and the ignorance case due
to a query point falling outside the range of training samples, which is indeed linearly
separable, but by several possible decision boundaries [also termed as the variability of the
version space (Hüllermeier and Brinker, 2008)].

Figure 3.8: (a) Two conflict cases: query point falls inbetween two distinct classes and within the overlap region of two
classes; (b) Ignorance case as query point lies significantly away from the training samples, thus increasing the
variability of the version space (Hüllermeier and Brinker, 2008); in both figures, rules modeling the two separate classes
are shown by an ellipsoid, the decision boundaries indicated by solid lines.
In the regression context, the estimation of parameters through RWFLS and
modifications usually can deal with high noise levels in order to find a nonoverfitting
trend of the approximation surface. However, it is not possible to represent uncertainty
levels of the model predictions later on. These can be modeled by the so-called error bars
or confidence intervals (Smithson, 2003). In EFS, they have been developed based on
parameter uncertainty in Lughofer and Guardiola (2008a) [applied to online fault detection
in Serdio et al. (2014a)] and in an extended scheme in Skrjanc (2009) (for chemometric
calibration purposes). The latter is based on a funded deduction from statistical noise and
quantile estimation theory (Tschumitschew and Klawonn, 2012). Both are applicable in
connection with local (LS) learning of TS consequent parameters.
In the classification context, conflict and ignorance can be reflected and represented
by means of fuzzy classifiers in a quite natural way (Hühn and Hüllermeier, 2009). These
concepts have been only recently tackled once in the field of evolving fuzzy classifiers
(EFC), see Lughofer and Buchtala (2013), where multiple binary classifiers are trained in
an all-pairs context for obtaining simper decision boundaries in multi-class classification
problems (see Section 3.2.6.3). On a single rule level, the confidence in a prediction can
be obtained by the confidence in the different classes coded into the consequents of the
rules having the form of Equation (17). This provides a perfect conflict level (close to 0.5
→ high conflict, close to 1 → low conflict) in case of overlapping classes within a single
rule. If a query point falls in-between rules with different majority classes (different
maximal confidence levels), then the extended weighted classification scheme in Equation
(19) is requested to represent a conflict level. If the confidence in the final output class L,
con fL, is close to 0.5, conflict is high, when it is close to 1, conflict is low. In case of all-
pairs architecture, Equation (19) can be used to represent conflict levels in the binary
classifiers. Furthermore, an overall conflict level on the final classifier output is obtained
by Lughofer and Buchtala (2013):

(42)

with k and l the classes with the highest scores.


The ignorance criterion can be resolved in a quite natural way, represented by a degree
of extrapolation, thus:

(43)

with C the number of rules currently contained in the evolved fuzzy classifier. In fact, the
degree of extrapolation is a good indicator of the degree of ignorance, but not necessarily
sufficient, see Lughofer (2012a), for an extended analysis and further concepts. However,
integrating the ignorance levels into the preference relation scheme of all-pairs evolving
fuzzy classifiers according to Equation (24) for obtaining the final classification statement,
helped to boost the accuracies of the classifier significantly, as then classifiers which show
a strongly extrapolated situation in the current query are down-weighted towards 0, thus
masked-out, in the scoring process. This leads to an out-performance of incremental
machine learning classifiers from MOA framework11 (Bifet et al., 2010) on several large-
scale problems, see Lughofer and Buchtala (2013). The overall ignorance level of an all-
pairs classifier is the minimal ignorance degree calculated by Equation (43) over all binary
classifiers.
3.5. Interpretability
Improved transparency and interpretability of the evolved models may be useful in several
real-world applications where the operators and experts intend to gain a deeper
understanding of the interrelations and dependencies in the system. This may enrich their
knowledge and enable them to interpret the characteristics of the system on a deeper level.
Concrete examples are decision support systems or classification systems, which
sometimes require the knowledge why certain decisions have been made, e.g., see Wetter
(2000): Insights into these models may provide answers to important questions (e.g.,
providing the health state of a patient) and support the user in taking appropriate actions.
Another example is the substitution of expensive hardware with soft sensors, referred to as
eSensors in an evolving context (Angelov and Kordon, 2010a; Macias-Hernandez and
Angelov, 2010): The model has to be linguistically or physically understandable, reliable,
and plausible to an expert, before it can be substituted for the hardware. In often cases, it
is beneficial to provide further insights into the control behavior (Nelles, 2001).
Interpretability, apart from pure complexity reduction, has been addressed very little in
the evolving systems community so far (under the scope of data stream mining). A recent
position paper published in Information Sciences journal Lughofer (2013) summarizes the
achievements in EFS, provides avenues for new concepts as well as concrete new
formulas and algorithms and points out open issues as important future challenges. The
basic common understanding is that complexity reduction as a key prerequisite for
compact and therefore transparent models is handled in most of the EFS approaches,
which can be found nowadays in literature (please also refer to Column “Rule pruning” in
Tables 3.1 and 3.2), whereas other important criteria [known to be important from
conventional batch offline design of fuzzy systems (Casillas et al., 2003; Gacto et al.,
2011)], are more or less loosely handled in EFS. These criteria include:
• Distinguishability and Simplicity
• Consistency
• Coverage and Completeness
• Local Property and Addition-to-One-Unity
• Feature Importance Levels
• Rule Importance Levels
• Interpretation of Consequents
• Interpretability of Input–Output Behavior
• Knowledge Expansion
Distinguishability and simplicity are handled under the scope of complexity reduction,
where the difference between these two lies in the occurrence of the degree of overlap of
rules and fuzzy sets: Redundant rules and fuzzy sets are highly overlapping and therefore
indistinguishable, thus should be merged, whereas obsolete rules or close rules showing
similar approximation/classification trends belong to an unnecessary complexity which
can be simplified (due to pruning). Figure 3.9 visualizes an example of a fuzzy partition
extracted in the context of house price estimation (Lughofer et al., 2011b), when
conducting native precise modeling (left) and when conducting some simplification steps
according to merging, pruning and constrained-based learning (right). Only in the right
case, it is possible to assign linguistic labels to the fuzzy sets and hence to achieve
interpretation quality.
Consistency addresses the problem of assuring that no contradictory rules, i.e., rules
which possess similar antecedents but dissimilar consequents, are present in the system.
This can be achieved by merging redundant rules, i.e., those one which are similar in their
antecedents, with the usage of the participatory learning concept introduced by Yager
(1990). An appropriate merging of the linear parameter vectors is given by Lughofer and
Hüllermeier (2011):

Figure 3.9: (a) Weird un-interpretable fuzzy partition for an input variable in house pricing; (b) The same partition
achieved when conducting merging, pruning options of rules and sets during the incremental learning phase →
assignments of linguistic labels possible.

(44)

where α = kR /(kR + kR ) represents the basic learning rate with kR the support of the more
2 1 2 1

supported rule R1 and Cons(R1, R2) the compatibility measure between the two rules
within the participatory learning context. The latter is measured by a consistency degree
between antecedent and consequents of the two rules. It relies on the exponential
proportion between rule antecedent similarity degree (overlap) and rule consequent
similarity degree.
Coverage and completeness refer to the problem of a well-defined coverage of the
input space by the rule-base. Formally, -completeness requires that for each new
incoming data sample there exists at least one rule to which this sample has a membership
degree of at least . A specific re-adjustment concept of fuzzy sets and thus rules is
presented in Lughofer (2013), which restricts the re-adjustment level in order to keep the
accuracy high. An alternative, more profound option for data stream regression problems,
is offered as well in Lughofer (2013), which integrates a punishment term for -
completeness into the least squares optimization problem. Incremental optimization
techniques based on gradients of the extended optimization function may be applied in
order to approach but not necessarily fully assure -completeness. On the other hand, the
joint optimization guarantees a reasonable tradeoff between model accuracy and model
coverage of the feature space.
Local property and addition-to-one-unity have been not considered so far, but will go
a step further by ensuring fuzzy systems where only maximal 2p rules fire at the same time
(Bikdash, 1999), with p the input dimensionality. From our point of experience, this
cannot be enforced by significantly loosing some model accuracy, as it requires significant
shifts of rules away from the real position of the data clouds/density swarms.
Feature importance levels are an outcome of the online dimensionality reduction
concept discussed in Section 3.4.2. With their usage, it is possible to obtain an
interpretation on input structure level which features are more important and which ones
are less important. Furthermore, they may also lead to a reduction of the rule lengths thus
increasing rule transparency and readability, as features with weights smaller than have a
very low impact on the final model output and therefore can be eliminated from the rule
antecedent and consequent parts when showing the rule-base to experts/operators.
Rule importance levels could serve as essential interpretation component as they tend
to show the importance of each rule in the rule-base. Furthermore, rule weights may be
used for a smooth rule reduction during learning procedures, as rules with low weights can
be seen as unimportant and may be pruned or even re-activated at a later stage in an online
learning process (soft rule pruning mechanism). This strategy may be beneficial when
starting with an expert-based system, where originally all rules are fully interpretable (as
designed by experts/users), however, some may turn out to be superfluous over time for
the modeling problem at hand (Lughofer, 2013). Furthermore, rule weights can be used to
handle inconsistent rules in a rule-base, see e.g., Pal and Pal (1999); Cho and Park (2000),
thus serving for another possibility to tackle the problem of consistency (see above). The
usage of rule weights and their updates during incremental learning phases, was, to our
best knowledge, not studied so far in the evolving fuzzy community. In Lughofer (2013), a
first concept was suggested to adapt the rule weights, integrated as nonlinear parameters in
the fuzzy systems architecture, based on incremental optimization procedures, see also
Section 3.3.2.
Interpretation of consequents is assured by nature in case of classifiers with
consequent class labels plus confidence levels; in case of TS fuzzy systems, it is assured
as soon as local learning of rule consequents is used (Angelov et al., 2008; Lughofer,
2011b) Chapter 2 and Lughofer (2013). Please also refer to Section 3.3.1: Then, a
snuggling of the partial linear trends along the real approximation surface is guaranteed,
thus giving rise in which parts of the feature space the model will react in which way and
intensity (gradients of features).
Interpretability of Input–Output Behavior refers to the understanding which output(s)
will be produced when showing the system concrete input queries. For instance, a model
with constant output has a maximal input–output interpretability (as being very predictable
what outcome will be produced for different input values), however, usually suffers from
predictive accuracy (as long as the behavior of the system to be modeled is non-constant).
Most actively firing rules can be used as basis for this analysis.
Knowledge expansion refers to the automatic integration of new knowledge arising
during the online process on demand and on-the-fly, also in order to expand the
interpretation range of the models, and is handled by all conventional EFS approaches
through rule evolution and/or splitting, see Tables 3.1 and 3.2.

3.5.1. Visual Interpretability


Visual interpretability refers to an interesting alternative to linguistic interpretability (as
discussed above), namely, to the representation of a model in a graphical form. In our
context, this approach could be especially useful if models evolve quickly, since
monitoring a visual representation might then be easier than following a frequently
changing linguistic description. Under this scope, alternative “interpretability criteria”
may then become interesting which are more dedicated to the timely development of the
evolving fuzzy model — for instance, a trajectory of rule centers showing their movement
over time, or trace paths showing birth, growth, pruning and merging of rules; first
attempts in this direction have been conducted in Henzgen et al. (2013), employing the
concept of rule chains. These have been significantly extended in Hentzgen et al. (2014)
by setting up a visualization framework with a grown-up user front-end (GUI), integrating
various similarity, coverage and overlap measures as well as specific techniques for an
appropriate catchy representation of high-dimensional rule antecedents and consequents.
Internally, it uses the FLEXFIS++ approach (Lughofer, 2012b) as incremental learning
engine.
3.6. Useability and Applications
In order to increase the useability of evolving fuzzy systems, several issues are discussed
in this section, ranging from the reduction of annotation efforts in classification settings
through a higher plug-and-play capability (more automatization, less tuning) to the
decrease of computational resources and as well as to online evaluation measures for
supervising modeling performance. At the end of this section, a list of real-world
applications making use of evolving fuzzy systems will be discussed.
Finally, the increase of the useability together with the assurance of interpretability
serves as basis for a successful future development of the human-inspired evolving
machines (HIEM) concept as discussed in Lughofer (2011a), which is expected to be the
next generation of evolving intelligent systems12 —the aim isto enrich the pure machine
learning systems with human knowledge and feelings, and to form a joint concept of
active learning and teaching in terms of a higher-educated computational intelligence
useable in artificial intelligence.

3.6.1. Single-Pass Active Learning

3.6.1.1. For classification problems

In online classification tasks, all evolving and incremental classifier variants require
provision of the ground truth in form of true class labels for incoming samples to
guarantee smooth and well-defined updates for increased classifiers’ performance.
Otherwise, classifiers’ false predictions self-reinforce and are back-propagated into their
structure and parameters, leading to a deteriorization of their performance over time
(Gama, 2010; Sayed-Mouchaweh and Lughofer, 2012). The problem, however, is that the
true class labels of new incoming samples are usually not included in the stream neither
provided automatically by the system. Mostly, operators or experts have to provide the
ground truth which requires considerable manpower and fast manual responses in case of
online processes. Therefore, in order to attract the operators and users to work and
communicate with the system, thus to assure classifier useability in online mode,
decreasing the number of required samples for evolving and improving a classifier over
time is essential.
This task can be addressed by active learning (Settles, 2010), a technique where the
learner itself has control over which samples are used to update the classifiers (Cohn et al.,
1994). Conventional active learning approaches operate fully in batch mode: (1) New
samples are selected iteratively and sequentially from a pool of training data; (2) The true
class labels of the selected samples are queried from an expert; and (3) Finally, the
classifier is re-trained based on the new samples together with those previously selected.
In an online setting, such iteration phases over a pool of data samples are not practicable.
Thus, a requirement is that the sample selection process operates autonomously in a
single-pass manner, omitting time-intensive re-training phases.
Several first attempts have been made in connection with linear classifiers (Chu et al.,
2011; Sculley, 2007). A nonlinear approach which employs both, single fuzzy model
architecture with extended confidence levels in the rule consequents [as defined in
Equation (17)] and the all-pairs concept as defined in Section 3.2.6.3, is demonstrated in
Lughofer (2012a). There, the actual evolved fuzzy classifier itself decides for each sample
whether it helps to improve the performance and, when indicated, requests the true class
label for updating its parameters and structure. In order to obtain the certainty level for
each new incoming data sample (query point), two reliability concepts are explored:
conflict and ignorance, both motivated and explained in detail in Section 3.4.5: when one
of the two cases arises for a new data stream sample, a class label is requested from
operators. A common understanding based on several results on high-dimensional
classification streams (binary and multi-class problems) was that a very similar tendency
of accuracy trend lines over time can be achieved when using only 20–25% of the data
samples in the stream for classifier updates, which are selected based on the single-pass
active learning policy. Upon random selection, the performance deteriorates significantly.
Furthermore, a batch active learning scheme based on re-training cycles using SVMs
classifiers (Schölkopf and Smola, 2002) (lib-SVM implementation13) could be
significantly out-performed in terms of accumulated one-step-ahead accuracy (see Section
3.6.4 for its definition).

3.6.1.2. For regression problems

Online active learning may be also important in case of regression problems whenever for
instance the measurements of a supervised target are quite costly to obtain. An example is
the gathering of titration values within a spin-bath analytics at a viscose production
process (courtesy to Lenzing GmbH), which are for the purpose to supervise the
regulation of the substances H2SO4, Na2SO4, and ZnSO4 (Cernuda et al., 2014). There,
active learning is conducted in incremental and decremental stages with the help of a
sliding window-based approach (sample selection for incoming as well as outgoing points)
and using TS fuzzy models connected with PLS. It indeed exceeds the performance of
conventional equidistant and costly model updates, but is not fully operating in a single-
pass manner (a window of samples is required for re-estimation of statistics, etc.). Single-
pass strategies have been, to our best knowledge, not handled in data stream regression
problems, neither in connection with evolving fuzzy systems.

3.6.2. Toward a Full Plug-and-Play Functionality


The plug-and-play functionality of online incremental learning methods is one of the most
important properties in order to prevent time-intensive pre-training cycles in batch mode
and to support an easy useability for experts and operators. The situation in the EFS
community is that all EFS approaches as listed in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 allow the possibility
to incrementally learn the models from scratch. However, all of these require at least one
or a few learning parameters guiding the engines to correct, stable models — see Column
#8 in these tables. Sometimes, a default parametrization exists, but is sub-optimal for
upcoming new future learning tasks, as having been optimized based on streams from past
processes and application scenarios. Cross-validation (Stone, 1974) or boot-strapping
(Efron and Tibshirani, 1993) may help to guide the parameters to good values during the
start of the learning phase (carried out on some initial collected samples), but, apart that
these iterative batch methods are eventually too slow (especially when more than two
parameters need to be adjusted), a stream may turn out to change its characteristics later
on (e.g., due to a drift, see Section 3.4.1). This usually would require a dynamic update of
the learning parameters, which is not supported by any EFS approach so far and has to be
specifically developed in connection with the concrete learning engine.
An attempt to overcome such an unlucky or undesired parameter setting is presented
in Lughofer and Sayed-Mouchaweh (2015) for evolving cluster models, which, however,
may be easily adopted to EFS approaches, especially to those ones performing an
incremental clustering process for rule extraction. Furthermore, the prototype-based
clusters in Lughofer and Sayed-Mouchaweh (2015) are axis-parallel defining local
multivariate Gaussian distributions in the feature space. Thus, when using Gaussian fuzzy
sets in connection with product t-norm, the same rule shapes are induced. The idea in
Lughofer and Sayed-Mouchaweh (2015) is based on dynamic split-and-merge concepts
for clusters (rules) which are either moving together forming a homogenous joint region
(→ merge requested) or are internally containing two or more distinct data clouds, thus
already housing some internal heterogeneity (→ split requested), see Figure 3.10 (Cluster
#4) for an example, also showing the internal structure of Cluster #4 in the right image.
Both occurrences may arise either due to the nature of the stream or often due to a wrong
parametrization of the learning engine (e.g., a too low threshold such that new rules are
evolved too early). The main difficulty lies on the identification of when to merge and
when to split: parameter-free options are discussed in Lughofer and Sayed-Mouchaweh
(2015). Opposed to other joint merging and splitting concepts in some EFS approaches,
one strength of the approach in Lughofer and Sayed-Mouchaweh (2015) is that it can be
used independently from the concrete learning engine. The application of the unsupervised
automatic splitting and merging concepts to supervised streaming problems under the
scope of EFS/EFC may thus be an interesting and fruitful future challenge.
Figure 3.10: (a) The cluster structure after 800 samples, Cluster #4 containing already a more distinct density area; (b)
Its corresponding histogram along Feature X1, showing the clear implicit heterogenous nature.

3.6.3. On Improving Computational Demands


When dealing with online data stream processing problems, usually the computational
demands required for updating the fuzzy systems are an essential criteria whether to install
and use the component or not. It can be a kick-off criterion, especially in real-time
systems, where the update is expected to terminate in real-time, i.e., before the next
sample is loaded, the update cycle should be finished. Also, the model predictions should
be in-line the real-time demands, but these are known to be very fast in case of fuzzy
inference scheme (significantly below milliseconds) (Kruse et al., 1994; Pedrycz and
Gomide, 2007; Piegat, 2001). An extensive evaluation and especially a comparison of
computational demands for a large variety of EFS approaches over a large variety of
learning problems with different number of classes, different dimensionality etc. is
unrealistic, also because most of the EFS approaches are hardly downloadable or to obtain
from the authors. A loose attempt in this direction has been made by Komijani et al.
(2012), where they classify various EFS approaches in terms of computation speed into
three categories: low, medium, high.
Interestingly, the consequent update is more or less following the complexity of
O(Cp2) with p the dimensionality of the feature space and C the number of rules, when
local learning is used (as for most EFS approaches, compare in Tables 3.1 and 3.2), and
following the complexity of O((Cp)2) when global learning is applied. The quadratic terms
p2 resp. (Cp)2 are due to the multiplication of the inverse Hessian with the actual regressor
vector in Equation (31), and because their sizes are (p+1)×(p+1) and p+1 in case of local
learning (storing the consequent parameters of one rule) resp. (C(p + 1)) × (C(p + 1)) and
C(p + 1) in case of global learning (storing the consequent parameters of all rules).
Regarding antecedent learning, rule evolution and pruning, most of the EFS approaches
try to be restricted to have at most cubic complexity in terms of the number of rules plus
the number of inputs. This may guarantee some sort of smooth termination in an online
process, but it is not a necessary prerequisite and has to be inspected for the particular
learning problem at hand.
However, some general remarks on the improvement of computational demands can
be given: first of all, the reduction of unnecessary complexity such as merging of
redundant overlapping rules and pruning of obsolete rules (as discussed in Section 3.3.4)
is always beneficial for speeding up the learning process. This also ensures that fuzzy
systems are not growing forever, thus restricted in their expansion and virtual memory
requests. Second, some fast version of incremental optimization techniques could be
adopted to fuzzy systems estimation, for instance, there exists a fast RLS algorithm for
recursively estimating linear parameters in near linear time (O(nlog(n))), but with the costs
of some stability and convergence, see Douglas (1996); Gay (1996) or Merched and Sayed
(1999). Another possibility for decreasing the computation time for learning is the
application of active learning for exquisitely selecting only a subset of samples, based on
which the model will be updated, please also refer to Section 3.6.1.

3.6.4. Evaluation Measures


Evaluation measures may serve as indicators about the actual state of the evolved fuzzy
systems, pointing to its accuracy and trustworthiness in predictions. In a data streaming
context, the temporal behavior of such measures plays an essential role in order to track
the model development over time resp. to realize down-trends in accuracy at an early stage
(e.g., caused by drifts), and to react appropriately (e.g., conducting a re-modeling phase,
changes at the system setup, etc.). Furthermore, the evaluation measures are indispensable
during the development phase of EFS approaches. In literature dealing with incremental
and data-stream problems (Bifet and Kirkby, 2011), basically three variants of measuring
the (progress of) model performance are suggested:
• Interleaved-test-and-then-train.
• Periodic hold out test.
• Fully-train-and-then-test.
Interleaved-test-and-then-train, also termed as accumulated one-step ahead
error/accuracy, is based on the idea to measure model performance in one-step ahead
cycles, i.e., based on one newly loaded sample only. In particular, the following steps are
carried out:
(1) Load a new sample (the Nth).
(2) Predict its target ŷ using the current evolved fuzzy systems.
(3) Compare the prediction ŷ with the true target value y and update the performance
measure pm:

(45)
(4) Update the evolved fuzzy system (arbitrary approach).
(5) Erase sample and go to Step (1).
This is a rather optimistic approach, assuming that the target response is immediately
available for each new sample after its prediction. Often, it may be delayed (Marrs et al.,
2012; Subramanian et al., 2013), postponing the update of the model performance to a
later stage. Furthermore, in case of single sample updates its prediction horizon is minimal
that makes it difficult to really provide a clear distinction between training and test data,
hence weakening their independence. In this sense, this variant is sometimes too
optimistic, under-estimating the true model error. On the other hand, all training samples
are also used for testing, thus it is quite practicable for small streams.
The periodic holdout procedure can “look ahead” to collect a batch of examples from
the stream for use as test examples. In particular, it uses each odd data block for learning
and updating the model and each even data block for eliciting the model performance on
this latest block; thereby, the data block sizes may be different for training and testing and
may vary in dependence of the actual stream characteristics. In this sense, a lower number
of samples is used for model updating/tuning than in case of interleaved-test-and-then-
train procedure. In experimental test designs, where the streams are finite, it is thus more
practicable for longer streams. On the other hand, this method would be preferable in
scenarios with concept drift, as it would measure a model’s ability to adapt to the latest
trends in the data — whereas in interleaved-test-and-then-train procedure all the data seen
so far is reflected in the current accuracy/error, becoming less flexible over time.
Forgetting may be integrated into Equation (45), but this requires an additional tuning
parameter (e.g., a window size in case of sliding windows). The following steps are
carried out in a periodic holdout process:
(1) Load a new data block XN = N∗m+1,…, N∗m+m containing m samples.

(2) If N is odd:
(a) Predict the target values ŷ1,…, ŷm using the current evolved fuzzy systems.
(b) Compare the predictions ŷN∗m+1,…, ŷN∗m+m with the true target values yN∗m+m,…,
yN∗m+m and calculate the performance measure (one or more of Equation (46) to
Equation (51)) using and .
(c) Erase block and go to Step (1).
(3) Else (N is even):
(a) Update the evolved fuzzy system (arbitrary approach) with all samples in the
buffer using the real target values.
(b) Erase block and go to Step (1).
Last but not least, an alternative to the online evaluation procedure is to evolve the
model an a certain training set and then evaluate it on an independent test set, termed as
fully-train-and-then-test. This procedure is most heavily used in many applications of
EFS, especially in nonlinear system identification and forecasting problems, as
summarized in Table 3.3. It extends the prediction horizon of interleaved-test-and-then-
train procedure with the size of the test set, but only does this in one occasion (at the end
of learning). Therefore, it is not useable in drift cases or severe changes during online
incremental learning processes and should be only used during development and
experimental phases.
Regarding appropriate performance measures, the most convenient choice in
classification problems is the number of correctly classified samples (accuracy). In the
time instance N (processing the Nth sample), the update of the performance measure as in
Equation (45) is then conducted by

(46)

with Acc(0) = 0 and I the indicator function, i.e., I(a, b) = 1 whenever a = b, otherwise I(a,
b) = 0, ŷ the predicted class label and y the real one. It can be used in the same manner for
eliciting the accuracy on whole data blocks as in the periodic hold out case. Another
important measure is the so-called confusion matrix (Stehman, 1997), which is defined as:

(47)

with K the current number of classes, where the diagonal elements denote the number of
class j samples which have been correctly classified as class j samples and the element Nij
denotes the number of class i samples which are wrongly classified to class j. These can be
simply updated by counting.
Furthermore, often someone may be not only interested how strong the samples are
miss-classified, but also how certain they are classified (either correctly or wrongly). For
instance, a high classification accuracy with a lot of certain classifier outputs may have a
higher value than with a lot of uncertain outputs. Furthermore, a high uncertainty degree
in the statements point to a lot of conflict cases (compare with Equation (19) and Figure
3.5), i.e., a lot of samples falling into class overlap regions. Therefore, a measure telling
the uncertainty degree over samples seen so far is of great interest — a widely used
measure is provided in (Amor et al., 2004):

(48)
where yk(i) = 1 if k is the class the current sample N belongs to, and yk(i) = 0 otherwise,
and con fk the certainty level in class k, which can be calculated by Equation (19), for
instance. It can be accumulated in the same manner as the accuracy above.
In case of regression problems, the most common choices are the root mean squared
error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE) or the average percentual deviation (APE).
Their updates are achieved by:

(49)

(50)

(51)

Their batch calculation for even blocks in periodic hold out test is following the standard
procedure and thus can be realized from Wikipedia. Instead of calculating the concrete
error values, often the observed versus predicted curves over time and their correlation
plots are shown. This gives an even better impression under which circumstances and at
which points of time the model behaves in which way. A systematic error shift can be also
realized.
Apart from accuracy criteria, other measures rely on the complexity of the models. In
most EFS application cases (refer to Table 3.3), the development of the number of rules
over time is plotted as a two-dimensional function. Sometimes, also the number of fuzzy
sets are reported as additionally criteria which depend on the rule lengths. These mostly
depend on the dimensionality of the learning problem. In case of embedded feature
selection, there may be a big drop in the number of fuzzy sets once some features are
discarded resp. out-weighted (compare with Section 3.4.2). Figure 3.11 shows a typical
accumulated accuracy curve over time in the left image (using an all-pairs EFC including
active learning option with different amount of samples for updating) and a typical
development of the number of rules in the right one: At the start, rules are evolved and
accumulated, later some rules turned out to be superfluous and hence are back-pruned and
merged. This guarantees an anytime flexibility.
Figure 3.11: (a) Typical accumulated accuracy increasing over time in case of full update and active learning variants
(reducing the number of samples used for updating while still maintaining high accuracy); (b) Typical evolution of the
number of rules over time.

3.6.5. Real-World Applications of EFS — Overview


Due to space restrictions, a complete description of application scenarios in which EFSs
have been successfully implemented and used so far is simply impossible. Thus, we
restrict ourselves to a compact summary within Table 3.3 showing application types and
classes and indicating which EFS approaches have been used in the circumstance of which
application type. In all of these cases, EFS(C) helped to increase automatization capability,
improving performance of the models and finally increasing the useability of the whole
systems; in some cases, no modeling has been (could be) applied before at all.
Table 3.3: Application classes in which EFS approaches have been successfully applied so far.

Application Type/Class EFS approaches (+ refs) Comment


(alphabetically)
Active learning / human– machine FLEXFIS-Class (Lughofer et al., Reducing the annotation effort and
interaction 2009; Lughofer, 2012d), EFC-AP measurement costs in industrial
(Lughofer, 2012a), FLEXFIS- processes
PLS (Cernuda et al., 2014)

Adaptive online control evolving PID and MRC controllers Design of fuzzy controllers which
in (Angelov and Skrjanc, 2013), can be updated and evolved on-
eFuMo (Zdsar et al., 2014), rGK the-fly
(Dovzan et al., 2012), self-
evolving NFC (Cara et al., 2013),
adaptive controller in (Rong et
al., 2014).

Bioinformatics EFuNN (Kasabov, 2002) Specific applications such as


ribosome binding site (RBS)
identification, gene profiling

Chemometric Modeling and Process FLEXFIS++ (Cernuda et al., 2013, The application of EFS onto
Control 2012); the approach in processes in chemical industry
Bodyanskiy and Vynokurova (high-dim. NIR spectra)
(2013)
EEG signals classification and eTS (Xydeas et al., 2006), epSNNr Time-series modeling with the
processing (Nuntalid et al., 2011) inclusion of time delays

Evolving Smart Sensors (eSensors) eTS+ (Macias-Hernandez and Evolving predictive and forecasting
Angelov, 2010) (gas industry), models in order to substitute cost-
(Angelov and Kordon, 2010a, intensive hardware sensors
2010b) (chemical process
industry), FLEXFIS (Lughofer et
al., 2011c) and PANFIS (Pratama
et al., 2014a) (NOx emissions)

Forecasting and prediction (general) AHLTNM (Kalhor et al., 2010) Various successful implementations
(daily temp.), eT2FIS (Tung et of EFS
al., 2013) (traffic flow), eFPT
(Shaker et al., 2013) (Statlog
from UCI), eFT (Lemos et al.,
2011b) and eMG (Lemos et al.,
2011a) (short-term electricity
load), FLEXFIS+ (Lughofer et
al., 2011b) and GENEFIS
(Pratama et al., 2014b) (house
prices), LOLIMOT inc.
(Hametner and Jakubek, 2013)
(maximum cylinder pressure),
rGK (Dovzan et al., 2012) (sales
prediction) and others

Financial domains eT2FIS (Tung et al., 2013), evolving Time-series modeling with the
granular systems (Leite et al., inclusion of time delays
2012b), ePL (Maciel et al., 2012),
PANFIS (Pratama et al., 2014a),
SOFNN (Prasad et al., 2010)

Identification of dynamic DENFIS (Kasabov and Song, 2002), Mackey-Glass, Box-Jenkins, etc.
benchmark problems eT2FIS (Tung et al., 2013), eTS+
(Angelov, 2010), FLEXFIS
(Lughofer, 2008), SAFIS (Rong,
2012), SEIT2FNN (Juang and
Tsao, 2008), SOFNN (Prasad et
al., 2010)

Online fault detection and condition eMG for classification (Lemos et EFS applied as SysID models for
monitoring al., 2013), FLEXFIS++ (Lughofer extracting residuals
and Guardiola, 2008b; Serdio et
al., 2014a), rGK (Dovzan et al.,
2012)

Online monitoring eTS+ (Macias-Hernandez and Supervision of system behaviors


Angelov, 2010) (gas industry)

Robotics eTS+ (Zhou and Angelov, 2007) In the area of self-localization

Time-series modeling DENFIS (Widiputra et al., 2012), Local modeling of multiple time-
ENFM (Soleimani et al., 2010) series versus instance-based
and eTS-LS-SVM (Komijani et learning
al., 2012) (sun spot)

User behavior identification eClass and eTS (Angelov et al., Analysis of the user’s behaviors in
2012; Iglesias et al., 2010), eTS+ multi-agent systems, on
(Andreu and Angelov, 2013), FPA computers, indoor environments
(Wang et al., 2013) etc.

Video processing eTS, eTS+ (Angelov et al., 2011; Including real-time object id.,
Zhou and Angelov, 2006) obstacles tracking and novelty
detection

Visual quality control EFC-AP (Lughofer and Buchtala, Image classification tasks based on
2013), FLEXFIS-Class (Eitzinger feature vectors
et al., 2010; Lughofer, 2010b),
pClass (Pratama et al., 2014c)
Acknowledgments
This work was funded by the research programme at the LCM GmbH as part of a K2
project. K2 projects are financed using funding from the Austrian COMET-K2
programme. The COMET K2 projects at LCM are supported by the Austrian federal
government, the federal state of Upper Austria, the Johannes Kepler University and all of
the scientific partners which form part of the K2-COMET Consortium. This publication
reflects only the author’s views.
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2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Very_large_database.

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6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Very_large_database.

7http://www.springer.com/physics/complexity/journal/12530.

8http://www.springer.com/physics/complexity/journal/12530.

9http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=91.

10http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5962385.

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Chapter 4

Modeling Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems


Rashmi Dutta Baruah and Diganta Baruah
The objective of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with various approaches used for fuzzy modeling. It is
expected that the discussion presented in the chapter would enable the reader to understand, compare, and
choose between the different fuzzy modeling alternatives, both in knowledge-based and automated
approaches, so as to apply it to model real-world systems. It is assumed that the reader has a basic knowledge
of fuzzy set theory and linear algebra. However, illustrative examples are provided throughout the text to
comprehend the basic concepts. The chapter is organized in five sections. In the first section, fuzzy systems are
introduced very briefly as a foundation to start the discussion on the fuzzy modeling techniques. Next, an
overview of design issues is presented in the same section. Section 4.2 describes the knowledge-based
methods and Section 4.3 discusses the automated methods. The automated methods include template-based
method, neuro-fuzzy approaches, genetic-fuzzy approaches, and clustering-based approaches. Section 4.4
presents a brief description on another automated approach, viz., online approach that has recently grabbed a
lot of attention from the researchers. Finally, in Section 4.5, a short summary of the chapter is presented.
4.1. Introduction
In simple terms, a system that uses fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic in some form can be
considered as a fuzzy system. For example, the system’s input and output can be
represented using fuzzy sets or the system itself can be defined in terms of fuzzy if-then
rules. In this chapter, the focus is on fuzzy systems that are based on fuzzy if-then rules
which use fuzzy set theory to make decisions or draw conclusions. Such systems are often
referred to as fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems. For simplicity, here we will be referring to
a FRB system as fuzzy system. Fuzzy systems can be broadly classified into two families:
Mamdani-type (Mamdani, 1997) and Takagi– Sugeno-type (Takagi and Sugeno, 1985). In
the Mamdani-type, also called linguistic systems, rules are represented as:

(1)

where xi, i = 1, 2,…, n, is the ith input variable, and Ai and B are the linguistic terms (e.g.,
Small, Large, High, Low, etc.) defined by fuzzy sets, and y is the output associated with
the given rule.
The rule structure of the Takagi–Sugeno-type (TSK), also called functional type, is
usually given as:

(2)

where xi, i = 1, 2,…, n, is the ith input variable, Ai is the antecedent fuzzy set, y is the
output of the rule, and f is a real valued function. If f is a constant then the rule is of zero-
order type and the corresponding system is called zero-order TSK system, and if f is first
order polynomial then the rule is of first-order type and the resulting system is called first-
order system as given below:
• Zero-order TSK rule

(3)

where a is a real number.


• First-order TSK rule

(4)

where ai is the ith consequence parameter.


Thus, in the Mamdani-type, the consequent of each rule is a fuzzy set whereas in the
Sugeno-type the consequent is a function of input variables. Due to this difference, the
inference mechanism of determining the output of the system in both the categories
somewhat varies.
The early approaches to FRB system design involve representing the knowledge and
experience of a human expert, associated with a particular system, in terms of if-then
rules. To avoid the difficult task of knowledge acquisition and to improve the system
performance another alternative is to use expert knowledge as well as system generated
input-output data. This fusion of expert knowledge and data can be done in many ways.
For example, one way is to combine linguistic rules from human expert and rules learnt by
numerical data, and another way is to derive the initial structure and parameters from
expert knowledge and optimize the parameters using input-output data by applying
machine learning techniques. The common approaches used for learning and adjusting the
parameters from the training data are neural networks and genetic algorithms (GAs).
These approaches are often referred to as automated methods or data-driven methods. Due
to the complexity of systems and availability of huge data, presently the automated
approaches are commonly used for fuzzy modeling.
The majority of applications of fuzzy systems are in the area of process control (Fuzzy
Logic Control- FLC), decision-making (Fuzzy Expert Systems), estimation (prediction,
forecasting), and pattern recognition (classification). Regardless of the type of application
most systems are based on simple fuzzy if-then rules, and so have a common structure.
Thus, the basic design steps are same for all such FRB systems. In general, the design of a
fuzzy system or fuzzy system modeling is a multi-step process that involves the following:
• Formulation of the problem.
• Specification of the fuzzy sets.
• Generation of rule set.
• Selection of fuzzy inference and defuzzification mechanism.
In the knowledge-based approach, all the steps are completed based on intuition and
experience. The automated methods usually require designer’s involvement only in
problem formulation and selection of fuzzy inference and defuzzification mechanism. In
the following sections, we describe all the design steps by considering a simple control
application.
4.2. Knowledge-Based Approach
The knowledge-based approach can be applied to linguistic fuzzy models. We illustrate
the steps to obtain a linguistic fuzzy model for a simple cooling fan system. The problem
is to control the regulator knob of a cooling fan inside a room based on two inputs
temperature and humidity. The speed of fan increases as the knob is turned right and
decreases when it is turned left. The scenario is depicted in Figure 4.1.

