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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

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Chapter 1 Introduction

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Main Topics

Definition of a Fluid Basic Equations Methods of Analysis Dimensions and Units Analysis of Experimental Error

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Definition of a Fluid

When a shear stress is applied:

Fluids continuously deform Solids deform or bend  3

sand?

no slip

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Basic Equations

Equations and methods

Conservation of mass
Newton’s second law of motion
The principle of angular momentum
The first law of thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics

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1) Conservation of Mass

Mass is neither created nor destroyed.

We will find that this requirement places restrictions on what velocity and density fields are permitted.

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2) Newton’s Second Law

(Conservation of Momentum)

This tells us how fluid motion will respond to applied forces or what forces result from fluid motion.

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F = d ( m V )

dt

= m a

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3) Conservation of Angular Momentum

Variation of Newton’s Second Law

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where

and

¨

ω⃗

T

T = d ( I ⃗ω )

dt

˙

¨

= I ω⃗

is the torque, I is the moment of inertia

is the angular acceleration

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4) 1 st Law of Thermodynamics

(Conservation of Energy)

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δ Q + E 1 = E 2 + δ W

where:

δ Q

E

E

δ W

1

2

is the heat interaction

(+ive if the system acquires heat from the surroundings)

is the system energy before the process is the system energy after the process is the work interaction

(+ive if the system works on the surroundings.

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5) 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics

T d s ⩾ δ Q

indicates which processes are possible

does not inform us what process will occur

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Additional Relationships such as the ideal gas law

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P = ρ R T

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Methods of Analysis

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System (or “Closed System”) Control Volume (or “Open System”) © John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Differential and Integral Models

Differential models:

Complex system of partial differential equations

Highest detail and generally the most mathematical effort

Integral models:

Bulk or lumped approach

Simpler models – algebraic or ordinary differential equations

Examines bulk behavior such as the total drag on an object

Integral models are the focus of this course

Differential analysis will be examined in next fluid mechanics course

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Eulerian & Lagrangian

Lagrangian: represent each fluid ‘particle’ as a function of time

Eulerian: represent flow through field representation

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Dimensions and Units

Systems of Dimensions [M], [L], [t], and [T] [F], [L], [t], and [T] [F], [M], [L], [t], and [T]

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Dimensions and Units

Systems of Units

MLtT

SI (kg, m, s, K)

FLtT

British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, o R)

FMLtT

English Engineering (lbf, lbm, ft, s, o R)

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Dimensions and Units

Systems of Units 16

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Dimensions and Units

Preferred Systems of Units SI (kg, m, s, K) British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, o R)

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Analysis of Experimental Error

must measure not just data but also the uncertainties in measurements determine how these uncertainties affect the uncertainty in the final result trade-off in experimental work or in manufacturing: reduce uncertainties to a desired level increases cost of experiment

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Uncertainty Analysis

fixed error

(such as some types of instrument bias)

calibration

random error

(Gaussian or Normal probability distribution)

quantify

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Uncertainty Analysis

spread of random error (q e ) is given by its root mean square value:

σ =

1

N

N

j = 1

( q e )

2

j

95% of all errors will be within ± 2 σ

Therefore, 95% of the time:

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q m 2 σ < q < q m + 2 σ

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Uncertainty Analysis

generally, measurement uncertainty (2 σ ) is specified by manufactures for measurement instruments, or considered to be ½ the least count

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Uncertainty Analysis

Analyze the propagation of uncertainty in calculations:

a variation in the derivative of a measurement of an independent variable (x n ) would cause a variation in the derivative of the calculated value R

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u

δ R i = R δ x i x i

δ R i

R

= 1

R

R

δ x i = x i

 ∂ R δ x i R ∂ x i x i + ( x n R ∂ R ∂ x n

+

x i

u R i = x i

R

R x i u x i

u x 2 ) 2

R [( x 1

R

1

u x 1 ) 2 + ( x 2

R

R

x

R x

2

u x n ) 2 ] 1 / 2

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Problem Solving Process

1)problem statement 2)information to be found

3)schematic

4)formulation and basic laws 5)simplifying assumptions 6)complete the analysis algebraically 7)analysis results 8)check answer and assumptions 9)label final answer

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Summary

In this chapter we introduced or reviewed a number of basic concepts and definitions, including:

How fluids are defined, and the no-slip condition

System/control volume concepts

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions

Units and dimensions (including SI, British Gravitational, and English Engineering systems)

Experimental uncertainty

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