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TOLENTINO, YZZABEL DENISE L.

1A13

1.

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR


associated protein 9 or CRISPR/Cas9 can locate and thus kill cancer cells. Through the
use of it, scientists can develop new immunotherapies that can treat cancer. In align to
this and with the fact that CRISPR/Cas9 costs cheap, CRISPR/Cas9 can be used for drug
research as it also brings an advantage of speeding up the discovery of new drugs. In
addition, this gene editing technique does not only bring benefit in the field of medicine
but in agriculture as well. It can actually address pest challenges in front of agriculture
particularly with regards to climate change and population growth.

2.

The discovery of CRISPR technology started when an unusual pattern of DNA


sequences in a gene belonging to E-coli was observed. The gene showed a five short
repeating segments of DNA, that all have the same sequences composing of 29 bases,
divided by short non-repeating 'spacer' DNA sequences that on the other hand have their
own distinct sequence composed of 32 bases. The said pattern was said to be found in
various microbe species. Because of commonality, microbiologists have provided a name
for the pattern which is 'clustered regularly inter-spaced short palindromic repeats' or
CRISPR for short.

The CAS9 was then known to be a technique that lets scientists rapidly modify
DNA in a genome, change any chosen letter(s) in an organism’s DNA code, and a system
for immune defense that cuts DNA of invading bacterial viruses.

3.

As mentioned in the first number, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short


Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 or CRISPR/Cas9 aids in the
development of treatment in cancer. Other genetic disorders that are also treated through
the use of this technology are cystic fibrosis and haemophilia or Tay Sachs. It even holds
promise for the cure and prevention of complex diseases like cancer, heart disease,
mental illness, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
4.

Through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool, designer babies are being made by
modifying embryos before being implanted in their mother. Designer babies will be most
likely be created in order to eradicate a deadly genetic disease running in a family
because as they grow as modified humans, they will be able to alter the genome of the
entire species as their engineered traits will then be passed on to their children as well
that could be spread into generations which leads to slowly modifying humanity. In
addition, CRISPR/Cas9 also helps in making human lives longer or eternal for the reason
of the engineered humans being better equipped in coping with high-energy food which
leads to the elimination of many diseases of civilization. These engineered humans could
also be equipped for coping up in different hostile conditions and thus making human
lives longer.

5.

Some societal and ethical implications of CRISPR technology are the balance of
its risks and benefits because CRISPR may produce off target mutations and may also
cleave to unintended sequences causing mutation that can cause cell transformation or
death, ecological disequilibrium because the accidental release of experimental organism
modified using gene drives can lead to dissemination of organisms that causes ecological
damage , regulations for consumers because the genetically modified organisms are hard
to identify once outside the lab and are hard to regulate in the market , application of the
technique to the human germline because the technique can produce mutations and side
effects, and genome editing for enhancement because the efficiency of the technique
increases the possibility to intervene somatic cells in order to match genetics to our life
interests.

OTHER REFERENCES:
https://explorebiotech.com/crispr-pros-and-cons/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301328912_Ethical_Issues_in_Genome_Editi
ng_using_CrisprCas9_System
http://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/index.php/science/summary/crispr