4.2.1. Formulation of the Problem


In problem formulation step, the problem is defined in terms of the system input, the
required output, and the objectives. For example, to model a fuzzy control system
typically one needs to state: What is to be controlled? What are the input variables? What
kind of response is expected from the control system? What are the possible system failure
states? The selection of input and output variables and the range of the variables are
mainly dependent on the problem at hand and the designer sensibility.
For example, consider the cooling fan system problem given in Figure 4.1. For this
problem, the inputs are temperature and humidity measures and the output is the action in
terms of turning the knob right or left in small or big steps.

Figure 4.1: Cooling fan system.


Table 4.1: Temperature ranges and linguistic values.

Temperature range (°C) Linguistic values


15–19 Low
18–25 Normal
24–30 High

4.2.2. Specification of Fuzzy Sets


The fuzzy sets are specified in terms of membership functions. For each input and output
variable, the linguistic values (or fuzzy terms or labels) are specified before defining the
membership functions. For the system depicted in Figure 4.1, if the range of the input
variable temperature is 15–30°C, then the linguistic values, Low, Normal, and High can be
associated with it (see Table 4.1). Now, the membership functions for temperature can be
defined as shown in Figure 4.2. Similarly, the membership functions for the input
humidity and the output action is shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. It is assumed that the
range of relative humidity is 20–70% and the knob can be rotated in degrees from −3 to 3.
The number and shape of the membership functions depend on application domain,
experts’ knowledge and are chosen subjectively or (and) are generated automatically. An
important observation is that usually three to seven membership functions are used. As the
number grows, it becomes difficult to manage especially in case of manual design. Many
fuzzy logic control problems assume linear membership functions usually Triangular in
shape, the other commonly used membership functions are Trapezoidal and Gaussian. The
other modeling issues can be the amount of overlapping between the membership
functions and the distribution of membership functions (even or uneven distribution)
(Figures 4.5a and 4.5b). Also, any point in the range of the input variables has to be
covered by at least one fuzzy set participating to at least one rule (Figure 4.5c). It is
recommended that each membership function overlaps only with the closest neighboring
membership function (Figure 4.5d). In uneven distribution some of the membership
functions can cover smaller range to achieve precision (Figure 4.5b). Currently, more
focus is towards identification of these parameters automatically using machine learning
techniques.

Figure 4.2: Fuzzy membership functions for input variable temperature.


Figure 4.3: Fuzzy membership functions for input variable humidity.

Figure 4.4: Fuzzy membership functions for output variable action.

4.2.3. Generation of Rule Set


A rule maps the input to output and the set of rules mainly defines the fuzzy model. For a
simple system with two inputs and single output, the rules can be enumerated with the
help of a matrix. For example, for the system shown in Figure 4.1, the matrix is given in
Table 4.2 and the corresponding rules are given in Figure 4.6. For a system with more than
two inputs and outputs the rules can be presented in a tabular form. For example, Table 4.3
gives the partial rule-set of the fan control system when another input rate-of-change of
temperature (ΔT) is added.

4.2.4. Selection of Fuzzy Inference and Defuzzification Mechanism


After generating the rule-set, it is required to specify how the system would calculate the
final output for a given input. This can be specified in terms of inference and
defuzzification mechanism. The designer needs to specify how to infer or compute the
fuzzy operator in the antecedent part, how to get the fuzzy output from each rule, and
finally how to aggregate these outputs to get a single crisp output.
Usually the fuzzy rules involve more than one fuzzy set connected with fuzzy
operators (AND, OR, NOT). The inference mechanism depends on the fuzzy combination
operators used in the rules. These fuzzy combination operators are also referred to as T-
norms. There are many ways to compute these operators. A designer needs to specify
which one to apply to the specific system. For example, the AND operator is expressed as,

Figure 4.5: (a) MFs evenly distributed, (b) MFs unevenly distributed, (c) MFs not covering all the input points, (d) MFs
overlapping with more than one neighbor.
Table 4.2: Rule matrix for cooling fan system.
Figure 4.6: Rule set for fan speed control.
Table 4.3: Rule table for cooling fan system considering three inputs.

μA∩B = T (μA(x), μB(x)), μA(x) is membership of x in fuzzy set A and μB(x) is membership
of x in fuzzy set B.
The two most commonly used methods to compute AND are:
• T(μA(x), μB(x)) = min (μA(x), μB(x)), this method is widely known as Zadeh method.
• T (μA(x), μB(x)) = μA(x)·μB(x) this method is Product method that computes the fuzzy
AND by simply multiplying the two membership values.
Example 2.1. Consider the scenario presented in Figure 4.1 and assume that the present
room temperature is 18.5°C and humidity is 36.5%. Also, consider that the Zadeh (or
minimum) method is used as fuzzy combination operator.
For a given input, first its degree of membership to each of the input fuzzy sets is
determined; this step is often referred to as fuzzification. After fuzzification, the firing
strength of each rule can be determined in the following way:

Thus, for the given input, Rule 1 applies (or triggers or fires) at 25%, Rule 2 applies at
43%, and Rule 3 at 0%, i.e., it does not apply at all. This means the then part or the action
of Rule 1, Rule 2 fires at strength of 0.25 and 0.43 respectively. The firing strengths of the
remaining rules are determined in a similar way, and the value is 0 for Rule 4 to Rule 9.
After determining the firing strength of each rule, the consequent of the rule is
obtained or the rule conclusion is inferred. The commonly used method to obtain the rule
consequent is by clipping the output membership function at the rule strength. Figure 4.7
shows the degree of membership of input to each of the input fuzzy sets and the inferred
conclusions using the clipping method.
There are number of defuzzification techniques such as centroid method which is also
known as center of area or center of gravity (COG) method, weighted average method,
Maximum membership method (or height method), Mean (first or last) of maxima
method, etc. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, both
the maximum membership method and weighted average method are computationally
faster and simpler. However, in terms of accuracy, weighted average is better as maximum
membership accounts only for rules, which are triggered at the maximum membership
level. The COG method is most widely used and provides better results, however
computational overhead is more and it has disadvantage of not allowing control actions
towards the extremes of the action (output) range (Ross, 2010).
Example 2.2. Consider the aggregated output shown in Figures 4.8 and 4.9. Application
of COG method results in crisp output of −0.6, i.e., the knob is required to be turned 0.6
degrees to the left.
The COG method is given by , where z∗ is the defuzzified or crisp
output, μoutput is the aggregated resultant membership function of the two output fuzzy
sets, and z is the universe of discourse. For this example, the COG method requires
calculation of the blue shaded area in the graph shown in Figure 4.9. This area can be
determined by adding the area A, B, C, D, and E. The detailed calculations involved in the
COG method are provided on page 148 based on Figures 4.8 and 4.9.
Figure 4.7: Membership degrees and inferred conclusions (Example 2.1).

Figure 4.8: Rule consequents from Mamdani inference system (Example 2.2).

Figure 4.9: Result of aggregation (Example 2.2).


Considering Figure 4.9 and Example 2.2, the COG defuzzification can be given as:

The first three modeling steps are common to both Mamdani systems and Sugeno
systems. The primary difference is that in Sugeno systems, the output consequence is not
computed by clipping an output membership function at the rule strength. The reason is
that in Sugeno systems there is no output membership function at all. Instead the output is
a crisp number which is either a constant or computed by multiplying each input by a
constant and then adding up the results. In the latter case, the output is a linear function of
inputs.
Example 2.3. Consider the same system depicted in Figure 4.1 and the inputs as 18.5°C
temperature and 36.5% humidity. As shown in Example 2.2, only the first three rules will
be fired for the given inputs. Let us assume that the system is Sugeno type (zero-order)
and the first three rules are given as:

The firing strength of a rule is computed using product method as shown below:

The final output of the system is the weighted average of all the rule outputs,
computed as

wi is the weight and is same as the firing strength of rule i, yi is the output of rule i, ŷ is the
final output, and N is the number of rules.

which indicates the knob is required to be turned 0.9° to the left.


Selection of defuzzification method is context or problem dependent. However,
Hellendroon and Thomas (1993) have provided five criteria against which the
defuzzification methods can be measured. The first criterion is continuity; a small
variation in input should not lead to large output variation. The second criterion is
disambiguity that requires the output from the defuzzification method to be always unique.
The third criterion called plausibility requires the output to lie approximately in the middle
of the support region and have high degree of membership. Computational simplicity is
the fourth criterion. Finally, the fifth one is weighting method that weights the output
method. This criterion is problem dependent as judging the weighting methods do not
have any straightforward rules. One can compare the computational simplicity of the
weighting methods but this is already taken into account by the fourth criterion. However,
it is interesting to note that the defuzzification methods that are commonly used do not
comply with all the given criteria. Although time consuming, another method is to use
simulation tool like MATLAB to compare the results with various defuzzification methods
and make the selection based on the obtained results.
4.3. Automated Modeling Approaches
Let us consider the system depicted in Figure 4.1 and assume that there are two persons in
the room Alex and Baker. Alex turns the knob to the right or left depending on his comfort
level, for example, he turns the knob to the right when he feels hot and humid. Baker is
taking note of Alex’s actions on particular temperature and humidity (readings from the
sensors) in a log book. The recordings in Baker’s book constitute the input–output data.
The inputs are the temperature and humidity readings and the corresponding outputs are
Alex’s actions on those temperature and humidity readings. Such input–output data for a
(manual or existing) system can be collected through various means. Table 4.4 represents
a small set of input–output data with 10 data samples for this cooling fan system.
Automated methods make use of such input–output data for fuzzy system modeling, in
this case the modeling of an automatic fuzzy cooling fan control.
Table 4.4: Example input–output data for cooling fan system.

As discussed in the previous section, the modeling process mainly requires


specification of two main components of a fuzzy system: inference mechanism and rule-
base. The fuzzy inference needs specification of the implication, aggregation, and
defuzzification mechanism, which can be resolved by the designer subjectively. In this
section, we will discuss automated methods that can be used to construct the rule-base.
However, it should be noted that these automated methods do not completely eliminate the
involvement of a designer.
Rules constitutes a rule-base and if we look at a rule closely (Figure 4.10), then we
need to address the following issues:

Figure 4.10: A fuzzy linguistic rule.

1. How many rules?


2. Antecedent part:
a. What are the antecedent fuzzy sets and corresponding membership functions
(antecedent parameters)?
b. What is the type of membership function (Triangular, Trapezoidal, Gaussian etc.)?
c. How many membership functions?
d. Which operator (Fuzzy OR, AND or NOT) to use for connecting the rule
antecedents?
3. Consequent part:
a. What are the consequent fuzzy sets and corresponding membership functions? If
the rule is of TSK type then the issue is determining each consequent parameter.
b. What is the type and number of each membership function?
c. How many membership functions?
If sufficient input–output data from the system are available then issue 1 can be solved
with automated methods. The remaining issues can be solved only partially through
automated methods. The type of membership function (issue 2b, 3b) and the fuzzy
connectives (issue 2d) still require designer involvement. As mentioned in the previous
section, these issues can be resolved subjectively. Further, there are several comparative
studies available in literature that can also guide the designer in selecting best possible
fuzzy operator for a particular application (Beliakov and Warren, 2001; Cordon et al.,
1997).
There are two ways in which the automated methods can aid the fuzzy system
modeling process. In some fuzzy systems, the rules and the membership functions and
associated parameters, e.g., the center and spread of a Gaussian function, are defined by
the designer (not necessarily taking into account the input–output data). The automated
methods are then used to find better set of parameters using the input–output data. This
process is commonly referred to as tuning the fuzzy system. On the other hand, the
automated methods can be used to determine the rules and the membership functions
along with parameters using the input–output data and without designer intervention. This
process is referred to as learning the rule-base of the fuzzy system, and the input–output
data used in the learning process is often referred to as training data.

4.3.1. Template-Based Approach


This approach combines the expert knowledge and input–output data. In this approach, the
domains of the antecedent variable are simply partitioned into a specified number of
membership functions. We explain the rule generation process considering the method
developed by Wang and Mendel (1992).
The rules are generated by following steps:
(i) Partition the input and output spaces into fuzzy regions: First, the domain intervals
for the input and output variables, within which the values of the variable are
expected to lie, are defined as:

where and y−, y+ are the upper and lower limits of the intervals for
input and output variables respectively. Each domain interval is divided into 2P +1
number of equal or unequal fuzzy partitions; P is an integer that can be different for
different variables. Next, a type of membership function (triangular, trapezoidal,
Gaussian) is selected and a fuzzy set is assigned to each partition.
(ii) Generate a preliminary rule set: First, we determine the degree of each of the input
and output data in all the partitions. A data is assigned to a partition and
corresponding fuzzy set where it has maximum degree. Finally, one rule is formed for
each input–output pair of data.
(iii) Assign degrees to each rule: The step (ii) generates as many rules as the number of
training data points. In such a scenario, the chance of getting conflicting rules is very
high. The conflicting rules have same antecedent but different consequents. In this
step such rules are removed by assigning degrees, and in the process the number of
rules is also reduced. Suppose the following rule is extracted from the ith training
example

then the degree of this rule is given as,

Also, the degree of a rule can be represented as a product of the degree of its components
and the degree of the training example that has generated this rule and can be given as,

where μi is the degree of the training example.


The degree of the training example is provided by the human expert based on its
usefulness. For example, if the expert believes that a particular data sample is useful and
crucial then a higher degree is assigned to it, and a lower degree is assigned for bad data
sample that may be a measurement error.
(iv) Obtain the final set of rules from the preliminary set: In this step the rules with high
degrees are selected for each combination of antecedents.
Example 3.1. Let us consider the data in Table 4.4 as the training data and the shape of the
membership function to be triangular (other shapes for membership functions are also
possible).
For the given training data and cooling fan system, the domain intervals are given as:

Next, the domain intervals are divided into equal size partitions as shown in Figure
4.11.
Also from Figure 4.11a, it can be observed that = 16 has maximum degree in the
fuzzy set A1 and therefore it is assigned that fuzzy set. Similarly, = 25 is assigned to
fuzzy set B2 (Figure 4.11b) and y1 = −3 is assigned to C1 (Figure 4.12). Therefore, the
rule corresponding to the first training data point [16, 25, −3] can be given as:

Figure 4.11: Partitions of input domain interval and corresponding fuzzy sets.

Figure 4.12: Output domain interval partitions and corresponding fuzzy sets.

(1)

The remaining rules are generated in the similar fashion and the preliminary set of
rules is given as:
Rule 1: if x1 is A1 and x2 is B2 then y is C1.
Rule 2: if x1 is A2 and x2 is B2 then y is C1.
Rule 3: if x1 is A3 and x2 is B1 then y is C2.
Rule 4: if x1 is A3 and x2 is B5 then y is C4.
Rule 5: if x1 is A5 and x2 is B7 then y is C4.
Rule 6: if x1 is A5 and x2 is B9 then y is C6.
Rule 7: if x1 is A6 and x2 is B10 then y is C7.
Rule 8: if x1 is A5 and x2 is B8 then y is C5.
Rule 9: if x1 is A5 and x2 is B7 then y is C5.
Rule 10: if x1 is A4 and x2 is B8 then y is C5.
For this problem, Rule 5 and Rule 9 are conflicting, therefore we determine the degree
of Rule 5 and Rule 9. The degree of rule Rule 5 is 1 and that of Rule 9 is 0.6 [step (iii)].
Therefore, Rule 9 is removed and the final set of rules consists of Rule 1 to Rule 8, and
Rule 10. Note that here the degree of all the data samples is considered to be 1, i.e., all are
believed to be useful.

4.3.2. Neuro-Fuzzy Approach


A fuzzy system that employs neuro-fuzzy approach is commonly referred to as neuro-
fuzzy system. Such a system is trained by a learning algorithm usually derived from neural
network theory (Mitra and Hayashi, 2000). Neuro-fuzzy approaches are motivated by the
fact that at the computational level, a fuzzy model can be seen as a layered structure
(network), similar to artificial neural networks. A widely known neuro-fuzzy system is
ANFIS (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference System) (Jang, 1993). ANFIS is an
adaptive network consisting of nodes connected with directional links. It is called adaptive
because some, or all, of the nodes have parameters which affect the output of the node and
these parameters change to minimize the error. The ANFIS structure consists of TSK type
of rules. However, the author suggests that it is possible to develop Mamdani system as
well. ANFIS consists of nodes with variable parameters (square nodes) that represent
membership functions of the antecedents, and membership functions of Mamdani-type
consequent or the linear functions of the TSK-type consequent. The parameters of the
nodes in the intermediate layers that connect the antecedents with the consequents are
fixed (circular nodes). It is worth to note that in ANFIS the structure (nodes and layers)
remains static, only the parameters of the nodes are adapted. This is the key distinction
between ‘adaptive’ and ‘evolving’ fuzzy systems, in the latter both the structure and
parameters are adapted (evolving fuzzy systems will be discussed in Section 4.4).
Figure 4.13 shows the ANFIS structure for a rule-base consisting of following two
TSK type rules.
Rule 1 : if x1 is A1 and x2 is B1 then y1 = a10 + a11x1 + a12x2.
Rule 2 : if x1 is A2 and x2 is B2 then y2 = a20 + a21x1 + a23x2.
Figure 4.13: ANFIS structure.

In Layer 1, each node defines the fuzzy set in terms of bell-shaped membership
function. The output from a node in this layer is the degree of membership of a given
input given as

(5)

where {σi, bi, ci} are antecedent parameter set. The bell shape function changes with the
change in the values of these parameters.
Every node in Layer 2 determines the firing strength of a rule and the output of a node
i can be given as

(6)

In Layer 3, the nodes normalizes the firing strength of a rule, and the output of a node
i is given as

(7)

In Layer 4, the nodes calculate the weighted output from each rule:

(8)

where {ai0, ai1, ai2} is the consequent parameter set.


Finally, the single node in Layer 5 computes the overall output:

(9)

For the given network in Figure 4.13, the final output can be rewritten as
(10)

which is a linear combination of consequent parameters.


Therefore, we have two sets of parameters, antecedent and consequent parameters.
Initially, these parameters are set through partitioning of input data space. After the
network parameters are set with their initial values, they are tuned using training data and
hybrid learning algorithm. In the forward pass, the antecedent parameters are fixed, the
functional signals go forward in the network till Layer 4, and finally the consequent
parameters are determined using the method of least squares or recursive least squares. In
the backward pass the consequent parameters are fixed, the error rates propagates back
and the antecedent parameters are updated using gradient descent method. The
combination of gradient descent and least squares method forms the hybrid learning
algorithm.
Example 3.2. Consider the data in Table 4.4 as training data. For this example, the input–
output data given in Table 4.4 are normalized as shown in Table 4.5. Data normalization is
performed as subtractive clustering (discussed later in Section 4.3.4) is used here to
determine the initial set of antecedent parameters.
Let be the kth training example. Also, let r represent the number of
rules and n represent the number of input variables.
Table 4.5: Training data (Example 3.2).

Input variable 1 Input variable 2 Output


(x1) (x2) (y)
0 0.11 0
0.17 0.11 0
0.33 0 0.17
0.33 0.44 0.50
0.75 0.67 0.50
0.75 0.89 0.83
1.00 1.00 1.00
0.83 0.78 0.67
0.83 0.67 0.50
0.58 0.78 0.67
Table 4.6: Initial antecedent parameters.
Considering Gaussian membership functions, the initial set of antecedent parameters
are given in Table 4.6. These initial parameters can be obtained using any data partitioning
method, for example, clustering. Let us assume that all the consequent parameters are
initialized to 0.
To tune the antecedent and the consequent parameters we use the hybrid learning
algorithm. We take the first data point as the input to the network
shown in Figure 4.13 and determine the output from Layer 1 to Layer 3.
Layer 1 output:

Layer 2 output:

Layer 3 output:

Now, the consequent parameter can be determined using the Recursive Least Square
(RLS) method. In the RLS method, the consequent parameters of r rules are represented in
a matrix form A = [a10, a11,…, a1n,…, ar1,…, arn]T and the estimate of A at kth iteration
(based on k data points) is given as:

(11)

(12)

where Yk = yk, Ck is r(n +


1) × r(n + 1) covariance matrix, and the initial conditions are A0 = 0, C0 = ΩI, where Ω is
a large positive integer.
For our example, with k = 1

After k = 1 iteration of RLS method, we get the following consequent parameters:

This process is continued for all the data points, i.e., for k = 2,…, 10. After getting the
final set of consequent parameters (i.e., after k = 10), now the antecedent parameters are
updated in the backward pass using gradient descent method. The aim of gradient descent
is to minimize the error between the neural net’s output and actual observed outputs.
The instantaneous error between the output y and the current reading yk can be given
as:

(13)

By applying the chain rule, we obtain from Equation (13) the following equations for
updating the antecedent parameters:

(14)

(15)

where i = 1, 2,…, r and j = 1, 2,…, n.


So, the antecedent parameters for every rule can be updated considering each of the
data points at a time. One such cycle of update of antecedent and consequent parameters is
referred to as epoch and many such epochs can be performed until the errors are within
acceptable limits. Further, a separate set of input–output data (validation data or test data)
can be used to validate the performance of the model by checking how closely it can
predict the actual observed values.

4.3.3. Genetic-Fuzzy Approach


Fuzzy rule-based systems that involve GAs in the design process are commonly referred
to as genetic fuzzy rule-based systems or genetic fuzzy systems, in general. When GA is
used in the process of determining the membership functions with a fixed set of rules is
often referred to as genetic tuning or optimizing parameters, and the process of
determining rules is commonly known as genetic learning. During the genetic learning
process, the rules can be determined at two levels. In the first level, the rules are
determined with known membership functions, and in the second level both membership
functions and fuzzy rules are determined using GA (Cordon et al., 2004). In this section,
first a brief overview of GAs is presented and then genetic tuning of membership
functions and genetic learning of rules are described.

4.3.3.1. GAs
GAs are search algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural evolution. A GA
starts with a set of different possible solutions to the problem (population), then the
performance of these solutions are evaluated based on a fitness or evaluation function (i.e.,
how good a solution is to the given problem). From these solutions only a fraction of good
solutions is selected and the rest are eliminated (survival of the fittest). Finally, in the
search for better solutions, the selected solutions undergo the process of reproduction,
crossover, and mutation to create a new set of possible solutions (evolved population).
This process of production of a new generation and its evaluation is repeated until
convergence is reached (Goldberg, 1989). This entire GA process is represented in Figure
4.14.
There are primarily two representations of GAs, binary-coded GA (BCGA) and real-
coded GA (RCGA). In BCGA, the possible solutions (or chromosomes or individuals in a
population) are represented as strings of binary digits. In RCGAs, each chromosome is
represented as a vector of floating-point numbers. Each gene represents a variable of the
problem, and the size of the chromosome is kept the same as the length of the solution to
the problem. Therefore, the RCGA can be considered to be directly operating on the
optimization parameters whereas BCGA operates on an encoded (discretized)
representation of these parameters.

Figure 4.14: Diagrammatic representation of GA.

To apply GAs to solve a problem one needs to take into account the following issues:
(i) Encoding scheme or genetic representation of solution to the problem: The choice of
encoding scheme is one of the important design decisions. The bit string
representation is the most commonly used encoding technique.
(ii) Fitness evaluation function: Choosing and formulating an appropriate evaluation
function is crucial to the efficient solution of any given genetic algorithm problem.
One approach is to define a function that determines the error between the actual
output (from training data) and the output returned by the model.
(iii) Genetic operators: The genetic operators are used to create the next generation
individuals by altering the genetic composition of an individual (from previous
generation) during reproduction. The fundamental genetic operators are: selection,
crossover, and mutation.
(iv) Selection of input parameters: GAs requires some user-defined input parameters, for
example, selection probability, mutation and crossover probability, and population
size.
Selection: The aim of the selection operator is to allow better individuals (those that are
close to the solution) to pass on their genes to the next generation. In other words, they are
the fittest individuals in the population and so are given the chance to become parents or
to reproduce. The commonly known selection mechanisms are: proportionate selection
method (e.g., Roulette wheel selection), ranking selection (e.g., linear ranking selection),
and tournament selection (e.g., binary tournament selection).
Crossover: The purpose of the crossover operator is to produce new chromosomes that are
distinctly different from their parents, yet retain some of their parent characteristics. It
combines the features of two parent chromosomes to form two offspring with the
possibility that the offspring generated through recombination are better adapted than their
parents. A random choice is made, where the likelihood of crossover being applied
depends on probability defined by a crossover rate, the crossover probability. Definitions
for this operator are highly dependent on the particular representation chosen. Two widely
known techniques for binary encoding are: one-point crossover and two-point crossover.
In one-point crossover, two parent chromosomes are interchanged at a randomly selected
point thus creating two children (Figure 4.15). In two-point crossover, two points are
selected instead of just one crossover point. (Figure 4.16).
Mutation: The structure of some of the individuals in the new generation produced by
selection and crossover is modified further by using the mutation operator. The most
common form of mutation is to alter bits from a chromosome with some predetermined
probability (mutation probability) (Figure 4.17). Generally, in BCGA the mutation
probability is set to very low value.

Figure 4.15: One-point crossover.

Figure 4.16: Two-point crossover.


Figure 4.17: Mutation.

There is an additional policy, called elitist policy, that can be applied after crossover
and mutation to retain some number of the best individuals at each generation. This is
required because in the process of crossover and mutation the fittest individual may
disappear.

4.3.3.2. Genetic tuning

In case of genetic tuning, the rules, the number of membership functions (fuzzy sets), and
the type of each membership function are assumed to be available. The most common
membership functions for which GAs are used to tune the parameters are triangular,
trapezoidal, or Gaussian functions. Depending on the type of membership function the
number of parameters per membership function ranges from one to four and each
parameter is binary or real coded. In the following example, we demonstrate the genetic
tuning of membership function parameter, given the fuzzy rules of the system.
Example 3.3. Consider a system with single input (x) and single output (y) with input–
output values as shown in Table 4.7 and the rules are represented in Table 4.8 (For
simplicity, we are not using the input–output data of the cooling fan system (Table 4.4),
with two input and single output).
The range of x is [0, 10] and the range of y is [0, 100]. The shape of both input and
output membership functions is assumed to be triangular.
Figure 4.18 shows the five parameters (P1, P2,…, P5) that are required to be
optimized by the GA.
Based on the range of input and output variables, and the required precision, first the
length of the bit string required to encode each parameter is determined. The range of
input is 10 and let us assume that the required precision is one digit after the decimal
point, so each of the input parameter will require 7 bits (log2 (10 × 10)). Similarly, 10 bits
will be used to encode each of the output parameters. So an individual or a chromosome
will have a total of 41 bits (3×7 bits for P1, P2, P3 plus 2×10 bits for P4 and P5).
Table 4.7: Input–output data (Example 3.3).

Table 4.8: Rules (Example 3.3).

x y
Low Small
Medium Big
High Big

Figure 4.18: Membership functions and parameters for input and output variables.

Next, we need a mapping function to map the bit string to the value of a parameter.
This can be done using the following mapping function (Goldberg, 1989):

(16)

where bs is the bit string to be mapped to a parameter value, B is the number in decimal
form that is being represented in binary form by the given bit string, UB is upper bound,
LB is lower bound, L is the length of the bit string.
Finally, we need a fitness function to evaluate the chromosomes. The fitness function
for this problem is given as:

(17)

where I is the individual for which the fitness is evaluated and RMSE is the root mean
squared error.
Table 4.9 shows the first iteration of genetic algorithm with an initial population size
of four. The bit strings are first decoded into binary values (column 2) and then mapped to
decimal values (column 3) using Equation (16). For parameters P1, P2, P3 the value of
LB is set to 0, UB is 10 and L is 7 and for parameters P4, P5, the value of LB is 0, UB
100, and L is 10. Figure 4.19 shows the membership functions of the system with values
P1 = 4.0, P2 = 7.3, P3 = 8.7, and P5 = 57.2 (Individual 2 from Table 4.9).
After the decimal values of the string are determined, the estimated output is
computed using the parameter values represented by each individual. To evaluate the
fitness of each individual the RMSE is calculated as shown in Table 4.10. Using the
RMSE values from Table 4.10 and Equation (17), the fitness of each individual is
determined. From the initial population and based on the fitness values, some parents are
selected for reproduction or to generate a new set of solutions. In this example, roulette
wheel method is used for parent selection. In roulette wheel method first the fitness values
are normalized so that the range of fitness values becomes [0, 1]. Then the normalized
values are sorted in descending order. A random number is generated between 0 and 1.
The first individual is selected whose fitness added to the preceding individual is greater
than or equal to the generated random number. As shown in Table 4.11, the individual 2 is
selected two times out of four times and individual 3 and 4 are selected once, and
individual 1 did not get a chance to reproduce as it has the lowest fitness value. After the
parents are selected the next generation of population is generated by applying crossover
and mutation as shown in columns (1) and (2) of Table 4.12. In this example, the
crossover is applied to all the individuals (crossover probability is 1.0), and mutation is
applied to two randomly selected individuals, where 1 out of 41 bit is flipped. The
locations of crossover and mutation are indicated in column (1) and the individuals
generated after these operations are shown in column (2) of Table 4.12. These bit strings
also undergo the same process of decoding and fitness evaluation as shown in Table 4.12
(columns 3 and 4) and Table 4.13. The final fitness values for the individuals in this new
generation are indicated in Table 4.14. It is clear from Tables 4.11 and 4.14 that in the new
generation none of the individuals have fitness value lower than 0.4, whereas the fitness
value in the previous generation was 0.3. Also, if we compare the two best strings from
the first generation and the second generation, then the former string has lower fitness
value than the latter.
Table 4.9: First iteration of genetic algorithm.

Figure 4.19: Input and output membership functions.


This process of generation and evaluation of the strings continues till convergence to
the solution is arrived.

4.3.3.3. Genetic learning of rules

Many researchers have investigated the automatic generation of fuzzy rules using GAs.
Their work in this direction can be broadly grouped into following categories:
• Genetic learning of rules with fixed membership functions.
• Learning both fuzzy rules and membership functions but serially, for example, first good
membership functions are determined and then they are used to determine the set of
rules.
• Simultaneous learning of both fuzzy membership functions and rules.
While learning rules, GAs can be applied to obtain a suitable rule-base using
chromosomes that code single rules or a complete rule-base. On the basis of chromosome
as a single or complete rule-base, there are three widely known approaches in which GAs
have been applied, the Michigan (Holland and Reitman, 1978), the Pittsburgh (Smith,
1980), and the Iterative Rule Learning (IRL) (Venturini, 1993) approaches. In Michigan
approach, the chromosome correspond to rules and a rule set is represented by entire
population with genetic operators applied at the level of rules, whereas in the Pittsburgh
approach, each chromosome encodes a complete set of rules. In the IRL approach, each
chromosome represents only one rule, but contrary to the first approach, only the best
individual is considered as the solution, discarding the remaining chromosomes in the
population.
Table 4.10: RMSE values.

Table 4.11: Fitness values for initial population.


Table 4.12: Crossover and mutation operation.

Table 4.13: RMSE values for individuals of second generation.

Table 4.14: Fitness values for individuals of second generation.

String
number
(Individual) Bit string Fitness (f)
1 0110011 1011101 1111100 1000011100 1100110011 0.05
2 1001011 1001101 1101111 0111000011 1001001001 0.04
3 0110011 1011110 1110101 0111000101 1110001110 0.06
4 0101000 1001101 1101111 0111000011 1001001001 0.04
Thrift (1991) described a method for genetic learning of rules with fixed membership
functions based on encoding of complete set of rules (Pittsburg approach). Using genetic
algorithm a two-input, one-output fuzzy controller was designed for centering a cart on a
frictionless one-dimensional track. Considering triangular membership functions, for each
input variable and output variable the fuzzy sets, Negative-Medium (NM), Negative-Small
(NS), Zero (ZE), Positive-Small (PS) and Positive-Medium (PM), were defined. The
control logic was presented in the form of a 5 × 5 decision table with each entry encoding
an output fuzzy set taken from {NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, _} where the symbol “_” indicated
absence of a fuzzy set. A chromosome is formed from the decision table by going row-
wise and producing a string of numbers from the given code set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
corresponding to {NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, _} respectively. For example, consider the
following decision table (Table 4.15), the corresponding chromosome for the given table
(rule set) is: ‘0321041425023413205110134’.
Thrift’s method of designing the control employed elitist selection scheme with
standard two-point crossover operator. The GA mutation operator changes a code from the
given code set either up or down a level, or to a blank code. After a simulation of 100
generations and using a population size of 31, Thrift’s system was able to evolve a good
fuzzy control strategy.
Kinzel et al. (1994) described an evolutionary approach for learning both rules and
membership functions in three stages. The design process involves the following three
phases: (i) determine a good initial rule-base and fuzzy sets, (ii) apply GA to the rules by
keeping the membership functions fixed, (iii) tune the fuzzy sets using GA to get optimal
performance. In this approach also, the rule-base is represented in the form of a table and
each chromosome encodes such a table. Firstly, the population is generated by applying
the mutation operator on all genes of the initial rule-base. Figure 4.20 shows mutation of
rule-base considering cart-pole problem. During Mutation one fuzzy set (gene) is replaced
by randomly chosen but similar fuzzy set. For example, the fuzzy set ‘ZE’ could be
mutated to ‘NM’ or ‘PM’. After calculating the fitness of the population, the genetic
operations selection, crossover and mutation are used to generate the next population. This
process is continued until a good rule-base is found.
Table 4.15: Example decision table considering five membership functions.

Figure 4.20: Mutation of rule-base.

After a rule-base is found, in the next stage the fuzzy sets are tuned. The authors argue
against the use of bit string encoded genomes, due to the destructive action of crossover.
The fuzzy sets are encoded by representing each domain by a string of genes. Each gene
represents the membership values of the fuzzy sets of domain d at a certain x-value. Thus,
a fuzzy partition is described by discrete membership values. The standard two-point
crossover operator is used and the mutation is done by randomly choosing a membership
value μi(x) in a chromosome and changing it to a value in [0, 1]. For the cart-pole
problem, Kinzel et al.’s (1994) method discovers good fuzzy rules after 33 generations
using a population size of 200.
The learning method described by Liska and Melsheimer (1994) simultaneously learns
the rules and membership function parameters. The design process tries to optimize, the
number of rules, the structure of rules, and the membership function parameters
simultaneously by using RCGA with one-at-time reproduction. In this type of GA, two
offspring are produced by selecting and combining two parents. One of the offspring is
randomly discarded, the other replaces the poorest performance string in the population.
During each reproduction step only one operator is employed.
For simultaneous optimization, the chromosome is composed of three substrings: the
first substring of real numbers encodes membership functions of input and output
variables. Each membership function is represented by the two parameters (center and
width). The second substring of integer numbers encodes the structure of each rule in the
rule-base such that one integer number represents one membership in the space of an input
variable. The membership functions are numbered in ascending order according to their
centers. For example, a number “1” refers to the MF with the lowest value of the MF
center in a particular input variable. The value “0” in the second substring indicates the
“null” MF, i.e., the input variable is not involved in the rule. The third substring of integer
numbers encodes MFs in rule consequents. A value “0” in the third substring means that
the rule is deleted from the FLS rule-base. For example, in a system with n input variables
and one output variable, pi membership functions in ith input variable, q membership
functions in the output variable, and N rules, the three substrings can be represented as
shown in Figure 4.21.
The inclusion of “0” in the second substring allows the number of input variables
involved in each rule to change dynamically during the GA search. Similarly, ‘0’ in the
third substring allows the number of rules to vary dynamically. The number of rules in
FLS rule-base is constrained by the upper limit specified by a designer. The evolution
process used a set of ordered genetic operators such that the relative order of MFs in each
variable is preserved. The ordered operators are used only for the first substring, for the
second and third substring ordinary genetic operators are used, viz., uniform crossover,
mutation, and creep. Uniform crossover creates two offspring from two parents by
deciding randomly which offspring receives the gene from which parent. Mutation
replaces randomly selected gene in a parent by a random value between the minimum and
maximum allowed values. Creep creates one offspring from one parent by altering
randomly its gene within a specified range.
Figure 4.21: The three substrings of a chromosome.

An exponential ranking technique based on error function is used to evaluate the


performance of each chromosome. This technique assigns the highest fitness to the string
with the lowest value of the error function (e.g., fitness(1) = 1000). If fitness(i) is the
fitness value for the ith lowest value of the error then the fitness value of the next lowest
value is set to fitness(i + 1) = α ∗ fitness(i), α ∈ [0, 1], except that no string is given a
fitness lesser than 1. Liska and Melsheimer (1994) obtained the best results with α value
set to 0.96. In their GA implementation, no duplicates were allowed, i.e., a new offspring
is allowed to be the member of the current population if it differs from every existing
member at least in one gene.
Liska and Melsheimer (1994) applied their genetic learning approach to learn a
dynamic model of a plant using input–output data. After the genetic learning process, they
further applied another technique to fine tune the membership function parameters. The
obtained results are comparable to those achieved using a three-layer feed-forward neural
network.

