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NED UNIVERESITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


WITHOUT MATERIALS,
THERE IS NO ENGINEERING

Knowing the world of metals and alloys means create solutions!

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• To explain the influence of the crystalline
structure and the grains in the final properties.
• To analyze the most common alloys used in
engineering.
• To familiarize with the classification of steels
and its nomenclature according to AISI , SAE
and European codes.
• Hand on training on Metallography &
Microscopic examination of some familiar
metals
Performance
Materials Engineering
Designing the structure to achieve
specific properties of materials.
Structure Processing

• Processing
Properties • Structure
Materials Science • Properties
Investigating the relationship between
structure and properties of materials. • Performance

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• Properties depend on structure Annealing T (F)
• Processing for structural changes

Tensile Strength (MPa)


Can you correlate structure

Ductility (%EL)
and strength and ductility?

Strength versus Structure of Brass


and changes in microstructure

Grain size (mm)

Annealing T (C)
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The COMET: first jet passenger plane - 1954

 In 1949, the COMET aircraft was a newly designed, modern jet aircraft
for passenger travel. It had bright cabins due to large, square windows
at most seats. It was composed of light-weight aluminum.
 In early 1950's, the planes began falling out of the sky.

These tragedies changed the way aircraft were designed and the materials
that were used.

 The square windows were a "stress concentrator" and the aluminum


alloys used were not "strong" enough to withstand the stresses.
 Until then, material selection for mechanical design was not really
considered in designs.

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• As noted, alloying can lead to new or enhanced properties, such as
advanced precipitation hardened 767 aircraft skin.
• Controlling the size and type of precipitates requires knowledge T vs. c
phase diagrams andT-T-T diagrams to know treatment.

Impacting mechanical response


through:

Precipitates from alloying Al


with Li, Zr, Hf,…

Grain Boundaries

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Pure Metals and their Alloys

Ferrous = (Base Iron) Nonferrous = (No Iron)

• Pure Iron (Fe). • Aluminum (Al) and its alloys


• Steels (Fe+C where C< 2 %) (Silumin and Duralumin)
• Copper (Cu) and its alloys (Brasses
• Cast Iron (Fe+C where C 2%) and Bronzes)
• Nickel (Ni) and its alloys
• Precious metals (Au, Ag)
• Refractory metals (Nb, Mo, Ta, Ti).
Metal: any of several solid mineral elements (such as iron, gold, silver, copper, etc.) that are malleable under heat or pressure and can
conduct heat and electricity; element yielding positively charged ions in watery solutions of its salts.

Ferrous, is an adjective used to indicate the presence of iron. The word is derived from the Latin word ferrum (iron). Ferrous metals
include steel, cast iron (Alloys Fe+C) and alloys of iron with other metals (such as stainless steel).

Non-ferrous is used to indicate metals other than iron and alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron.

Alloy: The mix of two or more substances where at least one of them is a metal. For example Steels, Cast Iron, Silumin, Duralumin, Brass,
Bronze, etc. Pure metals have not practical use in industrial applications due the low properties.
Ferrous Alloys (Base Fe) Non Ferrous Alloys
(Base Al, Cu, etc.)
 Magnetic (Because the Iron • Non Magnetic
presence) • Light
 Heavy (Density=7.85g/cm3) • No Superficial Rust
 Superficial Rust • Color (Gray, Silver, Yellow,
 Color Dark Brown Orange)

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Crystalline: Atoms, ions or molecules are ordered in well defined arraignments
External morphology: Flat surfaces or faces that make definite angles with one another
Quartz, Diamond etc.
Amorphous: Atoms, ions or molecules have no orderly relationship to one another

Macrostructure: Naked eye or low magnification.50x


Microstructure: Optical Microscope (100-1500x)
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All atoms are held in place by electromagnetic forces. If an external force
is applied the crystalline network can be broken if such force is higher
than the Yield Strength (YS).

A low strength level only cause a A higher strength lever (higher


temporal deformation called than the Yield Strength of the
(elastic deformation). material will cause permanent
deformation called (plastic
deformation) by breaking the
bonds between atoms. 11
The crystalline structure of an alloy will be reinforced by the presence of
foreign atoms. This explains why in Industrial applications Pure metals
are not used. In other words a particular alloys (Example Steel) is stronger
than the pure metal (Fe).

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1. Nucleation: It begins at 2. Crystal growth: Crystals
foreign particles in melt. begin to grow from each.

4. Polycrystalline structure:
3. Grain Formation: Interface Grain growth is limited by
develops. another grain, creating a
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boundary between them
Mechanical Technological Physical
Properties Properties Properties

• Tensile Impact Hardness • Weldability • Melting Point (Tm)


• Machinability • Density ()
• Compression (Toughness) •Brinell (HB)
• Malleability • Thermal conductivity ()
•Rockwell (HR)
• Bending •Vickers (HV) • Corrosion Resistance • Specific heat (C)
• Electrical resistivity ()
• Magnetic permeability ()

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Steels = Fe + C where (C ≤ 2%)

Non Alloy Steels Alloy Steel


(Plain Carbon) Micro Alloyed Steel
Steels
Low Alloy
Several types Si, Si-Mn, etc
Low Carbon ∑AE < 5%
C < 0.3%
Cr-Mo
Medium Carbon Medium Alloy
0.3% ≤ C < 0.5% Cr-Mo-V
5%≤ ∑AE <10%
Ni (cryogenic)
High Carbon
0.5% ≤ C < 1% Ni (Maraging)
High Alloy
Ultra High Carbon ∑AE ≥ 10% Cr-Ni (Stainless Steel Cr12%)
1.0% ≤ C ≤ 1.7%
Mn (Hadfield)

Mild Steel: Non Alloy and low carbon steel with C from 0.16 to 0.29%, which is used in 85% of all steel applications in the world.
1. A steel with the following chemical composition:
C=0.15%; P<0.002%, S<0.001%
Will be classified as Low Carbon Non Alloy (LCNA) Steel .

