Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

Integrated bike lanes

Literature survey

Undertaken: June 2017, Library and Research Services

Disclaimer: The following research has been undertaken by the Library and Research
Services Unit of Transport Shared Services for the purpose of supporting transport cluster
agencies. Whilst every care has been taken in producing the information in this document,
Transport suggests it be used as a guide only.
This document may contain information of, or links to, other parties and their opinions are
not necessarily those of Transport. The presence of any link or information of other parties
should not be construed as an endorsement of those parties or the accuracy of their
Databases: ARRB, EBSCO, First, Google scholar, ScienceDirect, Transportation agencies
(National & International), TRB.
Search Terms: Bicycle, bicycle lane, bicycle operations, bike lane, cycle lane, dedicated,
infrastructure, integrated, integration, model, operational measures, public transportation,
shared facilities, shared lane, shared roadway, shared traffic, shared use, shared use
facilities, traffic conditions, traffic rules, WCL, wide curb lane, wide outside lane.

1. 6 places where cars, bikes, and pedestrians all share the road as
Jaffe, E.
Atlantic Citylab, March 2015
If you aren't a traffic engineer or an urban planner, the word woonerf probably looks like a
typo, or maybe the Twitter handle of whoever runs marketing for Nerf (woo!). But you might
want to get familiar with the term—Dutch for "living street"—because the urban design
concepts it embraces are on the rise. A woonerf is a street or square where cars,
pedestrians, cyclists, and other local residents travel together without traditional safety
infrastructure to guide them. Also sometimes called a "shared street," a woonerf is generally
free of traffic lights, stop signs, curbs, painted lines, and the like. The basic idea is that once
these controls are stripped away, everyone is forced to become more alert and ultimately
more cooperative. Through less restraint comes greater focus. (Website)

2. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for

shared bicycle/bus lanes – final report
Hillsman, E., Hendricks, S. & Fiebe, J.
University of S. Florida, National Centre for Transportation Research, 2012
This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared
bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are
designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually also for right-turning
vehicles. Some municipalities may also allow use of these lanes by taxis and delivery

Page 1 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

vehicles. The purpose of such lanes is to provide a time advantage to public transit service
by taking the buses out of the general traffic flow and into a designated lane. Where
constrained right-of-way prevents provision of a separate bicycle lane, the intent is to allow
bicycles to use the designated bus lane. This is to provide a more direct route for bicyclists,
provide greater level of service to bicyclists and provide some degree of space separation
between general traffic and bicyclists for their greater safety and comfort. However, this
combined use raises many issues of compatibility of bicycles and buses sharing the same
road space. The limited available research on the subject of shared bicycle/bus lanes
includes informative investigations from the Minneapolis Public Works Department,
Minnesota; the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Pennsylvania; the City of
Ottawa, Canada, the Department for Transport of the United Kingdom and from Austroads,
Sydney, Australia. Investigators compiled a list of shared bicycle/bus lanes in cities in the
United States and Canada, including facility attributes that are presented in an appendix.
Researchers found very few examples of state-level guidance on shared bicycle/bus lanes
but more examples at the local and regional levels. These are provided in the report.
Through surveys and interviews, the shared bicycle/bus lanes from four cities in the United
States were selected for in-depth examination and were developed into case studies: Ocean
City, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C.
As a result of this investigation, an identification and discussion of the contextual factors,
design variables, and tools for planning and implementing shared bicycle/bus lanes is
presented. The report provides recommendations for further needed research. (First)

3. Bicycle and pedestrian program

USDOT Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration receives occasional inquiries about what bicycle
facilities, signals, and markings are permitted in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MUTCD). The table below lists various bicycle-related signs, markings, signals,
and other treatments and identifies their status (e.g., can be implemented, currently
experimental) in the 2009 version of the MUTCD. (Website)

4. Bicycle lane priority: Promoting bicycle as a green mode even in

congested urban area
Bagloee, S., Sarvi, M. & Wallace, M.
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, May 2016, Vol. 87, pp. 102-121
The main obstacles to boosting the bicycle as a mode of transport are safety concerns due
to interactions with motorized traffic. One option is to separate cyclists from motorists
through exclusive bicycle priority lanes. This practice is easily implemented in uncongested
traffic. Enforcing bicycle lanes on congested roads may degenerate the network, making the
idea very hard to sell both to the public and the traffic authorities. Inspired by Braess
Paradox, the authors take an unorthodox approach to seeking latent misutilised capacity in
the congested networks to be dedicated to exclusive bicycle lanes. The aim of this study is
to tailor an efficient and practical method to large size urban networks. Hence, this paper
appeals to policy makers in their quest to scientifically convince stakeholder that bicycle is
not a secondary mode; rather, it can be greatly accommodated along with other modes even
in the heart of the congested cities. In conjunction with the bicycle lane priority, other policy
measures such as shared bicycle scheme, electric-bike, integration of public transport and
bicycle are also discussed in this article. As for the mathematical methodology, the authors

Page 2 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

articulated it as a discrete bi-level mathematical programing. In order to handle the real

networks, we developed a phased methodology based on Branch-and-Bound (as a solution
algorithm), structured in a less intensive RAM manner. The methodology was tested on real
size network of city of Winnipeg, Canada, for which the total of 30 road segments –
equivalent to 2.77 km bicycle lanes – in the CBD were found. (ScienceDirect)