4.3.4. Clustering-Based Approach


The aim of clustering is to partition a given dataset into different groups (clusters) so that
the members in the same group are of similar nature, whereas members of different groups
are dissimilar. While clustering, various similarity measures can be considered, one of the
most commonly used measure is distance between data samples. Clustering can be either
hard (or crisp) clustering technique, e.g., k-means (Hastie et al., 2009), where a data
sample is assigned only to one cluster or fuzzy clustering where a data sample can belong
to all the clusters with certain degree of membership (de Oliveira and Pedrycz, 2007).
In the domain of fuzzy system design, a clustering algorithm is applied to structure
identification by partitioning the input–output data in to clusters. Each cluster corresponds
to a rule in the rule-base. The cluster centers can be considered as focal points for rules in
the rule-base. Different clustering methods can be used for the purpose of data partitioning
and rule generation, however, fuzzy clustering is being used extensively either
independently or combined with other techniques. Methods based on fuzzy clustering are
appealing as there is a close connection between fuzzy clusters and fuzzy rules (Klawonn,
1994; Kruse et al., 1994). Some of the clustering algorithms that are commonly used for
structure identification are, fuzzy c-means (Dunn, 1974; Bezdek, 1981), Gustafsson–
Kessel algorithm (Gustafsson and Kessel, 1979), mountain clustering (Yager and Filev,
1993, 1994), and subtractive clustering (Chiu, 1997).
To get the fuzzy rules, clustering can be applied separately to input and/or output data
or jointly to the input–output data. Sugeno and Yasukawa (1993) and Emami et al. (1998)
used fuzzy clustering to cluster the output data and then these clusters are projected on to
the input coordinate axes in order to generate linguistic fuzzy rules. For fuzzy system with
TSK type rules, the common approach is to apply clustering in the input–output data and
projecting the clusters on to the input variables coordinate to determine the premise part of
the rule in terms of input fuzzy sets (Babuška and Verbruggen, 1996; Zhao et al., 1994;
Chiu, 1994) (Figure 4.22). Each of the clusters give rise to local regression models and the
overall model is then structured into a set of if-then rules. The consequent parameters of
such rules may be estimated separately by using methods like least squares method. Some
authors have used clustering only on the input data and combined the results with a TSK-
like consequent (Wang and Langari, 1994). While others have applied clustering
separately to each input and output data for fuzzy modeling in terms of fuzzy relational
equations (Pedrycz, 1984).

Figure 4.22: Fuzzy clusters and their interpretation as membership functions.

In the following example, we demonstrate the generation of rules using subtractive


clustering method. Subtractive clustering is an improved version of mountain method for
cluster estimation. One of the advantages of mountain method and subtractive clustering
method over fuzzy c-means is that the former methods do not require specification of
number of clusters (or number rules) by the user before the clustering process begins. In
subtractive clustering data points are considered as potential clusters. The method assumes
normalized data points bounded by a hypercube. For every data point, a potential value is
calculated as given in Equation (18), and the point with the highest potential value is
selected as the first cluster center.

(18)

where xk is the kth data point, k = 1, 2, 3,…, N, and ra is a positive constant.


The potential value is dependent on the distance of the data point to all other data
points, i.e., the larger the number of neighboring data points the higher is the potential.
The constant ra defines the neighborhood of a data point and the data points outside the
neighborhood do not have significant influence on the potential value. After the first
cluster center is identified, in the next step the potential of all data points is reduced by an
amount that is dependent on their distance to the cluster center. The revised potential of
each data point is given by Equation (19). So, the points closer to the cluster center have
less chance to be selected as next cluster center. Now, the next cluster center is the point
with the remaining maximum potential.

(19)

where is the first cluster center and is its potential value, and , rb is a positive
constant.
The constant rb is the radius defining the neighborhood that will have measureable
reductions in potential. To obtain cluster centers that are not too close to each other, rb is
set to a value greater than ra.
The process of selection of cluster centers based on the potential values and
subsequent reduction of potential values of each of the data points continues till the
following conditions are satisfied:
if then accept as a cluster center and continue,
else if then reject and end the clustering process,
else let dmin be the minimum distance between and all existing cluster centers.
if ≥ 1 then accept as a cluster center and continue,
else reject and set the potential at to 0,
select the data point with the next highest potential as the new
and retest.
end if
end if
end if
Here, u is a threshold potential value above which the data point is definitely accepted
as a cluster center, and a data point is rejected if the potential is lower than the threshold υ.
If the potential falls within u and υ, then it is checked if the data point provides a good
trade-off between having a sufficient potential and is not close to any existing cluster
centers.
Example 4.1. Let us consider the input–output data from the cooling fan system provided
in Table 4.4. Subtractive clustering assumes normalized data for clustering, which is given
in Table 4.5. We assume Gaussian membership functions and TSK-type fuzzy rules.
The antecedent parameters of Gaussian membership function (c,σ) are identified by
subtractive clustering and the consequent parameters are determined using RLS approach.
First, subtractive clustering is applied to input–output data with the value of radius
parameter set to ra = 0.5. The rest of the user-defined input parameters are set to their
default values, rb = 1.5ra, u = 0.5, and υ = 0.15 (Chiu, 1997). The σ value is determined as,
σ2 = 1/(2α). The clustering resulted in six clusters with cluster centers and the range of
influence as shown in Table 4.16. Figure 4.23 shows the cluster centers and the range of
influence considering the two input variables. The number of clusters corresponds to
number of fuzzy rules. As we have initialized the neighborhood parameter with same
values for each of the data dimension so subtractive clustering returns same sigma values
(radius) in each of the data dimensions. In Table 4.16, the sigma value is represented with
a scalar. Also note that it returns same sigma values for each of the clusters. While
considering the antecedent parameters we neglect the cluster output dimension, i.e., only
the values in the columns 1, 2, and 4 of Table 4.16 are considered as c and σ respectively.
The input fuzzy sets based on the cluster centers and respective range of influences are
shown in Figure 4.24.

Figure 4.23: Cluster centers obtained by subtractive clustering (black dots indicate cluster centers).
Table 4.16: Cluster centers and corresponding radii.
In the next step, the consequent parameters are determined using the least square
estimate method. The resulting parameters are shown in Table 4.17.
Therefore, the rules generated using the subtractive clustering method can be given as:

It should be noted that the antecedent parameter obtained using clustering can further
be tuned using neural networks or GAs as discussed in previous sections.
4.4. Online Approaches
Online approaches can also be categorized under automated modeling approaches,
however the FRB systems that are developed using these approaches have some
interesting characteristics as discussed here. So far we have discussed the modeling of
fuzzy systems that have fixed structure. Though we have mentioned the design of adaptive
systems like ANFIS, such systems are adaptive in terms of parameters and not the
structure. By fixed structure, we mean the number of rules in the rule-base and the number
of fuzzy membership functions are fixed during the design process. The clustering
methods like mountain clustering and subtractive clustering when applied to the design
process do not require to specify the number of clusters (i.e., number of rules) beforehand.
They assume that the entire data is present in the memory and iteratively delineates the
clusters. The manner in which the rules are learnt is often referred to as offline or batch
mode where the learning algorithm performs multiple iterations over the data to finally
determine a fixed set of rules. However, due to the static nature of the rule-base, the
resulting system cannot handle any deviations in the input data which may be due to
changes in the operating environment over time. Such changes cannot be incorporated in
the rule-base or existing model unless the entire design process is repeated with the new
data and the whole system is re-modeled.
Figure 4.24: Input fuzzy sets formed from the cluster centers and radii obtained from subtractive clustering.
Table 4.17: Consequent parameters.

a0 a1 a2
−3.39 5.37 −0.35
0.06 2.39 1.93
−8.45 0 19.85
0 −9.25 10.07
In the present scenario, the overabundance of data due to the technological
advancement poses new challenges for the fuzzy system design. The application such as
packet monitoring in the IP network, monitoring chemical process, real time surveillance
systems and sensor networks, etc. generate data continuously at high speed that often
evolve with time, commonly referred to as data streams, inhibit the application of
conventional approaches to fuzzy system design. Learning rules from such type of data
require the method to be fast and memory efficient. To attain real-time or online response,
the processing time per data sample should be a small constant amount of time to keep up
with their speed of arrival, and the memory requirements should not increase appreciably
with the progress of the data stream. Another requirement for a data stream learning
approach is to be adaptive and robust to noise. The approach should be able to adapt the
model structure and parameters in the presence of deviation so as to give an up-to-date
model. In a streaming environment, it is difficult to distinguish noise from data shift.
Noisy data can interfere with the learning process, for example, a greedy learning
approach that adapts itself as soon as it sees a change in the data pattern may over-fit noise
by mistakenly interpreting it as new data. On the other hand, if it is too conservative and
slow to adapt, it may fail to incorporate important changes.
To meet such requirements, the area of evolving fuzzy systems (EFSs) emerged that
focuses on online learning of fuzzy models that are capable of adapting autonomously to
changes in the data pattern (Angelov, 1999, 2000, 2002; Angelov and Buswell, 2001,
2002; Kasabov, 1998a, 1998b). Typically, an EFS learns autonomously without much user
intervention in an online mode by analyzing each incoming sample, and adjusting both
model structure and parameters. The online working mode of EFS involves a sequence of
‘predict’ and ‘update’ phases. In the prediction phase, when an input sample is received, it
is fuzzified using the membership function and the output is estimated using the existing
fuzzy rules and inference mechanism. Finally, the output is determined and defuzzified.
The update (or learning) phase occurs when the actual output for the given input is
received. During the update phase, the rule-base is updated through the learning module
using the actual output and the previously estimated output. In the update phase usually an
online clustering is applied on a per sample basis (or sometimes on a chunk of data). Upon
receiving the output for the current input data sample, the online clustering process
determines if a new cluster is required to be formed (with the current data sample as the
cluster center) or an existing cluster is required to be modified in terms of shift of the
existing cluster center or change in the range of influence of the existing cluster center. If a
new cluster is generated then it in turn generates a new rule corresponding to that or if an
existing cluster is updated then fuzzy sets of the corresponding rule get updated. After the
update of antecedent parameters, the consequent parameters are updated using recursive
least square method. Some of the online structure identification techniques that have been
successfully applied to EFS design are evolving Clustering (eClustering) (Angelov and
Filev, 2004), evolving Vector Quantization (eVQ) (Lughofer, 2008), Evolving Clustering
Method (ECM) (Kasabov and Song, 2002), online Gustafsson–Kessel algorithm
(Georgieva and Filev, 2009), evolving Participatory Learning (ePL) (Lima et al., 2006),
and Dynamically Evolving Clustering (DEC) (Baruah and Angelov, 2014).
4.5. Summary
In this chapter, we presented various approaches to fuzzy system modeling. The early
design approaches were solely based on expert knowledge. The knowledge-based
approach is easy to implement for simple systems. The chapter has described the
knowledge-based method for fuzzy modeling with illustrative examples and guidelines.
Though the knowledge-based method is simple, it is not suitable for complex systems and
has several limitations. For example, one expert may not have the complete knowledge or
understanding of a particular system, in such a scenario multiple experts are consulted.
Finally, integrating the views of all the experts into a single system can be difficult,
particularly when the views are conflicting. Also, if the expert knowledge about the
system is faulty then the resulting model will be incorrect leading to undesirable results.
Due to such reasons and availability of input– output data, automated methods are more
preferred over knowledge-based methods. However, automated methods do not
completely eliminate expert’s involvement. When sufficient input–output data are
available, the automated methods can be applied in three levels: (i) only to tune the
antecedent and consequent parameters with fixed rules, (ii) to learn the rules with
predefined membership functions and fuzzy sets, (iii) to learn both rules and parameters.
The chapter has described various automated methods that have been applied at all the
three levels. First, it described the template-based methods that works at level (ii), then it
presented the neuro-fuzzy approach and described its application at level (i). The chapter
discussed application of GAs to fuzzy system design at all the three levels. Finally,
clustering-based approach has been explained that is applied at level (iii). The chapter has
also provided a brief discussion on online modeling approaches. Over the past decade this
area has received enormous attention from the researchers due to its applicability to
various application domains that include robotics, process control, image processing,
speech processing, bioinformatics, and finance. Readers interested in this area are
encouraged to refer (Angelov et al., 2010; Angelov, 2012; Lughofer, 2011).
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Chapter 5

Fuzzy Classifiers
Abdelhamid Bouchachia
Fuzzy classifiers as a class of classification systems have witnessed a lot of developments over many years
now by various communities. Their main strengths stem from their transparency to human users and their
capabilities to handle uncertainty often present in real-world data. Like with other classification systems, the
construction of fuzzy classifiers follows the same development lifecycle. During training, in particular fuzzy
classification rules are developed and undergo an optimization process before the classifier is tested and
deployed. The first part of the present chapter overviews this process in detail and highlights the various
optimization techniques dedicated to fuzzy rule-based systems. The second part of the chapter discusses a
particular facet of research, that is, online learning of fuzzy classification systems. Throughout the chapter, a
good review of the related literature is covered to highlight the various research directions of fuzzy classifiers.
5.1. Introduction
Over the recent years, fuzzy rule-based classification systems have emerged as a new class
of attractive classifiers due to their transparency and interpretability characteristics.
Motivated by such characteristics, fuzzy classifiers have been used in various applications
such as smart homes (Bouchachia, 2011; Bouchachia and Vanaret, 2013), image
classification (Thiruvenkadam et al., 2006), medical applications (Tan et al., 2007),
pattern recognition (Toscano and Lyonnet, 2003), etc.
Classification rules are simple consisting of two parts: the premises (conditions) and
consequents that correspond to class labels as shown in the following:
Rule 1 := If xl is small then Class 1
Rule 2 := If xl is large then Class 2
Rule 3 := If xl is medium and x2 is very small then Class 1
Rule 4 := If x2 is very large then Class 2
Rules may be associated with degrees of confidence that explains how good the rule
covers a particular input region:
Rule 5 := If x1 is small then Class 1 with confidence 0.8

Figure 5.1: Two-dimensional illustrative example of specifying the antecedent part of a fuzzy if-then rule.

Graphically, the rules partition the space into regions. Ideally, each region is covered
by one rule as shown in Figure 5.1. Basically, there are two main approaches for designing
fuzzy rule-based classifiers:
• Human expertise: The rules are explicitly proposed by the human expert. Usually, no
tuning is required and the rules are used for predicting the classes of the input using
certain inference steps (see Section 5.3).
• Machine generated: The standard way of building rule-based classifiers is to apply an
automatic process which consists of certain steps: partitioning of the input space,
finding the fuzzy sets of the rules’ premisses and associating class labels as consequents.
To predict the label of an input, an inference process is applied. Usually additional steps
are involved, especially for optimizing the rule base (Fazzolari et al., 2013).
Fuzzy classifiers come in the form of explicit if-then classification rules as illustrated
earlier. However, rules can also be encoded in neural networks resulting in neuro-fuzzy
architectures (Kasabov, 1996). Moreover, different computational intelligence techniques
have been used to develop fuzzy classifiers: evolutionary algorithms (Fazzolari et al.,
2013), rough sets (Shen and Chouchoulas, 2002), ant colony systems (Ganji and Abadeh,
2011), immune systems (Alatas and Akin, 2005), particle swarm optimization (Rani and
Deepa, 2010), petri nets (Chen et al., 2002), etc. These computational approaches are used
for both design and optimizations of the classifier’s rules.
5.2. Pattern Classification
The problem of pattern classification can be formally defined as follows. Let T = {(xi,
yi)i=i,…, N} be a set of training patterns. Each xi = (xi1,…, xid) ∈ X is a d-dimensional vector
and yi ∈ Y = {y1,…, yC}, where Y denotes a discrete set of classes (i.e., labels). A classifier
is inherently characterized by a decision function f : X → Y that is used to predict the class
label yi for each pattern xi. The decision function is learned from the training data patterns
T drawn i.i.d. at random according to an unknown distribution from the space X × Y. An
accurate classifier has very small generalization error (i.e., it generalizes well to unseen
patterns). In general, a loss (cost) is associated with errors, meaning that some
misclassification errors are “worst” than others. Such a loss is expressed formally as a
function (xi, yi, f(xi)) which can take different forms (e.g., 0–1, hinge, squared hinge, etc.)
(Duda et al., 2001). Ideally the classifier (i.e., decision function) should minimize the
expected error E(f) (known as the empirical risk) = Hence, the aim
is to learn a function f among a set of all functions that minimizes the error E(f). The
empirical risk may be regularized by putting additional constraints (terms) to restrain the
function space, penalize the number of parameters and model complexity and avoid
overfitting (which occurs when the classifier does not generalize well on unseen data).
The regularized risk is then: R(f) = E(f) + λΩ(f).
Classifiers can be either linear or nonlinear. A linear classifier (i.e., the decision
function is linear and the classes are linearly separable) has the form: yi = g(w·xi) =
where w is a weight vector computed by learning from the training patterns.
The function g outputs discrete values {1, −1} or {0, 1} which indicate the classes. Clearly
the argument of decision function, f = ∑j wjxij, is a linear combination of the input and the
weight vectors.
Linear classifiers are of types: discriminative or generative. The discriminative linear
classifiers try to minimize R (or its simplest version E) without necessarily caring about
the way the (training) patterns are generated. Examples of discriminative linear classifiers
are: perceptron, support vector machines (SVM) and logistic regression and linear
discriminant analysis (LDA).
Generative classifiers aim at learning a model of the joint probability p(x, y) over the
data X and the labels Y. They aim at inferring class-conditional densities p(x|y) and priors
p(y). The prediction decision is made by exploiting the Bayes’ rule to compute p(y|x) and
then by selecting the label with the higher probability. The discriminative classifiers on the
other hand aim at computing p(y|x) directly from the pairs (xi, yi)i=1…N. Examples of
generative linear classifiers are: probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the
naive Bayes classifier.
Nonlinear classifiers (i.e., the decision function is not linear and can be quadratic,
exponential, etc.). The straitforward formulation of nonlinear classifiers is the generalized
linear classifier which tries to nonlinearly map the input space onto another space (X ⊂ d
→ Z ⊂ K), where the patterns are separable. Thus, x ∈ d x ∈ K, z = [ f1(x),…, fK
(x)]T where fk is a nonlinear function (e.g., log-sigmoid, tan-sigmoid, etc.). The decision
function is then of the form: yi = g(∑k wk fk(xi).
There are many nonlinear classification algorithms of different types such as
generalized linear classifiers, multilayer perceptron, polynomial classifiers, radial basis
function networks, etc., nonlinear SVM (kernels), k-nearest neighbor, rule-based
classifiers (e.g., decision trees, fuzzy rule-based classifiers, different hybrid neuro-genetic-
fuzzy classifiers), etc. (Duda et al., 2001).
We can also distinguish between two classes of classifiers: symbolic and sub-symbolic
classifiers. The symbolic classifiers are those that learn the decision function in the form
of rules:

(1)

The advantage of this class of classifiers is their transparency and interpretability of


their behavior. The sub-symbolic classifiers are those that do not operate on symbols and
could be seen as black box.
5.3. Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems
Fuzzy rule-based systems represent knowledge in the form of fuzzy “IF-THEN” rules.
These rules can be either encoded by human experts or extracted from raw data by an
inductive learning process. Generically, a fuzzy rule has the form:

(2)

where {xi}i=1···d are fuzzy linguistic input variables, Ar,i are antecedent linguistic terms in
the form of fuzzy sets that characterize xi and yr is the output. This form can take different
variations. However, the most known ones are: Mamdani-type, Takagi– Sugeno type and
classification type. The former two ones have been introduced in the context of fuzzy
control. Specifically, a rule of Mamdani-type has the following structure:

(3)

where xi are fuzzy linguistic input variables, yj are fuzzy linguistic output variables, and
Ar,i and Br,j are linguistic terms in the form of fuzzy sets that characterize xi and yj. The
Mamdani’s model is known for its transparency since all of the rule’s terms are linguistic
terms.
The Takagi–Sugeno type (T–S) differs from the Mamdani-type model at the rule
consequent level. In a T–S rule type, the consequent is a combination of the inputs as
shown in Equation (4):

(4)

A rule consists of d input fuzzy variables (x1, x2,…, xd) and m output variables (y1, y2,…,
ym) such that yr,j = fr,j (x). The most popular form of f is the polynomial form:
, where ’s denote the system’s m + 1 output
parameters. These parameters are usually determined using iterative optimization
methods. T–S-type FRS are used to approximate nonlinear systems by a set of linear
systems.
In this chapter, we focus on classification systems where a rule looks as follows:

(5)

where Cr, τr indicate respectively the class label and the certainty factor associated with
the rule r. A certainty factor represents the confidence degree of assigning the input to a
class Cr, i.e., how good the rule covers the space of a class Cr. For a rule r, it is expressed
as follows (Ishibuchi and Yamamoto, 2005):
(6)

where μAr(xi) is obtained as follows:

(7)

Equation (7) uses the product, but can also use any t-norm: μAr(xi) = T(μAr,1(xi1),…,μAr,d
(xid)). Moreover, the rule in Equation (5) could be generalized to multi-classes consequent
to account for class distribution and in particular overlap

(8)

This formulation was adopted in particular in (Bouchachia and Mittermeir, 2007), where
τj’s correspond to the proportion of patterns of each class in the region covered by the rule
j.
Note also that the rule’s form in Equation (5) could be seen as a special case of the
Sugueno-type fuzzy rule model, in particular the zero-order model, where the consequent
is a singleton.
Furthermore, there exists another type of fuzzy classification systems based on
multidimensional fuzzy sets, where rules are expressed in the form (Bouchachia, 2011):

(9)

where Ki is a cluster. The rule means that if the sample x is CLOSE to Kj then the label of
x should be that of class Cj .
Classes in the consequent part of the rules can be determined following two options:
• The generation of the fuzzy sets (partitions) is done using supervised clustering. That is,
each partition will be labeled and will emanate from one class. In this case, certainty
factors associated with the rules will be needless (Bouchachia and Mittermeir, 2007;
Bouchachia, 2011; Bouchachia and Vanaret, 2013).
• The generation of the fuzzy sets is done using clustering, so that partitions can contain
patterns from different classes at the same time. In this case, a special process is
required to determine the rule consequents. Following the procedure described in
(Ishibuchi and Nojima, 2007), the consequent is found as follows

(10)

where υj is given as:


(11)

Given a test pattern, xk, entering the system, the output of the fuzzy classifier with
respect to this pattern is the winner class, w, referred in the consequent of the rule with the
highest activation degree. The winning class is computed as follows:

(12)

where ωj is given as:

(13)

If there is more than one winner (taking the same maximum value ωj), then the pattern is
considered unclassifiable.
A general fuzzy rule-based system consists mainly of four components: the knowledge
base, the inference engine, the fuzzifier and the defuzzifier as shown in Figure 5.2 and
briefly described below. Note that generally fuzzy classifiers do not include the
defuzzification step, since a fuzzy output is already indicative.
1. The knowledge base consists of a rule-base that holds a collection of fuzzy IF-THEN
rules and a database that includes the membership functions defining the fuzzy sets
used by the fuzzy rule system.
2. The inference engine maps the input to the rules and computes an aggregated fuzzy
output of the system according to an inference method. The common inference method
is the Max–Min composition, where rules are first combined with the input before
aggregating using some operator (Mamdani, Gödel, etc.) to produce a final output or
rules are combined first before acting on the input vector. Typical inference in
classification systems is rather simple as explained earlier. It consists of sequentially
computing the following degrees: activation [i.e., the product/t-norm of the antecedent
part, see Equation (7)], association [i.e., combine the confidence factors with the
activation degree to determine association degree of the input with the classes, see
Equation (13)], and classification [i.e., choose the class with the highest association
degree, see Equation (12)].
Figure 5.2: Structure of the adaptive fuzzy classifier.

3. Fuzzification transforms the crisp input into fuzzy input, by matching the input to the
linguistic values in the rules’ antecedents. Such values are represented as membership
functions (e.g., triangular, trapezoidal and Gaussian) and stored in the database. These
functions specify a partitioning of the input and eventually the output space. The
number of fuzzy partitions determines that of the rules. There are three types of
partitioning: grid, tree, and scatter. The latter is the most common one, since it finds the
regions covering the data using clustering. Different clustering algorithms have been
used (Vernieuwe et al., 2006). Known algorithms are Gustafson–Kessel and Gath–Geva
(Abonyi et al., 2002), mountain (Yager and Filev, 1994), subtractive (Angelov, 2004),
fuzzy hierarchical clustering (Tsekouras et al., 2005), and FCM (Bouchachia, 2004).
4. The defuzzifier transforms the aggregated fuzzy output generated by the inference
engine into a crisp output because very often a crisp output of the system is required for
facilitating decision-making. The known defuzzification methods are: center of area,
height-center of area, max criterion, first of maxima, and middle of maxima. However,
the most popular method is center of area (Saade and Diab, 2000). Recall that fuzzy
classification systems do not necessarily involve defuzzification.
5.4. Quality Issues of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems
In general, knowledge maintenance entails the activities of knowledge validation,
optimization, and evolution. The validation process aims at checking the consistency of
knowledge by repairing/removing contradictions. Optimization seeks the compactness of
knowledge by alleviating all types of redundancy and rendering the knowledge base
transparent. Finally, evolution of knowledge is about incremental learning of knowledge
without jeopardizing the old one allowing a continuous and incremental update of the
knowledge.
This section aims at discussing the optimization issues of rule-based systems.
Optimization in this context deals primarily with the transparency of the rule-base. Given
the symbolic representation of rules, the goal is to describe the classifier with a small
number of concise rules relying on transparent and inter-pretable fuzzy sets intelligible by
human experts. Using data to automatically build the classifier is a process that does not
always result in a transparent rule-base (Kuncheva, 2000). Hence, there is a need to
optimize the number and the structure of the rules while keeping the classifier accuracy as
high as possible (more on this tradeoff will follow in section). Note that beyond
classification, the Mamdani model is geared towards more interpretability, hence the name
of linguistic fuzzy modeling. Takagi–Sugeno model is geared towards accuracy, hence the
name precise fuzzy modeling (Gacto et al., 2011).
Overall, the quality of the rule-base (knowledge) can be evaluated using various
criteria: performance, comprehensibility, and completeness which are explained in the
following sections.

5.4.1. Performance
A classifier, independent of its computational model, is judged on its performance. That is,
how well does the classifier perform on unseen novel data? Measuring the performance is
about assessing the quality of decision-making.
Accuracy is one of the mostly used measures. It quantifies to which extent the system
meets the human being decision. Thus, accuracy measures the ratio of correct decisions.
Expressively, Accuracy = Correct/Test, where correct and test indicate respectively the
number of patterns well classified (corresponding to true positives + true negatives
decisions), while Test is the total number of patterns presented to the classifier). But
accuracy as a sole measure for evaluating the performance of the classifier might be
misleading in some situations like in the case of imbalanced classes. Obviously, different
measures can be used, like precision (positive predictive value), false positive rate (false
alarm rate), true positive rate (sensitivity), ROC curves (Fawcett, 2006). It is therefore
recommended to use multiple performance measures to objectively evaluate the classifier.
5.4.2. Completeness
Knowledge is complete if for making a decision all needed knowledge elements are
available. Following the architecture presented in Figure 5.2, the system should have all
ingredients needed to classify a pattern. The other aspect of completeness is the coverage
of the discourse representation space. That is, all input variables (dimensions) to be
considered should be fully covered by the fuzzy sets using the frame of cognition (FOC)
(Pedrycz and Gomide, 1998), which stipulates that a fuzzy set (patch) along a dimension
must satisfy: normality, typicality, full membership, convexity, and overlap.

5.4.3. Consistency
Consistency is a key issue in knowledge engineering and is considered as one important
aspect of the rule-base comprehensibility assessment. In the absence of consistency, the
knowledge is without value and its use leads to contradictory decisions. Inconsistency
results from conflicting knowledge elements. For instance, two rules are in conflict if they
have identical antecedents but different consequents. In the case of fuzzy rule-based
classification, there is no risk to have inconsistency, since each rule corresponds to a given
region of the data space. Moreover, even if an overlap between antecedents of various
rules exists, the output for a given data point is unambiguously computed using the
confidence factors related to each rule in the knowledge base.

5.4.4. Compactness
Compactness is about the conciseness and the ease of understanding and reasoning about
the knowledge. Systems built on a symbolic ground, like rule-based systems, are easy to
understand and to track how and why they reach a particular decision. To reinforce this
characteristic, the goal of system design is to reduce, as much as possible, the number of
rules to make the system’s behavior more transparent. Thus, small number of rules and
small number of conditions in the antecedent of rules ensures high compactness of the
system’s rule-base.
To reduce the complexity of the rule-base and consequently to get rid of redundancy
and to strengthen compactness, the optimization procedure can consist of a certain number
of steps (Bouchachia and Mittermeir, 2007). All these steps are based on similarity
measures.
There are a number of measures based on set-theoretic, proximity, interval, logic,
linguistic approximation and fuzzy-valued (Wu and Mendel, 2008). In the following, the
optimization steps are described.
• Redundant partitions: They are discovered by computing the similarity of the fuzzy sets
describing these partitions to the universe. A fuzzy set is removed if:

(14)
where ∈ (0, 1) and indicates a threshold (a required level of similarity), U indicates the
universe that is defined as follows:

Any pattern has a full membership in the universe of discourse.


• Merge of fuzzy partitions: Two fuzzy partition are merged if their similarity exceeds a
certain threshold:

(15)

where are the jth and kth partitions of the feature i in the rule r.
• Removal of weakly firing rules: This consists of identifying rules whose output is
always close to 0.

(16)

β is a threshold close to 0.
• Removal of redundant rules: There is redundancy if the similarity (e.g., overlap)
between the antecedents of the rules is high exceeding some threshold δ. The similarity
of the antecedents of two rules r and p is given as:

(17)

where the antecedents Ar and Ap are given by the set of fuzzy partitions representing the d
features That is, similar rules (i.e., having similar
antecedents and same consequent) are merged. In doing so, if some rules have the same
consequent, the antecedents of those rules can be connected. However, this may result in a
conflict if the antecedents are not the same. One can however rely on the following rules
of thumb:
— If, for some set of rules with the same consequent, a variable takes all forms (it
belongs to all forms of fuzzy set, e.g., small, medium, large), then such a variable can
be removed from the antecedent of that set of rules. In other words, this set of rules is
independent of the variable that takes all possible values. This variable corresponds
then to “don’t care”. For instance, if we consider Figure 5.3, the rules 1, 3, and 4 are
about class C1 and the input variable x2 takes all possible linguistic variable. The
optimization will replace these rules with a generic rule as shown in Figure 5.4.
— If, for some set of rules with the same consequent, a variable takes a subset of all
possible forms (e.g., small and medium), then the antecedents of such rules can be
combined by or(ing) the values corresponding to that variable. For instance, if we
consider Figure 5.3, the rules 2 and 5 are about class C2 such that the variable x3 takes
the linguistic values: medium and large, while the other variables take the same values.
The two rules can be replaced with one generic rule as shown in Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.3: Rules in the system’s rule-base.

Figure 5.4: Combining rules 1, 3 and 4.

Figure 5.5: Combining rules 2 and 5.

5.4.4.1. Feature selection

To enhance the transparency and the compactness of the rules, it is important that the if-
part of the rules does not involve many features. Low classification performance generally
results from non-informative features. The very conventional way to get rid of these
features is to apply feature selection methods. Basically, there exist three classes of feature
selection methods (Guyon and Elisseeff, 2003):
1. Filters: The idea is to filter out features that have small potential to predict the outputs.
The selection is done as a pre-processing step ahead of the classification task. Filters
are preprocessing techniques and refer to statistical selection methods such as principal
components analysis, LDA, and single value decomposition. For instance, Tikk et al.
(2003) described a feature ranking algorithm for fuzzy modeling aiming at higher
transparency of the rule-based. Relying on interclass separability as in LDA and using
the backward selection method, the features are sequentially selected. Vanhoucke and
Silipo (2003) used a number of measures that rely on mutual information to design a
highly transparent classifier and particularly to select the features deemed to be the
most informative. Similar approach has been taken in (Sanchez et al., 2008) using a
mutual information-based feature selection for optimizing a fuzzy rule-based system.
Lee et al. (2001) applied fuzzy entropy (FE) in the context of fuzzy classification to
achieve low complexity and high classification efficiency. First, FE was used to
partition the pattern space into non-overlapping regions. Then, it was applied to select
relevant features using the standard forward selection or backward elimination.
2. Wrappers: Select features that optimize the accuracy of a chosen classifier. Wrappers
largely depend on the classifier to judge how well feature subsets are at classifying the
training samples. For instance, in Cintra and Camargo (2010), the authors use a fuzzy
wrapper and a fuzzy C4.5 decision tree to identify discriminative features. Wrappers are
not very popular in the area of fuzzy rule-based systems. But many references claimed
their methods to be wrappers, while actually they are embedded.
3. Embedded: Embedded methods perform variable selection in the process of training
and are usually specific to given learning machines. In del Jesus et al. (2003), to design
a fuzzy rule-based classifier while selecting the relevant features, multi-objective
genetic algorithms are used. The aim is to optimize the precision of the classifier.
Similar approach is suggested in Chen et al. (2012), where the T–S model is
considered. In the same vein, in Schmitt et al. (2008), the selection of features is done
while a fuzzy rule classifier is being optimized using the Choquet Integral. The
embedded methods dominate the other two categories due to the natural process of
optimization rule-based system to obtain high interpretable rules.
5.5. Unified View of Rule-Based Optimization
Different taxonomies related to interpretability of fuzzy systems in general have been
suggested:
• Corrado-Mencar and Fanelli (2008) proposed a taxonomy in terms of interpretability
constraints to the following levels: the fuzzy sets, the universe of discourse, the fuzzy
granules, the rules, the fuzzy models the learning algorithms.
• Zhou and Gan (2008) proposed a taxonomy in terms of low-level inter pretability and
high-level interpretability. Low-level interpretability is associated with the fuzzy set
level to capture the semantics, while high-level interpretability is associated with the
rule level.
• Gacto et al. (2011) proposed a taxonomy inspired from the second one and
distinguished between complexity-based interpretability equivalent to the high-level
interpretability and semantics-based interpretability equivalent to low-level
interpretability associated with the previous taxonomy.
A straight way to deal with interpretability issues in a unified way, by considering both
transparency and performance at the same time, is to use optimization methods. We can
use either meta-heuristics (evolutionary methods) or special-purpose designed methods. In
the following, some studies are briefly reported on.
Ishibuchi et al. (1997) proposed a genetic algorithm for rule selection in classification
problems, considering the following two objectives: to maximize the number of correctly
classified training patterns and minimize the number of selected rules. This improves the
complexity of the model, thanks to the reduction in the number of rules and the use of
dont care conditions in the antecedent part of the rule. Ishibuchi and Yamamoto (2004);
Ishibuchi and Nojima (2007) present a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA)
for classification problems with three objectives: Maximizing the number of correctly
classified patterns, minimizing the number of rules and minimizing the number of
antecedent conditions. Narukawa et al. (2005) rely on NSGA-II to optimize the rule-base
by eliminating redundant rules using a multi-objective optimization that aims at increasing
the accuracy while minimizing the number of rules and the premises.
Additional studies using evolutionary algorithms, in particular multi-objective
evolutionary algorithms, can be found in a recent survey by Fazzolari et al. (2013).
Different from the previously mentioned studies, others have used special purpose
optimization methods. For instance, Mikut et al. (2005) used decision trees to generate
rules before an optimization process is applied. This latter consists of feature selection
using an entropy-based method and applying iteratively a search-based formula that
combines accuracy and transparency to find the best configuration of the rule-base.
Nauck (2003) introduced a formula that combines by product three components:
complexity (expressed as the proportion of the number of classes to the total number of
variables used in the rules), coverage (the average extent to which the domain of each
variable is covered by the actual partitions of the variable), and partition complexity
(quantified for each variable as inversely proportional to the number of partitions
associated with that variable).
Guillaume and Charnomordic (2003) devised a distance-based formula to decide
whether two partitions can be merged. The formula relies on the intra-distance (called
internal distance) of a fuzzy set for a given variable and the inter-distance (called external
distance) of fuzzy sets for a variable, similar to that used for computing clusters. Any pairs
of fuzzy sets that minimize the combination of these two measures over the set of data
points will be merged.
de Oliveira (1999a, 1999b) used backpropagation to optimize a performance index
that consists of three constraining terms: accuracy, coverage and distinguishability of
fuzzy sets.
5.6. Incremental and Online Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems
Traditional fuzzy classification systems are designed in batch (offline) mode, that is, by
using the complete training data at once. Thus, offline development of fuzzy classification
systems assumes that the process of rule induction is done in a one-shot experiment, such
that the learning phase and the deployment phase are two sequential and independent
stages. For stationary processes this is sufficient, but if, for instance, the rule system’s
performance deteriorates due to a change of the data distribution or a change of the
operating conditions, the system needs to be re-designed from scratch. Many offline
approaches do simply perform “adaptive tuning”, that is, they permanently re-estimate the
parameters of the computed model. However, it is quite often necessary to adapt the
structure of the rule-base. In general, for time-dependent and complex non-stationary
processes, efficient techniques for updating the induced models are needed. Such
techniques must be able to adapt the current model using only the new data. They have to
be equipped with mechanisms to react to gradual changes or abrupt ones. The adaptation
of the model (i.e., rules) should accommodate any information brought in by the new data
and reconcile this with the existing rules.
Online development of fuzzy classification systems (Bouchachia and Vanaret, 2013),
on the other hand, enables both learning and deployment to happen concurrently. In this
context, rule learning takes place over long periods of time, and is inherently open-ended
(Bouchachia and Mittermeir, 2007). The aim is to ensure that the system remains
amenable to refinement as long as data continues to arrive. Moreover, online systems can
also deal with both applications starving of data (e.g., experiments that are expensive and
slow to produce data as in some chemical and biological applications) as well as
applications that are data intensive (Arandjelovic and Cipolla, 2005; Bouchachia, 2011).
Generally, online systems face the challenge of accurately estimating the statistical
characteristics of data in the future. In non-stationary environments, the challenge
becomes even more important, since the FRS’s behavior may need to change drastically
over time due to concept drift (Bouchachia, 2011; Gama et al., 2013). The aim of online
learning is to ensure continuous adaptation. Ideally, only the learning model (e.g., only
rules) and uses that model as basis in the future learning steps. As new data arrive, new
rules may be created and existing ones may be modified allowing the system to evolve
over time.
Online and incremental fuzzy rule systems have been recently introduced in a number
of studies involving control (Angelov, 2004), diagnostic (Lughofer, 2011), and pattern
classification (Angelov and Zhou, 2008; Bouchachia and Mittermeir, 2007; Lughofer,
2011). Type-1 fuzzy systems are currently quite established, since they do not only operate
online, but also consider related advanced concepts such as concept drift and online
feature selection.
For instance in Bouchachia and Mittermeir (2007), an integrated approach called
FRCS was proposed. To accommodate incremental rule learning, appropriate mechanisms
are applied at all steps: (1) Incremental supervised clustering to generate the rule
antecedents in a progressive manner, (2) Online and systematic update of fuzzy partitions,
(3) Incremental feature selection using an incremental version of the Fisher’s interclass
separability criterion to dynamically select features in an online manner.
In Bouchachia (2011), a fuzzy rule-based system for online classification is proposed.
Relying on fuzzy minmax neural networks, the paper explains how fuzzy rules can be
continuously online generated to meet the requirements of non-stationary dynamic
environments, where data arrives over long periods of time. The classifier is sensitive to
drift. It is able to detect data drift (Gama et al., 2013) using different measures and react to
it. An outline of the algorithm proposed is described in Algorithm 1. Actually, IFCS
consists of three steps:
Algorithm 1: Steps of the incremental fuzzy classification system (IFCS)
1: if Initial=true then
2: ← Train_Classifier(<TrainingData, Labels >)
3: ← Test_Classifier(<TestingData, Labels >, )
// Just for the sake of observation
4: end if
5: i ← 0
6: while true do
7: i ← i + 1
8: Read <Input, Label >
9: if IsLabeled(Label)=true then
10: if Saturation_Training(i)=false then
11: ← Train_Classifier(<Input, Label >, )
12: If Input falls in a hyperbox with Flabel, then Flabel ← Label
13: else
14: Err ← Test_Classifier(<Input, Label >, )
15: Cumulated_Err ← Cumulated_Err + Err
16: if Detect_Drift(Cumulated_Err)=true then
17: ← Reset(Cumulated_Err, )
18: else
19: ← Update_Classifier(<Input, Label >, )
20: If Input falls in a hyperbox with Flabel, then Flabel ← Label
21: end if
22: end if
23: else
24: Flabel ← Predict_Label(Input, )
25: ← Update_Classifier(<Input, Flabel >, )
26: end if
27: end while

(a) Initial one-shot experiment training: Available data is used to obtain an initial model
of the IFCS.
(b) Training over time before saturation: Given a saturation training level, incoming data
is used to further adjust the model.
(c) Correction after training saturation: Beyond the saturation level, incoming data is used
to observe the evolution of classification performance which allow to correct the
classifier if necessary.
In Bouchachia and Vanaret (2013), a growing type-2 fuzzy classifier (GT2FC) for
online fuzzy rule learning from real-time data streams is presented. To accommodate
dynamic change, GT2FC relies on a new semi-supervised online learning algorithm called
2G2M (Growing Gaussian Mixture Model). In particular, 2G2M is used to generate the
type-2 fuzzy membership functions to build the type-2 fuzzy rules. GT2FC is designed to
accommodate data online and to reconcile labeled and unlabeled data using self-learning.
Moreover, GT2FC maintains low complexity of the rule-base using online optimization
and feature selection mechanisms. Type-2 fuzzy classification is very suitable for dealing
with applications where input is prone to faults and noise. Thus, GT2FC offers the
advantage of dealing with uncertainty in addition to self-adaptation in an online manner.
Note that at the operational level, T2 FRS differ from T1 FRS in the type of fuzzy sets
and the operations applied on these sets. T2 fuzzy sets are equipped mainly with two
newly introduced operators called the meet, and join, which correspond to the fuzzy
intersection and fuzzy union. As shown in Figure 5.7, T2 FRS at the structural level is
similar to T1 FRS but contains an additional module, the type-reducer. In a classification
type-2 fuzzy rule system, the fuzzy rules for a C-class pattern classification problem with
n-input variable can be formulated as:
Figure 5.6: Type-2 fuzzy sets.