Notes:

 Sulphur (S) and Phosphor (P) always are impurities


in steels (They are not Alloying Elements).
 Since C0.15%, such steel is also called Mild Steel.
 Low Carbon Steels have GOOD WELDABILITY and
MALEABILITY.

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2. A steel with the following chemical composition:

C=0.15%; Mn=1%, Si=2.0% P<0.002%, S<0.001%


It Will be classified as:
Low Carbon and Low Alloy (LCLA) Steel with 3.0
% of Alloy Elements.

LCLA Steels usually have GOOD or ACEPTABLE


Weldability.

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3. An steel with the following chemical composition:

C=0.035%; Cr=18% and Ni=8%

Will be classified as:

Extra Low Carbon High Alloy (LCHA) Steel with


(18 + 8)=26% of Alloy Elements. This is a typical
Stainless Steel.

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According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society of
Automotive Engineering (SAE) Steels are identified as follows:

• A Four Digits code for Non Alloy, Low Alloy and Medium Alloy Steels. In
this case the last two digits represents the carbon content in percentage
while the first two digits the subgroup of steels according to the alloy
system and application.

• A three digit code for High Alloy Steels (AISI) or five digits (SAE) where the
last two of the five represents the carbon content.

Notes:

1. In the following tables XX represents the carbon content in


percentage.
2. American steels are used worldwide.
3. Some countries like Japan use same nomenclature.
4. The most of the European countries follow a totally different
nomenclature for example (Germany, Italy, Russia, France and
England).
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10XX Plain carbon, Mn 1.00% max
11XX Resulfurized free machining
Carbon Steels
12XX Resulfurized - Rephosphorized free machining

15XX Plain carbon, Mn 1.00-1.65%


Manganese Steel 13XX Mn 1.75%
23XX Ni 3.50%
Nickel Steels
25XX Ni 5.00%
31XX Ni 1.25%, Cr .65-.80%
Nickel-Chromium 32XX Ni 1.75%, Cr 1.07%
Steels 33XX Ni 3.50%, Cr 1.50-1.57%
34XX Ni 3.00%, Cr .77%
40XX Mo .20-.25%
Molybdenum Steels
44XX Mo .40-.52%
Chromium-
41XX Cr .50-.95%, Mo .12-.30%
Molybdenum Steels
Nickel-Chromium- 43XX Ni 1.82%, Cr .50-.80%, Mo .25%
Molybdenum Steels 47XX Ni 1.05%, Cr .45%, Mo .20-.35%
Nickel-Molybdenum 46XX Ni .85-1.82%, Mo .20-.25%
Steels 48XX Ni 3.50%, Mo .25% 20
50XX Cr .27-.65%
51XX Cr .80-1.05%
Chromium steels 50XXX Cr .50%, C 1.00% min
51XXX Cr 1.02%, C 1.00% min
52XXX Cr 1.45%, C 1.00% min
Chromium-vanadium steels 61XX Cr .60-.95%, V .10-.15%
Tungsten-chromium steels 72XX W 1.75%, Cr .75%
81XX Ni .30%, Cr .40%, Mo .12%

Nickel-chromium- 86XX Ni .55%, Cr .50%, Mo .20%


molybdenum steels 87XX Ni .55%, Cr .50%, Mo .25%
88XX Ni .55%, Cr .50%, Mo .35%
Silicon-manganese steels 92XX Si 1.40-2.00%, Mn .65-.85%, Cr 0-.65%
93XX Ni 3.25%, Cr 1.20%, Mo .12%

Nickel-chromium- 94XX Ni .45%, Cr .40%, Mo .12%


molybdenum steels 97XX Ni .55%, Cr .20%, Mo .20%
98XX Ni 1.00%, Cr .80%, Mo .25% 21
Stainless Steels SAE AISI
Chromium–Manganese–Nickel Steels 302xx 2YY
Chromium–Nickel Steels 303xx 3YY
Chromium Steels 514xx 4YY
Chromium Steels 515xx 5YY

In the most of the European countries to identify high alloy steels the
chemical element is specified and after the amount except when is 1%
for example:

• 08Cr18Ni10Ti is a steel containing: 0.08%C, 18%Cr, 10%Ni and 1%Ti


• 06Cr12Ni25 is a steel containing: 0.06%C, 12%Cr, 25%Ni

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Type of
Grade Criteria of use Type of supply Examples
alloy
 Structures;
 Good Weldability Bars, Flats, Sheet
LCNA  Elements of machines were
 Good Malleability Metal, Beams,
(C<0.3%) hardness is not an issue.
 Good Machinability Pipes
 Devices
 For manufacturing Elements of machine.
 For Machining + Heat Treatment to change
MCNA  Elements of Machines where
superficial hardness. Bars
0.3≤C<0.5% hardness is important.
 Regular Weldability (Not for manufacturing
welding)
HCNA  To withstand deformation and wearing.  Tools
Bars
C≤0.5%  Bad Weldability (Not for welding at all)  Springs
LCLA Bars, Flats, Sheet
 Similar to LCNA but more Tensile strength,  Structures.
C<0.3%; Metal, Beams,
 Resistant to marine corrosion.
Steels ∑AE<5% Pipes
 Thermal Resistance and Thermal stability (Cr,
LCMA Pipes  Pipelines
Mo)
C<0.3%
 Pipelines
5%≤∑AE<10%  Low temperature Applications Pipes, plates
 Special equipment.
MCLA
 Similar to MCNA but more hardness after heat  Tools
and Bars
treatment.  Elements of machines
MCMA
 Rust Free  Food containers
LCHA Pipes, Flats, Sheet
 Luxury  Chemical industry equipment.
(Stainless) metal
 Antibacterial  Medical equipment

 Tracks and rollers of caterpillars


LCHA
 Elements that get harder with working impacts Casting and similar equipment.
(Hadfield) 23
 Railroad.
Fe-Fe3C Phase Diagram
(For a plain C steel)
(plain because no element presence other than C in Iron)

(A base for understanding how different phases of iron evolves)

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 Introduction

 Cooling curve for pure iron

 Phases Observed in Fe-Fe3C Diagram

 Fe-Fe3C equilibrium phase diagram – Sketch

 Various Features of Fe-Fe3C diagram

 Important Invariant Reactions in Fe–Fe3C System

 The Austenite to ferrite transformation

 The Austenite to cementite transformation

 Hypo-eutectoid steels and hyper-eutectoid steels

 Principle phases of steel and their characteristics

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 What is a phase?
 A homogeneous portion of the system that has a
uniform chemical and physical characteristics.
 Every pure material is a phase : elements, compounds.
 Example
 solid sugar is a “solid phase” and sugar-syrup solution
is a “liquid phase”
 Both have different chemical composition: one is pure
sugar (C12H22O11) and the other is a solution of sugar
and water (H2O)
 Every teaspoon of the sugar-syrup is always of same
composition

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 A map of the temperature at which different phase
changes occur on very slow heating and cooling in
relation to Carbon, is called Iron- Carbon Diagram.
 The Fe-C phase diagram is a fairly complex one, but we
will only consider the steel and cast iron part of the
diagram, up to 6.67% Carbon.
 It is used to tailor properties of steel and to heat treat
them.
 Iron- Carbon diagram shows
 The type of alloys formed under very slow cooling,
 Proper heat-treatment temperature and
 How the properties of steels and cast irons can be
radically changed by heat-treatment.
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1. Ferrite
Ferrite is the interstitial solid solution of carbon in alpha iron. It has B.C.C.
Structure. It has very limited solubility for carbon (maximum 0.022% at 727°C and
0.008% at room temperature). Ferrite is soft and ductile.

2. Austenite
Austenite is the interstitial solid solution of carbon in gamma (γ) iron. It has FCC
structure. Austenite can have maximum 2.14% carbon at 1143°C. Austenite is
normally not stable at room temperature. Austenite is non-magnetic and soft.

3. Cementite
Cementite or iron carbide (Fe3C) is an intermetallic compound of iron and carbon.
It contains 6.67% carbon. It is very hard and brittle. This intermetallic compound is
a metastable phase and it remains as a compound indefinitely at room temperature.

4. δ-ferrite
It is a solid solution of carbon in δ-iron. It is stable at high temperatures. It has BCC
Structure. It has no engineering importance
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 1. Pearlite
The pearlite consists of alternate layers of ferrite and
cementite. It has properties somewhere between ferrite
and cementite. The average carbon content in pearlite is
0.76%

 2. Ledeburite
Ledeburite is an eutetcic mixture of austenite and
cementite in the form of alternate layers. The average
carbon content in ledeburite is 4.3%. Found in Cast iron

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 Phases
1. Ferrite
2. Austenite
3. Cementite
Ferrite Austenite

4. δ-ferrite

 And phase mixtures

1. Pearlite

2. Ledeburite
Pearlite
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The diagram shows Three horizontal lines which indicate
isothermal reactions (on cooling / heating). Always
indicates an invariant reaction in binary phase
diagrams:
 First horizontal line is at 1493°C, where peritectic
reaction takes place:
Liquid +  ↔ austenite (almost no engineering importance)

 Second horizontal line is at 1130°C, where eutectic


reaction takes place:
liquid ↔ austenite + cementite (cast irons)
 Third horizontal line is at 723°C, where eutectoid
reaction takes place:
austenite ↔ pearlite (mixture of ferrite & cementite)
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Liquid steel
Austenite + Liquid

Liquid+Cementite
Austenite

Pro-eutectic Austenite
Cementite + Ledeburite
+ Ledeburite

Ferrite

Pearlite+
Pro-eutectoid
Ferrite+Pearlite
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Peritectic: 0.16% C, 14930 C
δ(0.11% C) + L(0.51)%C ↔ γ (0.16%C)

Eutectic: 4.30 wt% C, 1147 °C


L (4.30% C) ↔ γ (2.14% C) + Fe3C

Eutectoid: 0.76 wt%C, 727 °C


γ(0.76% C) ↔ α (0.022% C) + Fe3C

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Eutectic reaction: at 4.30 % C and 1147 °C
L (4.30% C) ↔ γ (2.14% C) + Fe3C
 In eutectic reaction, the liquid solidifies as a phase mixture of austenite (containing 2.14% C)
and cementite. This phase mixture is known as ledeburite.
 The average carbon content in ledeburite is 4.30%.
 The eutectic reaction occurs at a constant temperature. This is known as eutectic temperature
and is 1147 °C.