Figure 5.7: Type-2 fuzzy logic system.

(18)

where x = [x1,…, xn]t such that each xi is a an input variable and Ãr,i the corresponding
fuzzy terms in the form of type-2 fuzzy sets. We may associate these fuzzy sets with
linguistic labels to enhance interpretability. Ci is a consequent class, and j = 1,…, N is the
number of fuzzy rules. The inference engine computes the output of type-2 fuzzy sets by
combining the rules. Specifically, the meet operator is used to connect the type-2 fuzzy
propositions in the antecedent. The degree of activation of the jth rule using the n input
variables is computed as:

(19)

The meet operation that replaces the fuzzy ‘and’ in T1 FRS is given as follows:

(20)

If we use the interval Singleton T2 FRS, the meet is given for input x = x′ by the firing set,
i.e.,

(21)
In (Bouchachia and Vanaret, 2013), the Gaussian membership function is adopted and it is
given as follows:

(22)

where m and σ are the mean and the standard deviation of the function. To generate the
lower and upper membership functions, the authors used concentration and dilation
hedges to generate the footprint of Gaussians with uncertain deviation as shown in Figure
5.8. These are given as follows:

(23)

(24)

Figure 5.8: Uncertain deviation.

According to Equation (22), we obtain the following expressions:

(25)

(26)

Type-reducer is responsible for converting T2 FSs obtained as output of the inference


engine into T1 FSs. Type-reduction for FRS (Mamdani and Sugeno models) was proposed
by Karnik and Mendel (2001); Mendel (2013). This will not be adopted in our case, since
the rules’ consequent represents the label of a class. Traditionally in Type-1 fuzzy
classification systems, the output of the classifier is determined by the rule that has the
highest degree of activation:

(27)
where βj is the firing degree of the j rule. In type-2 fuzzy classification systems, we have
an interval as defined in Equation (21). Therefore, we compute the winning
class by considering the center of the interval , that is:

(28)

where

(29)

For the sake of illustration, an excerpt of rules generated is shown in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Fuzzy rules for D2.

Rule Antecedent C
1 x1 IN N(−17.60, [0.968, 1.93]) ∧ x2 IN N(−2.31, [1.42, 2.85] ∨ (x2 IN N(−9.45, [2.04, 4.08])) 2

2 x1 IN N(−5.27, [2.62, 5.24]) ∨ x1 IN N(−13.10, [1.44, 2.89]) ∨ x2 IN N(1.61, [1.01, 2.02]) 2

3 x1 IN N(−13.10, [1.44, 2.89]) ∧ x2 IN N(1.61, [1.01, 2.02]) ∨ x2 IN N(−15.12, [0.98, 1.96])) 2

4 x1 IN N(5.47, [1.28, 2.56]) ∧ x2 IN N(7.78, [1.19, 2.39]) ∨ x2 IN N(−6.10, [0.97,1.94])) 1

5 x1 IN N(−5.27, [2.62, 5.24]) ∨ x1 IN N(5.470, [1.28, 2.56]) ∨ x1 IN N(9.79, [1.89, 3.78]) ∧ x2 IN 1


N(−5.30, [1.91, 3.83])

6 x1 IN N(2.69, [0.93, 1.87]) ∧ x2 IN N(−9.45, [2.04, 4.08]) 1

7 x1 IN N(0.28, [0.97, 1.93]) ∨ x1 IN N(−17.60, [0.96, 1.93]) ∧ x2 IN N(−2.31, [1.42, 2.85]) 2


5.7. Conclusion
This chapter briefly presents fuzzy rule-based classifiers. The working cycle for both type-
1 and type-2 fuzzy classification systems has been described. Because the primary
requirement of such systems is interpretability, quality issues have been lengthily
discussed including various approaches with some illustrative studies. Towards the end,
the chapter also introduces incremental and online learning of fuzzy classifiers.
While type-1 fuzzy classifiers have been extensively studied over the past in different
contexts, type-2 fuzzy classifiers are still emerging and are not as popular as their
predecessors. It is expected that this category of fuzzy classifiers will continue to be the
focus of future studies, especially with regard to transparency, interpretability and online
generation and deployment.
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Chapter 6

Fuzzy Model-Based Control—Predictive


and Adaptive Approaches
Igor Škrjanc and Sašo Blažič
This chapter deals with fuzzy model-based control and focuses on approaches that meet the following criteria:
(1) The possibility of controlling nonlinear plants, (2) Simplicity in terms of implementation and
computational complexity, (3) Stability and robust stability are ensured under some a priori known limitations.
Two approaches are presented and discussed, namely, a predictive and an adaptive one. Both are based on
Takagi–Sugeno model form, which posseses the property of universal approximation of an arbitrary smooth
nonlinear function and can be therefore used as a proper model to predict the future behavior of the plant. In
spite of many successful implementations of Mamdani fuzzy model-based approaches, it soon became clear
that this approach lack the systematic ways to analyze the control systems stability, performance, robustness
and the systematic way of tuning the controller parameters to adjust the performance. On the other hand,
Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy models enable more compact description of nonlinear system, rigorous treatment of
stability and robustness. But the most important feature of Takagi–Sugeno models is the ability that they can
be easily adapted to the different linear control algorithms to cope with the demanding nonlinear control
problems.
6.1. Introduction
In this chapter, we face the problem of controlling a nonlinear plant. Classical linear
approaches try to treat a plant as linear and a linear controller is designed to meet the
control objectives. Unfortunately, such an approach results in an acceptable control
performance only if the nonlinearity is not too strong. The previous statement is far from
being rigorous in the definitions of “acceptable” and “strong”. But the fact is that by
increasing the control performance requirements, the problems with the nonlinearity also
become much more apparent. So, there is a clear need to cope with the control of
nonlinear plants.
The problem of control of nonlinear plants has received a great deal of attention in the
past. A natural solution is to use a nonlinear controller that tries to “cancel” the
nonlinearity in some sense or at least it increases the performance of the controlled system
over a wide operating range with respect to the performance of an “optimal” linear
controller. Since a controller is just a nonlinear dynamic system that maps controller
inputs to controller actions, we need to somehow describe this nonlinear mapping and
implement it into the controlled system. In the case of a finite-dimensional system, one
possibility is to represent a controller in the state-space form where four nonlinear
mappings are needed: state-to-state mapping, input-to-state mapping, state-to-output
mapping, and direct input-to-output mapping. The Stone–Weierstrass theorem guarantees
that all these mappings can be approximated by basis functions arbitrary well. Immense
approximators of nonlinear functions have been proposed in the literature to solve the
problem of nonlinear-system control. Some of the most popular ones are: piecewise linear
functions, fuzzy models, artificial neural networks, splines, wavelets, etc.
In this chapter, we put our focus on fuzzy controllers. Several excellent books and
papers exist that cover various aspects of fuzzy control (Babuska, 1998; Passino and
Yurkovich, 1998; Pedrycz, 1993; Precup and Hellendoorn, 2011; Tanaka and Wang, 2002).
Following a seminal paper of Zadeh (1973) that introduced fuzzy set theory, the fuzzy
logic approach was soon introduced into controllers (Mamdani, 1974). In these early ages
of fuzzy control, the controller was usually designed using Zadeh’s notion of linguistic
variables and fuzzy algorithms. It was often claimed that the approach with linguistic
variables, linguistic values and linguistic rules is “parameterless” and therefore the
controllers are extremely easy to tune based on the expert knowledge that is easily
transformable into the rule database. Many successful applications of fuzzy controllers
have shown their ability to control nonlinear plants. But it soon became clear that the
Mamdani fuzzy model control approach lacks systematic ways to analyze control system
stability, control system performance, and control system robustness.
Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model (Takagi and Sugeno, 1985) enables more compact
description of the fuzzy system. Moreover, it enables rigorous treating of stability and
robustness in the form of linear matrix inequalities (Tanaka and Wang, 2002). Several
control algorithms originally developed for linear systems can be adapted in a way that it
is possible to combine them with the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy models. Thus, the number of
control approaches based on a Takagi–Sugeno model proposed in the literature in the past
three decades is huge. In this chapter, we will show how to design predictive and adaptive
controllers for certain classes of nonlinear systems where the plant model is given in the
form of a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. The proposed algorithms are not developed in an
ad hoc manner, but having the stability of the over-all system in mind. This is why the
stability analysis of the algorithms complements the algorithms themselves.
6.2. Takagi–Sugeno Fuzzy Model
Typical fuzzy model (Takagi and Sugeno, 1985) is given in the form of rules

(1)

The q-element vector denotes the input or variables in premise, and


variable y is the output of the model. With each variable in premise xpi (i = 1,…, q), fi
fuzzy sets (Ai,1,…, Ai, fi) are connected, and each fuzzy set Ai,k (ki = 1,…, fi) is associated
i

with a real-valued function , that produces membership grade of the


variable xpi with respect to the fuzzy set Ai,k . To make the list of fuzzy rules complete, all
i

possible variations of fuzzy sets are given in Equation (1), yielding the number of fuzzy
rules m = f1× f2×···× fq. The variables xpi are not the only inputs of the fuzzy system.
Implicitly, the n-element vector xT = [x1,…, xn] also represents the input to the system. It is
usually referred to as the consequence vector. The functions ϕj (·) can be arbitrary smooth
functions in general, although linear or affine functions are usually used.
The system in Equation (1) can be described in closed form if the intersection of fuzzy
sets and the defuzzification method are previously defined. The generalized form of the
intersection is the so-called triangular norm (T-norm). In our case, the latter was chosen as
algebraic product while weighted average method was employed as a method of
defuzzification yielding the following output of the fuzzy system

(2)

It has to be noted that a slight abuse of notation is used in Equation (2) since j is not
explicitly defined as running index. From Equation (1) is evident that each j corresponds
to the specific variation of indexes ki, i = 1,…, q.
To simplify Equation (2), a partition of unity is considered where functions βj (xp)
defined by

(3)

give information about the fulfilment of the respective fuzzy rule in the normalized form.
It is obvious that irrespective of xp as long as the denominator of βj (xp) is
not equal to zero (that can be easily prevented by stretching the membership functions
over the whole potential area of xp). Combining Equations (2) and (3) and changing
summation over ki by summation over j, we arrive to the following equation:

(4)

The class of fuzzy models has the form of linear models, this refers to {βj} as a set of
basis functions. The use of membership functions in input space with overlapping
receptive fields provides interpolation and extrapolation.
Very often, the output value is defined as a linear combination of signals in a
consequence vector

(5)

If Takagi–Sugeno model of the zeroth order is chosen, ϕj (x) = θj0, and in the case of the
first-order model, the consequent is . Both cases can be treated by the
model Equation (5) by adding 1 to the vector x and augmenting vector θ with θj0. To
simplify the notation, only the model in Equation (5) will be treated in the rest of the
chapter. If the matrix of the coefficients for the whole set of rules is written as ΘT = [θ1,
…, θm] and the vector of membership values as βT(xp) = [β1(xp),…, βm(xp)], then Equation
(4) can be rewritten in the matrix form

(6)

The fuzzy model in the form given in Equation (6) is referred to as affine Takagi– Sugeno
model and can be used to approximate any arbitrary function that maps the compact set C
⊂ d (d is the dimension of the input space) to with any desired degree of accuracy
(Kosko, 1994; Wang and Mendel, 1992; Ying, 1997). The generality can be proven by
Stone–Weierstrass theorem (Goldberg, 1976) which indicates that any continuous function
can be approximated by fuzzy basis function expansion (Lin, 1997).
When identifying the fuzzy model, there are several parameters that can be tuned. One
possibility is to only identify the parameters in the rule consequents and let the antecedent-
part parameters untouched. If the position of the membership functions is good (the input
space of interest is completely covered and the density of membership functions is higher
where nonlinearity is stronger), then a good model can be obtained by only identifying the
consequents. The price for this is to introduce any existing prior knowledge in the design
of the membership functions. If, however, we do not know anything about the controlled
system, we can use some evolving system techniques where the process of identification
changes not only the consequent parameters but also the antecedent parameters (Angelov
et al., 2001; Angelov and Filev, 2004; Angelov et al., 2011; Cara et al., 2010; Johanyák
and Papp, 2012; Sadeghi–Tehran et al., 2012; Vaščák, 2012).
6.3. Fuzzy Model-Based Predictive Control
The fundamental methods which are essentially based on the principle of predictive
control are Generalized Predictive Control (Clarke et al., 1987), Model Algorithmic
Control (Richalet et al., 1978) and Predictive Functional Control (Richalet, 1993),
Dynamic Matrix Control (Cutler and Ramaker, 1980), Extended Prediction Self-Adaptive
Control (De Keyser et al., 1988) and Extended Horizon Adaptive Control (Ydstie, 1984).
All these methods are developed for linear process models. The principle is based on the
process model output prediction and calculation of control signal which brings the output
of the process to the reference trajectory in a way to minimize the difference between the
reference and the output signal in a certain interval, between two prediction horizons, or to
minimize the difference in a certain horizon, called coincidence horizon. The control
signal can be found by means of optimization or it can be calculated using the explicit
control law formula (Bequette, 1991; Henson, 1998).
The nature of processes is inherently nonlinear and this implies the use of nonlinear
approaches in predictive control schemes. Here, we can distinguish between two main
group of approaches: the first group is based on the nonlinear mathematical models of the
process in any form and convex optimization (Figueroa, 2001), while the second group
relies on approximation of nonlinear process dynamics with nonlinear approximators such
as neural networks (Wang et al., 1996; Wang and Mendel, 1992), piecewise-linear models
(Padin and Figueroa, 2000), Volterra and Wiener models (Doyle et al., 1995), multi-
models and multi-variables (Li et al., 2004; Roubos et al., 1999), and fuzzy models
(Abonyi et al., 2001; Škrjanc and Matko, 2000). The advantage of the latter approaches is
the possibility of stating the control law in the explicit analytical form.
In some highly nonlinear cases the use of nonlinear model-based predictive control
can be easily justified. By introducing the nonlinear model into predictive control
problem, the complexity increases significantly. In Bequette (1991); Henson (1998), an
overview of different nonlinear predictive control approaches is given.
When applying the model-based predictive control with Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model,
it is always important how to choose fuzzy sets and corresponding membership functions.
Many existing clustering techniques can be used in the identification phase to make this
task easier. There exist many fuzzy model, based predictive algorithms (Andone and
Hossu, 2004; Kim and Huh, 1998; Sun et al., 2004) that put significant stress on the
algorithm that properly arranges membership functions. An alternative approach is to
introduce uncertainty to membership functions which results in the so-called type-2 fuzzy
sets. Obviously, control algorithms exist based on type-2 fuzzy logic (Cervantes et al.,
2011).
The basic idea of model-based predictive control is to predict the future behavior of
the process over a certain horizon using the dynamic model and obtaining the control
actions to minimize a certain criterion. Traditionally, the control problem is formally
stated as an optimization problem where the goal is to obtain control actions on a
relatively short control horizon by optimising the behavior of the controlled system in a
larger prediction horizon. One of the main properties of most predictive controllers is that
they utilize a so-called receding horizon approach. This means that even though the
control signal is obtained on a larger interval in the current point of time, only the first
sample is used while the whole optimization routine is repeated in each sampling instant.
The model-based predictive control relies heavily on the prediction model quality.
When the plant is nonlinear, the model is also nonlinear. As it is very well-known, fuzzy
model possesses the property of universal approximation of an arbitrary smooth nonlinear
function and can be used as a prediction model of a nonlinear plant. Many approaches
originally developed for the control of linear systems can be adapted to include a fuzzy
model-based predictor. In this chapter fuzzy model is incorporated into the Predictive
Functional Control (PFC) approach. This combination provides the means of controlling
nonlinear systems. Since no explicit optimization is used, the approach is very suitable for
the implementation on an industrial hardware. The fuzzy model-based predictive control
(FMBPC) algorithm is presented in the state-space form (Blažič and Škrjanc, 2007). The
approach is an extension of predictive functional algorithm (Richalet, 1993) to the
nonlinear systems. The proposed algorithm easily copes with phase non-minimal and
time-delayed dynamics. The approach can be combined by a clustering technique to obtain
the FMBPC algorithm where membership functions are not fixed a priori but this is not
intention of this work.

6.3.1. The Development of the Control Algorithm


In the case of FMBPC, the prediction of the plant output is given by its fuzzy model in the
state-space domain. This is why the approach in the proposed form is limited to the open-
loop stable plants. By introducing some modifications, the algorithm can be made
applicable also for the unstable plants.
The problem of delays in the plant is circumvented by constructing an auxiliary
variable that serves as the output of the plant if there were no delay present. The so-called
“undelayed” model of the plant will be introduced for that purpose. It is obtained by
“removing” delays from the original (“delayed”) model and converting it to the state space
description:

(7)

where models the “undelayed” output of the plant.


The behavior of the closed-loop system is defined by the reference trajectory which is
given in the form of the reference model. The control goal is to determine the future
control action so that the predicted output value coincides with the reference trajectory.
The time difference between the coincidence point and the current time is called a
coincidence horizon. It is denoted by H. The prediction is calculated under the assumption
of constant future manipulated variables (u(k) = u(k + 1) = ··· = u(k + H − 1)), i.e., the
mean level control assumption is used. The H-step ahead prediction of the “undelayed”
plant output is then obtained from Equation (7):

(8)

The reference model is given by the first-order difference equation

(9)

where w stands for the reference signal. The reference model parameters should be chosen
so that the reference model gain is unity. This is accomplished by fulfilling the following
equation

(10)

The main goal of the proposed algorithm is to find the control law which enables the
reference trajectory tracking of the “undelayed” plant output . In each time instant, the
control signal is calculated so that the output is forced to reach the reference trajectory
after H time samples . The idea of FMBPC is introduced through
the equivalence of the objective increment Δp and the model output increment Δm. The
former is defined as a difference between the predicted reference signal yr(k + H) and the
actual output of the “undelayed” plant

(11)

Since the variable cannot be measured directly, it will be estimated by using the
available signals:

(12)

It can be seen that the delay in the plant is compensated by the difference between the
outputs of the “undelayed” and the “delayed” model. When the perfect model of the plant
is available, the first two terms on the right-hand side of Equation (12) cancel and the
result is actually the output of the “undelayed” plant model. If this is not the case, only the
approximation is obtained.
The model output increment Δm is defined by the following formula:

(13)

Prescribing the control goal


(14)

and taking into account Equations (11), (13), and (8), we obtain the FMBPC control law

(15)

where g0 stands for:

(16)

The control law of FMBPC in analytical form is finally obtained by introducing Equation
(12) into Equation (15):

(17)

In the following, it will be shown that the realizability of the control law, Equation
(17) relies heavily on the relation between the coincidence horizon H and the relative
degree of the plant ρ. In the case of discrete-time systems, the relative degree is directly
related to the pure time-delay of the system transfer function. If the system is described in
the state-space form, any form can be used in general, but the analysis is much simplified
in the case of certain canonical descriptions. If the system is described in controllable
canonical form in each fuzzy domain, then also the matrices and of the fuzzy
model, Equation (36), take the controllable canonical form:

(18)

where and
and where the parameters aji, bji and ri are state-space
model parameters defined as in Equation (35). Note that the state-space system with
matrices from Equation (19) has relative degree ρ what is reflected in the form of matrix
elements are equal to 0 while
Proposition 1.1. If the coincidence horizon H is lower than the plant relative degree ρ (H
< ρ), then the control law, Equation (17) is not applicable.
Proof. By taking into account the form of matrices in Equation (19), it can easily be
shown that

(19)

i.e., the first (n − H) elements of the vector are zeros, then there is the element 1, followed
by (H − 1) arbitrary elements. It then follows from Equations (16) and (19) that g0 = 0 if ρ
> H, and consequently the control law cannot be implemented.
The closed-loop system analysis makes sense only in the case of non-singular control
law. Consequently, the choice of H is confined to the interval [ρ, ∞).

6.3.2. Stability Analysis


The stability analysis of the proposed predictive control can be performed using an
approach of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) proposed in Wang et al. (1996) and Tanaka et
al. (1996) or it can be done assuming the frozen-time theory (Leith and Leithead, 1998,
1999) which discusses the relation between the nonlinear dynamical system and the
associated linear time-varying system. There also exist alternative approaches for stability
analysis (Baranyi et al., 2003; Blažič et al., 2002; Perng, 2012; Precup et al., 2007).
In our stability study, we have assumed that the frozen-time system given in Equation
(36) is a perfect model of the plant, i.e., yp(k) = ym(k) for each k. Next, it is assumed that
there is no external input to the closed-loop system (w = 0)—an assumption often made
when analysing stability of the closed-loop system. Even if there is external signal, it is
important that it is bounded. This is assured by selecting stable reference model, i.e., |ar| <
1. The results of the stability analysis are also qualitatively the same if the system operates
in the presence of bounded disturbances and noise.
Note that the last term in the parentheses of the control law Equation (17) is equal to
g0 . This is obtained using Equations (16) and (19). Taking this into account and
considering the above assumptions the control law, Equation (17) simplifies to:

(20)

Inserting the simplified control law (20) into the model of the “undelayed” plant. Equation
(7), we obtain:

(21)

The closed-loop state transition matrix is defined as:

(22)

If the system is in the controllable canonical form, the second term on the right-hand
side of Equation (22) has non-zero elements only in the last row of the matrix, and
consequently Ac is also in the Frobenius form. The interesting form of the matrix is
obtained in the case H = ρ. If H = ρ, it can easily be shown that g0 = ρ and that Ac takes
the following form:

(23)

The corresponding characteristic equation of the system is:

(24)

The solutions of this equation are closed-loop system poles: ρ poles lie in the origin of the
z-plane while the other (n − ρ) poles lie in the roots of the polynomial
. These results can be summarized in the following
proposition:
Proposition 1.2. When the coincidence horizon is equal to the relative degree of the model
(H = ρ), then (n − ρ) closed-loop poles tend to open-loop plant zeros, while the rest (ρ) of
the poles go to the origin of z-plane.
The proposition states that the closed-loop system is stable for H = ρ if the plant is
minimum phase. When this is not the case, the closed-loop system would become unstable
if H is chosen equal to ρ. In such case the coincidence horizon should be larger.
The next proposition deals with the choice of a very large coincidence horizon.
Proposition 1.3. When the coincidence horizon tends to infinity (H → ∞) and the open-
loop plant is stable, the closed-loop system poles tend to open-loop plant poles.
Proof. The proposition can be proven easily. In the case of stable plants, Am is a Hurwitz
matrix that always satisfies:

(25)

Combining Equations (22) and (25), we arrive at the final result

(26)

The three propositions give some design guidelines on choosing the coincidence
horizon H. If H < ρ, the control law is singular and thus not applicable. If H = ρ, the
closed-loop poles go to open-loop zeros, i.e., high-gain controller is being used. If H is
very large, the closed-loop poles go to open-loop poles, i.e., low-gain controller is being
used and the system is almost open-loop. If the plant is stable, the closed-loop system can
be made stable by choosing coincidence horizon large enough.

6.3.3. Practical Example—Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor


The simulated continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) process consists of an irreversible,
exothermic reaction, A → B, in a constant volume reactor cooled by a single coolant
stream, which can be modelled by the following equation (Morningred et al., 1992):

(27)

(28)

The actual concentration is measured with a time delay td = 0.5 min:

(29)

The objective is to control the concentration of A(CA) by manipulating the coolant flow
rate qc. This model is a modified version of the first tank of a two-tank CSTR example
from Henson and Seborg (1990). In the original model, the time delay was zero.
The symbol qc represents the coolant flow rate (manipulated variable) and the other
symbols represent constant parameters whose values are defined in Table 6.1. The process
dynamics are nonlinear due to the Arrhenius rate expression which describes the
dependence of the reaction rate constant on the temperature (T). This is why the CSTR
exhibits some operational and control problems. The reactor presents multiplicity behavior
with respect to the coolant flow rate qc, i.e., if the coolant flow rate qc ∈ (11.1 l/min, 119.7
l/min) there are three equilibrium concentrations CA. Stable equilibrium points are
obtained in the following cases:
• qc > 11.1 l/min ⇒ stable equilibrium point 0.92 mol/l < CA < 1 mol/l.
• qc < 111.8 l/min ⇒ stable equilibrium point CA < 0.14 mol/l (the point where qc ≈ 111.8
l/min is a Hopf Bifurcation point).
If qc ∈ (11.1 l/min, 119.7 l/min), there is also at least one unstable point for the measured
product concentration CA. From the above facts, one can see that the CSTR exhibits quite
complex dynamics. In our application, we are interested in the operation in the stable
operating point given by qc = 103.41 l min−1 and CA = 0.1 mol/l.
Table 6.1: Nominal CSTR parameter values.

Measured product concentration CA 0.1 mol/l


Reactor temperature T 438.54 K
Coolant flow rate qc 103.41 l min−1
Process flow rate q 100 l min−1
Feed concentration CA0 1 mol/l
Feed temperature T0 350 K
Inlet coolant temperature Tc0 350 K
CSTR volume V 100 l
Heat transfer term hA 7 × 105 cal min−1 K−1
Reaction rate constant k0 7.2 × 1010 min−1
Activation energy term E/R 1 × 104 K
Heat of reaction ΔH −2 × 105 cal/mol
Liquid densities ρ, ρc 1 × 103 g/l
Specific heats Cp, Cpc 1 cal g−1K−1

6.3.3.1. Fuzzy identification of the continuous stirred-tank reactor


From the description of the plant, it can be seen that there are two variables available for
measurement—measured product concentration CA and reactor temperature T. For the
purpose of control, it is certainly beneficial to make use of both although it is not
necessary to feed back reactor temperature if one wants to control product concentration.
In our case, the simple discrete compensator was added to the measured reactor
temperature output:

(30)

where Kff was chosen to be 3, while the sampling time Ts = 0.1 min. The above
compensator is a sort of the D-controller that does not affect the equilibrium points of the
system (the static curve remains the same), but it does to some extent affect their stability.
In our case the Hopf bifurcation point moved from (qc, CA) = (111.8 l/min, 0.14 mol/l) to
(qc, CA) = (116.2 l/min, 0.179 mol/l). This means that the stability interval for the product
concentration CA expanded from (0, 0.14 mol/l) to (0, 0.179 mol/l). The proposed FMBPC
will be tested on the compensated plant, so we need fuzzy model of the compensated
plant.
The plant was identified in a form of discrete second-order model with the premise
defined as = [CA(k)] and the consequence vector as xT = [CA(k), CA(k − 1), qc(k − TD ), m

1]. The functions ϕj(·) can be arbitrary smooth functions in general, although linear or
affine functions are usually used. Due to strong nonlinearity the structure with six rules
and equidistantly shaped gaussian membership functions was chosen. The normalized
membership functions are shown in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1: The membership functions.

The structure of the fuzzy model is the following:

(31)

The parameters of the fuzzy form in Equation (31) have been estimated using least square
algorithm where the data have been preprocessed using QR factorization (Moon and
Stirling, 1999). The estimated parameters can be written as vectors =
The estimated
parameters in the case of CSTR are as follows:

(32)
and TD = 5.
m

After estimation of parameters, the TS fuzzy model Equation (31) was transformed
into the state space form to simplify the procedure of obtaining the control law:

(33)

(34)

(35)

where the process measured output concentration CA is denoted by ym and the input flow
qc by u.
The frozen-time theory (Leith and Leithead, 1998, 1999) enables the relation between
the nonlinear dynamical system and the associated linear time-varying system. The theory
establishes the following fuzzy model

(36)

where and
.

6.3.3.2. Simulation results

Reference tracking ability and disturbance rejection capability of the FMBPC control
algorithm were tested experimentally on a simulated CSTR plant. The FMBPC was
compared to the conventional PI controller.
In the first experiment, the control system was tested for tracking the reference signal
that changed the operating point from nominal (CA = 0.1 mol/l) to larger concentration
values and back, and then to smaller concentration values and back. The proposed
FMBPC used the following design parameters: H = 9 and ar = 0.96. The parameters of the
PI controller were obtained by minimising the following criterium:

(37)

where yr(k) is the reference model output depicted in Figure 6.2, and yPI(k) is the
controlled output in the case of PI control. This means that the parameters of the PI
controller were minimized to obtain the best tracking of the reference model output for the
case treated in the first experiment. The optimal parameters were KP = 64.6454 l2mol
−1min−1 and T = 0.6721 min. Figure 6.2 also shows manipulated and controlled variables
i
for the two approaches. In the lower part of the figure, the set-point is depicted with the
dashed line, the reference model output with the dotted line, the FMBPC response with the
thick solid line and the PI response with the thin solid line. The upper part of the figure
represents the two control signals. The performance criteria obtained in the experiment are
the following:

Figure 6.2: The performance of the FMBPC and the PI control in the case of reference trajectory tracking.

(38)

(39)

The disturbance rejection performance was tested with the same controllers that were
set to the same design parameters as in the first experiment. In the simulation experiment,
the step-like positive input disturbance of 3 l/min appeared and disappeared later. After
some time, the step-like negative input disturbance of −3 l/min appeared and disappeared
later. The results of the experiment are shown in Figure 6.3 where the signals are depicted
by the same line types as in Figure 6.2. Similar performance criteria can be calculated as
in the case of reference tracking:
Figure 6.3: The control performance of the FMBPC and the PI control in the case of disturbance rejection.

(40)

(41)

The obtained simulation results have shown that better performance criteria are
obtained in the case of the FMBPC control in both control modes: The trajectory tracking
mode and the disturbance rejection mode. This is obvious because the PI controller
assumes linear process dynamics, while the FMBPC controller takes into account the plant
nonlinearity through the fuzzy model of the plant. The proposed approach is very easy to
implement and gives a high control performance.
6.4. Direct Fuzzy Model Reference Adaptive Control
We have already established that the fuzzy controllers are capable of controlling nonlinear
plants. If the model of the plant is not only nonlinear but also unknown or poorly known,
the solution becomes considerably more difficult. Nevertheless, several approaches exist
to solve the problem. One possibility is to apply adaptive control. Adaptive control
schemes for linear systems do not produce good results, although adaptive parameters try
to track the “true” local linear parameters of the current operating point which is done with
some lag after each operating-point change. To overcome this problem, adaptive control
was extended in the 1980s and 1990s to time-varying and nonlinear plants (Krstić et al.,
1995).
It is also possible to introduce some sort of adaptation into the fuzzy controller. The
first attempts at constructing a fuzzy adaptive controller can be traced back to Procyk and
Mamdani (1979), where the so-called linguistic self-organizing controllers were
introduced. Many approaches were later presented where a fuzzy model of the plant was
constructed online, followed by control parameters adjustment (Layne and Passino, 1993).
The main drawback of these schemes was that their stability was not treated rigorously.
The universal approximation theorem (Wang and Mendel, 1992) provided a theoretical
background for new fuzzy controllers (Pomares et al., 2002; Precup and Preitl, 2006; Tang
et al., 1999; Wang and Mendel, 1992) whose stability was treated rigorously.
Robust adaptive control was proposed to overcome the problem of disturbances and
unmodeled dynamics (Ioannou and Sun, 1996). Similar solutions have also been used in
adaptive fuzzy and neural controllers, i.e., projection (Tong et al., 2000), dead zone (Koo,
2001), leakage (Ge and Wang, 2002), adaptive fuzzy backstepping control (Tong and Li,
2012), etc. have been included in the adaptive law to prevent instability due to
reconstruction error.
The control of a practically very important class of plants is treated in this section that,
in our opinion, occurs quite often in process industries. The class of plants consists of
nonlinear systems of arbitrary order but where the control law is based on the first-order
nonlinear approximation. The dynamics not included in the first-order approximation are
referred to as parasitic dynamics. The parasitic dynamics are treated explicitly in the
development of the adaptive law to prevent the modeling error to grow unbounded. The
class of plant also includes bounded disturbances.
The choice of simple nominal model results in very simple control and adaptive laws.
The control law is similar to the one proposed by Blažič et al. (2003, 2012), but an extra
term is added in this work where an adaptive law with leakage is presented (Blažič et al.,
2013). It will be shown that the proposed adaptive law is a natural way to cope with
parasitic dynamics. The boundedness of estimated parameters, the tracking error and all
the signals in the system will be proven if the leakage parameter σ′ satisfies certain
condition. This means that the proposed adaptive law ensures the global stability of the
system. A very important property of the proposed approach is that it can be used in the
consequent part of Takagi–Sugeno-based control. The approach enables easy
implementation in the control systems with evolving antecedent part (Angelov et al.,
2001; Angelov and Filev, 2004; Angelov et al., 2011; Cara et al., 2010; Sadeghi–Tehran et
al., 2012). This combination results in a high-performance and robust control of nonlinear
and slowly varying systems.

6.4.1. The Class of Nonlinear Plants


Our goal is to design control for a class of plants that include nonlinear time-invariant
systems where the model behaves similarly to a first-order system at low frequencies (the
frequency response is not defined for nonlinear systems so frequencies are meant here in a
broader sense). If the plant were the first-order system (without parasitic dynamics), it
could be described by a fuzzy model in the form of if-then rules:

(42)

where u and yp are the input and the output of the plant respectively, Ai and Bi are fuzzy
a b

membership functions, and ai, bi, and ci are the plant parameters in the ith domain. Note
the ci term in the consequent. Such an additive term is obtained if a nonlinear system is
linearized in an operating point. This additive term changes by changing the operating
point. The term ci is new comparing to the model used in Blažič et al. (2003, 2012). The
antecedent variables that define the domain in which the system is currently situated are
denoted by z1 and z2 (actually there can be only one such variable or there can also be
more of them, but this does not affect the approach described here). There are na and nb
membership functions for the first and the second antecedent variables, respectively. The
product k = na × nb defines the number of fuzzy rules. The membership functions have to
cover the whole operating area of the system. The output of the Takagi–Sugeno model is
then given by the following equation

(43)

where xp represents the vector of antecedent variables zi (in the case of fuzzy model given
by Equation (42), xp = [z1 z2]T). The degree of fulfilment (xp) is obtained using the T-
norm, which in this case is a simple algebraic product of membership functions

(44)

where μA (z1) and μB (z2) stand for degrees of fulfilment of the corresponding fuzzy rule.
ia ib

The degrees of fulfilment for the whole set of fuzzy rules can be written in a compact form
as

(45)

or in a more convenient normalized form

(46)

Due to Equations (43) and (46), the first-order plant can be modeled in fuzzy form as

(47)

where and are vectors of unknown


plant parameters in respective domains (a, b, c ∈ k).
To assume that the controlled system is of the first order is a quite huge idealization.
Parasitic dynamics and disturbances are therefore included in the model of the plant. The
fuzzy model of the first order is generalized by adding stable factor plant perturbations
and disturbances, which results in the following model (Blažič et al., 2003):

(48)

where p is a differential operator d/dt, Δy(p) and Δu(p) are stable strictly proper linear
operators, while d is bounded signal due to disturbances (Blažič et al., 2003).
Equation (48) represents the class of plants to be controlled by the approach proposed
in the following sections. The control is designed based on the model given by Equation
(47) while the robustness properties of the algorithm prevent the instability due to parasitic
dynamics and disturbances.

6.4.2. The Proposed Fuzzy Adaptive Control Algorithm


A fuzzy model reference adaptive control is proposed to achieve tracking control for the
class of plants described in the previous section. The control goal is that the plant output
follows the output ym of the reference model. The latter is defined by a first order linear
system Gm(p):

(49)

where w(t) is the reference signal while bm and am are the constants that define desired
behavior of the closed system. The tracking error

(50)
therefore represents some measure of the control quality. To solve the control problem
simple control and adaptive laws are proposed in the following sub-sections.

6.4.2.1. Control law

The control law is very similar to the one proposed by Blažič et al. (2003, 2012):

(51)

where , and are the control gain vectors to be determined by


the adaptive law. This control law is obtained by generalizing the model reference
adaptive control algorithm for the first-order linear plant to the fuzzy case. The control law
also includes the third term that is new with respect to the one in Blažič et al. (2012). It is
used to compensate the (βT c) term in Equation (48).

6.4.2.2. Adaptive law

The adaptive law proposed in this chapter is based on the adaptive law from Blažič et al.
(2003). The e1-modification was used in the leakage term in Blažič et al. (2012). An
alternative approach was proposed in Blažič et al. (2012) where quadratic term is used the
leakage. But a new adaptive law for i is also proposed here:

(52)

where γfi, γqi, and γri are positive scalars referred to as adaptive gains, σ′ > 0 is the
parameter of the leakage term, and are the a priori estimates of the control gains
i, i, and i respectively, and bsign is defined as follows:

(53)

If the signs of all elements in vector b are not the same, the plant is not controllable for
some β (βT b is equal to 0 for this β) and any control signal does not have an effect.
It is possible to rewrite the adaptive law, Equation (52) in the compact form if the
control gain vectors , , and are defined as

(54)
Then the adaptive law, Equation (52), takes the following form:

(55)

where and are positive definite matrices, diag(x) ∈ k×k is


a diagonal matrix with the elements of vector x on the main diagonal, while
, and are the a priori estimates of the control gain vectors.

6.4.2.3. The sketch of the stability proof

The reference model Equation (49) can be rewritten in the following form:

(56)

By subtracting Equation (56) from Equation (48), the following tracking-error model is
obtained

(57)

Now we assume that there exist constant control parameters f∗, q∗, and r∗ that stabilize
the closed-loop system. This is a mild assumption and it is always fulfilled unless the
unmodeled dynamics are unacceptably high. These parameters are only needed in the
stability analysis and can be chosen to make the “diference” between the closed-loop
system and the reference model small in some sense (the defintion of this “diference” is
not important for the analysis). The parameters f∗, q∗, and r∗ are sometimes called the
“true” parameters because they result in the perfect tracking in the absence of unmodeled
dynamics and disturbances. The parameter errors are
defined as:

(58)

The expressions in the square brackets in Equation (57) can be rewritten similarly as in
Blažič et al. (2003):
(59)

where bounded residuals ηf(t), ηq(t), and ηr(t) are introduced [the boundedness can be
shown simply; see also (Blažič et al., 2003)]. The following Lyapunov function is
proposed for the proof of stability:

(60)

Calculating the derivative of the Lyapunov function along the solution of the system,
Equation (57) and taking into account Equation (59) and adaptive laws, Equation (52), we
obtain:

(61)

In principle, the first term on the right-hand side of Equation (61) is used to compensate
for the next six terms while the last three terms prevent parameter drift. The terms from
the second one to the seventh one are formed as a product between the tracking error ε(t)
and a combined error E(t) defined as:

(62)

Equation (61) can be rewritten as:

(63)

The first term on the right-hand side of Equation (63) becomes negative if If the
combined error, were a priori bounded, the boundedness of the tracking error ε would be
more or less proven. The problem lies in the fact that not only bounded signals (w(t), ηf(t),
ηq(t), ηr(t), d(t)) are included in E(t), but also the ones whose boundedness is yet to be
proven (u(t), yp(t)). If the system becomes unstable, the plant output yp(t) becomes
unbounded and, consequently, the same applies to the control input u(t). If yp(t) is
bounded, it is easy to see from the control law that u(t) is also bounded. Unboundedness of
yp(t) is prevented by leakage terms in the adaptive law. In the last three terms in Equation
(63) that are due to the leakage there are three similar expressions. They have the
following form:

(64)

It is simple to see that this expression is positive if either or


. The same reasoning applies to i and i. This means that the last three
terms in Equation (63) become negative if the estimated parameters are large (or small)
enough. The novelty of the proposed adaptive law with respect to the one in Blažič et al.
(2003), is in the qudratic terms with yp and w in the leakage. These terms are used to help
cancelling the contribution of εE in Equation (63):

(65)

Since ε(t) is the difference between yp(t) and ym(t) and the latter is bounded, ε = O(yp)
when yp tends to infinity. By analyzing the control law and taking into account stability of
parasitic dynamics Δu(s) and Δy(s), the following can be concluded:

(66)

The third term on the right-hand side of Equation (63) is − which means that
the “gain” with respect to of the negative contributions to can always
become greater (as a result of adaptation) than the fixed gain of quadratic terms with yp in
Equation (65). The growth of the estimated parameters is also problematic because these
parameters are control gains and high gains can induce instability in combination with
parasitic dynamics. Consequently, σ′ has to be chosen large enough to prevent this type of
instability. Note that the stabilization in the presence of parasitic dynamics is achieved
without using an explicit dynamic normalization that was used in Blažič et al. (2003).
The stability analysis of a similar adaptive law for linear systems was treated in Blažič
et al. (2010) where it was proven that all the signals in the system are bounded and the
tracking error converges to a residual set whose size depends on the modeling error if the
leakage parameter σ′ is chosen large enough with respect to the norm of parasitic
dynamics. In the approach proposed in this chapter, the “modeling error” is E(t) from
Equation (62) and therefore the residual-set size depends on the size of the norm of the
transfer functions ||Δu|| and ||Δy||, the size of the disturbance d, and the size of the bounded
residuals ηf(t), ηq(t), and ηr(t).
Only the adaptation of the consequent part of the fuzzy rules is treated in this chapter.
The stability of the system is guaranteed for any (fixed) shape of the membership
functions in the antecedent part. This means that this approach is very easy to combine
with existing evolving approaches for the antecedent part. If the membership functions are
slowly evolving, these changes introduce another term to which can be shown not to be
larger than . This means that the system stability is preserved by the robustness
properties of the adaptive laws. If, however, fast changes of the membership functions
occur, a rigorous stability analysis would have to be performed.

6.4.3. Simulation Example—Three-Tank System


A simulation example will be given that illustrates the proposed approach. A simulated
plant was chosen since it is easier to make the same operating conditions than it would be
when testing on a real plant. The simulated test plant consisted of three water tanks. The
schematic representation of the plant is given in Figure 6.4. The control objective was to
maintain the water level in the third tank by changing the inflow into the first tank.

Figure 6.4: Schematic representation of the plant.

When modeling the plant, it was assumed that the flow through the valve was
proportional to the square root of the pressure difference on the valve. The mass
conservation equations for the three tanks are:

(67)

where ϕin is the volume inflow into the first tank, h1, h2, and h3 are the water levels in
three tanks, S1, S2, and S3 are areas of the tanks cross-sections, and k1, k2, and k3 are
coefficients of the valves. The following values were chosen for the parameters of the
system:

(68)

The nominal value of inflow ϕin was set to 8 · 10−5m3s−1, resulting in steady-state values
0.48 m, 0.32 m, and 0.16 m for h1, h2, and h3, respectively. In the following, u and yp
denote deviations of ϕin and h3 respectively from the operating point.
By analyzing the plant, it can be seen that the plant is nonlinear. It has to be pointed
out that the parasitic dynamics are also nonlinear, not just the dominant part as was
assumed in deriving the control algorithm. This means that this example will also test the
ability of the proposed control to cope with nonlinear parasitic dynamics. The coefficients
of the linearized system in different operating points depend on u, h1, h2, and h3 even
though that only yp will be used as an antecedent variable z1 which is again violation of
the basic assumptions but still produces fairly good results.
The proposed control algorithm was compared to a classical model reference adaptive
control (MRAC) with e1-modification. Adaptive gains γfi, γqi, and γri in the case of the
proposed approach were the same as γf, γq, and γr, respectively, in the case of MRAC. A
reference signal was chosen as a periodic piece-wise constant function which covered
quite a wide area around the operating point (±50% of the nominal value). There were 11
triangular fuzzy membership functions (the fuzzification variable was yp) used; these were
distributed evenly across the interval [−0.1, 0.1]. As already said, the evolving of the
antecedent part was not done in this work. The control input signal u was saturated at the
interval [−8 · 10−5, 8 · 10−5]. No prior knowledge of the estimated parameters was
available to us, so the initial parameter estimates were 0 for all examples.
The design objective is that the output of the plant follows the output of the reference
model 0.01/(s + 0.01). The reference signal was the same in all cases.

Figure 6.5: The MRAC controller—time plots of the reference signal and outputs of the plant and the reference model
(upper figure), time plot of tracking error (middle figure), and time plot of the control signal (lower figure).

It consisted of a periodic signal. The results of the experiment with the classical MRAC
controller with e1-modification are shown in Figure 6.5.
We used the following design parameters: γf = 10−4, γq = 2·10−4, γr = 10−6, σ′ = 0.1.
Figures 6.6 and 6.7 show the results of the proposed approach, the former shows a period
of system responses after the adaptation has settled, the latter depicts time plots of the
estimated parameters. Since , , and are vectors, all elements of the vectors are depicted.
Note that every change in the reference signal results in a sudden increase in tracking error
ε (up to 0.01). This is due to the fact that zero tracking of the reference model with relative
degree 1 is not possible if the plant has relative degree 3.
The experiments show that the performance of the proposed approach is better than
the performance of the MRAC controller for linear plant which is expectable due to
nonlinearity of the plant. Very good results are obtained in the case of the proposed
approach even though that the parasitic dynamics are nonlinear and linearized parameters
depend not only on the antecedent variable yp but also on others. The spikes on ε in Figure
6.6 are consequences of the fact that the plant of ‘relative degree’ 3 is forced to follow the
reference model of relative degree 1. These spikes are inevitable no matter which
controller is used.

Figure 6.6: The proposed approach—time plots of the reference signal and outputs of the plant and the reference model
(upper figure), time plot of tracking error (middle figure), and time plot of the control signal (lower figure).
Figure 6.7: The proposed approach—time plots of the control gains.

The drawback of the proposed approach is relatively slow convergence since the
parameters are only adapted when the corresponding membership is non-zero. This
drawback can be overcome by using classical MRAC in the beginning when there are no
parameter estimates or the estimates are bad. When the system approaches desired
behavior, the adaptation can switch to the proposed one by initializing all elements of
vectors , , and with estimated scalar parameters from the classical MRAC.
6.5. Conclusion
This chapter presents two approaches to the control of nonlinear systems. We chose these
two solutions because they are easy to tune and easy to implement on the one hand, but
they also guarantee the stability under some assumptions on the other. Both approaches
also only deal with the rule consequents and are easy to extend to the variants with
evolving antecedent part.
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Chapter 7

Fuzzy Fault Detection and Diagnosis


Bruno Sielly Jales Costa
This chapter presents a thorough review of the literature in the field of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD),
focusing, latter, on the strategies and applications based on fuzzy rule-based systems. The presented methods
are classified into three main research lines: quantitative model-based, qualitative model-based and process
history-based methods, and such division offers the reader an immediate glance about possible directions in
the field of study. Introductory concepts and basic applications of each group of techniques are presented in a
unified benchmark framework, enabling a fair comparison between the strategies. Many of the traditional and
state-of-the-art approaches presented in the literature are referred in this chapter, allowing the reader to have a
general overview of possible fault detection and diagnosis strategies.
7.1. Introduction
For four decades, fuzzy systems have been successfully used in a large scope of different
industrial applications. Among the different areas of study, it is imperative to mention the
work of Kruse et al. (1994) in the field of computer science, Pedrycz and Gomide (2007)
in the field of industrial engineering, Lughofer (2011) in the field of data stream mining,
Abonyi (2003) in the field of process control, Kerre and Nachtegael (2000) in the field of
image processing and Nelles (2001) in the field of system identification.
One of the main advantages of a fuzzy system, when compared to other techniques for
inaccurate data mining, such as neural networks, is that its knowledge basis, which is
composed of inference rules, is very easy to examine and understand (Costa et al., 2012).
This format of rules also makes it easy to maintain and update the system structure. Using
a fuzzy model to express the behavior of a real system in an understandable manner is a
task of great importance, since the main “philosophy of fuzzy sets theory is to serve the
bridge between the human understanding and the machine processing” (Casillas et al.,
2003). Regarding this matter, interpretability of fuzzy systems was the object of study of
Casillas et al. (2003), Lughofer (2013), Gacto et al. (2011), Zhou and Gan (2008) and
others.
Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) is, without a doubt, one of the more beneficial
areas for fuzzy theory, among the industrial applications scope (Mendonça et al., 2006;
Dash et al., 2003). As concrete examples of applications of fuzzy sets and systems in the
context of FDD, one can mention Serdio et al. (2014) and Angelov et al. (2006), where
fuzzy systems are placed among top performers in residual-based data-driven FDD, and
Lemos et al. (2013) and Laukonen et al. (1995), presenting fuzzy approaches to be used in
the context of data-stream mining based FDD.
While FDD is still widely performed by human operators, the core of the task consists,
roughly, of a sequence of reasoning steps based on the collected data, as we are going to
see along this chapter. Fuzzy reasoning can be applied in all steps and in several different
ways in the FDD task.
Applications of FDD techniques in industrial environments are increasing in order to
improve the operational safety, as well as to reduce the costs related to unscheduled
stoppages. The importance of the FDD research in control and automation engineering
relies on the fact that prompt detection of an occurring fault, while the system is still
operating in a controllable region, usually prevents or, at least, reduces productivity losses
and health risks (Venkatasubramanian et al., 2003c).
Many authors have, very recently, contributed to the FDD field of study, with
extensive studies, compilations and thorough reviews. Korbicz et al. (2004) cover the
fundamentals of model-based FDD, being directed toward industrial engineers, scientists
and academics, pursuing the reliability and FDD issues of safety-critical industrial
processes. Chiang et al. (2001) presents the theoretical background and practical
techniques for data-driven process monitoring, which includes many approaches based on
principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, partial least squares, canonical
variate analysis, parameter estimation, observer-based methods, parity relations, causal
analysis, expert systems and pattern recognition. Isermann (2009) introduces into the field
of FDD systems the methods which have proven their performance in practical
applications, including fault detection with signal-based and model-based methods, and
fault diagnosis with classification and inference methods, in addition to fault-tolerant
control strategies and many practical simulations and experimental results. Witczak (2014)
presents a selection of FDD and fault-tolerant control strategies for nonlinear systems,
from state estimation up to modern soft computing strategies, including original research
results. Last but not the least, Simani et al. (2002) focuses on model identification oriented
to the analytical approach of FDD, including sample case studies used to illustrate the
application of each technique.
With the increasing complexity of the procedures and scope of the industrial activities,
the Abnormal Event Management (AEM) is a challenging field of study nowadays. The
human operator plays a crucial role in this matter since it has been shown that people
responsible for AEM take incorrect decisions many times. Industrial statistics show that
70–90% of the accidents are caused by human errors (Venkatasubramanian et al., 2003c;
Wang and Guo, 2013). Moreover, there is much more behind the necessity of an
automation of FDD processes; for instance, in several industrial environments, the efforts
from the operators for a full coverage supervision of all variables and states of the system
are very high, which results in severe costs for the company. Sometimes, a manual
supervision is simply infeasible, for instance, in largely distributed systems (Chen et al.,
2006).
In this chapter, we present a short review on the FDD process, focusing, later, on the
existing fuzzy techniques and applications.
7.2. Detection, Isolation and Identification
First, it is important to address some of the nomenclature and definitions in the field of
research. The so-called fault is the departure from an operating state with an acceptable
range of an observed variable or a calculated parameter associated with a process
(Venkatasubramanian et al., 2003c). A fault, hence, can be defined as a symptom (e.g.,
low flow of a liquid, high temperature on a pump) within the process. On the other hand,
the event causing such abnormalities is called failure, which is also a synonym for
malfunction or root cause.
In an industrial context, there are several different types of faults that could affect the
normal operation of a plant. Among the different groups of malfunctions, one can list the
following (Samantaray and Bouamama, 2008):
• Gross parameter changes, also known as parametric faults, refers to “disturbances to the
process from independent variables, whose dynamics are not provided with that of the
process” (Samantaray and Bouamama, 2008). As examples of parametric faults, one can
list a change in the concentration of a reactant, a blockage in a pipeline resulting in a
change of the flow coefficient and so on.
• Structural changes refers to equipment failures, which may change the model of the
process. An appropriate corrective action to such abnormality would require the
extraction of new modeling equations to describe the current faulty status of the process.
Examples of structural changes are failure of a controller, a leaking pipe and a stuck
valve.
• Faulty sensors and actuators, also known as additive faults (or depending on the model,
multiplicative faults), refers to incorrect process inputs and outputs, and could lead the
plant variables to beyond acceptable limits. Some examples of abnormalities in the
input/output instruments are constant (positive or negative) bias, intermittent
disturbances, saturation, out-of-range failure and so on.

Figure 7.1: General FDD structure (Venkatasubramanian et al., 2003c).


Figure 7.2: Types of faults regarding the time-variant aspect (Patan, 2008).

Figure 7.1 depicts a general process and diagnosis system framework.


Faults can also be classified in a time-variant aspect as
• Abrupt: A fault that abruptly/instantly changes the value of a variable (or a group of
variables) from a constant value to another. It is often related to hardware damage.
• Incipient refers to slow parametric changes, where the fault gradually develops to a
higher degree. It is usually more difficult to detect due to its slow time characteristics,
however, it is less severe than an abrupt fault (Edwards et al., 2010). A good example of
an incipient fault is the slow degradation of a hardware component.
• Intermittent: A fault that appears and disappears, repeatedly, over time. A typical
example is a partially damaged wiring or a loose connector.
It is important to highlight that a general abnormality is only considered a fault, if it is
possible to recover from it, with appropriate control action, either automatic or with the
operator intervention. In the past, passive approaches, making use of robust control
techniques to ensure that the closed-loop system becomes insensitive to some mild failure
situations, were used as a popular fault tolerance strategy (Zhou and Ren, 2001).
Nowadays, the active FDD and recovery processes are given as the best solution, once
they provide fault accommodation, enabling an update in the control action in order to
adjust the controller, in the presence of a fault, to a new given scenario. Fault
accommodation, also known as fault compensation, is addressed in Lin and Liu (2007),
Efimov et al. (2011) and many others.
The entire process of AEM is often divided in a series of steps (usually detection,
identification and isolation), which in fault-tolerant design is a fault diagnosis scheme.
Although the number of steps may vary from author to author, the general idea remains
the same.
The detector system (first stage) continuously monitors the process variables (or
attributes) looking for symptoms (deviations on the variables values) and sends these
symptoms to the diagnosis system, which is responsible for the classification and
identification process.
Fault detection or anomaly detection is the first stage and it has extreme importance to
FDD systems. In this stage, we are able to identify whether the system is working in a
normal operating state or in a faulty mode. However, in this stage, vital information about
the fault, such as physical location, length or intensity, are not provided to the operator
(Silva, 2008).
The diagnosis stage presents its own challenges and obstacles, and can be handled
independently from the first one. It demands different techniques and solutions, and can be
divided in two sub-stages, called isolation and identification. The term isolation refers to
determination of kind, location and time of detection of a fault, and follows the fault
detection stage (Donders, 2002). Identification, on the other hand, refers to determination
of size and time-variant behavior of a fault, and follows fault isolation.
The diagnosis stage, especially, is a logic decision-making process that generates
qualitative data from quantitative data, and it can be seen as a classification problem. The
task is to match each pattern of the symptom vector with one of the pre-assigned classes of
faults, when existing, and the fault-free case (Frank and Köppen-Seliger, 1997). This
process is also known in the literature as fault reasoning.
One last stage related to FDD applications is the task of recovering from an existing
and detected fault. The action regarding the process reconfiguration needs to compensate
the current malfunction in order to maintain the requirements for an acceptable operating
state, when possible, or to determine the further sequence of events (controlled shutdown,
for example). Although recovering/accommodation are related to the FDD scheme, we
will focus only on the previous described stages.
In general, artificial intelligence-based techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy
systems and expert systems, can be applied in all stages of FDD. In the next sections, we
will present some of the widely known approaches based on fuzzy systems.

7.2.1. Quantitative Model-Based FDD Techniques


In order to detect and prevent an anomalous state of a process, often, some type of
redundancy is necessary. It is used to compare the current and actual state of the process to
a state that is expected under those circumstances. Although the redundancy can be
provided by extra hardware devices, which is what usually happens in high security
processes, analytical redundancy can be used where the redundancy is supplied by a
process model instead (Frisk, 2001).
With regard to process models, there are methods that require detailed mathematical
models, and there are methods that only require the qualitative description of the model, as
we present in the next sub-section.
When the process model is available, the detection of a fault using quantitative model-
based techniques depends only on the analysis of the residual signal. The residual (er) is
the difference between the current output (y) of the system and the estimated output (ŷ)
based on the given model. In general, the residual is expected to be “null” or “nearly-
null”, when in a fault-free state, and considerably different from zero, in the presence of a
fault. It should be noted that the design of an FDD system must consider the particularities
of a real process (e.g., environmental noise, model uncertainties), which can slightly
deviate the residual from zero and still not relate to a fault event.
Mathematical models can be available both to the normal state of operation of the
process and to each previously known faulty state, indicating that model-based FDD
systems are able not only to distinguish between fault-free and faulty states (detection),
but also to identity different types and locations of faults (diagnosis). Figure 7.3 illustrates
the general structure of a quantitative model-based FDD system.

Figure 7.3: General structure of a quantitative model-based FDD system.

Many approaches to FDD using quantitative model-based methods were investigated


in the literature. One can mention Venkatasubramanian et al. (2003c) and Isermann (2005)
as two of the main references about the topic. In the first one, the authors present a
systematic and comparative review of numerous quantitative model-based diagnostic
methods from different perspectives, while in the latter one, the author includes a few
detailed applications of such methods to a few different real industrial problems. Still
regarding residual-based FDD approaches using analytical models, the reading of Chen
and Patton (1999) and Simani et al. (2002) is highly recommended.

7.2.2. Qualitative Model-Based FDD Techniques


For this group of model-based techniques, the methods are based on the expertise of the
operator, qualitative knowledge, and basic understanding about the physics, dynamics, and
behavior of the process.
Qualitative models are particularly useful in the sense that even if accurate
mathematical models are available for the process, it is often unpractical to obtain all
information of the relevant physical parameters of the system, not to mention that external
parameters, such as unpredictable disturbances, model uncertainties and so on, are not
considered in quantitative models. Hence, FDD methods based on qualitative descriptors
are particularly robust (Glass et al., 1995).
Instead of crisp outputs and residual signals, qualitative models work with a
qualitative database that feeds a discrepancy detector. The resulting signal, instead of a
simple subtraction, is a qualitative discrepancy, based on the expected behavior, for the
given state and the actual output of the system, where the qualitative database is a
collection of expert knowledge in form of linguistic descriptions about fault-free and
faulty states. Figure 7.4 details the general structure of a qualitative model-based FDD
system.
Among the relevant work about the topic, it is imperative to mention
Venkatasubramanian et al. (2003a). The authors present a complete review of the
techniques based on qualitative model representations and search strategies in FDD,
highlighting the relative advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Another work
that is worth mentioning is Katipamula and Brambley (2005), the first of a two-part
review, which summarizes some of the successful qualitative model-based techniques and,
although applied exclusively to heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC)
problems, the paper focuses on generic FDD and prognostics, providing a framework for
categorizing, describing, and identifying methods, their primary strengths and weaknesses.

Figure 7.4: General structure of a qualitative model-based FDD system.

7.2.3. Process History-Based FDD Techniques


The third and last large group of methods for FDD refers to a particular type of techniques
that is completely data-driven. Process history-based techniques do not require any
knowledge, either quantitative or qualitative, about the process. Instead, they use massive
historical information collected from the process. This data is, then, transformed and
presented as a priori information to the FDD system through a process known as feature
extraction.
Feature extraction (or feature selection) is responsible for reducing the dimensionality
of the data, carefully extracting only the relevant information from the input dataset,
which usually consists of the measured sensor outputs, namely observable variables (e.g.,
tank level, pump pressure), or calculated parameters, namely process attributes (e.g., error,
pressure oscillation). Statistical methods, expert systems, and neural networks are often
used in this type of approach. Figure 7.5 details the general structure of a process history-
based FDD system.
As the literature references, one can mention Venkatasubramanian et al. (2003b) and
Yang et al. (2003) as two very important works on the topic. In the first one, the authors
present the third part of the literature review, focusing on the process history-based FDD
methods. As the last part of the extensive study, the authors suggest that “no single method
has all the desirable features one would like a diagnostic system to possess” and, in order
to overcome the limitations of individual solution strategies, the use of hybrid FDD
systems is often advised. The latter paper presents a survey on feature extraction, focusing
on a variety of validated vibration feature extraction techniques, applied to rotating
machinery.

Figure 7.5: General structure of a process history-based FDD system.


7.3. Fuzzy Fault Detection and Identification
Fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems are currently being investigated in the FDD and
reliability research community as a powerful tool for modeling and decision-making
(Serdio et al., 2014; Angelov et al., 2006; Lemos et al., 2013; Laukonen et al., 1995),
together with neural networks and other more traditional techniques, such as nonlinear and
robust observers, parity space methods and so on (Mendonça et al., 2004a). Fuzzy sets
theory makes possible the quantification of intrinsically qualitative statements,
subjectivity and uncertainty.
The main concepts of fuzzy logic theory make it adequate for FDD. While the
nonlinear fuzzy modeling can be very useful in the fault detection work, the transparent
and human logic-related inference system is highly suitable for the fault diagnosis stage,
which may not only include the expertise from the human operator, but also learn from
experimental and/or simulation data. Another benefit of using fuzzy systems in FDD
applications is the good performance in reproducing nonlinear mappings, and their
abilities of generalization, since fuzzy systems are universal approximators, i.e., being
able to model any degree of nonlinearity with an arbitrary desired degree of accuracy
(Castro and Delgado, 1996). Hence, fuzzy logic-based systems for fault diagnosis can be
advantageous, since they allow the incorporation of prior knowledge and their inference
engines are easily understandable to the human operator (Mendonça et al., 2004b).
The process of FDD, especially in its latter stage, can be viewed as a classification
problem, which comes with certain particularities, when compared to other groups of
applications. When dealing with a classification problem, it is useful to think about the
system output as a fuzzy value, instead of a crisp value, skipping the defuzzification step.
This way, the output of the FRB system can be presented as a label, which will represent
the class of fault assigned to the current state of the process/plant.
Considering an input vector of crisp values x ∈ Rn, composed by the values of the
selected process variables/attributes/features, a fuzzy inference rule basis ℜ, with R rules,
for a generic FDD system can be represented by

where A is the set of fuzzy values for the input variables and y is the output of the system.
Note that the output y is inferred as the label representing each given class of fault,
which can include the nature (e.g., structural, disturbances), the location (e.g., tank 1,
pump, valve A), the type (e.g., leakage, off-set), the degree (e.g., mild, severe) of the fault,
as well as can represent the normal state of operation of the plant. Such labels, of course,
require linguistic encoding, based on the expert knowledge from the operator. A few
unsupervised or semi-supervised approaches (for instance, the one to be presented in
Section 7.3.5) are able to automatically create new rules from the knowledge extracted
from data using non-specific labels. These labels, such as “Fault 1”and “Fault A” can,
later, be correctly specified by the human operator to include the operation mode/fault
class related to that rule.
The inference in a fuzzy rule-based FDD system can be produced using the well-
known “winner-takes-it-all” rule (Angelov and Zhou, 2008):

(1)

where γi represents the degree of membership of the input vector to the fuzzy set Ai,
considering R inference rules.
As a general example of the application of FRB systems in FDD, we are going to use
a benchmark problem, which will be presented and solved with different approaches in the
next sub-sections.

7.3.1. Benchmark Problem: First-Order Liquid Level Control in Experimental Tanks


The selected problem is presented and well described in Costa et al. (2013) and used in
many different applications (Costa et al., 2010, 2012). The referred plant for this study is a
two coupled water tanks module, developed by Quanser (2004).
The plant consists of a pump with a water basin. The pump thrusts water vertically to
two quick connect, normally closed orifices “Out1” and “Out2”. Two tanks mounted on
the front plate are configured such that the flow from the first tank flows into the second
tank and outflow from the second tank flows into the main water basin. The graphic
representation of the plant is presented in Figure 7.6.
For didactic purposes, in this example, we refer to the simulated version of the
referred plant, whose behavior is highly similar to the real version of the same didactic
plant, however free of unpredictable environment noise and unrelated disturbances.
Although the plant allows second-order control, since it is possible to control the level of
the second tank, we will address only first-order aspect of the application, hence,
measuring the level on the first tank.
The system consists, then, of two variables: (1) the voltage/control signal (u) applied
to the motor/pump — input — which, for safety reasons, is limited to 0–15V DC, and (2)
the level (y) of the tank 1 — output — which can vary from 0 to 30cm.
Figure 7.6: Graphic representation of the benchmark plant.

For the control application, which is not in the scope of this chapter, we use a very
simple Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller, where the control signal (u) is
calculated by

(2)

where Kp is the proportional gain, Ki is the integral gain, Kd is the derivative gain, t is the
current time instant and τ is the variable of integration. In this application, the sampling
period for the discrete implementation is 1 s. The error, e, is calculated by

(3)

where r is the reference/set point of the control application.


For all following examples, we will consider r = 5cm, Kp = 10, Ki = 0.1 and Kd = 0.1.
The resulting control chart, for a normal state of operation of the plant, is shown in Figure
7.7 and will serve as reference for the fault-free case.
In this example, we will consider a finite set of pre-specified faults, logically
generated in the simulation environment. The total of six faults cover different natures,
locations, types and degrees of faults that are easily found in common industrial
applications, and is more than enough to present a basic review of the different types of
fuzzy FDD systems. The set of defined faults is presented in Table 7.1.
The referred faults were independently and sequentially generated within the interval
of data samples k = [500, 800]. Figure 7.8 presents the control behavior of the system in
the presence of the faults (a) F1 and (b) F2 (actuator positive off-sets), Figure 7.9 shows
the control behavior of the system for the faults (a) F3 and (b) F4 (tank leakages) and
Figure 7.10 illustrates the control behavior of the system for the faults (a) F5 and (b) F6
(actuator saturations).
Figure 7.7: Normal state of operation of the plant.

Table 7.1: Pre-defined set of faults.

In the following sub-sections, we will present two different basic fuzzy-based


approaches for the proper detection and classification of the given set of faults and a short
review of other applications in the literature.

7.3.2. Quantitative Model-Based Fuzzy FDD


In this first example, we develop a fuzzy classifier able to detect and identify different
types and levels of faults based on (1) the previous knowledge of the mathematical model
of the plant and (2) the expertise of the human operator. This approach was addressed in
the literature by Zhao et al. (2009), Kulkarni et al. (2009), Mendonça et al. (2009) and
many others.
The mathematical model of the two tanks module, which is necessary for quantitative
model-based FDD approaches, is described in Meneghetti (2007). The flow provided by
the pump, which is driven by a DC motor, is directly proportional to the voltage applied to
the motor. For a first-order configuration, all the water flows to tank 1. This variable is
called input flow and can be calculated by
Figure 7.8: Actuator positive off-set.

(4)

where Vp is the voltage applied to the motor and Km is the pump constant, which, in this
case, is Km = 250.
The speed at which the liquid flows through the output orifice is given by Bernoulli
equation for small orifices (Cengel et al., 2012):

(5)

where g is the gravity acceleration in [cm/s2] and L1 is the water level in the tank 1. The
output flow , can be calculated by

(6)
Figure 7.9: Tank leakage.

where a1 is the area of the tank 1 output orifice in [cm2], which, in this case, is a1 =
0.47625 cm2.
The level variation rate on tank 1 ( 1) is given by the ratio between the volumetric
variation rate ( ) and the area of the tank base (A1) for
Based on the given model of the plant, one can generate the residual of the output
signal by analyzing the discrepancy between the outputs of the model and the actual
process as

(7)

where is the residual of the tank level (observable variable), ŷ is the model output for
the input control signal u, and y is the output measured by the sensor for the same input
control signal.
Figure 7.10: Actuator saturation.

It is important to highlight that, in this case, within a normal state of operation of the
plant (for k < 500 or k > 800), Equation (7) will generate a null residual, since we are
working with a simulated and disturbance/noise-free application. In real online
applications, due to the presence of noise and unpredicted disturbances, the residuals
should be handled within a dynamic band or through other tolerance approaches. Figures
7.11–7.13 present the graphical representation of the residual evaluation signal for the
all previously described faults.
Note that all faults presented here can be classified as abrupt, since they are
characterized by the nominal signal changing, abruptly by an unknown positive or
negative value. For handling incipient faults, Carl et al. (2012) proposes that incipient
faults can be approximated by a linear profile because they evolve slowly in time through
the estimation of the time of injection and the slope of the signal.
Figure 7.11: Residual evaluation function of the fault “Actuator positive off-set”.

Based on the behavior visualized in the charts, one can make a few assumptions about
the fault classification from the generated residuals:
1. The faults F1 and F2, which are positive off-sets of the actuator, can be promptly
detected and easily distinguished from the other ones, since the generated residual is
positive, while, in the other cases, it is negative.
2. The faults F3 and F4, which are tank leakages, are difficult to distinguish from the
faults F5 and F6, which are actuator saturations, since both residuals generated are
negative. Although the ranges of the signals are considerably different, only the residual
of the output may not be enough for an effective classification. The use of additional
signals, such as the control signal, might be recommended.
Figure 7.12: Residual evaluation function of the fault “Tank leakage”.

A Mamdani-type FRB system able to address this problem can be composed by one
input variable ( ), seven fuzzy sets as membership functions of the input variable
(“negative_very_high”, “negative_high”, “negative_low”, “negative_very_low”, “zero”,
“positive_low” and “positive_high”), one output variable (Fault) and seven fuzzy sets as
membership functions of the output variable (“F1”, “F2”, “F3”, “F4”, “F5”, “F6” and
“Normal”). One can model the input variable as shown in Figure 7.14 and the output
variable as illustrated in Figure 7.15.
For didactic purposes, triangular and trapezoidal membership functions were used to
model all fuzzy sets in these examples. Other types of functions are also encouraged (e.g.,
Gaussian, bell), especially when using automatic/adaptive approaches.
Figure 7.13: Residual evaluation function of the fault “actuator saturation”.

One can, then, propose the following fuzzy rule basis R for the detection and
classification of the defined faults:
ℜ1 : IF ( IS positivelow THEN (y1 IS “F1 − ActuatorOffset − Mild”),

ℜ2 : IF ( IS positivehigh THEN (y2 IS “F2 − ActuatorOffset − Severe”),

ℜ3 : IF ( IS negativehigh THEN (y3 IS “F3 − TankLeakage − Mild”),


ℜ4 : IF ( IS negative_very_high THEN (y4 IS “F4 − TankLeakage − Severe”),

ℜ5 : IF ( IS negative_very_low THEN
(y5 IS “F5 − ActuatorSaturation − Mild”),

ℜ6 : IF ( IS negativelow THEN (y6 IS “F6 − ActuatorSaturation − Severe”),


ℜ7 : IF ( IS zero THEN (y7 IS “Normaloperation″).
Figure 7.14: Membership functions of the input variable (eyr).

Figure 7.15: Membership functions of the output variable (Fault).

Now, for example, let us consider = 25, at a given time instant, and the “winner-
takes-it-all” rule for the output. The whole inference process, for all defined rules, is
illustrated in Figure 7.16.
Note that in the left column, two rules (rules 3 and 4) are activated by the input value
25. The membership value of the output of rule 4 is greater than the one for rule 3. It is
important to highlight that for the proposed type of fuzzy classifiers, the defuzzification
process is ignored. This way, the output of the FRB system is the label “F4”, which is
equivalent to the “Severe Leakage in Tank 1” fault.