Eutectoid reaction: at 0.76 %C and 727 °C


γ(0.76% C) ↔ α (0.022% C) + Fe3C
 In eutectoid reaction, the austenite transforms into a phase mixture of ferrite (containing 0.76%
C) and cementite. This phase mixture is known as pearlite.
 The average carbon content in pearlite is 0.76%.
 The eutectoid reaction occurs at a constant temperature. This is known as eutectoid
temperature and is 727°C.
 Eutectoid reaction is very important in heat treatment of steels.

Peritectic reaction: at 0.16% C and 14930 C


δ(0.11% C) + L(0.51%C) ↔ γ (0.16%C)
 In peritectic reaction, the liquid and δ iron transforms into austenite (containing 0.16% C).
 The peritectic reaction occurs at a constant temperature. This is known as peritectic
temperature and is 1493°C. 36
 Eutectoid steel, Steels having 0.8% C .pearlite is formed at eutectoid temperature.
 The austenite gets converted into pearlite which is a mechanical mixture of ferrite and
cementite..
 This tranformation occurs at 727o C (at constant temperature)
 The iron wants to change crystal structure from the FCC austenite to the BCC ferrite, but
the ferrite can only contain 0.02% carbon in solid solution.
 The excess carbon is rejected and forms the carbon-rich intermetallic known as
cementite
 Hypo-eutectoid steels: Steels having less than 0.8% carbon are called hypo-eutectoid
steels (hypo means "less than").
 Consider the cooling of a typical hypo-eutectoid alloy along line y-y‘.
 At high temperatures the material is entirely austenite.
 Upon cooling it enters a region where the stable phases are ferrite and austenite.
 The low-carbon ferrite nucleates and grows, leaving the remaining austenite richer in
carbon.
 Hyper-eutectoid steels: (hyper means "greater than") are those that contain more than
the eutectoid amount of Carbon.
 When such a steel cools, as along line z-z' , the process is similar to the hypo-eutectoid
steel, except that the primary or pro-eutectoid phase is now cementite instead of ferrite.
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Pearlite nucleates
at austenite grain
boundaries and
grows into the
grain

In the micrograph,
the dark areas are
Fe3C layers, the light
phase is α- ferrite

Pearlite Formation

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T(°C)
• 2 important points 1600
 Adapted from Fig. 10.28,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
1. Eutectic (A): L
1400
L   + Fe3C  +L
1200
 AA
2. Eutectoid (B): 1148°C L+Fe3C

Fe3C (cementite)
(austenite)
  a + Fe3C 1000    +Fe3C
 
a
800 B 727°C = Teutectoid

600
a+Fe3C
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
(Fe) 0.76 4.30 C, wt% C
120 m
Result: Pearlite is Fe3C (cementite-hard)
alternating layers of a and Fe3C phases
a (ferrite-soft)

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 When alloy of eutectoid
composition (0.76 wt % C)
is cooled slowly it forms
pearlite, a lamellar or
layered structure of two
phases: α-ferrite and
cementite (Fe3C).
 The layers of alternating
phases in pearlite are
formed for the same reason
as layered structure of
eutectic structures:
redistribution of C atoms
between ferrite (0.022 wt%)
and cementite (6.7 wt%) by
atomic diffusion.
 Mechanically, pearlite has
properties intermediate to
soft, ductile ferrite and
hard, brittle cementite.

40
Compositions to the left of eutectoid
(0.022 - 0.76 wt % C) is hypoeutectoid
(less than eutectoid) alloys.
Microstructure change is
γ→α+γ→α+P
1. First ferrite is formed when
temperature comes down below Ae3
temperature.
γ→α+γ
2. The amount of ferrite increases with
decrease in temperature till eutectoid
temperature.
3. Remaining austenite changes to
pearlite at eutectoid temperature.
α+γ→α+P

41
T(°C)
1600

1400 L
  (Fe-C System)
  +L
  1200 1148°C L+Fe3C

Fe3C (cementite)
(austenite)
  1000
   + Fe3C
a
a  800 727°C
 a a
600
a + Fe3C
400
a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
(Fe)C0 C, wt% C
0.76

pearlite

pearlite
proeutectoid ferrite
42
Hypoeutectoid steels contain proeutectoid ferrite (formed
above the eutectoid temperature) plus the pearlite that
contains eutectoid ferrite and cementite.

43
Strength Prediction of hypo-eutectoid steels
 Tensile strength of annealed hypo-eutectoid steels can be
Determined by the proportion of ferrite and pearlite
present:
App Tensile Strength= 40,000(percent ferrite) + 1 20,000(percent pearlite)
100

 For Example an annealed 0.20 percent carbon steel


contains approximately 25 percent pearlite and 75 percent
Ferrite'
 Applying the above
 Tensile strength = 40,000(0.75) + 120,000(0'25) /100
=60'000 psi

The same idea cannot be applied to HYPEREUTECTOID STEELS since their


strength is determined by the cementite network which forms the continuous
Phase. The presence of the brittle network results in a drop in tensile strength
above 0.8 % Carbon