7.3.3. Qualitative Model-Based Fuzzy FDD


As discussed in sub-section 7.2.1, although model-based FDD approaches are theoretically
efficient, in practice, the dependence on the mathematical model is not appropriate for real
applications. Even when this model is given, many times it does not consider variables
that are usually present in industrial environments (e.g., process inertia, environment
disturbances).
Figure 7.16: Detailed inference process for = 25.

Starting from a similar point of view, one can consider using an FDD approach that is
based on the previous knowledge of the process, however, the mathematical aspect is not
necessary. A dynamics-based FDD system is very appropriate when the operator knows
well the dynamics of the plant, its physics and behavior. This approach was addressed in
the literature by Patton et al. (2000), Insfran et al. (1999) and many others.
Considering the previous FDD problem, one can make a few observations about the
process in Figure 7.7, which illustrates the process in a normal state of operation:
1. In steady state (k > 180), the level (y) reaches the set-point (r) value, thus, the error (e)
is zero (e = r − y).
2. Again, considering the steady state, the control signal (u) becomes constant/non-
oscillatory, which means that the control signal variation (Δu) from time step k − 1 to
time step k is zero (Δu = uk − uk−1).
3. Observations (1) and (2) are not true when the system is in a faulty state, as can be seen
in Figures 7.17–7.19.
Considering two input variables Err (e) and delta_u (Δu), four fuzzy sets as
membership functions of the variable Err (“negative”, “zero”, “positive_low” and
“positive_high”), six fuzzy sets as membership functions of the variable
delta_u(“negative_high”, “negative_low”, “zero”, “positive_low”, “positive_medium” and
“positive_high”) and the same output variable (Fault) as the one presented in Figure 7.15,
one can model the variables of the system as presented in Figures 7.20 and 7.21, which
represent the input variables Err and delta_u, respectively.
Figure 7.17: Error and control signal variation on the fault “actuator positive off-set”.

Based on these membership functions, one can, then, propose the following Mamdani-
type fuzzy rule basis ℜ for the detection and classification of the defined faults:
ℜ1 : IF (Err IS zero AND delta_u IS negative_low THEN
(y1 IS “F1 − ActuatorOffset − Mild”),
Figure 7.18: Error and control signal variation on the fault “tank leakage”.

ℜ2 : IF (Err IS negative AND delta_u IS negative_high THEN


(y2 IS “F2 − ActuatorOffset − Severe”),

ℜ3 : IF (Err IS positive_low AND delta_u IS positive_low THEN


(y3 IS “F3 − TankLeakage − Mild”),
ℜ4 : IF (Err IS positive_low AND delta_u IS positive_medium THEN
(y4 IS “F4 − TankLeakage − Severe”),
ℜ5 : IF (Err IS positive_low AND delta_u IS positive_high THEN
(y4 IS “F5 − ActuatorSaturation − Mild”),

ℜ6 : IF (Err IS positive_high AND delta_u IS positive_high THEN


(y4 IS “F6 − ActuatorSaturation − Severe”),

ℜ7 : IF (Err IS zero AND delta_u IS zero THEN (y4 IS “Normaloperation”).


Figure 7.19: Error and control signal variation on the fault “actuator saturation”.

Figure 7.20: Membership functions of the input variable (Err).

Figure 7.21: Membership functions of the input variable (delta_u).


Figure 7.22: Detailed inference process for Err = 0.5 and Δu = 3.2.

As an illustrative example, let us consider Err = 0.5 and delta_u = 3.2, at a given time
instant, and the “winner-takes-it-all” rule for the output. The detailed inference process,
for all defined rules, is illustrated in Figure 7.22.
Note that although the mathematical model of the process, in this particular case, is
known, it was not needed in any part of the development of the system. Instead, we used
some a priori information about the behavior of the system, relating the error and control
signals to the normal or faulty states of operation.

7.3.4. Process History-Based Fuzzy FDD


If neither the mathematical and physics/dynamics/behavior models are available, the FDD
system can still be based on the data itself. Process history-based FDD systems are
commonly used in applications where either there is no prior knowledge available,
quantitative or qualitative, or the operator chooses to rely only on the acquired historical
process data.
Feature extraction — the main task of process history-based techniques — methods,
which are used to transform large amounts of data in prior knowledge about the process,
are many times based on the aspects of fuzzy theory. In this sub-section, we are not
addressing the particular example presented in sub-section 7.3.1. Instead, we are
addressing a few successful approaches of process history-based fuzzy FDD methods.
In Bae et al. (2005), a basic data mining application for FDD of induction motors is
presented. The method is based on wavelet transform and classification models with
current signals. Through a so-called “fuzzy measure of similarity”, features of faults are
extracted, detected and classified.
A multiple signal fault detection system for automotor vehicles is presented in
Murphey et al. (2003). The paper describes a system that involves signal segmentation and
feature extraction, and uses a fuzzy learning algorithm based on the signals acquired from
good functional vehicles only. It employs fuzzy logic at two levels of detection and has
been implemented and tested in real automation applications.
In Hu et al. (2005), a two-stage fault diagnosis method based on empirical mode
decomposition (EMD), fuzzy feature extraction and support vector machines (SVM) is
described. In the first stage, intrinsic mode components are obtained with EMD from
original signals and converted into fuzzy feature vectors, and then the mechanical fault
can be detected. In the following stage, these extracted fuzzy feature vectors are input into
the multi-classification SVM to identify the different abnormal cases. The proposed
method is applied to the classification of a turbo-generator set under three different
operating conditions.

7.3.5. Unsupervised/Semi-supervised Fuzzy Rule-Based FDD


A new fully unsupervised autonomous FRB approach to FDD has been recently proposed
(Costa et al., 2014a, 2014b). The algorithm is divided into two sequential stages, detection
and identification. In the first stage, the system is able to detect through a recursive density
estimation method, whether there is a fault or not. If a fault is detected, the second stage is
activated and, after a spatial distribution analysis, the fault is classified by a fuzzy
inference system in a fully unsupervised manner. That means that the operator does not
need to know all types, or even the number of possible faults. The fuzzy rule basis is
updated at each data sample read, and the number of rules can grow if a new class of fault
is detected. The classification is performed by an autonomous label generator, which can
be assisted by the operator.
The detection algorithm is based on the recursive density estimation (RDE) (Angelov,
2012), which allows building, accumulating, and self-learning a dynamically evolving
information model of “normality”, based on the process data for particular specific plant,
and considering the normal/accident-free cases only. Similarly, like other statistical
methods [e.g., statistical process control (SPC)] (Cook et al., 1997), RDE is an online
statistical technique. However, it does not require that the process parameters follow
Gaussian/normal distributions nor make other prior assumptions.
The fault identification algorithm is based on the self-learning and fully unsupervised
evolving classifier algorithm called AutoClass, which is an AnYa-like FRB classifier and,
unlike the traditional FRB systems (e.g., Mamdani, Takagi–Sugeno), AnYa does not
require the definition of membership functions. The antecedent part of the inference rule
uses the concepts of data clouds (Angelov and Yager, 2012) and relative data density,
representing exactly the real distribution of the data.
A data cloud is a collection of data samples in the n-dimensional space, similar to the
well-known data clusters, however, it is different since a data cloud forming is non-
parametric and it does not have a specific shape or boundary (Angelov, 2012) and, instead,
it follows the exact real data distribution. A given data sample can belong to all the data
clouds with a different degree γ ∈ [0; 1], thus the fuzzy aspect of the model is preserved.
The consequent of the inference rule in AutoClass is a zero-order Takagi–Sugeno crisp
function, i.e., a class label Li = [1, K]. The inference rules follow the construct of an
AnYa-like FRB system (Angelov and Yager, 2012):

where ℜi is the i-th rule, = [x1, x2, …, xn]T is the input data vector, ℵi ∈ ℜn is the i-th data
cloud and ∼ denotes the fuzzy membership expressed linguistically as “is associated
with” or “is close to”. The inference in AutoClass is produced using the “winner-takes-it-
all” rule.
The degree of membership of the input vector xk to the data cloud ℵi, defined as the
relative local density, can be recursively calculated as (Angelov, 2012)

(8)

where μk and Xk are updated by

(9)

(10)

Both stages of the proposed FDD approach can start “from scratch”, from the very
first data sample acquired, with no previous knowledge about the plant model or
dynamics, training or complex user-defined parameters or thresholds. The generated fuzzy
rules have no specific parameters or shapes for the membership functions and the
approach is entirely data-driven.
The approach was implemented and tested in a real liquid level control application,
using a Laboratory pilot plant for industrial process control, similar to the plant presented
in sub-section 7.3.1, however, in industrial proportions. The fault-free behavior of the
system, after a change of reference, is shown in Figure 7.23.
A larger set of faults was, then, generated, including actuator, leakage, stuck valves
and disturbance-related faults. Figure 7.24 shows the detection stage of a sequence of fault
events. While monitoring the oscillation of the error and control signals, the algorithm is
able to detect the beginning (black bars) and end (grey bars) of the faults F2, F4, F1 and
F9. In this stage, the system is responsible only for distinguishing the normal operation
from a fault and considers only the steady state regime (which in Figure 7.23, for example,
starts around 75s).
After a fault is detected, the identification/classification stage, based on the fuzzy
algorithm AutoClass is activated. The data is spatially distributed in an n-dimensional
feature space. In this particular example, two features were used — here called Feature 1
and Feature 2, thus x = {Feature 1, Feature 2} —, where the first one is the period and the
second one is the amplitude of the control signal.

Figure 7.23: Fault-free state of operation of the plant.

Figure 7.24: Detection of a sequence of faults using RDE.

Figure 7.25 shows the n-dimensional feature space after the reading of all data samples.
The fuzzy rule-based classifier, autonomously generated from the data stream, which
consists of 5,600 data samples, is presented as follows:
ℜ1 : IF ( ∼ ℵ1) THEN (“Class 1”),
ℜ2 : IF ( ∼ ℵ2) THEN (“Class 2”),
ℜ3 : IF ( ∼ ℵ3) THEN (“Class 3”),
with
ℵ1 : c1 = [0.416, 3.316] and ZI1 = [0.251, 0.756],

ℵ2 : c2 = [−0.513, 2.706] and ZI2 = [0.250, 0.601],


ℵ3 : c3 = [−0.416, 1.491] and ZI3 = [0.197, 0.451],
where ci is the focal point (mean) and Zi is the zone of influence of the cloud.
The fault classification procedure, which is only executed after the detection of a fault
by the RDE-based detection algorithm (that is why no rule for the fault-free case was
created), is quite unique in the sense that it autonomously and in a completely
unsupervised manner (automatic labels) identifies the types of faults. Traditional models,
such as neural networks, start to drift and a re-calibration is needed. This unsupervised and
self-learning method does not suffer from such disadvantage because it is adapting and
evolving.
It should be noted that the class labels are generated automatically in a sequence
(“Class 1”, “Class 2” and so on) as different faults are detected. Of course, these labels do
not represent the actual type or location of the fault, but they are very useful to distinguish
different faults. Since there is no training or pre-definition of faults or models, the correct
labeling can be performed in a semi-supervised manner by the human operators without
requiring prompt/synchronized actions from the user. Moreover, in a semi-supervised
approach, the operator should be able to merge, split and rename the generated
clouds/rules/classes of faults, enabling the classification of faults/operation states that
cannot be represented by compact/convex data clouds.

Figure 7.25: Classification and automatic labeling of the faults using AutoClass.

It is also important to highlight that even though the detection and classification
process were presented separately, they are performed simultaneously, online, from the
acquired data sample.

7.3.6. Other Approaches to Fuzzy FDD


Most of the methods for FDD addressed in the literature are problem-driven and, although
classifiable into one of the three main groups of methods (quantitative, qualitative or
process history-based), they still can be very different in many aspects. That said, we can
still recommend the following literature.
Observation-based fault detection in robots is discussed in Sneider and Frank (1996).
The supervision method proposed makes use of non-measurable process information. This
method is reviewed and applied to the fault detection problem in an industrial robot, using
dynamic robot models, enhanced by the inclusion of nonlinear friction terms. A fuzzy
logic residual evaluation approach of model-based fault detection techniques is
investigated for processes with unstructured disturbances, arising from model
simplification.
In Simani (2013), the author proposes an approach based on analytical redundancy,
focused on fuzzy identification oriented to the design of a set of fuzzy estimators for fault
detection and identification. Different aspects of the fault detection problem are treated in
the paper, such as model structure, parameter identification and residual generation and
fault diagnosis techniques. The proposed approach is applied to a real diesel engine.
A model-based approach to FDD using fuzzy matching is proposed in Dexter and
Benouarets (1997). The scheme uses a set of fuzzy reference models, obtained offline
from simulation, which describes normal and, as an extension of the example given in
Section 7.3.2, also describes faulty operation. A classifier based on fuzzy matching
evaluates the degree of similarity every time the online fuzzy model is identified. The
method also deals with any ambiguity, which may result from normal or faulty states of
operation, or different types of faults, with similar symptoms at a given operating state.
A method for design of unknown fuzzy observers for Takagi–Sugeno (TS) models is
addressed in Akhenak et al. (2009). The paper presents the development of a robust fuzzy
observer in the presence of disturbances, which is used for detection and isolation of faults
which can affect a TS model. The proposed methodology is applied to a simulated
environment by estimating the yaw rate and the fault of an automatic steering vehicle.
In Gmytrasiewicz et al. (1990), Tanaka et al. (1983) and Peng et al. (2008), different
approaches to fault diagnosis for systems based on fuzzy fault-tree analysis are discussed.
These methods aim to diagnose component failures from the observation of fuzzy
symptoms, using the information contained in a fault-tree. While in conventional fault-tree
analysis, the failure probabilities of components of a system are treated as exact values in
estimating the failure probability of the top event, a fuzzy fault-tree employs the
possibility, instead of the probability, of failure, namely a fuzzy set defined in probability
space.
Fault diagnosis based on trend patterns shown in the sensor measurements is presented
in Dash et al. (2003). The process of trend analysis involves graphic representation of
signal trends as temporal patterns, extraction of the trends, and their comparison, through
a fuzzy estimation of similarity, to infer the state of the process. The technique is
illustrated with its application for the fault diagnosis of an exothermic reactor.
In Lughofer and Guardiola (2008), and Skrjanc (2009), the authors present different
approaches to the usage of fuzzy confidence intervals for model outputs in order to
normalize residuals with the model uncertainty. While in the first paper, the authors
evaluate the results based on high-dimensional measurement data from engine test
benchmarks, in the latter one, the proposed method is used for a nonlinear waste-water
treatment plant modeling.
In Oblak et al. (2007), the authors introduce an application of the interval fuzzy model
in fault detection for nonlinear systems with uncertain interval-type parameters. An
application of the proposed approach in a fault-detection system for a two-tank hydraulic
plant is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method.
A fuzzy-genetic algorithm for automatic FDD in HVAC systems is presented in Lo et
al. (2007). The proposed FDD system monitors the HVAC system states continuously by a
fuzzy system with optimal fuzzy inference rules generated by a genetic algorithm. Faults
are represented in different levels and are classified in an online manner, concomitantly
with the rule basis tuning.
Last, but not least, the reader is referred to Rahman et al. (2010), Calado and Sá da
Costa (2006), which present the literature reviews of neuro-fuzzy applications in FDD
systems. These surveys present many applications of fault detection, isolation and
classification, using neuro-fuzzy techniques, either single or combined, highlighting the
advantages and disadvantages of each presented approach.
7.4. Open Benchmarks
The study and validation of new and existing FDD techniques is, usually, related to the use
of well-known and already validated benchmarks. They are advantageous in the sense that
they are enabling one to perform the experiments using real industrial data and serving as
a fair basis of comparison to other techniques.
Among the most used benchmarks for FDD, we surely need to mention Development
and Applications of Methods for Actuator Diagnosis in Industrial Control Systems
(DAMADICS), first introduced in Bartys et al. (2006). DAMADICS is an openly
available benchmark system based on the industrial operation of the sugar factory
Cukrownia Lublin SA, Poland. The benchmark considers many details of the physical and
electro-mechanical properties of a real industrial actuator valve operating under
challenging process conditions.
With DAMADICS, it is possible to simulate 19 abnormal events, along with the
normal operation, from three actuators. A faulty state is composed by the type of the fault
followed by the failure mode, which can be abrupt or incipient. DAMADICS was
successfully used as testing platform in many applications, such as Puig et al. (2006),
Almeida and Park (2008), and Frisk et al. (2003).
Another important benchmark, worth mentioning, is presented in Blanke et al. (1995).
The benchmark is based on an electro-mechanical position servo, part of a shaft rotational
speed governor for large diesel engines, located in a test facility at Aalborg University,
Denmark. Potential faults include malfunction of velocity, position measurements or
motor power drive and, can be fast or incipient, depending on the parameters defined by
the operator. The benchmark also enables the study of robustness, sensor noise and
unknown inputs.

Figure 7.26: Actuator model of DAMADICS benchmark (Damadics, 1999).

In Odgaard et al. (2009), the authors introduce a benchmark model for fault tolerant
control of wind turbines, which presents a diversity of faulty scenarios, including
sensor/actuator, pitch system, drive train, generator and converter system malfunctions.
Last, but not least, Goupil and Puyou (2013) introduces a high-fidelity aircraft benchmark,
based on a generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus, including the
nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a complete set of controls, actuator and sensor
models, flight control laws, and pilot inputs.
7.5. Conclusions
A full overview of FDD methods was presented in this chapter with special attention to the
fuzzy rule-based techniques. Basic and essential concepts of the field of study were
presented, along with the review of numerous techniques introduced in the literature, from
more traditional strategies, well-fitted in one of the three main categories of FDD
techniques, to advanced state-of-the-art approaches, which combine elements and
characteristics of multiple categories. A benchmark simulated study was introduced and
used to illustrate and compare different types of methods, based either on
quantitative/qualitative knowledge or on the data acquired from the process. A few other
benchmark applications introduced in the literature were also referred, encouraging the
reader to use them as tools for analysis/comparison. As previously suggested in other
works, the use of hybrid FDD techniques, combining the best features of each group, is
very often advised, since all groups of methods present their own advantages and
disadvantages, and single methods frequently lack a number of desirable features
necessary for an ideal FDD system.
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Part II

Artificial Neural Networks and Learning Systems


Chapter 8

The ANN and Learning Systems


in Brains and Machines
Leonid Perlovsky
8.1. The Chapter Preface
This chapter overviews mathematical approaches to learning systems and recent progress
toward mathematical modeling and understanding of the mind mechanisms, higher
cognitive and emotional functions, including cognitive functions of the emotions of the
beautiful and the music. It is clear today that any algorithmic idea can be realized in a
neural-network like architecture. Therefore, from a mathematical point of view, there is no
reason to differentiate between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and other algorithms.
For this reason, words “algorithms,” “neural networks,” “machine learning,” “artificial
intelligence,” “computational intelligence” are used in this chapter interchangeably. It is
more important to acknowledge that the brain-mind is still a much more powerful learning
device than popular ANNs and algorithms and try to understand why this is so.
Correspondingly, this chapter searches for fundamental principles, which set the brain-
mind apart from popular algorithms, for mathematical models of these principles, and for
algorithms built on these models.
What does the mind do differently from ANN and algorithms? We are still far away
from mathematical models deriving high cognitive abilities from properties of neurons,
therefore mathematical modeling of the “mind” often is more appropriate than modeling
the details of the brain, when the goal is to achieve “high” human-like cognitive abilities.
The reader would derive a more informed opinion by reading this entire book. This
chapter devotes attention to fundamental cognitive principles of the brain-mind, and their
mathematical modeling in parallel with solving engineering problems. I also discuss
experimental evidence derived from psychological, cognitive, and brain imaging
experiments about mechanisms of the brain-mind to the extent it helps the aim: identifying
fundamental principles of the mind.
The search for the fundamental principles of the brain-mind and their mathematical
models begins with identifying mathematical difficulties behind hundreds of ANNs and
algorithms. After we understand the fundamental reasons for the decades of failure of
artificial intelligence, machine learning, ANN, and other approaches to modeling the
human mind, and to developing mathematical techniques with the human mind power,
then we turn to discussing the fundamental principles of the brain-mind (Perlovsky,
2010e).
The next section analyzes and identifies several mathematical difficulties common to
wide groups of algorithms. Then we identify a single fundamental mathematical reason for
computers failing behind the brain-mind. This reason is reliance of computational
intelligence on classical logic.
This is an ambitious statement and the chapter analyzes mathematical as well as
cognitive reasons for logic being the culprit of decades of mathematical and cognitive
failures. Fundamental mathematical as well as psychological reasons are identified for
“how and why” logic that used to be considered a cornerstone of science, turned out to be
inadequate, when attempting to understand the mind.
Then, we formulate a mathematical approach that has overcome limitations of logic. It
resulted in hundreds of times improvement in solving many classical engineering
problems, and it solved problems that remained unsolvable for decades. It also explained
what used to be psychological mysteries for long time. In several cognitive and brain-
imaging experiments, it has been demonstrated to be an adequate mathematical model for
brain-mind processes. Amazingly, this mathematical technique is simpler to code and use
than many popular algorithms.
8.2. A Short Summary of Learning Systems and Difficulties They Face
Mathematical ideas invented in the 1950s and 1960s for learning are still used today in
many algorithms, therefore let me briefly overview these ideas and identify sources of the
mathematical difficulties (Perlovsky, 2001, 2002a).
Computational approaches to solving complex engineering problems by modeling the
mind began almost as soon as computers appeared. These approaches in the 1950s
followed the known brain neural structure. In 1949, Donald Hebb published what became
known as the Hebb-rule: neuronal synaptic connections grow in strength, when they are
used in the process of learning. Mathematicians and engineers involved in developing
learning algorithms and devices in the early 1950s were sure soon computers would
surpass by far the human minds in their abilities. Everybody knows today that Frank
Rosenblatt developed a first ANN capable of learning, called Perceptron. Perceptron,
however, could only learn to solve fairly simple problems. In 1969, Marvin Minsky and
Seymour Papert mathematically proved limits to Perceptron learning.
Statistical pattern recognition algorithms were developed in parallel (Duda et al.,
2000). They characterized patterns by features. D features formed a D-dimensional
classification space; features from learning samples formed distributions in this space,
statistical methods were used to characterize the distributions and derive a classifier. One
approach to a classifier design defined a plane, or a more complex surface in a
classification space, which separated classes. Another approach became known as a
nearest neighbor or a kernel method. In this case, neighborhoods in a classification space
near known examples from each class are assigned to the class. The neighborhoods are
usually defined using kernel functions (often bell-shaped curves, Gaussians). Use of
Gaussian Mixtures to define neighborhoods is a powerful method; first attempts toward
deriving such algorithms have been complex, and efficient convergence has been a
problem (Titterington et al., 1985). Eventually good algorithms have been derived
(Perlovsky and McManus, 1991). Today Gaussian Mixtures are widely used (Mengersen
et al., 2011). Yet, these methods turned out to be limited by the dimensionality of
classification space.
The problem with dimensionality was discovered by Richard Bellman (1962), who
called it “the curse of dimensionality.” The number of training samples has to grow
exponentially (or combinatorially) with the number of dimensions. The reason is in the
geometry of high-dimensional spaces: there are “no neighborhoods”, most of the volume
is concentrated on the periphery (Perlovsky, 2001). Whereas kernel functions are defined
so that the probability of belonging to a class rapidly falls with the distance from a given
example, in high-dimensional spaces volume growth may outweigh the kernel function
fall; if kernels fall exponentially (like Gaussian), the entire “neighborhood” resides on a
thin shell where the kernel fall is matched by the volume rise. Simple problems have been
solved efficiently, but learning more complex problems seems impossible.
Marvin Minsky (1965) and many colleagues suggested that learning was too complex
and premature. Artificial intelligence should use knowledge stored in computers. Systems
storing knowledge in a form of “if, …, then, …,” rules are called expert systems and are
still being used. But when learning is attempted, rules often depend on other rules and
grow into combinatorially large trees of rules.
A general approach attempting to combine existing knowledge and learning was
model-based learning popular in the 1970s and 1980s. This approach used parametric
models to account for existing knowledge, while learning was accomplished by selecting
the appropriate values for the model parameters. This approach is simple when all the data
comes from only one mode, for example, estimation of a Gaussian distribution from data,
or estimation of a regression equation. When multiple processes have to be learned,
algorithms have to split data among models and then estimate model parameters. I briefly
describe one algorithm, multiple hypotheses testing (MHT), which is still used today
(Singer et al., 1974). To fit model parameters to the data, MHT uses multiple applications
of a two-step process. First, an association step assigns data to models. Second, an
estimation step estimates parameters of each model. Then a goodness of fit is computed
(such as likelihood). This procedure is repeated for all assignments of data to models, and
at the end model parameters corresponding to the best goodness of fit are selected. The
number of associations is combinatorially large, therefore MHT encounters combinatorial
complexity and could only be used for very simple problems.
In the 1970s, the idea of self-learning neural system became popular again. Since the
1960s, Stephen Grossberg continued research into the mechanisms of the brain-mind. He
led a systematic exploitation of perceptual illusions for deciphering neural-mathematical
mechanisms of perception—similar to I. Kant using typical errors in judgment for
deciphering a priori mechanisms of the mind. But Grossberg’s ideas seemed too complex
for a popular following. Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) became popular later
(Carpenter and Grossberg, 1987); it incorporated ideas of interaction between bottom–up
(BU), and top–down (TD), signals considered later.
Popular attention was attracted by the idea of Backpropagation, which overcame
earlier difficulties of the Perceptron. It was first invented by Arthur Bryson and Yu-Chi Ho
in 1969, but was ignored. It was reinvented by Paul Werbos in 1974, and later in 1986 by
David Rumelhart, Geoffrey Hinton, and Ronald Williams. The Backpropagation algorithm
is capable of learning connection weights in multilayer feedforward neural networks.
Whereas an original single layer Perceptron could only learn a hyperplane in a
classification space, two layer networks could learn multiple hyperplanes and therefore
define multiple regions, three layer networks could learn classes defined by multiple
regions.
Multilayer networks with many weights faced the problem of overfitting. Such
networks can learn (fit) classes of any geometrical shape and achieve a good performance
on training data. However, when using test data, which were not part of the training
procedure, the performance could significantly drop. This is a general problem of learning
algorithms with many free parameters learned from training data. A general approach to
this problem is to train and test a neural network or a classifier on a large number of
training and test data. As long as both training and testing performance continue
improving with increasing number of free parameters, this indicates valid learning; but
when increasing number of parameters results in poorer performance, this is a definite
indication of overfitting. A valid training-testing procedure could be exceedingly
expensive in research effort and computer time.
A step toward addressing the overfitting problem in an elegant and mathematically
motivated way has been undertaken in the Statistical Learning Theory (SLT) (Vapnik,
1999). SLT seems one of the very few theoretical breakthroughs in learning theory. SLT
promised to find a valid performance without overfitting in a classification space of any
dimension from training data alone. The main idea of SLT is to find a few most important
training data points (support vectors) needed to define a valid classifier in a classification
sub-space of a small dimension. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) became very popular,
likely due to a combination of elegant theory, relatively simple algorithms, and good
performance.
However, SVM did not realize the theoretical promise of a valid optimal classifier in a
space of any dimension. A complete theoretical argument why this promise has not been
realized is beyond the scope of this chapter. A simplified summary is that for complex
problems a fundamental parameter of the theory, the Vapnik–Chervonenkis dimension,
turns out to be near its critical value. I would add that SLT does not rely on any cognitive
intuition about brain-mind mechanisms. It does not seem that the SLT principles are used
by the brain-mind. It could have been expected that if SLT would be indeed capable of a
general optimal solution of any problem using a simple algorithm, its principles would
have been discovered by biological algorithms during billions of years of evolution.
The problem of overfitting due to a large number of free parameters can be
approached by adding a penalty function to the objective function to be minimized (or
maximized) in the learning process (Setiono, 1997; Nocedal and Wright, 2006). A simple
and efficient method is to add a weighted sum of squares of free parameters to a log
likelihood or alternatively to the sum of squares of errors; this method is called Ridge
regression. Practically, Ridge regression often achieves performance similar to SVM.
Recently, progress for a certain class of problems has been achieved using gradient
boosting methods (Friedman et al., 2000). The idea of this approach is to use an ensemble
of weak classifiers, such as trees or stumps (short trees) and combine them until
performance continues improving. These classifiers are weak in that their geometry is very
simple. A large number of trees or stumps can achieve good performance. Why a large
number of classifiers with many parameters do not necessarily over fit the data? It could
be understood from SLT; one SLT conclusion is that overfitting occurs not just due to a
large number of free parameters, but due to an overly flexible classifier parameterization,
when a classifier can fit every little “wiggle” in the training data. It follows that a large
number of weak classifiers can potentially achieve good performance. A cognitively
motivated variation of this idea is Deep Learning, which uses a standard back-propagation
algorithm with standard, feed-forward multilayer neural networks with many layers (here
is the idea of “deep”). Variations of this idea under the names of gradient boosting,
ensembles of trees, and deep learning algorithms are useful, when a very large amount of
labeled training data is available (millions of training samples), while no good theoretical
knowledge exists about how to model the data. This kind of problem might be
encountered in data mining, speech, or handwritten character recognition (Hinton et al.,
2012; Meier and Schmidhuber, 2012).
8.3. Computational Complexity and Gödel
Many researchers have attempted to find a general learning algorithm to a wide area of
problems. These attempts continue from the 1950s until today. Many smart people spent
decades perfecting a particular algorithm for a specific problem, and when they achieve
success they are often convinced that they found a general approach. The desire to believe
in existence of a general learning algorithm is supported by the fact that the human mind
indeed can solve a lot of problems. Therefore, cognitively motivated algorithms such as
Deep Learning can seem convincing to many people. If developers of the algorithm
succeed in convincing many followers, their approach may flourish for five or even 10
years, until gradually researchers discover that the promise of finding a general learning
algorithm has not been fulfilled (Perlovsky, 1998).
Other researchers have been inspired by the fact that the mind is much more powerful
than machine learning algorithms, and they have studied mechanisms of the mind. Several
principles of mind operations have been discovered, nevertheless mathematical modeling
of the mind faced same problems as artificial intelligence and machine learning:
mathematical models of the mind have not achieved cognitive power comparable to mind.
Apparently, mind learning mechanisms are different from existing mathematical and
engineering ideas in some fundamental way.
It turned out that indeed there is a fundamental mathematical principle explaining in
unified way previous failures of attempts to develop a general learning algorithm and
model learning mechanisms of the mind. This fundamental principle has been laying bare
and well known to virtually everybody in full view of the entire mathematical, scientific,
and engineering community. Therefore, in addition to explaining this fundamental
mathematical reason I will also have to explain why it has not been noticed long ago. It
turned out that this explanation reveals a fundamental psychological reason preventing
many great mathematicians, engineers, and cognitive scientists from noticing “the
obvious” (Perlovsky, 2013c).
The relationships between logic, cognition, and language have been a source of
longstanding controversy. The widely accepted story is that Aristotle founded logic as a
fundamental mind mechanism, and only during the recent decades science overcame this
influence. I would like to emphasize the opposite side of this story. Aristotle thought that
logic and language are closely related. He emphasized that logical statements should not
be formulated too strictly and language inherently contains the necessary degree of
precision. According to Aristotle, logic serves to communicate already made decisions
(Perlovsky, 2007c). The mechanism of the mind relating language, cognition, and the
world Aristotle described as forms. Today we call similar mechanisms mental
representations, or concepts, or simulators in the mind (Perlovsky 2007b; Barsalou, 1999).
Aristotelian forms are similar to Plato’s ideas with a marked distinction, forms are
dynamic: their initial states, before learning, are different from their final states of
concepts (Aristotle, 1995). Aristotle emphasized that initial states of forms, forms-as-
potentialities, are not logical (i.e., vague), but their final states, forms-as-actualities,
attained in the result of learning, are logical. This fundamental idea was lost during
millennia of philosophical arguments. It is interesting to add Aristotelian idea of vague
forms-potentialities has been resurrected in fuzzy logic by Zadeh (1965); and dynamic
logic described here is an extension of fuzzy logic to a process “from vague to crisp”
(Perlovsky, 2006a, 2006b, 2013d). As discussed below, the Aristotelian process of
dynamic forms can be described mathematically by dynamic logic; it corresponds to
processes of perception and cognition, and it might be the fundamental principle used by
the brain-mind, missed by ANNs and algorithms (Perlovsky, 2012c).
Classical logic has been the foundation of science since its very beginning. All
mathematical algorithms, including learning algorithms and ANNs use logic at some step,
e.g., fuzzy logic uses logic when deciding on the degree of fuzziness; all learning
algorithms and ANNs use logic during learning: training samples are presented as logical
statements. Near the end of the 19th century, logicians founded formal mathematical logic,
the formalization of classical logic. Contrary to Aristotelian warnings they strived to
eliminate the uncertainty of language from mathematics. Hilbert (1928) developed an
approach named formalism, which rejected intuition as a matter of scientific investigation
and was aimed at formally defining scientific objects in terms of axioms or rules. In 1900,
he formulated famous Entscheidungsproblem: to define a set of logical rules sufficient to
prove all past and future mathematical theorems. This was a part of “Hilbert’s program”,
which entailed formalization of the entire human thinking and language.
Formal logic ignored the dynamic nature of Aristotelian forms and rejected the
uncertainty of language. Hilbert was sure that his logical theory described mechanisms of
the mind. “The fundamental idea of my proof theory is none other than to describe the
activity of our understanding, to make a protocol of the rules according to which our
thinking actually proceeds” Hilbert (1928). However, Hilbert’s vision of formalism
explaining mysteries of the human mind came to an end in the 1930s, when Gödel (2001)
proved internal inconsistency or incompleteness of formal logic. This development called
Gödel theory is considered among most fundamental mathematical results of the previous
century. Logic, that was believed to be a sure way to derive truths, a foundation of science,
turned out to be basically flawed. This is a reason why theories of cognition and language
based on formal logic are inherently flawed.
How exactly does Gödel’s incompleteness of logic affect every day logical arguments,
cognitive science, and mathematical algorithms?
Gödel, as most mathematical logicians, considered infinite systems, in which every
entity is defined with absolute accuracy, every number is specified with infinite precision.
Therefore, usual everyday conversations are not affected directly by Gödel’s theory.
However, when scientists, psychologists, cognitive scientists attempt to understand the
mind, perfectly logical arguments can lead to incorrect conclusions. Consider first
mathematical algorithms. When Gödel’s argument is applied to a finite system, such as
computer or brain, the result is not fundamental incompleteness, but computational
complexity (Perlovsky, 2013c). An algorithm that upon logical analysis seems quite
capable of learning how to solve a certain class of problems in reality has to perform “too
many” computations. How many is too many? Most learning algorithms have to consider
combinations of some basic elements. The number of combinations grows very fast.
Combinations of 2 or 3 are “few”. But consider 100, not too big a number; however the
number of combinations of 100 elements is 100100, this exceeds all interactions of all
elementary particles in the Universe in its entire lifetime, any algorithm facing this many
computations is incomputable.
It turns out that algorithmic difficulties considered previously are all related to this
problem. For example, a classification algorithm needs to consider combinations of
objects and classes. Neural network and fuzzy logic have been specifically developed for
overcoming this problem related to logic, but as mentioned they still use logic at some
step. For example, training is an essential step in every learning system, training includes
logical statements, e.g.,“this is a chair”. The combinatorial complexity follows as
inadvertently as incompleteness in any logical system.
Combinatorial complexity is inadvertent and practically as “bad” as Gödel’s
incompleteness.
8.4. Mechanisms of the Mind. What the Mind does Differently?: Dynamic
Logic
Although logic “does not work”, the mind works and recognizes objects around us. This
section considers fundamental mechanisms of the mind, and mathematics necessary to
model them adequately. Gradually, it will become clear why Gödel’s theory and the
fundamental flaw of logic, while been known to all scientists since the 1930s, have been
ignored when thinking about the mind and designing theories of artificial intelligence
(Perlovsky, 2010a, 2013c).
Among fundamental mechanisms of the mind are mental representations. To simplify,
we can think about them as mental imagery, or memories; these are mechanisms of
concepts, which are fundamental for understanding the world: objects, scenes, events, as
well as abstract ideas. Concepts model events in the world, for this reason they are also
called mental models. We understand the world by matching concept-models to events in
the world. In a “simple” case of visual perception of objects, concept-models of objects in
memory are matched to images of objects on the retina.
Much older mechanisms are instincts (for historical reasons psychologists prefer to
use the word “drives”). According to Grossberg–Levine theory of instincts and emotions
(1987), instincts work like internal bodily sensors, e.g., our bodies have sensors measuring
sugar level in blood. If it is below a certain level, we feel hunger. Emotions of hunger are
transferred by neuron connections from instinctual areas in the brain to decision-making
areas, and the mind devotes more attention to finding food.
This instinctual-emotional theory has been extended to learning. To find food, to
survive we need to understand objects around us. We need to match concept-models of
food to surrounding objects. This ability for understanding surroundings is so important
for survival, that we have an inborn ability, an instinct that drives the mind to match
concept-models to surrounding objects. This instinct is called the knowledge instinct
(Perlovsky and McManus, 1991; Perlovsky, 2001, 2006a, 2007d). The neural areas of the
brain participating in the knowledge instinct are discussed in (Levine and Perlovsky, 2008,
2010; Perlovsky and Levine, 2012). A mathematical model of the knowledge instinct (to
simplify) is a similarity measure between a concept and the corresponding event.
Satisfaction of any instinct is felt emotionally. There are specific emotions related to the
knowledge instinct, these are aesthetic emotions (Perlovsky, 2001, 2014; Perlovsky et al.,
2011). Relations of aesthetic emotions to knowledge have been discovered by Kant
(1790). Today it is known that these emotions are present in every act of perception and
cognition. An experimental demonstration of existence of these emotions has been
reported in (Perlovsky et al., 2010). Their relations to emotions of the beautiful are
discussed later.
Mental representations are organized in an approximate hierarchy from perceptual
elements to objects, to scenes, to more and more abstract concepts (Grossberg, 1988).
Cognition and learning of representations involves interactions between a higher and
lower level of representations (more than two layers may interact). This interaction
involves bottom–up signals, BU (from lower to higher levels) and top–down, TD (from
higher to lower levels). In a simplified view of object perception, an object image is
projected from eye retina to the visual cortex (BU), in parallel, representations of expected
objects are projected from memory to the visual cortex (TD). In an interaction between
BU and TD projections, they are matched. When a match occurs, the object is perceived.
We discussed in previous sections that artificial intelligence algorithms and neural
networks for decades have not been able to model this mechanism, logic used in
algorithms caused the problem of computational complexity. For example, ART neural
network (Carpenter and Grossberg, 1987) matched BU and TD signals using a
mathematical procedure of nearest neighbor. This procedure relies on logic at some
algorithmic step (e.g., selecting neighbors) and faces combinatorial complexity. The MHT
is another approach used for matching the BU and TD signals, as we discussed it faces the
combinatorial complexity due to a logical step of assignment of data to models.
To solve the problem, a mathematical technique of dynamic logic (DL), has been
created to avoid logic and follow the Aristotelian process of forms from potentialities to
actualities. Instead of stationary statements of classical logic, DL is a process-logic, a
process “from vague to crisp”. This process starts with vague states, “potentialities”; the
initial representations in DL are vague. DL thus predicts that mental representations and
their initial projections to the visual cortex are vague. In interaction with crisp BU
projections from retina, TD projections become crisp and match the BU projections,
creating “actualities”. How does this process avoid logic and overcome combinatorial
complexity?
Compare DL to MHT, which uses logic for data-model assignment. Due to the
vagueness of DL initial representations, all data are associated with all models-
representations. Thus, a logical assignment step is avoided. DL does not need to consider
combinatorially large number of assignments, and combinatorial complexity is avoided.
What remains is to develop a mathematical procedure that gradually improves models and
concurrently makes associations less vague. Before formulating this mathematical
procedure in the next section, let us discuss experimental evidence that confirms the
fundamental DL prediction: representations are vague.
Everyone can conduct a simple 1/2 minute experiment to glimpse into neural
mechanisms of representations and BU–TD signal interactions. Look at an object in front
of your eyes. Then close your eyes and imagine this object. The imagined object is not as
clear and crisp as the same object with opened eyes. It is known that visual imaginations
are produced by TD signals, projecting representations to the visual cortex. Vagueness of
the imagined object testifies to the vagueness of its representation. Thus, the fundamental
DL prediction is experimentally confirmed: representations are vague.
When you open your eyes, the object perception becomes crisp in all its details. This
seems to occur momentarily, but this is an illusion of consciousness. Actually the process
“from vague to crisp” takes quite long by neuronal measures, 0.6s, hundreds to thousands
of neuronal interactions. But our consciousness works in such a way that we are sure,
there is no “vague to crisp” process. We are not conscious of this process, and usually we
are not conscious about vague initial states either.
This prediction of DL has been confirmed in brain imaging experiments (Bar et al.,
2006). These authors demonstrated that indeed initial representations are vague and
usually unconscious. Also, the vague to crisp process is not accessible to consciousness.
Indeed Aristotle’s formulation of cognition as a process from vague potentialities to
logical actualities was ahead of his time.
8.5. Mathematical Formulation of DL
DL maximizes a similarity L between the BU data X(n), n = 1,…, N, and TD
representations-models M(m), m = 1, …, M,

(1)

Here l(X(n)|M(m)) are conditional similarities, later I denote them l(n|m) for shortness;
they can be defined so that under certain conditions they become the conditional
likelihoods of data given the models, L becomes the total likelihood, and DL performs the
maximum likelihood estimation. From the point of view of modeling the mind processes,
DL matches BU and TD signals and implements the knowledge instinct. Coefficients r(m),
model rates, define a relative proportion of data described by model m;for l(n|m) to be
interpretable as conditional likelihoods r(m) must satisfy a condition,

(2)

A product over data index n does not assume that data are probabilistically
independent (as some simplified approaches do, to overcome mathematical difficulties),
relationships among data are introduced through models. Models M(m) describe parallel
or alternative states of the system (the mind has many representations in its memories).
Note, Equation (1) accounts for all possible alternatives of the data associations through
all possible combinations of data and models-representations. Product over data index n of
the sums of M models results in MN items, this huge number is the mathematical reason
for CC.
Learning consists in estimating model parameters, which values are unknown and
should be estimated along with r(m) in the process of learning. Among standard
estimation approaches that we discussed is MHT (Singer et al., 1974), which considers
every item among MN. Logically, this corresponds to considering separately every
alternative association between data and models and choosing the best possible association
(maximizing the likelihood). It is known to encounter CC.
DL avoids this logical procedure and overcomes CC as follows. Instead of considering
logical associations between data and models, DL introduces continuous associations,

(3)

For decades, associations between models and data have been considered an
essentially discrete procedure. Representing discrete associations as continuous variables,
Equation (3) is the conceptual breakthrough in DL. The DL process for the estimation of
model parameters Sm begins with arbitrary values of these unknown parameters with one
restriction; parameter values should be defined so that partial similarities have large
variances. These high-variance uncertain states of models, in which models correspond to
any pattern in the data, correspond to the Aristotelian potentialities. In the process of
estimation, variances are reduced so that models correspond to actual patterns in data,
Aristotelian actualities. This DL-Aristotelian process “from vague to crisp” is defined
mathematically as follows (Perlovsky, 2001, 2006a, 2006b):

(4)

Parameter t here is an internal time of the DL process; in digital computer


implementation it is proportional to an iteration number.
A question might come up why DL, an essentially continuous process, seemingly very
different from logic is called logic. This topic is discussed from a mathematical viewpoint
in (Vityaev et al., 2011, 2013; Kovalerchuk et al., 2012). Here I would add that DL
explains how logic emerges in the mind from neural operations: vague and illogical DL
states evolve in the DL process to logical (or nearly logical) states. Classical logic is
(approximately) an end-state of the DL processes.
Relations between DL, logic, and computation are worth an additional discussion
(Perlovsky, 2013c). Dynamic logic is computable. Operations used by computers
implementing dynamic logic algorithms are logical. But these logical operations are at a
different level than human thinking. Compare the text of this chapter as stored in your
computer and the related computer operations (assuming you have the book in e-version)
to the human understanding of this chapter. The computer’s operations are logical, but on
a different level from your “logical” understanding of this text. A computer does not
understand the meaning of this chapter the way a human reader does. The reader’s logical
understanding is on top of 99% of the brain’s operations that are not “logical” at this level.
Our logical understanding is an end state of many illogical and unconscious dynamic logic
processes.
8.6. A Recognition-Perception DL Model
Here, I illustrate the DL processes “from vague to crisp” for object perception. These
processes model interactions among TD and BU signals. In these interactions, vague top-
level representations are matched to crisp bottom-level representations. As mentioned,
Aristotle discussed perception as a process from forms-as-potentialities to forms-as-
actualities 2400 years ago. Amazingly, Aristotle was closer to the truth than many ANNs
and computational intelligence algorithms used today.
From an engineering point of view, this example solves a problem of finding objects
in strong clutter (unrelated objects of no interest, noise). This is a classical engineering
problem. For cases of clutter signals stronger than object signals this problem has not been
solved for decades.
For this illustration, I use a simple example, still unsolvable by other methods. In this
example, DL finds patterns-objects in noise-clutter. Finding patterns below noise can be an
exceedingly complex problem. I briefly repeat here why for decades existing algorithms
could not solve this type of problems. If an exact pattern shape is not known and depends
on unknown parameters, these parameters should be found by fitting the pattern model to
the data. However, when the locations and orientations of patterns are not known, it is not
clear which subset of the data points should be selected for fitting. A standard approach
for solving this kind of problem, which has already been mentioned, is multiple
hypotheses testing, MHT (Singer et al., 1974); this algorithm searches through all logical
combinations of subsets and models and encounters combinatorial complexity.
In the current example, we are looking for ‘smile’ and ‘frown’ patterns in noise shown
in Figure 8.1a without noise, and in Figure 8.1b with noise, as actually measured (object
signals are about 2–3 times below noise and cannot be seen). This example models the
visual perception “from vague to crisp”. Even so, it is usually assumed that human visual
system works better than any computer algorithm, this is not the case here. The DL
algorithm used here models human visual perception, but human perception has been
optimized by evolution for different types of patterns; the algorithm here is not as versatile
as human visual system, it has been optimized for few types of patterns encountered here.
Figure 8.1: Finding ‘smile’ and ‘frown’ patterns in noise, an example of dynamic logic operation: (a) true ‘smile’ and
‘frown’ patterns are shown without noise; (b) actual image available for recognition (signals are below noise, signal-to-
noise ratio is between and , 100 times lower than usually considered necessary); (c) an initial fuzzy blob-model, the
vagueness corresponds to uncertainty of knowledge; (d) through (h) show improved models at various steps of DL
[Equations (3) and (4) are solved in 22 steps]. Between stages (d) and (e) the algorithm tried to fit the data with more
than one model and decided, that it needs three blob-models to ‘understand’ the content of the data. There are several
types of models: one uniform model describing noise (it is not shown) and a variable number of blob-models and
parabolic models, which number, location, and curvature are estimated from the data. Until about stage (g) the algorithm
‘thought’ in terms of simple blob models, at (g) and beyond, the algorithm decided that it needs more complex parabolic
models to describe the data. Iterations stopped at (h), when similarity (1) stopped increasing.

Several types of pattern models-representations are used in this example: parabolic


models describing ‘smiles’ and ‘frown’ patterns (unknown size, position, curvature, signal
strength, and number of models), circular-blob models describing approximate patterns
(unknown size, position, signal strength, and number of models), and noise model
(unknown strength). Mathematical description of these models and corresponding
conditional similarities l(n|m) are given in Perlovsky et al. (2011).
In this example, the image size is 100 × 100 points (N = 10,000 BU signals,
corresponding to the number of receptors in an eye retina), and the true number of models
is 4 (3+ noise), which is not known. Therefore, at least M = 5 models should be fit to the
data, to decide that 4 fits best. This yields complexity of logical combinatorial search, MN
= 105000; this combinatorially large number is much larger than the size of the Universe
and the problem was unsolvable for decades. Figure 8.1 illustrates DL operations: (a) true
‘smile’ and ‘frown’ patterns without noise, unknown to the algorithm; (b) actual image
available for recognition; (c) through (h) illustrate the DL process, they show improved
models (actually f(m|n) values) at various steps of solving DL Equations (3), and (4), a
total of 22 steps until similarity continues improving (noise model is not shown; figures
(c) through (h) show association variables, f(m|n), for blob and parabolic models). By
comparing (h) to (a), one can see that the final states of the models match patterns in the
signal. Of course, DL does not guarantee finding any pattern in noise of any strength. For
example, if the amount and strength of noise would increase 10-fold, most likely the
patterns would not be found. DL reduced the required number of computations from
combinatorial 105000 to about 109. By solving the CC problem, DL was able to find
patterns under the strong noise. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, this example gives
10,000% improvement over the previous state-of-the-art.
The main point of this example is to illustrate the DL process “from vague-to-crisp,”
how it models the open-close eyes experiment described in Section 8.4, and how it models
visual perception processes demonstrated experimentally in (Bar et al., 2006). This
example also emphasizes that DL is a fundamental and revolutionary improvement in
mathematics and machine learning (Perlovsky 2009c, 2010c).
8.7. Toward General Models of Structures
The next “breakthrough” required for machine learning and for modeling cognitive
processes is to construct algorithms with similar fast learning abilities that do not depend
on specific parametric shapes, and that could address the structure of models. I describe
such an algorithm in this section. For concreteness, I consider learning situations
constructed from some objects among many other objects. I assume that the learning
system can identify objects, however, which objects are important for constructing which
situation and which objects are randomly present is unknown. Such a problem faces CC of
a different kind from that considered above. Logical choice here would have to find
structure of models: objects that form situations. Instead, DL concentrates on continuous
parameterization of the model structure, which objects are associated with which
situations (Ilin and Perlovsky, 2010).
In addition to situation learning, the algorithm given below solves the entire new wide
class of problems that could not have been previously solved: structure of texts as they are
built from words, structure of interaction between language and cognition, higher
cognitive functions, symbols, grounded symbols, perceptual symbol system, creative
processes, and the entire cognitive hierarchy (Barsalou, 1999; Perlovsky, 2007a, 2007b;
Perlovsky and Ilin, 2012; Perlovsky and Levine, 2012; Perlovsky et al., 2011). Among
applications related to learning text structure, I demonstrate autonomous learning of
malware codes in Internet messages (Perlovsky and Shevchenko, 2014). Each of these
problems if approached logically would result in combinatorial complexity. Apparently,
the DL ability to model continuous associations could be the very conceptual
breakthrough that brings power of the mind to mathematical algorithms.
This further development of DL turns identifying a structure into a continuous
problem. Instead of the logical consideration of a situation as consisting of its objects, so
that every object either belongs to a situation or does not, DL considers every object as
potentially belonging to a situation. Starting from the vague potentiality of a situation, to
which every object could belong, the DL learning process evolves this into a model-
actuality containing definite object, and not containing others.
Every observation, n = 1, …, N, contains a number of objects, j = 1,…, J. Let us
denote objects as x(n, j), here n enumerates observations, and j enumerates objects. As
previously, m = 1, …, M enumerates situation-models. Model parameters, in addition to
r(m) are p(m, j), potentialities of object j belonging to situation-models m. Data x(n, j)
have values 0 or 1; potentialities p(m, j) start with vague value near 0.5 and in the DL
process of learning they converge to 0 or 1. Mathematically this construct can be
described as

(5)
A model parameter p(m, j), modeling a potentiality of object j being part of model m,
starts the DL process with initial value near 0.5 (exact values 0.5 for all p(m, j) would be a
stationary point of the DL process, Equation (4)). Value p(m, j) near 0.5 gives potentiality
values (of x(n, j) belonging to model m) with a maximum near 0.5, in other words, every
object has a significant chance to belong to every model. If p(m, j) converge to 0 or 1
values, these would describe which objects j belong to which models m.
Using conditional similarities, Equation (5) in the DL estimation process, Equation (4)
can be simplified to an iterative set of Equations (3) and

(6)

both Equations (3) and (6) should be recomputed at each iteration.


Illustration of this DL algorithm is shown in Figure 8.2. Here, 16,000 simulated
observations are shown on the left. They are arranged in their sequential order along the
horizontal axis, n. For this simplified example, we simulated 1,000 total possible objects,
they are shown along the vertical axis, j. Every observation has or does not have a
particular object as shown by a white or black dot at the location (n, j). This figure looks
like random noise corresponding to pseudo-random content of observations. On the right
figure, observations are sorted so that observations having similar objects appear next to
each other. These similar objects appear as white horizontal streaks and reveal several
groups of data, observations of specific situations. Most of observation contents are
pseudo-random objects; about one-half of observations contain certain situations. These
observations with specific repeated objects reveal specific situations, they identify certain
situation-models.

Figure 8.2: On the left are 16,000 observed situations arranged in their sequential order along the horizontal axis, n.
The total number of possible objects is 1,000, they are shown along the vertical axis, j. Every observation has or does not
have a particular object as shown by a white or black dot at the location (n, j). This figure looks like random noise
corresponding to pseudo-random content of observations. On the right figure, observations are sorted so that
observations having similar objects appear next to each other. These similar objects appear as white horizontal streaks.
Most of observation contents are pseudo-random objects; about a half of observations have several similar objects.
These observations with several specific objects observe specific situations, they reveal certain situation-models.

Since the data for this example have been simulated, we know the true number of
various situations, and the identity of each observation as containing a particular situation-
model. All objects have been assigned correctly to their situations without a single error.
Convergence is very fast and took two to four iterations (or steps) to solve Equation (4).
This algorithm has been also applied to autonomous finding of malware codes in
Internet messages (Perlovsky and Shevchenko, 2014) by identifying groups of messages
different from normal messages. In this application, messages are similar to observations
in the previous application of situation learning; groups of messages correspond to
situations, and n-grams correspond to objects. We applied this algorithm to a publicly
available dataset of malware codes, KDD (Dua and Du, 2011; Gesher, 2013; Mugan,
2013). This dataset includes 41 features extracted from Internet packets and one class
attribute enumerating 21 classes of four types of attacks. The DL algorithm identified all
classes of malware and all malware messages without a single false alarm. This
performance in terms of accuracy and speed is better than other published algorithms. An
example of the algorithm performance on this data is given in Figure 8.3. This application
is a step toward autonomous finding of malware codes in Internet messages.

Figure 8.3: This figure shows sorted messages from six groups (one normal and five malware) of the KDD dataset
(similar to Figure 8.2 right. I do not show unsorted messages, similar to Figure 8.2 left). Along the horizontal axis:
67,343 normal messages and a five malware codes 2,931 portsweep, 890 warezclient, 3,633 satan, 41,214 neptune, 3,599
ipsweep. Groups of malware are significantly different in size, and not all features important for a group are necessarily
present in each vector belonging to the group, therefore the look of the figure is not as clear cut as Figure 8.2 right.
Nevertheless all vectors are classified without errors, and without false alarms.
8.8. Modeling Higher Cognitive Functions, Including the Beautiful
Examples in previous sections addressed classical engineering problems that have not
been solved for decades. In parallel they modeled the mind processes corresponding to
classical psychological phenomena of perception and cognition. In this section, I begin
considering “higher” cognitive functions, the entire hierarchy of the mind processes from
objects to the very “top” of the mental hierarchy. These processes have not been so far
understood in psychology, even so some of their aspects (e.g., language, the beautiful,
music) have been analyzed in philosophy and psychology for thousands of years. From the
engineering point of view, these problems are becoming important now as engineers
attempt to construct human-like robots. As shown in the following sections, constructing
robots capable of abstract thinking requires understanding of how cognition interacts with
language. I also demonstrate that the beautiful and the music have specific fundamental
cognitive functions, and understanding their mechanisms is paramount for constructing
human-like robots (even at a level well below than the full power of the human mind).
The mathematical model of learning situations constructed from objects, considered in
the previous section, is applicable to modeling the entire hierarchy of the mind. The mind
is organized in an approximate hierarchy (Grossberg, 1988) from visual percepts, to
objects, to situations, to more and more abstract concepts at higher levels, which contents I
analyze later. The mathematical structure of the model given by Equations (3)–(5) is
applicable to the entire hierarchy because it does not depend on specific designations of
“objects”, “situations”, or “n-grams”, used above. It is equally applicable to modeling
interaction of BU and TD signals between any higher and lower levels in the hierarchy,
and therefore modeling neural mechanisms of learning of abstract concepts from lower
level concepts.
Let us turn to details of the knowledge instinct and related aesthetic emotions briefly
discussed in Section 8.4. Interactions between BU and TD signals are driven by the inborn
mechanism, instinct. At lower levels of the hierarchy involving object recognition, this
instinct is imperative for finding food, detecting danger, and for survival (Perlovsky,
2007d). Therefore, the knowledge instinct at these levels acts autonomously. Tentative
analysis of brain regions participating in the knowledge instinct have been analyzed in
(Levine and Perlovsky, 2008, 2010; Perlovsky and Levine, 2012). The mathematical
model of the knowledge instinct is given in the previous section, as DL maximization of
similarity between mental representations (TD signals) at every level and those coming
from a lower level BU signals. Motivation for improving knowledge and satisfaction or
dissatisfaction with knowledge are felt as aesthetic emotions. Their connection to
knowledge makes them “more spiritual” than basic emotions related to bodily instincts.
Existence of these emotions has been experimentally confirmed (Perlovsky et al., 2010).
At higher levels of the mental hierarchy a person might experience “higher” aesthetic
emotions. These are related to the beautiful as discussed below (Perlovsky, 2000).
Concept-representations at every level emerged in evolution with a specific purpose,
to form higher-level more abstract concepts by unifying some subsets of lower-level ones.
For example, a mental representation of “professor office” unifies lower level
representations such as chairs, desk, computer, shelves, books, etc. At every higher level
more general and abstract representations are formed. We know from DL and confirming
experiments that higher-level representations are vaguer and less conscious than objects
perceived with opened eyes. This vagueness and lesser consciousness is the “price” for
generality and abstractness Perlovsky (2010d).
Continuing these arguments toward the top of the hierarchy we can come up with the
hypothesis of the contents of representations at the top of the hierarchy. The “top”
representation evolved with the purpose to unify the entire life experience and it is
perceived as the meaning of life. Does it really exist? Let us repeat that top representations
are vague and mostly unconscious, therefore the meaning of life does not exist the same
way as a concrete object that can be perceived with opened eyes. Nevertheless, it really
exists, similar to other abstract concepts-representation independently of subjective will. It
is not up to one’s will to accept or deny an objectively existing architecture of the brain-
mind.
Every person can work toward improving one’s understanding of the meaning of his
or her life. Appreciation that one’s life has a meaning is of utmost importance; thousands
of years ago it could have been important for the individual survival. Today it is important
for concentrating ones efforts on the most important goals, for attaining one’s highest
achievements. Improving these highest representations, even if it only results in the
improved appreciation of existence of the meaning, leads to satisfaction of the knowledge
instinct. The corresponding aesthetic emotions near the top of the hierarchy are felt as
emotions of the beautiful (Perlovsky, 2000, 2002b, 2010b, 2010e, 2010f, 2014a).
This theory of beautiful is the scientific development of Kant’s aesthetics (1790). Kant
has been the first who related the beautiful to knowledge. But without the theory of the
knowledge instinct, and the hierarchy of aesthetic emotions, he could not complete his
aesthetic theory to his satisfaction. He could only formulate what the beauty “is not”, in
particular, he emphasized that the beautiful does not respond to any specific interests, it is
purposeful, but its purpose is not related to any specific need. Today I reformulate this:
emotions of the beautiful do not satisfy any of the bodily instincts, they satisfy the “higher
and more spiritual” instinct for knowledge. Several times Kant has tried to come close to
this scientific understanding, he has emphasized that the beautiful is purposive in some
highest way, that it corresponds to some highest human interests, and that a better more
precise formulation is needed, but he had to concede that “today we cannot” do this. This
Kantian intuition was ahead of his time by far. His immediate follower Shiller (1895)
misunderstood Kant and interpreted him as if the beautiful is disinterested, and therefore
art exists for its own sake. This misunderstanding of the beautiful, its function in
cognition, and the meaning of art persists till today. In tens of thousands of papers on art
and aesthetics, the beautiful is characterized as disinterested, and “art for its own sake”
(Perlovsky, 2010f).
I would add that often emotions of the beautiful are mixed up with sexual feelings. Of
course, sex is among the most powerful instincts, it may involve all our abilities. However,
emotions related to sex are driven by the instinct for procreation and therefore they
fundamentally differ from the beautiful, which is driven by the instinct for knowledge.
Let us summarize the emotion of the beautiful as an aesthetic emotion related to the
satisfaction of the knowledge instinct near the top of the mental hierarchy, related to the
understanding of the meaning of life. It is a subjective emotion affected by the entire
individual life experience, at the same time it objectively exists, being related to the
fundamental structure of the human mind.
8.9. Language, Cognition, and Emotions Motivating their Interactions
Many properties of cognition and language have been difficult to understand because
interactions between these two human abilities have not been understood. Do we think
with language, or is language used only for communicating completed thoughts?
Language and thinking are so closely related and intertwined that answering this question,
requires a mathematical model corresponding to the known neural structures of the brain-
mind. For many years, mathematical modeling of language and cognition has proceeded
separately, without neurally-based mathematical analysis of how these abilities interact.
So, we should not be surprised that existing robots are far away from human-like abilities
for language and cognition. Constructing humanoid robots requires mathematical models
of these abilities. A model of language-cognition interaction described in this section gives
a mathematical foundation for understanding these abilities and for developing robots with
human-like abilities. It also gives a foundation for understanding why higher human
cognitive abilities, including ability for the beautiful sometimes may seem mysterious
(Perlovsky, 2004, 2005, 2009a).
A cognitive hierarchy of the mind has been illustrated in Figure 8.4. However, analysis
in this section demonstrates that such a hierarchy cannot exist without language. The
human mind requires a dual hierarchy of language-cognition illustrated in Figure 8.5
(Perlovsky, 2005, 2007a, 2009a, 2009b, 2011, 2013b; Perlovsky and Ilin, 2010, 2013;
Tikhanoff et al., 2006). The dual hierarchy model explains many facts about thinking,
language, and cognition, which has remained unexplainable and would be considered
mysteries, if not so commonplace. Before we describe how the dual hierarchy is modeled
by equations discussed in Section 8.6, let us list here some of the dual model explanations
and predictions (so that the mathematical discussion later will be associated with specific
human abilities).

Figure 8.4: The hierarchy of cognition from sensory-motor signals at the “lower” levels to objects, situations, and more
abstract concepts. Every level contains a large number of mental representations. Vertical arrows indicate interactions of
BU and TD signals.

Figure 8.5: The dual hierarchy. Language and cognition are organized into approximate dual hierarchy. Learning
language is grounded in the surrounding language throughout the hierarchy (indicated by thin horizontal arrows).
Learning the cognitive hierarchy is grounded in experience only at the very “bottom.” The rest of the cognitive hierarchy
is mostly grounded in language. Vertical arrows indicate interactions of BU and TD signals. A wide horizontal arrow
indicates interactions between language and cognition; for abstract concepts these are mostly directed from language to
cognition.

(1) The dual model explains functions of language and cognition in thinking:
cognitive representations model surrounding world, relations between objects, events, and
abstract concepts. Language stores culturally accumulated knowledge about the world, yet
language is not directly connected to objects, events, and situations in the world.
Language guides acquisition of cognitive representations from random percepts and
experiences, according to what is considered worth learning and understanding in culture.
Events that are not described in language are likely not even noticed or perceived in
cognition.
(2) Whereas language is acquired early in life, acquiring cognition takes a lifetime.
The reason is that language representations exist in surrounding language “ready-made,”
acquisition of language requires only interaction with language speakers, but does not
require much life experience. Cognition on the opposite requires life experience.
(3) This is the reason why abstract words excite only language regions of brain,
whereas concrete words excite also cognitive regions (Binder et al., 2005). The dual
model predicts that abstract concepts are often understood as word descriptions, but not in
terms of objects, events, and relations among them.
(4) In this way, the dual model explains why children can acquire the entire hierarchy
of language including abstract words without experience necessary for understanding
them.
(5) DL is the basic mechanism for learning language and cognitive representations.
The dual model suggests that language representations become crisp after language is
learned (5–7 years of age), this corresponds to language representations being crisp and
near logical. However, cognitive representations remain vague for two reasons. First, as
we have discussed, this vagueness is necessary for the ability to perceive objects and
events in their variations. Second, this vagueness is a consequence of limited experience;
ability to identify cognitive events and abstract concepts in correspondence with language
improves with experience; the vagueness is also the meaning of “continuing learning”, this
takes longer for more abstract and less used concepts. How do these two different aspects
of vagueness co-exist? Possibly, various concrete representations are acquired with
experience; vague representations are still retained for perception of novelty. At lower
levels, this occurs automatically, at higher levels individual efforts are necessary to
maintain both concrete and vague representations (we know that some minds get “closed”
with experience).
(6) The dual model gives mathematical description of the recursion mechanism
(Perlovsky and Ilin, 2012). Whereas Hauser et al. (2002) postulate that recursion is a
fundamental mechanism in cognition and language, the dual model suggests that recursion
is not fundamental, hierarchy is a mechanism of recursion.
(7) Another mystery of human-cognition, not addressed by cognitive or language
theories, is basic human irrationality. This has been widely discussed and experimentally
demonstrated following discoveries of Tversky and Kahneman (1974), leading to the 2002
Nobel Prize. According to the dual hierarchy model, the “irrationality” originates from the
dichotomy between cognition and language. Language is crisp and conscious while
cognition might be vague and ignored when making decisions. Yet, collective wisdom
accumulated in language may not be properly adapted to one’s personal circumstances,
and therefore be irrational in a concrete situation. In the 12th century, Maimonides wrote
that Adam was expelled from paradise because he refused original thinking using his own
cognitive models, but ate from the tree of knowledge and acquired collective wisdom of
language (Levine and Perlovsky, 2008).
The same Equations (4) or (3) and (5) that we have used to model the cognitive
hierarchy are used for the mathematical modeling of the dual language-cognition model.
Modeling the dual hierarchy differs from modeling cognition in that every observation,
situation-collection of lower level signals, now includes both language and cognitive
representations from lower levels. In the DL processes [Equations (4) and (5)], language
hierarchy is acquired first (during early years of life); it is learned according to abstract
words, phrases, and higher-level language representations existing in the surrounding
language. Most cognitive representations remain vague for a while. As more experience is
accumulated, cognitive representations are acquired corresponding to already existing
language representations. This joint acquisition of both language and cognition
corresponds to the wide horizontal arrow in Figure 8.5. In this way, cognitive
representations are acquired from experience guided by language.
As some cognitive representations become crisper and more conscious, this
establishes more reliable connections between representation and events in the world. This
provides learning feedback, grounding for learning of both cognition and language. Thus,
both cognition and language are grounded not only in language, but also in the
surrounding world. Language representations correspond to some extent to the world. At
lower levels of the hierarchy, levels of objects and situations, these processes are
supported by the fact that objects can be directly observed; situations can be observed to
some extent after acquisition of the corresponding cognitive ability. At more abstract
levels, these connections between language and the world are more sporadic, some
connections of abstract language and cognitive representations could be more or less
conscious, correspondingly more or less concrete could be understanding of abstract
events and relations in the world.
Higher up in the hierarchy, less of cognitive representations ever become fully
conscious, if they maintain an adequate level of generality and abstractness. Two opposing
mechanisms are at work here (as already mentioned). First, vagueness of representations is
a necessary condition for being able to perceive novel contents (we have seen it in the
“open–close” eyes experiment). Second, vague contents evolve toward concrete contents
with experience. Therefore, more concrete representations evolve with experience, while
vague representations remain. This depends on experience and extent to which cultural
wisdom contained in language is acquired by an individual. People differ in extents and
aspects of culture they become conscious of at the higher levels. Majority of cognitive
contents of the higher abstract concepts remain unconscious. This is why we can discuss
in detail the meaning of life and the beautiful using language, but significant part of higher
cognitive contents forever remain inaccessible to consciousness.
Interactions among language, cognition, and the world require motivation. The inborn
motivation is provided by the knowledge instinct. Language acquisition is driven by its
aspect related to the language instinct (Pinker, 1994). Certain mechanisms of mind may
participate in both language and knowledge instinct, and division between language and
knowledge instinct is not completely clear-cut. This area remains “grey” in our
contemporary knowledge. More experimental data are needed to differentiate the two. I
would emphasize that the language instinct drives language acquisition, its mechanisms
“stop” at the border with cognition, and the language instinct does not concern
improvement of cognitive representations and connecting language representations with
the world.
Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct connecting language and cognition are
experienced as emotions. These are special aesthetic emotions related to language. As we
have discussed, these interactions are mostly directed from language to cognition, and
correspondingly these emotions–motivations necessary for understanding language
cognitively (beyond “just” words) are “more” on the language side. For cognitive
mechanisms to be “interested” in language, to be motivated to acquire directions from
language, there has to be an emotional mechanism in language accomplishing this
motivation. These emotions of course must be of ancient origin, they must have been
supporting the very origin of language and originating pre-linguistically. These emotions
are emotional prosody of language.
In the pre-linguistic past, animal vocalizations did not differentiate emotion-evaluation
contents from conceptual-semantic contents. Animals’ vocal tract muscles are controlled
from the ancient emotional center (Deacon, 1989; Lieberman, 2000). Sounds of animal
cries engage the entire psyche, rather than concepts and emotions separately. Emergence
of language required emancipation of voicing from uncontrollable emotions (Perlovsky,
2004, 2009a, 2009b). Evolution of languages proceeded toward reducing emotional
content of language voice. Yet, complete disappearance of emotions from language would
make language irrelevant for life, meaningless. Connections of language with cognition
and life require that language utterances remain emotional. This emotionality motivates
connecting language with cognition. Some of these prosodial emotions correspond to
basic emotions and bodily needs; yet there is a wealth of subtle variations of prosodial
emotions related to the knowledge instinct and unrelated to bodily needs. I would add that
the majority of everyday conversations may not relate to exchange of semantic
information as in scientific presentations; majority of information in everyday
conversations involve emotional information, e.g., information about mutual compatibility
among people. This wealth of emotions we hear in poetry and in songs.
Emotionality of language prosody differs among languages; this impacts entire
cultures. It is interesting to note that during the recent 500 years, during the transition from
Middle English to Modern English, significant part of emotional connections between
words and their meanings has been lost. I repeat, these emotions came from millennial
past and subconsciously control the meanings of utterances and thoughts; disappearance
(to significant extent) of these emotions makes English a powerful tool of science and
engineering, including social engineering. There are differences between these areas of
fast changes in contemporary life. Results of scientific and engineering changes, such as
new drugs, new materials, and new transportation methods usually are transparent for
society. Positive changes are adopted, when in doubt (such as genetic engineering) society
can take evaluative measures and precautions. Social engineering is different, changes in
values and attitudes usually are considered to be results of contemporary people to be
smarter in their thinking than our predecessors. Identifying which part of these changes is
due to autonomous changes in language, which are not under anybody’s conscious control,
should be an important part of social sciences.
The dual hierarchy model explains how language influences cognition. A more
detailed development of this model can lead to explaining and predicting cultural
differences related to language, so called Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis (SWH) (Whorf, 1956;
Boroditsky, 2001). Prosodial emotions are influenced by grammar, leading to Emotional
SWH (Perlovsky, 2009b; Czerwon, et al., 2013). It follows that languages influence
emotionalities of cultures, in particular, the strength of emotional connections between
words and their meanings. This strength of individual “belief” in the meaning of words
can significantly influence cultures and their evolution paths.
Understanding prosodial emotions and their functions in cognition, developing
appropriate mathematical models is important not only for psychology and social science
but also for artificial intelligence and ANNs, for developing human– computer interface
and future robots with human level intelligence.
8.10. Music Functions in Cognition
2400 years ago Aristotle (1995) asked “why music, being just sounds, reminds states of
the soul?” Why an ability to perceive sounds emotionally and to create such sounds could
emerge in evolution? Darwin (1871) called music “the greatest mystery”. Does
computational intelligence community need to know the answer? Can we contribute to
understanding of this mystery? The explanation of the mystery of music has been obtained
from the dual model considered in the previous section. Music turns out to perform
cognitive functions of utmost importance, it enables accumulation of knowledge, it unifies
human psyche split by language, and it makes the entire evolution of human culture
possible. Enjoying music is not just good for spending time free from job; enjoying music
is fundamental for cognition. Humanoid robots need to enjoy music, otherwise cognition
is not possible. To understand cognitive functions of music, music origin and evolution,
we first examine an important cognitive mechanism counteracting the knowledge instinct,
the mechanism of cognitive dissonances.
Cognitive dissonances (CD) are discomforts caused by holding conflicting cognitions.
Whereas it might seem to scientists and engineers that conflicts in knowledge are welcome
as they inspire new thinking, in fact CD are particularly evident when a new scientific
theory is developed; new ideas are usually rejected. It is not just because of opposition of
envious colleagues, it is also because of genetically inherited mechanism of CD. CD is
among “the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology” (e.g.,
Alfnes et al., 2010). CDs are powerful anti-knowledge mechanisms. It is well known that
CD discomforts are usually resolved by devaluing and discarding a conflicting piece of
knowledge (Festinger, 1957; Cooper, 2007; Harmon-Jones et al., 2009); we discuss it in
detail later. It is also known that awareness of CD is not necessary for actions to reduce
the conflict (discarding conflicting knowledge); these actions are often fast and act
without reaching conscious mechanisms (Jarcho et al., 2011).
I would emphasize that every mundane element of knowledge to be useful must differ
from innate knowledge supplied by evolution or from existing knowledge acquired
through experience. Otherwise the new knowledge would not be needed. For new
knowledge to be useful it must to some extent contradict existing knowledge. Can new
knowledge be complementary rather than contradictory? Since new knowledge emerges
by modifying previous knowledge (Simonton, 2000; Novak, 2010), there must always be
conflict between the two. Because of this conflict between new and previous knowledge
CD theory suggests that new knowledge should be discarded. This process of resolving
CD by discarding contradictions is usually fast, and according to CD theory new
knowledge is discarded before its usefulness is established. But accumulating knowledge
is the essence of cultural evolution, so how human cultures could evolve? A powerful
cognitive-emotional mechanism evolved to overcome CD, discomforts of contradictory
knowledge, so that human evolution became possible.
A language phrase containing a new piece of knowledge, in order to be listened to
without an immediate rejection, should come with a sweetener, a positive emotion
sounding in the voice itself. In the previous section, we discussed that this is the purpose
of language prosody. However, emotions of language have been reduced in human
evolution, whereas knowledge has been accumulated and stronger emotions have been
needed to sustain the evolution. The human mind has been rewired for this purpose.
Whereas animal vocalization is controlled from the ancient emotional center, the human
mind evolved secondary emotional centers in the cortex, partially under voluntary control,
governing language vocalization. In the process of language evolution human vocalization
split into highly semantic and low emotional language, and another type of vocalization,
highly emotional and less semantic, connected to the primordial emotional center
governing the entire psyche; this highly emotional vocalization unifying psyche gradually
evolved into music. The powerful emotional mechanism of music overcame cognitive
dissonances, it enables us and our predecessors to maintain contradictory cognitions and
unify psyche split by language (Perlovsky, 2006a, 2010a, 2012a, 2012b, 2013a).
Pre-language animals’ mind is unified. A monkey seeing an approaching tiger
understands the situation conceptually (danger), is afraid emotionally (fear), behaves
appropriately (jumps on a tree) and cries in monkey language for itself and for the rest of
the pack (“tiger”, in monkey language). However, all of these are experienced as a unified
state of the mind, a monkey cannot experience emotions and concepts separately. A
monkey does not contemplate the meaning of his life. Humans, in contrast, possess a
remarkable degree of differentiation of their mental states. Emotions in humans have
separated from concepts and from behavior. This differentiation destroyed the primordial
unity of the psyche. With the evolution of language the human psyche lost its unity—the
inborn connectedness of knowledge, emotions, and behavior. The meaning of our life, the
highest purpose requiring the utmost effort is not obvious and not defined for us
instinctively; the very existence of the meaning is doubtful. However, the unity of psyche
is paramount for concentrating the will, and for achieving the highest goal. While part of
the human voice evolved into language, acquired concrete semantics, lost much of its
emotionality, and split our mental life into many disunited goals, another part of the voice
evolved into a less concretely semantic but powerfully emotional ability—music—helping
to unify the mental life (Perlovsky, 2006a, 2012a, 2012b, 2013a).
8.11. Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Tests
Mathematical models of the mind have been used for designing cognitive algorithms;
these algorithms based on DL solved several classes of engineering problems considered
unsolvable, reaching and sometimes exceeding power of the mind. A few examples have
been discussed in this chapter, many others can be found in the referenced publications
(e.g., Perlovsky et al., 2011). These engineering successes suggest that DL possibly
captures some essential mechanisms of the mind making it more powerful than past
algorithms. In addition to solving engineering problems, mathematical models of the mind
have explained mechanisms that could not have been understood and made predictions
that could be tested experimentally. Some of these predictions have been tested and
confirmed, none has been disproved. Experimental validations of DL predictions are
summarized below.
The first and most fundamental prediction of dynamic logic is vagueness of mental
representations and the DL process “from vague to crisp”. This prediction has been
confirmed in brain imaging experiments for perception of objects (Bar et al., 2006), and
for recognition of contexts and situations (Kveraga et al., 2007). DL is a mechanism of the
knowledge instinct. The knowledge instinct theory predicts the existence of special
emotions related to knowledge, aesthetic emotions. Their existence has been demonstrated
in (Perlovsky et al., 2010). This also confirms of existence of the knowledge instinct.
The dual hierarchy theory of language-cognition interaction predicts that language and
cognition are different mechanisms. Existence of separate neural mechanisms for language
and cognition has been confirmed in (Price, 2012). The dual hierarchy theory predicts that
perception and understanding of concrete objects involves cognitive and language
mechanisms, whereas cognition of abstract concepts is mostly due to language
mechanisms. This has been confirmed in (Binder et al., 2005).
The dual hierarchy emphasizes fundamental cognitive function of language
emotionality, language prosody influences strength of emotional connections between
sounds and meanings; these connections are the foundations of both language and
cognition. The strengths of these emotional connections could differ among languages,
affecting cultures and their evolution, leading to Emotional SWH. Various aspects of this
hypothesis have been confirmed experimentally. Guttfreund (1990) demonstrated that
Spanish is more emotional than English; Harris et al. (2003) demonstrated that emotional
connections between sounds and meanings in Turkish are stronger than in English; these
have been predicted based on grammatical structures of the corresponding languages
(Perlovsky, 2009b). Czerwon et al. (2013) demonstrated that this emotional strength
depends on grammar as predicted in Perlovsky (2009b).
A theory of musical emotions following from the dual model predicts that music helps
unifying mental life, overcoming CD and keeping contradictory knowledge. This
prediction has been confirmed in (Masataka and Perlovsky, 2012a, 2012b), which
describes a modified classical CD experiment (Aronson and Carlsmith, 1963); in the
original experiment children devalued a toy if they were told not to play with it. The desire
‘to have’ contradicts the inability ‘to attain’; this CD is resolved by discarding the value of
a toy. Masataka and Perlovsky modified this experiment by adding music played in the
background. With music, the toy has not been devalued, contradictory knowledge could be
retained. Another experiment explained the so-called Mozart effect: student’s academic
test performance improved after listening to Mozart (Rauscher et al., 1993). These results
started a controversy resolved in (Perlovsky et al., 2013). This publication demonstrated
that the Mozart effect is the predicted overcoming of CD: as expected from CD theory
students allocate less time to more difficult and stressful tests; with music in the
background students can tolerate stress, allocate more time to stressful tests, and improve
grades. These results have been further confirmed in (Cabanac et al., 2013): students
selecting music classes outperformed other students in all subjects. Another experiment
demonstrated that music helps overcoming cognitive interference. A classical approach to
creating cognitive interference is Stroop effect (Stroop, 1935). Masataka and Perlovsky
(2013) demonstrated that music played in the background reduced the interference.
8.12. Future Research
Future engineering research should develop the large-scale implementation of the dual
hierarchy model and demonstrate joint learning of language and cognition in robotics and
human–computer integrated systems. Scientifically oriented research should use agent
systems with each agent possessing a mind with language and cognitive abilities (the dual
hierarchy). Such systems could be used for studying evolution of languages including
grammar along with evolution of cultures. This will open directions toward studying
evolution of cognitive dissonances and aesthetic emotions. Future research should address
brain mechanisms of the knowledge instinct. A particularly understudied area is functions
of emotions in cognition. Several directions for research in this area are outlined below.
Emotions of language prosody have only been studied in cases of intentionally
strongly-emotional speech. These emotions are recognized without language in all
societies, and unify us with non-human animals. Non-intentional prosodial emotions that
are inherent functions of languages and connect language sounds to meanings should be
studied. The dual model predicts fundamental importance of these emotions in language-
cognition interaction.
Emotional SWH made a number of predictions about prosodial emotions and their
connections to language grammar. In particular, this theory predicts that emotional links
between sounds and meanings (words and objects-events they designate) are different in
different languages, and the strengths of these links depend on language grammar in a
predictable way (Perlovsky, 2009b): languages with more inflections have stronger
emotional links between sounds and meanings. These predictions have been confirmed for
English, Spanish, and Turkish (Guttfreund, 1990; Harris et al., 2003; Czerwon, et al.,
2013). More experiments are needed to study connections between language structure, its
emotionality, and cultural effects.
Among the greatest unsolved problems in experimental studies of the mind is how to
measure the wealth of aesthetic emotions. Bonniot-Cabanac et al. (2012) initiated
experimental studying of CD emotions. These authors demonstrated existence of emotions
related to CD, their fundamental difference from basic emotions, and outlined steps
toward demonstrating a very large number of these emotions. Possibly, a most direct
attempt to “fingerprint” aesthetic emotions is to measure neural networks corresponding to
them (Wilkins et al., 2012). Three specific difficulties are faced when attempting to
instrumentalize (measure) a variety of aesthetic emotions. The first is a limitation by
words. In the majority of psychological experiments measuring emotions, they are
described using words. But English words designate a limited number of different
emotions, about 150 words designate between 6 and 20 different emotions (depending on
the author; e.g., Petrov et al., 2012). Musical emotions that evolved with a special purpose
not to be limited by low emotionality of language cannot be measured in all their wealth
by emotional words. Second difficulty is “non-rigidity” of aesthetic emotions. They are
recent in evolutionary time. Whereas basic emotions evolved hundreds of millions of
years ago, aesthetic emotions evolved no more than two million years ago, and possibly
more recently. This might be related to the third difficulty, subjectivity. Aesthetic emotions
depend not only on stimuli, but also on subjective states of experiment participants. All
experimental techniques today rely on averaging over multiple measurements and
participants. Such averaging likely eliminates the wealth of aesthetic emotions, such as
musical emotions, and only most “rigid” emotions remain.
This chapter suggests that mental representations near the top of the hierarchy of the
mind are related to the meaning of life. Emotions related to improvement of the contents
of these representations are related to the emotions of the beautiful. Can this conjecture be
experimentally confirmed? Experimental steps in this direction have been made in
(Biederman and Vessel, 2006; Zeki et al., 2014).
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Chapter 9