44
Compositions to the right of eutectoid
(0.76 - 2.14 wt % C) is hypereutectoid
(more than eutectoid) alloys.
γ → γ + Fe3C → P + Fe3C
1. First cementite is formed when
temperature comes down below Acm
temperature.
γ → γ + Fe3C
2. The amount of cementite increases with
decrease in temperature till eutectoid
temperature.
3. Remaining austenite changes to pearlite
at eutectoid temperature.
γ + Fe3C → P + Fe3C

45
T(°C)
1600

1400 L
    +L
  1200 1148°C L+Fe3C

Fe3C (cementite)
(austenite)
  1000
   +Fe3C
Fe3C
  800
  a
600
a +Fe3C
400
0 1 C0 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
0.76

(Fe) C, wt%C
pearlite

Pearlite
Dark area proeutectoid Fe3C
Light area 46
47
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-Fe3C diagram

48
Effect of Alloying Elements

There are three


other important
reactive
elements in
steel: silicon,
aluminum, and
boron. The
steelmaking
process
produces low
levels of silicon
and aluminum
in all steels, and
boron is
sometimes an
additive.

Of the four common alloying elements(Shaded ones), chromium and molybdenum are carbide-forming
elements and, in general, will prefer to segregate into the cementite constituents of steel. Nickel is not a carbide-
forming element and will prefer to segregate into the ferrite. Manganese tends to be in between these groups.
The elements on the left—titanium, zirconium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, and tungsten—form very stable
carbides (tantalum carbide has the highest known melting point, 4000 °C, or 7200 °F).
The oxides, nitrides, and sulfides formed by all of the reactive elements in steel are generally present as small
particles called inclusions.
Effect of Alloying Elements on Grain growth
Dependence of Eutectoid Composition
Alloying Steel With More Elements
• Teutectoid changes: • Ceutectoid changes:

C eutectoid (wt% C)
Ti Si
T Eutectoid (°C)

Mo Ni
W
Cr

Cr Si
Mn
Mn W
Ti Mo
Ni

wt. % of alloying elements wt. % of alloying elements


Adapted from Fig. 10.38,Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig. Adapted from Fig. 10.39,Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig.
10.38 from Edgar C. Bain, Functions of the Alloying 10.39 from Edgar C. Bain, Functions of the Alloying
Elements in Steel, American Society for Metals, 1939, p. Elements in Steel, American Society for Metals, 1939,
127.) p. 127.)

51
Strength Elongation
 (MPa)  (%)
30
1000

 TS
(MPa)
TS

500 15 YS0.2
YS

0.2
% δ (%)
0
0 0.5 1 %C
Hardness

Impact
 In industries Pure metals are not use, due to the low
properties. Alloys offer better properties due to the
involvement of foreign atoms in the crystalline
structure.
 The chemical composition have influence in the
Mechanical, Technological and Physical properties.
 The most common alloys in our environment will
be (Steels, Brasses, Bronzes, Aluminum and Cast
Iron).

54
NOT shown in Fe-Fe3C Diagram. . . . !!! WHY ???

Martensite - a super-saturated solid solution of carbon in


ferrite. It is formed when steel is cooled so rapidly that the
change from austenite to pearlite is suppressed.
The interstitial carbon atoms distort the BCC ferrite into a
BC-tetragonal structure (BCT).; responsible for the hardness
of quenched steel
Bainite - is a plate-like microstructure or phase morphology
(not an equilibrium phase) that forms in steels at
temperatures of 250–550 °C on isothermal cooling (depending
on alloy content).
Under a light microscope, the microstructure of bainite
appears darker than martensite due to its low
reflectivity.
55
56
Two types of transformation processes in α-γ phase
transition (Ferrite-Austenite-Ferrite)
RECONSTRUCTIVE DISPLACIVE OR SHEAR
TRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION
1. Involves diffusion of atoms (both 1.No diffusion
solute-Fe and the solvent)

2.No resultant stress in the 2. Results in combination of elastic and


microstructure plastic strain in the
matrix(microstructure)

3.No resultant shape change in the 3. Resultant shape change of the bulk
sample sample

57
58
Summary of Microstructures and Mechanical Properties for
Iron–Carbon Alloys
Possible transformations involving the decomposition of austenite.
Solid arrows, transformations involving diffusion;
dashed arrow, Diffusionless transformation.

59
Summary of Microstructures and Mechanical Properties for
Iron–Carbon Alloys

60
Microstructures and & their Appearances in an Optical Microscope

61
Plate Martensite Lath-Plate Martensite
Lath Martensite

Spherardize Structure[white
Bainite and pearlite]
globules are cementite] 62
Common Doubts
 The Fe-Fe3C is just a part of the Fe-C phase diagram, the entire Fe-C phase
diagram extends to the right hand side upto 100 wt% C, which is pure Carbon
phase called Graphite. (Fe-C phase diagram has got not so significant use in
steel industry, that’s why its generally not shown).
 Ferrite is a phase, Austenite is a phase, Cementite is a phase but pearlite is not
a phase, pearlite is just a colony of 2 phases-ferrite & Cementite in a grain.
 We discussed the “solution” of Fe & C and definitely not a mixture. Solution
is homogenous in its composition and properties everywhere whereas a
mixture is not. (Sugar-Syrup is a solution and clay in water is a mixture).
 The width of the precipitate at the grain boundary varies as a grain boundary
can be a high-angle grain boundary or a low-angle grain boundary, High angle
grain boundaries are highly preferential sites for nucleation of precipitates due
to their high incoherency.(Different orientation of grains)
 Different “Heat-Treatment” processes changes the microstructure
differently for the same alloy composition. We discussed the phase diagram
and microstructures for a “Slow cooling” process. Quenching (Oil and water)
is a fast cooling process and it produces martensite (another phase of iron)
along with other phases depending on the processing parameters.