Introduction to Cognitive Systems


Péter Érdi and Mihály Bányai
The chapter reviews some historical and recent trends in understanding natural and developing artifical
cognitive systems. One of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science, i.e., mental representation, is
discussed. The two main directions, symbolic and connectionist (and their combinaton: hybrid) architectures
are analyzed. Two main cognitive functions, memory and language, are specifically reviewed. While the
pioneers of cognitive science neglected neural level studies, modern cognitive neuroscience contributes to the
understanding of neural codes, neural representations. In addition, cognitive robotics builds autonomous
systems to realize intelligent sensory-motor integration.
9.1. Representation and Computation
9.1.1. Representations
Cognitive science (CS), the interdisciplinary study of the mind, deals on the one hand with
the understanding of the human mind and intelligence and on the other hand with the
construction of an artificial mind and artificial cognitive systems. Its birth was strongly
motivated by the information processing paradigm, thus CS aims to explain thinking as a
computational procedure acting on representational structures. Historically, Kenneth Craik
(Craik, 1943) argued that the mind does not operate directly on external reality, but on
internal models, i.e., on representations. CS predominantly assumes that the mind has
mental representations and computational manipulations on these representations are
used to understand and simulate thinking. “… He emphasizes the three processes of
translation, inference, and retranslation: “the translation of external events into some kind
of neural patterns by stimulation of the sense organs, the interaction and stimulation of
other neural patterns as in ‘association’, and the excitation by these effectors or motor
patterns.” Here, Craik’s paradigm of stimulus-association-response allows the response to
be affected by association with the person’s current model but does not sufficiently invoke
the active control of its stimuli by the organism …” (Arbib et al., 1997, p. 38). Different
versions of representations, such as logic, production rules (Newell and Simon, 1972),
semantic networks of concepts (Collins and Quillian, 1969; Quillian, 1968), frames
(Minsky, 1974), schemata (Bobrow and Norman, 1975), scripts (Schank and Abelson,
1977), and mental models,1 analogies, images (Shepard, 1980) have been suggested and
analyzed in terms of their representation and computational power, neural plausibility, etc.
(Thagard, 2005). It is interesting to see that while behaviorism famously ignored the study
of mental events, cognitive science, although it was born by attacking behaviorism in the
celebrated paper of Chomsky on Skinner (Chomsky, 1959), was also intentionally
ignorant: neural mechanisms were not really in the focus of the emerging interdisciplinary
field. Concerning the mechanisms of neural-level and mental level representations,
Churchland and Sejnowski (Churchland and Sejnowski, 1990) argued that representations
and computations in the brain seem to be very different from the ones offered by the
traditional symbol-based cognitive science.

9.1.2. Symbolic Representation


9.1.2.1. The physical symbol system hypothesis

The physical symbol system hypothesis served as the general theoretical framework for
processing information by serial mechanism, and local symbols. It stated that physical
symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action
(Newell and Simon, 1976) and serves as the general theoretical framework for processing
information by serial mechanism, and local symbols. It is necessary, since anything
capable of intelligent action is a physical symbol system. It is sufficient, since any relevant
physical symbol system is capable of intelligent action. The hypothesis is based on four
ideas
• Symbols are physical patterns.
• Symbols can be combined to form more complex structures of symbols.
• Systems contain processes for manipulating complex symbol structures.
• The processes for representing complex symbol structures can themselves by
symbolically represented within the system.
Thinking and intelligence was considered as problem solving. For well-defined
problems, the problem space (i.e., branching tree of achievable situations) was searched
by algorithms. Since problem spaces proved to be too large to be searched by brute-force
algorithms, selective search algorithms were used by defining heuristic search rules.

Figure 9.1: The assumed relationship between mental concepts and symbol structures.

9.1.3. Connectionism
While the emergence of connectionism is generally considered as the reaction for the not
sufficiently rapid development of the symbolistic approach, it had already appeared during
the golden age of cybernetics related to the McCulloch–Pitts (MCP) models.

9.1.3.1. MCP model


In 1943, McCulloch, one of the two founding fathers of cybernetics (the other was Norbert
Wiener), and the prodigy Walter Pitts published a paper with the title “A Logical Calculus
of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous System”, which was probably the first experiment to
describe the operation of the brain in terms of interacting neurons (McCulloch and Pitts,
1943), for historical analysis see (Abraham, 2002; Arbib, 2000; Piccinini, 2004).
The MCP model was basically established to capture the logical structure of the
nervous system. Therefore, cellular physiological facts known even that time were
intentionally neglected.
The MCP networks are composed by multi-input (xi, i = 1, …, n) single output (y)
threshold elements. The state of one element (neuron) of a network is determined by the
following rule: y = 1, if the weighted sum of the inputs is larger than a threshold, and y =
0, in any other case:
(1)

Such a rule describes the operation of all neurons of the network. The state of the network
is characterized at a fixed time point by a series of zeros and ones, i.e., by a binary vector,
where the dimension of the vector is equal with the number of neurons of the network.
The updating rule contains an arbitrary factor: during onetime step either the state of one
single neuron or of the all neurons can be modified. The former materializes asynchronous
or serial processing, the latter materializes synchronous or parallel processing.
Obviously, the model contains neurobiological simplifications. The state is binary, the
time is discrete, the threshold and the wiring are fixed. Chemical and electrical
interactions are neglected, glia cells are also not taken into consideration. McCulloch and
Pitts showed that a large enough number of synchronously updated neurons connected by
appropriate weights could perform many possible computations.
Since all Boolean functions can be calculated by loop-free (or feed-forward) neuronal
networks, and all finite automata can be simulated by neuronal networks (loops are
permitted, i.e., recurrent networks), von Neumann adapted the MCP model to the logical
design of the computers. The problem of the brain–computer analogy/disanalogy was a
central issue of early cybernetics, in a sense revived by the neurocomputing boom from
the mid-eighties. More precisely, the metaphor has two sides (“computational brain”
versus “neural computer”). There are several different roots of the early optimism related
to the power of the brain–computer analogy. We will review two of them. First, both
elementary computing units and neurons were characterized as digital input–output
devices, suggesting an analogy at even the elementary hardware level. Second, the
equivalence (more or less) had been demonstrated between the mathematical model of the
“control box” of a computer as represented by the state-transition rules for a Turing
machine, and of the nervous system as represented by the. Binary vectors of “0”s and “1”s
represented the state of the computer and of the brain, and their temporal behavior was
described by the updating rule of these vectors. In his posthumously published book The
Computer and the Brain, John von Neumann (von Neumann, 1958) emphasized the
particular character of “neural mathematics”: “… The logics and mathematics in the
central nervous system, when viewed as languages, must structurally be essentially
different from those languages to which our common experience refers …”.
The MCP model (i) introduced a formalism whose refinement and generalization led
to the notion of finite automata (an important concept in computability theory); (ii) is a
technique that inspired the notion of logic design of computers; (iii) was used to build
neural network models to connect neural structures and functions by dynamic models; (iv)
offered the first modern computational theory of brain and mind.
One possible generalization of the MCP model is that the threshold activation function
is substituted by a g activation function.

9.1.3.2. Hebbian learning rules


Hebb marked a new era by introducing his learning rule and resulted in the sprouting of
many new branches of theories and models on the mechanisms and algorithms of learning
and related areas.
Two characteristics of the original postulate (Hebb, 1949) played key role in the
development of post-Hebbian learning rules. First, in spite of being biologically
motivated, it was a verbally described, phenomenological rule, without having view on
detailed physiological mechanisms. Second, the idea seemed to be extremely convincing,
therefore it became a widespread theoretical framework and a generally applied formal
tool in the field of neural networks. Based on these two properties, the development of
Hebb’s idea followed two main directions. First, the postulate inspired an intensive and
long lasting search for finding the molecular and cellular basis of the learning phenomena
— which have been assumed to be Hebbian — thus this movement has been absorbed by
neurobiology. Second, because of its computational usefulness, many variations evolved
from the biologically inspired learning rules, and were applied to huge number of very
different problems of artificial neural networks, without claiming any relation to biological
foundation.
The simplest Hebbian learning rule can be formalized as:

(2)

This rule expresses the conjunction among pre- and post-synaptic elements (using
neurobiological terminology) or associative conditioning (in psychological terms), by a
simple product of the actual states of pre- and post-synaptic elements, ai(t) and ai(t). A
characteristic and unfortunate property of the simplest Hebbian rule is that the synaptic
strengths are ever increasing.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) was first discovered in the hippocampus and is very
prominent there. LTP is an increase in synaptic strength that can be rapidly induced by
brief periods of synaptic stimulation and which has been reported to last for hours in vitro,
and for days and weeks in vivo.
The LTP (and later the LTD) after their discovery, have been regarded as the
physiological basis of Hebbian learning. Subsequently, the properties of the LTP and LTD
became more clear, and the question arises, whether the LTP and LTD could really be
considered as the microscopical basis of the phenomenological Hebb type learning.
Formally, the question is that how to specify the general functional F to serve as a learning
rule with the known properties of LTP and LTD. Recognizing the existence of this gap
between biological mechanisms and the long-used Hebbian learning rule, there have been
many attempts to derive the corresponding phenomenological rule based on more or less
detailed neurochemical mechanisms.
Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP), a temporally asymmetric form of Hebbian
learning induced by temporal correlations between the spikes of pre- and post-synaptic
neurons, has been discovered (Bi and Poo, 1998) and extensively studied (Sjoestrom and
Gerstner, 2010). For reviews of post-Hebbian learning algorithms and models of synaptic
plasticity, see e.g., (Érdi and Somogyvári, 2002; Shouval, 2007).

9.1.3.3. Learning in artificial neural networks

The MCP model supplemented with Hebb’s concept about the continuously changing
connectivities led to the pattern recognizing algorithm, famously called as the Perceptron
(Rosenblatt, 1962). Actually, by using the modern terminology, the Hebbian rules belong
to the class of unsupervised learning rule, while the Perceptron implements supervised
learning
The Perceptron is a classifier defined as

(3)

The classification rule is sign(f(x)). The learning rule is to perform the following updates if
the classifier makes an error:

(4)

(5)

A version of the single layer perceptron uses the delta learning rule. It is a gradient
descent method, and adapts the weights to minimize the deviation between the target value
and the actual value, The delta rule for the modification of the synaptic weights wji is
given as

(6)

Here, α is the learning rate, tj and yj are the target and actual output values of neuron j,
hj is the weighted some of the individual input xis.
Famously, the Perceptron can solve linearly separable problems (Minsky and Papert,
1969) only, and such kinds of networks are not able to learn, e.g., the XOR function.
Multilayer perceptrons supplemented with another learning algorithm (Werbos, 1974),
i.e., with the backpropagation (BP) algorithm overcame the limitations of the single-layer
Perceptron. BP is a generalization of the delta rule to multilayered feedforward networks.
Is based on by using the chain rule to iteratively compute gradients for each layer, and it
proved to be a useful algorithm.
BP algorithm has two parts. First, there is a forward activity propagation followed by
the backpropagation of the output to calculate the delta quantities for each neuron. Second,
the gradient is calculated and the update of the weight is determined.
Connectionist (what else?) networks consisting of simple nodes and links are very
useful for understanding psychological processes that involve parallel constraint
satisfaction. (Neo!) connectionism has been revitalized and became a popular alternative
of the symbolistic approach from the mid-eighties, when the two volumes of Parallel
Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition were published
(Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986). An early successful application was an (artificial)
neural network to predict the past tense of English verbs.

9.1.3.4. Newer developments

After the initial success, multilayer perceptrons with BP started to show their limitations
with more complex classifications tasks. Multiple branches of machine learning
techniques originated from generalization attempts of neural architectures.
One such advancement was the introduction of support vector machines (SVM)
(Cortes and Vapnik, 1995) by Vapnik and Cortes. The mathematical structure is formally
equivalent to a perceptron with one hidden layer of which the size may be potentially
infinite. The goal of the optimization algorithm used to tune the network’s parameters is to
find a classification boundary that maximizes distance from data points in separated
classes. Decision boundaries may be nonlinear if data is transformed into the feature space
using a kernel function of appropriate choice. SVMs produce reproducible, optimal (in a
certain sense) classifications based on a sound theory. They may be successfully applied in
problems where data is not overly high-dimensional with relatively simple underlying
structure, but might be very noisy.
Another direction of development of neural networks is deep learning. The basic idea
is to stack multiple processing layers of neurons on top of each other forming a
hierarchical model structure. Some of the most successful applications use the stochastic
neuron instead of the deterministic one, where the probability of assuming one of the
binary states is determined by a sigmoid function of the input.

(7)

Stochastic networks may represent probability distributions over latent variables by


the samples generated as the network is updated according to Equation (7). Such neurons
may be connected in an undirected (that is, symmetric) manner, forming Boltzmann
machines (Salakhutdinov and Hinton, 2009), which can be trained in an unsupervised
fashion on unlabeled datasets by the contrastive divergence algorithm (Hinton, 2002).
Directed versions of similar networks may also trained unsupervisedly by the wake-sleep
algorithm (Hinton et al., 1995).
To solve supervised classification problems, the first deep architectures were
convolutional networks that solved the translation invariance of learned features by
binding together of weights in processing layers. Boltzmann machines may be
transformed into classification engines by refining the unsupervisedly pre-trained weights
by back propagation of labeled data. Deep networks may be successfully applied to very
high-dimensional data with complicated structure if the high signal-to-noise ratio is
sufficiently high.

9.1.4. Engineering Perspectives


In terms of philosophical approaches, debates became less sharp, since the physical
symbol system hypothesis which stated that [a] physical symbol system has the necessary
and sufficient means for general intelligent action. In the technical application symbol,
manipulation was the only game in town for many years.

9.1.4.1. General problem solver

General Problem Solver (GPS) was a computer program created in 1959 by Herbert A.
Simon, J.C. Shaw, and Allen Newell and was intended to work as a universal problem
solver machine. Formal symbolic problems were supposed to be solved by GPS.
Intelligent behavior, as automatic theorem proving, and chess playing were paradigmatic
examples of the ambitious goals. GPS, however, solved simple problems such as the
Towers of Hanoi, that could be sufficiently formalized, it could not solve any real-world
problems due to the combinatorial explosion. Decomposition of the task into subtasks and
goals into subgoals somewhat helped to increase the efficiency of the algorithms.

9.1.4.2. Expert systems

Expert systems (also called as knowledge-based systems) were one of the most widely
used applications of classical artificial intelligence. Their success was due to restricted use
for specific fields of applications. The general goal has been to convert human knowledge
to formal electronic consulting service. Generally it has two parts, the knowledge base and
the inference machine. The central core of the inference machines is the rule-base, i.e., set
of rules of inference that are used in reasoning. Generally, these systems use IF-THEN
rules to represent knowledge. Typically, systems had from a few hundred to a few
thousand rules.
The whole process resembles to medical diagnosis, and actually the first applications
were towards medicine. For an introduction to expert systems, see e.g., (Jackson, 1998).
9.1.4.3. Knowledge representation and reasoning

Knowledge representation (KR) is a field of artificial intelligence aiming to represent


certain aspects of the world to solve complex problems by using formal methods, such as
automatic reasoning.
As it was suggested (Davis et al., 1993).
“…
• A KR is most fundamentally a surrogate, a substitute for the thing itself, used to enable
an entity to determine consequences by thinking rather than acting, i.e., by reasoning
about the world rather than taking action in it.
• It is a set of ontological commitments, i.e., an answer to the question: In what terms
should I think about the world?
• It is a fragmentary theory of intelligent reasoning, expressed in terms of three
components: (i) the representation’s fundamental conception of intelligent reasoning;
(ii) the set of inferences the representation sanctions; and (iii) the set of inferences it
recommends.
• It is a medium for pragmatically efficient computation, i.e., the computational
environment in which thinking is accomplished. One contribution to this pragmatic
efficiency is supplied by the guidance a representation provides for organizing
information so as to facilitate making the recommended inferences.
• It is a medium of human expression, i.e., a language in which we say things about the
world.
…”
In recent years, KR and reasoning has also derived challenges from new and emerging
fields including the semantic web, computational biology, and the development of
software agents and of ontology-based data management.

9.1.5. Philosophical Perspectives


9.1.5.1. Methodological solipsism

Jerry Fodor suggested methodological solipsism (Fodor, 1980) as a research strategy in


cognitive science. He adopts an extreme internalist approach: the content of beliefs is
determined by what is in the agent’s head, and nothing to do with what is in the world.
Mental representations are internally structured much like sentences in a natural language,
in that they have both syntactic structure and a compositional semantics.
There are two lines of opinions, while classical cogntivism is based on the
representational hypothesis supplemented by the internal world assumption, other
approaches have other categories in their focus. Two of them are briefly mentioned here:
intentionality and embodied cognition.

9.1.5.2. Intentionality

Searle (Searle, 1983, 1992) rejected the assumption undisputed from Craik to Simon that
the representational mind/brain operates on formal internal models detached from the
world and argued instead that its main feature is intentionality, a term which has been
variously viewed as synonymous with connectedness, aboutness, meaningfulness,
semantics or straightforwardly consciousness. Searle argued that the representational and
computational structures that have typically been theorized in cognitive science lack any
acceptable ontology. He argued that they are not being observable or understandable, so
these structures just cannot exist.

9.1.5.3. Situated or embodied cognition

A seemingly different attempt to overcome the difficulties of methodological solipsism is


to work with agents so simple as to not need a knowledge base at all, and basically don’t
need representations. The central hypothesis of embodied cognitive science is that
cognition emerges from the interaction of brain, the whole body, and of its environment.
What does it mean to understand a phenomenon? A pragmatic answer is to synthesize the
behavior from elements. Many scientists believe if they are able to build a mathematical
model based on the knowledge of the mechanism to reproduce a phenomenon and predict
some other phenomena by using the same model framework, they understand what is
happening in their system. Alternatively, instead of building a mathematical model one
may wish to construct a robot. Rodney Brooks at MIT is an emblematic figure with the
goal of building humanoid robots (Brooks, 2002). Embodied cognitive science now seems
to be an interface between neuroscience and robotics: the features of embodied cognitive
systems should be built both into neural models, and robots, and the goal is to integrate
sensory, cognitive and motor processes. (Or even more, traditionally, emotions were
neglected, as factors which reduce the cognitive performance. It is far from being true.)
9.2. Architectures: Symbolic, Connectionist, Hybrid
9.2.1. Cognitive Architectures: What?Why?How?
9.2.1.1. Unified theory of cognition
Alan Newell (Newell, 1990) spoke about the unified theory of cognition (UTC).
Accordingly, there is single set of mechanisms that account for all of cognition (using the
term broadly to include perception and motor control). UTC should be a theory to explain
(i) the adaptive response of an intelligent system to environmental changes; (ii) the
mechanisms of goal seeking and goal-driven behavior2; (iii) how to use symbols and (iv)
how to learn from experience. Newell’s general approach inspired his students and others
to establish large software systems, cognitive architectures, to implement cognitions.
“Cognitive architecture is the overall, essential structure and process of a domain-
generic computational cognitive model, used for a broad, multiple-level, multiple-domain
analysis of cognition and behavior …” (Sun, 2004). They help to achieve two different big
goals: (i) to have a computational framework to model and simulate real cognitive
phenomena: (ii) to offer methods to solve real-world problems.
Two key design properties that underlie the development of any cognitive architecture
are memory and learning (Duch et al., 2007). For a simplified taxonomy of cognitive
architectures, see Section 9.2.1.1.
Symbolic architectures focus on information processing using high-level symbols or
declarative knowledge, as in the classical AI approach. Emergent (connectionist)
architectures use low-level activation signals flowing through a network consisting of
relatively simple processing units, a bottom-up process relaying on the emergent self-
organizing and associative properties. Hybrid architectures result from combining the
symbolic and emergent (connectionist) paradigms.
The essential features of cognitive architectures have been summarized (Sun, 2004). It
should show (i) ecological realism, (ii) bio-evolutionary realism, (iii) cognitive realism
and (iv) eclecticism of in methodologies and techniques. More specifically, it cannot be
neglected that (i) cognitive systems are situated in sensory-motor system, (ii) the
understanding in human cognitive systems can be seen from an evolutionary perspective,
(iii) artificial cognitive systems should capture some significant features of human
cognition, (iv) at least for the time being multiple perspectives and approaches should be
integrated.
Figure 9.2: Simplified taxonomy of cognitive architectures. From Duch et al. (2007).

9.2.2. The State, Operator and Result (SOAR) Cognitive Architecture


SOAR is a classic example of expert rule-based cognitive architecture designed to model
general intelligence (Laird, 2012; Milnes et al., 1992).
SOAR is a general cognitive architecture that integrates knowledge-intensive
reasoning, reactive execution, hierarchical reasoning, planning, and learning from
experience, with the goal of creating a general computational system that has the same
cognitive abilities as humans. In contrast, most AI systems are designed to solve only one
type of problem, such as playing chess, searching the Internet, or scheduling aircraft
departures. SOAR is both a software system for agent development and a theory of what
computational structures are necessary to support human-level agents.
Based on theoretical framework of knowledge-based systems seen as an
approximation to physical symbol systems, SOAR stores its knowledge in the form of
production rules, arranged in terms of operators that act in the problem space, that is the
set of states that represent the task at hand. The primary learning mechanism in SOAR is
termed chunking, a type of analytical technique for formulating rules and macro-
operations from problem solving traces. In recent years, many extensions of the SOAR
architecture have been proposed: reinforcement learning to adjust the preference values
for operators, episodic learning to retain history of system evolution, semantic learning to
describe more abstract, declarative knowledge, visual imagery, emotions, moods and
feelings used to speed up reinforcement learning and direct reasoning. SOAR architecture
has demonstrated a variety of high-level cognitive functions, processing large and
complex rule sets in planning, problem solving and natural language comprehension.

9.2.3. Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R)


We follow here the analysis of (Duch et al., 2007). ACT-R is a cognitive architecture: a
theory about how human cognition works. It is both a hybrid cognitive architecture and
theoretical framework for understanding and emulating human cognition (Anderson,
2007; Anderson and Bower, 1973). Its intention is to construct a software system that can
perform the full range of human cognitive functions. The algorithm is realistic at the
cognitive level, and weakly realistic in terms of neural mechanisms. The central
components of ACT-R comprise a set of modules of perceptual-motor schemas, memory
system, a buffer and a pattern matcher. The perceptual-motor modules basically serve as
an interface between the system and the external world. There are two types of memory
modules in ACT-R: declarative memory (DM) and procedural memory (PM). Both are
realized by symbolic-connectionist structures, where the symbolic level consists of
productions (for PM) or chunks (for DM), and the sub-symbolic level of a massively
parallel connectionist structure. Each symbolic construct (i.e., production or chunk) has a
set of sub-symbolic parameters that reflect its past usage and control its operations, thus
enabling an analytic characterization of connectionist computations using numeric
parameters (associative activation) that measure the general usefulness of a chunk or
production in the past and current context. The pattern matcher is used to find an
appropriate production.
ACT-R implements a top-down learning approach to adapt to the structure of the
environment. In particular, symbolic constructs (i.e., chunks or productions) are first
created to describe the results of a complex operation, so that the solution may be
available without recomputing the next time a similar task occurs. When a goal,
declarative memory activation or perceptual information appears it becomes a chunk in
the memory buffer, and the production system guided by subsymbolic processes finds a
single rule that responds to the current pattern. Sub-symbolic parameters are then tuned
using Bayesian formulae to make the existing symbolic constructs that are useful more
prominent. In this way, chunks that are often used become more active and can thus be
retrieved faster and more reliably. Similarly, productions that more likely led to a solution
at a lower cost will have higher expected utility, and thus be more likely chosen during
conflict resolution (i.e., selecting one production among many that qualify to fire).
9.3. Cognitive Functions
9.3.1. General Remarks
Cognitive functions are related to mental processes, such as attention, learning, memory,
language comprehension and production, reasoning, problem solving, planning, decision-
making, etc. The mental processes can be realized by conscious or unconscious
mechanisms. As an illustration, two topics, memory and language are briefly reviewed
here.

9.3.2. Multiple Memory Systems


As also detailed in Section 9.4.4.2, knowledge stored in the human brain can be classified
into sparable memory systems. An important division can be made in terms of duration of
recallability. Short-term memories serve as a temporary storage, that helps the execution
of everyday tasks, and pre-store certain information that can later be soldified into long-
term memories.
Long-terms memory can be divided into three subsystems according to function. The
first is procedural memory, encoding how to swim or draw a flower. The second is
episodic memory, that can store past events, similar to the scenes of a movie. And the
third, semantic memory, is everything that we know about the world in a more or less
context-invariant manner.
Different memory systems clearly interact, as sensory information needs to be
interpreted according to semantic knowledge in order to be efficiently stored in short-term
or episodic memory, which is in turn built into the semantic web of knowledge. However,
there is evidence that different systems may operate separately from each other, as
illustrated by the case of H.M., a patient with severe epilepsy who had to have
hippocampal lobotomy. He retained his semantic knowledge about the world and his
procedural skills, together with the ability to acquire new procedural knowledge, but he
completely lost the ability to form new episodic memory patterns (he had anterograde
amnesia).
A model for the operation of multiple memory systems on a cognitive level was
proposed by Tulving (1985).

9.3.3. Language Acquisition, Evolution and Processing

9.3.3.1. What is language?


Language is a system of symbols used to communicate ideas among two or more
individuals. Normatively, it must be learnable by children, spoken and understood by
adults, and capable of expressing ideas that people normally communicate in a social and
cultural context.
9.3.3.2. Cognitive approach to linguistics

As Paul Thagard reviews, the cognitive approach to linguistics raises a set of fundamental
questions:
• How does the mind turn sounds into words (phonology)?
• How does the mind turn words into sentences (syntax)?
• How does the mind understand words and sentences (semantics)?
• How does the mind understand discourse (semantics, pragmatics)?
• How does the mind generate discourse?
• How does the mind translate between languages?
• How does the mind acquire the capacities just described?
• To what extent is knowledge of language innate?
Hypotheses about how the mind uses language should be tested:
• Symbolic
— Linguistic knowledge consists largely of rules that govern phonological and
syntactic processing.
— The computational procedures involved in understanding and generating language
are largely rule-based.
— Language learning is learning of rules.
— Many of these rules are innate.
— The leading proponent of this general view has been Noam Chomsky.
— Rule-based models of language comprehension and generation have been developed
e.g., in the SOAR system and within other frameworks.
• Connectionist
— Linguistic knowledge consists largely of statistical constraints that are less general
than rules and are encoded in neural networks.
— The computational procedures involved in understanding and generating language
are largely parallel constraint satisfaction.

9.3.3.3. Language acquisition


As it is well-known, behaviorists psychology considered language as a learned habit, and
famously one of the starting points of the cognitive science was Chomsky’s attack on
Skinner’s concepts (Chomsky, 1959). Chomsky’s theory of generative grammar,
approaches to children’s acquisition of syntax (Chomsky, 1965) led to the suggestion of
having a universal grammar. In a somewhat different context, it is identified with
language faculty based on the modularity of the mind (Fodor, 1983) or the language
instinct (Pinker, 2007). Language acquisition seems to be now a cognitive process that
emerges from the interaction of biological and environmental components.

9.3.3.4. Language evolution


Is language mediated by a sophisticated and highly specialized “language organ” that is
unique to humans and emerged completely out of the blue as suggested by Chomsky? Or
was there a more primitive gestural communication system already in place that provided
a scaffolding for the emergence of vocal language?
Steven Pinker and Paul Bloom (1990) argued for an adaptationist approach to
language origins. Rizzolatti’s (2008) discovery of the mirror neurons offered a new
perspective of language evolution. A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an
animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. The
mirror neuron hypothesis leads to a neural theory of language evolution reflected in Figure
9.3.

9.3.4. Language processing


Early AI has strong interest in (natural) language processing (NPL). One of the pioneers of
AI, Terry Winograd created a software (SHRDLU) to understand a language about a “toy
world” (Winograd, 1972). SHRDLU was instructed to move various objects around in the
“blocks world” containing various basic objects: blocks, cones, balls, etc. The system also
had some memory to store the names of the object. Its success generated some optimism,
but the application of the adopted strategy for real world problems remained restricted.

Figure 9.3: Model of the influence of protosign upon the mirror system and its impact on the evolution of language
(Arbib, 2005).
The new NPL systems are mostly based on machine learning techniques, often by
using statistical inference. Initially the big goal was to make “machine translation”.
Nowadays, there are many tasks of NPL, some of them listed here: speech recognition
(including speech segmentation), information extraction/retrieval are related more to
syntactic analysis, while sentiment analysis and automatic summarization needs
semantic/pragmatic analysis (see e.g., Jurafsky and Marti, 2008).
9.4. Neural Aspects
9.4.1. Biological Overview
9.4.1.1. Hierarchical organization
Cognitive functions are realized by the nervous system of animals and humans. The
central computing element of these systems is the cortex, which connects to the outside
world and the body through sensors and actuators. The cortex can be regarded as a
hierarchy of networks operating at different scales. The basic building block of the cortex
is the neuron (Ramón y Cajal, 1909), a spatially extended cell that connects to other such
cells by synapses. These are special regions of the cell membrane, where electrical
changes can trigger the release of certain molecules in the intercellular space. These
molecules, the neurotransmitters, may bind to the receptor proteins of the other cell of the
synapse, changing its membrane potential (the difference between the electric potential of
intracellular and extracellular space, maintained by chemical concentration gradients).
Additionally, the membrane potential dynamics of the neurons may produce action
potentials (also called spikes or firing), sudden cha