63
NED UNIVERESITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Prepared & Compiled By:


Engr. Muhamad Sami
Introduction
 Metallography is basically the study of the structures and
constitution of metals and alloys, using metallurgical
microscopes and magnifications, so that the physical and
mechanical properties of an alloy can be related to its observed
microstructure.

 Such microscopic studies can provide an abundance of


constitutional information about the specimen under
investigation, including the size and shape of the grains
(crystallites), the presence of micro defects (such as
segregation, hair cracks, and nonmetallic inclusions), and the
nature and distribution of secondary phases.

 The metallographic examination can be used in quality control


and to predict and/or explain the mechanical properties.
65
Objective
 To prepare the specimens surfaces to be examined by
the microscope.

 To learn and to gain experience in the preparation of


metallographic specimens and its microscopic
Examination.

 Operation of Metallurgical Microscope and


troubleshooting practices.

 Quantitative Metallography

66
Sample preparation

Consists of five major steps


 Sectioning
 Mounting (optional)
 Grinding
 Polishing
 Etching

67
Sectioning
Why sectioning?
1. Size limitation of specimen to be examined under optical microscope.
2. Locate area needs to be selected from a large sample.

hacksaw Band saw Abrasive cutting


68
Sectioning
Abrasive cutting
Abrasive cutting is the most widely used method of sectioning. Conventional abrasive cutting
using consumable wheels is fast, accurate, and economical and most popular. The quality of the
cut surface obtained is often superior to that obtained by other methods
Consumable Abrasive Cutting
 Abrasive cutting is the sectioning of material using a relatively thin rotating disk
composed of abrasive particles supported by a suitable medium
 Silicon carbide is preferred for cutting non-ferrous metals and non metals.

 Alumina (Al2O3) is recommended for ferrous metals

 Cutoff wheels with grit sizes from 60 to 120 are recommended for sectioning
metallographic specimens
 Abrasive-wheel sectioning can produce damage to a depth of 1 mm (0.04 in.)

 Control of cutting speed, wheel pressure, and coolant application minimizes damage

Non consumable Abrasive Cutting


 Diamond that has been crushed, graded, chemically cleaned, and properly sized is
attached to a metal wheel using resin, vitreous, or metal bonding.
 Metal-bonded rimlock wheels consist of metal disks with hundreds of small notches
(containing many diamond particles) uniformly cut into the periphery
 Continuous-rim resin-bonded wheels consist of diamond particles attached by resin
bonding to the rim of a metal core suitable for cutting very hard metallics.

69
Sectioning

Micra cut

Consumable abrasive wheel

Abrasive cutting
machine

Non consumable abrasive wheel

70
Mounting
 Small or oddly shaped specimens are mounted to facilitate easy handling
during preparation and examination
 Standard mounts usually measure 25 mm (1 in.), 32 mm (1.25 in.), or 38 mm
(1.5 in.) in diameter
 Bakelite and diallyl phthalate are thermosetting resins which are most
widely used as moulding material
 Transparent methyl methacrylate, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)are
some of the thermoplastic resins used in moulding
 Both requires heat and pressure during molding. Thermosetting molds can
be ejected from the mould at the moulding temperature, while
thermoplastic resins must be cooled to ambient temperature under
pressure

Hot
mounting
Mounted press
specimen machine

71
Grinding & Polishing
To prepare the cut surface suitably for metallographic examination as optically flat,
reflective, smooth and scratch free
Grinding and abrasion
 uses abrasive particles whose projecting points act as the cutting tools
 the abrasive particles are cemented together onto a cloth or paper backing,
creating coated abrasive products whose exposed surface is the working surface
 Emery papers are typical example for this kind
Polishing
 The paper or cloth is attached to the surface of a wheel that is rotated at a
comparatively low speed in a horizontal plane
 The specimen is held against the working surface of a wheel and rotated slowly in a
direction opposite that of the wheel
 Diamond, alumina (Al2O3), and magnesium oxide (MgO) are the abrasives most
commonly used for polishing

Mechanized grinding & Polishing wheel

72
Grinding & Polishing

73
Electrolytic Polishing
 used widely in the metallography of stainless steels, copper alloys, aluminum alloys,
magnesium, zirconium, and other metals that are difficult to polish by conventional mechanical
methods
 Electrolytic polishing can completely remove all traces of worked metal remaining from
mechanical grinding and polishing operations used in specimen preparation
 Rough surface is made the anode of a suitable electrolytic cell, and preferential solution of the
"hills" or ridges on a rough surface takes place
 In molded sample, only the portion of the specimen to be polished should be in contact with
the electrolyte
 High surface finish can be obtained

Principle Machine
1. Electrolyte
2. Cathode
3. Workpiece to polish
(Anode)
4. Particle moving from
the work piece to the
cathode
5. Surface before
polishing
6. Surface after
polishing
74
Etching
A dilute acid is react with the surface of the sample. This operation is called etching. After
etching, the grain boundaries are visible in microscope.
ETCHING is used in metallography primarily to reveal the microstructure of a specimen under
the optical microscope
it is a procedure for achieving contrast in the microstructure

• Using chemical to dissolve selectively the


surface of materials in order to reveal the
inhomogeneous nature in microscopic
scale.
• For example the grain boundaries of
polycrystalline metal

75
Some commonly used etchants

NAME COMPOSITION USE


Nital 2 mL HNO3 and 98 mL For carbon steels; gives
ethanol or methanol maximum contrast
between pearlite and a
ferrite or cementite
network
Picral 4 g picric acid, 100 mL For all grades of carbon
ethanol or methanol steels
Beraha's reagent 3 g K2S2O5, 10 g Na2S2O3, Colours ferrite grains
and 100 mL H2O
Aqua regia 3 parts HCl + 1 part HNO3 Used with austenitic
grades to reveal grain
structure, outline ferrite
and σ phase
Glyceregia 3 parts glycerol, 2-5 parts Popular etch for all
HCl, 1 part HNO3 stainless grades

76
Behavior of different etchants on microstructure

Low carbon steel

Etched with 2% Nital Etched with 4% Picral Etched with Beraha’s reagent

77
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF METALS
AND ALLOYS
ANATOMY OF MICROSCOPE

 A microscope is an optical system which transforms an ‘object’ into an


‘image’. We are usually interested in making the image much larger than the
object that is magnifying it, hence it is a tool that magnifies and improves
resolution of the components of a structure & has three components: one or
more sources of illumination, a magnifying system, and one or more
detectors.
 Structural Characterisation techniques consisting of macro and
microstructural characterization by using light or electron microscopes. It
consists of:
 Macroscopy: To observe the structure at low magnification i.e., <50x.
 Microscopy: To observe the structure at higher magnification i.e., >50x.
 Both structural examinations may be carried by using different types of
microscopes:
 Light microscopes use a beam of light for illumination.
 Electron microscopes use electrons as a source of illumination.

79
ANATOMY OF MICROSCOPE
The simplest optical microscope, which has
been in use since the early seventeenth
century, is a single convex lens or
'magnifying glass'. The image is magnified,
real and inverted if the object distance u
(between lens and object) is between f and
2f, as shown in Figure
The image is magnified, real and inverted if
the object distance u is b/w f & 2f, as shown
in Figure (a).

u > f < 2f image real, inverted &


magnified

If an image is to be recorded on a
photographic plate or viewed on a screen
then it must be real, and therefore we will
not be concerned with optical arrangements
which give rise to virtual final images.

If the object is further from the lens than 2f


[Figure(c)] the image is demagnified, that is
the magnification is less than unity. 80
ANATOMY OF MICROSCOPE

81
TOOLS FOR PHASE ANALYSIS

Point
counting
ASTM E562 - 99
method

Quantitative
Phase Metallography Grain size
proportions

ASTM E 112 – 96
Interlamellar
spacing

82
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

“The determination of specific of microstructures using quantitative


measurements on micrographs or metallographic images is called Quantitative
Metallography.”

TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS


• Phase proportions
• Point counting method
• Grain size
• Interlamellar spacing

83
Point Counting Method:

ASTM E-562 , the point counting for determining the amount


of second-phase constituents. A grid with systematically
spaced points (e.g., 10 rows of 10 equally spaced points) is
superimposed over the structure.

84
AISI 8620 as received

25μm

85
FOR EXAMPLE AISI 8620 as received

Pearlite

Ferrite

25μm

The phases present in the received sample showing ferrite and pearlite region
was confirmed from Atlas of Microstructures of Industrial Alloys.
The average pearlite region = point counted / total count
Average pearlite region = 28.17~28%
The remaining ~72% is the matrix (Ferrite).

86
AISI 8620 Annealed Sample
Ferrite

Spheroidal
carbides

25μm

The phases present in the received sample showing ferrite and


spheroidal carbides region was confirmed from Atlas of
Microstructures of Industrial Alloys.
The average spheroidal carbides = point counted / total count
Average spheroidal carbides = 9.66%
The remaining ~90% is the matrix (Ferrite).
87
Grain Size
Grain size is perhaps the most commonly performed microstructural
measurement, The ASTM grain size number, G, is defined as:
n = 2G-1
Where n is the number of grains per square inch at 100X. To convert n to NA (the number of grains per
square mm at 1X), multiply n by 15.5.

Grain size can be measured by the planimetric method (developed by


Zay Jeffries in 1916) or by the intercept method (developed by Emil
Heyn in 1904).

we can calculate the ASTM grain size number, G, using the following formula from
E 112-96:

G = {3.322 (log10 NA) – 2.954} for Jeffries

G = {-6.644 (log10 l) – 3.288} for Intercept


where l is in mm

88
Grain Size

Comparison
procedure

GRAIN SIZE
MEASUREMENT

Intercept Planimetric
procedure procedure

89
Determination of Grain size by Heyn/Intercept Method
Heyn Lineal Intercept Procedure
 The number of grains intercepted by one or more straight lines sufficiently long
to yield at least 50 intercepts (N).
 To calculate the number of interceptions per mm, “NL”, we divide “N” by the
true length (circumference = πD) of the circle
 NL = N/LT
 The true length “LT” in mm divided by the magnification M.
 To calculate the grain size, we first determine the mean lineal intercept length
”l”, which is the reciprocal of NL [ l=1/NL]
 G is calculated from an equation from E112-96:
G = {-6.644 (log10 l) – 3.288} for Intercept where l is in mm

Circular Intercept Method


 Automatically compensate for departures from equiaxed grain shapes
 Ambiguous intersections at ends of test lines are eliminated

90
Determination of Grain by Jeffries Method

ASTM recommends
using a test circle
with a diameter of
79.8 mm (5000 sq.
mm area)

91
Determination of Grain by Jeffries Method

92
AISI 8620 Grain Size of As Recieved sample
 There are 23 grains within the circle (ninside)
and 21 grains intercepted by the circle
(nintercepted). The number of grains per mm2,
NA, is calculated from:
 NA = f {ninside + 1/2(nintercepted)} eqn(1)
 The multiplier f is calculated from
 f = M2 / Circle Area
 Where M is the linear magnification of the
image.
 f = 4002/π(402) = 31.83
 So eqn (1) becomes,
 NA = 31.83{23+ 1/2(21)}
 NA = 1098.135 grains per mm2
 From NA, we calculate the ASTM grain size,
25μm G, using the following formula:
 G = {3.322 (log10 NA) – 2.954}
 G = {3.322 (log10 1098.135) – 2.954}
 G = 7.14
93
AISI 8620 Grain Size of Annealed sample
 There are 77 grains within the circle
(ninside) and 28 grains intercepted by the
circle (nintercepted). The number of grains
per mm2, NA, is calculated from:
 NA = f {ninside +1/2 (nintercepted)}eqn(1).
 The multiplier f is calculated from
 f = M2 / Circle Area
 Where M is the linear magnification of the
image.
 f = 4002/π(402) = 31.83
 So eqn (1) becomes,
 NA = 31.83{77+ 1/2(28)}
 NA =2896 grains per mm2
25μm
 From NA, we calculate the ASTM grain size,
G, using the following formula:
 G = {3.322 (log10 NA) – 2.954}
 G = {3.322 (log102896) – 2.954}
 G = 6.85 94
ASTM Grain Size
2D VS 3D

95
INCLUSION RATING IN STEELS AS PER
ASTM STANDARDS

96
INCLUSIONS

 Inclusions are non metallic particles embedded in the steel


matrix.
 Chemical compounds of metals like (Fe, Mn, Al, Si, Ca etc)
with non metals (O, S, N, C, H)
 Examples: SiO2,MnO,MgS,Ce2S3,AlN etc…
 Properties: An inclusion is a mismatch with the steel
matrix. Both may have different properties resulting in
undesired effect.

97
INCLUSION RATING

 Standard reference charts depicting a series of typical inclusion


configurations (size, type, and number) were created for direct
comparison with the microscopic field of view
 Rating is done in comparison with the ASTM standard chart.
[Designation: E 45]
 Inclusions are assigned to a category based on similarities in
morphology, that is, by size, shape, concentration, and
distribution, and not necessarily on their chemical identity

98
CLASSIFICATION OF INCLUSIONS

 Inclusions are classified into four categories


(called Type) based on their morphology

 Each of them are classified into two


subcategories based on their width or diameter

99
CLASSIFICATION OF INCLUSIONS

heavy
A-Sulfide
Type
thin

• Although the categories contain heavy


B-Alumina
chemical names that imply knowledge Type
of their chemical content, the ratings thin
are based strictly on morphology categories
heavy
C-Silicate
Type
• The four categories, or Types, are thin
partitioned into Severity Levels based
on the number or length of the heavy
particles present in a 0.50 mm2 field D-Globular
of view Oxide Type
thin

100
CLASSIFICATION OF INCLUSIONS

 Type A and C inclusions are very similar in size and shape


 They are distinguished based on their colour when viewed under
brightfield illumination
 Type A-Sulfide are light gray

 Type C-Silicate are black

 The B-type stringers consist of a number (at least three) of round or


angular oxide particles with aspect ratios less than 2 that are aligned
nearly parallel to the deformation axis
 The D-type are globular in shape

101
PROCEDURE
 The minimum polished surface area of a specimen for the microscopic
determination of inclusion content is 160 mm2 (0.25 in.2)

 Field of view is 0.50 mm2 or square of side 0.71 mm

 Either of two techniques may be employed to achieve a


0.50 mm2 field of view
 One method is to project the microscope image onto a viewing screen that has a
square mask with 71.0 mm sides drawn on it

 Another option is to use a reticle made for the microscope, which will superimpose the
required square mask directly onto the field of view

102
PROCEDURE

 Inclusions are classified into the before mentioned four types


 After the inclusions are categorized by Type, they must be
categorized by thickness or diameter- thin and heavy series
 After classification by type and thickness, the severity levels
are determined for the inclusions comparing with the chart
 These values can be numerically calculated as length or
number based on the limits given in standard Table (given
below)

103
COMPARISON CHART- A (Sulfide type)

104
COMPARISON CHART- B (Aluminate type)

105
COMPARISON CHART- C (Silicate type)

106
COMPARISON CHART- D (Globular type oxides)

107
PROCEDURE

108
REFERENCES
▪ R E SMALLMAN – Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

▪ P C ANGELO – Materials Characterization

▪ ASTM E 45 – 05 - Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel

▪ ASTM E 1245 - Practice for Determining Inclusion or Second-Phase Constituent


Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis

▪ Abrams, H., “Grain Size Measurement by the Intercept Method,” Metallography , Vol 4,
1971, pp. 59–78.

▪ ASTM E 112 “Methods for determining the average grain size” PCN 12-501 120-10

▪ ASTM E562 - 99 “Point Count Methods”

109