5. Bicycle safety at roundabouts

Austroads 2017, Publication no.: AP-R542-17, p. 180
This report investigates how the geometric design components of a roundabout may
contribute to bicycle crashes. An Australian and New Zealand crash analysis found that
most of the crashes occurred at urban local road roundabouts, in 50 km/h speed limit zones.
The crashes predominantly occurred on the circulating lane near the entry for an approach
road and were right-adjacent type crashes. The study included an in-depth investigation of
17 roundabouts across Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. (Austroads)

6. Bike lane design: the context sensitive approach

Dondi, G., Simone, A., Lantieri, C. & Vignali, V.
Procedia Engineering, 2011, Vol. 21, pp. 897-906
In these days of increasing congestion on roads, bicycles continue to provide a valuable
contribution to mobility in Europe. Their relatively small size and low cost enable them to
blend efficiently into in the traffic flow while needing less space compared to other vehicles.
However, cyclists form one of the most vulnerable groups of road users. So the design of
safe infrastructures for all travellers categories, included the cyclists, becomes a primary
requirement. To obtain these results, a Context Sensitive Design approach is a very useful
tool. In this way, in fact, it is possible to examine a project or existing road, reporting its
crash potential and safety performances and detecting its deficiencies, taking into
consideration communities and lands which it passes through. In this paper the authors,
starting from results collected on a bike lane placed in Rimini, provide useful results for
designers, construction and maintenance contractors, in order to obtain safe bike lanes.

7. Case study; wide cycle lanes on main radial route: Hills Road,
Department for Transport, London, March 2016
Case study that examines the effect of reallocating road space to suit the primary traffic flow
in order to improve cyclist safety. Cambridge City Council redesigned a dual carriageway
bridge as two cycle lanes and three traffic lanes. The £500,000 scheme was opened in
2011, and improves cyclist safety on this busy route into Cambridge. (Website)

8. Characterising the speed and paths of shared bicycle use in Lyon

Jensen, P., Rouquier, J. & Ovtracht, N.
Transportation research – Part D: Transport and Environment: 2010, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp.
Data gathered relating to the Lyon’s shared bicycling system, Vélo’v, is used to analyse 11.6
million bicycle trips in the city. The data show that bicycles now compete with the car in
terms of speed in downtown Lyon. It also provides information on cycle flows that can be of
use in the planning of dedicated bicycle lanes and other facilities. (First)

Page 3 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

9. Comparison of five bicycle facility designs in signalized

intersections using traffic conflict studies
Madsen, T. & Lahrmann, H.
Transportation Research – Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, April 2017, Vol.
46, Part B, pp. 438-450
The purpose of this study is to compare the safety of cyclists in five bicycle facility layouts in
signalized intersections at various traffic volumes in order to assess if some layouts are
better than others with regards to cyclist safety and to develop methods to facilitate this
comparison. The five layouts included two full-length bicycle tracks with and without
separate right-turning lane, two truncated bicycle tracks – one in which cyclists and right-
turning vehicles merge in the right-turning lane, one continued into a narrow bicycle lane –
and a recessed bicycle track. Using two different definitions of traffic conflicts the safety of
cyclists in each layout is calculated as the risk of a cyclist being involved in a conflict with
left- and right-turning vehicles at low, medium and high vehicle volumes, respectively. In
total, around 35,500 left-turning vehicles, 38,000 right-turning vehicles and 16,000 cyclists
going straight ahead were observed, resulting in 12 left-hook and 25 right-hook traffic
conflicts for the reaction-based indicator and 25 left-hook and 80 right-hook traffic conflicts
for the time-based indicator. The results show that regardless of which of the two conflict
indicators were used, the number of conflicts was too small to make firm conclusions about
which layout is safest for cyclists at various traffic volumes, although the study was based
on 80 h of video recordings from each of the five intersections. However, a recessed bicycle
track seems to be safer than the other geometric layouts. In order to facilitate the detection
of conflicts, we developed watchdog video analysis software to reduce the amount of video.
This software compressed 400 h of video into 64 h, i.e. 16% of its original length. The use of
this software is particularly important to provide enough conflicts for an analysis if even
larger traffic conflict studies should be carried out. (ScienceDirect)

10. Conversions of wide curb lanes: the effect on bicycle and motor
vehicle interactions
Hunter, W., Feaganes, J. & Srinivasan, R.
Transportation Research Record, 2014, No. 1939, pp. 37-44
This paper examines the operational effects of converting a 14-ft-wide curb lane to an 11-ft-
wide travel lane with a 3-ft-wide undesignated lane at various locations in Broward County,
Florida. Six midblock sites with various configurations were selected for study. Two of the
midblock sites had previously been striped with the 3-ft undesignated lane, and these
served as comparison sites. Videotapes were taken of bicyclists riding through the midblock
and intersection locations before and after placement of the 3-ft undesignated lane striping.
At the locations where the 3-ft stripe was already in place, the videotaping was done to
examine whether changes were occurring over time. Software was used to extract images at
all midblock locations so that before and after lateral spacing measurements could be
obtained. After the new striping, (a) bicycles were ridden, on average, 7 to 9 in. further away
from the gutter pan seam; (b) motor vehicles were driven, on average, 6 to 12 in. farther
away from the gutter pan seam; (c) passing motor vehicles were driven, on average, 3 to 5
in. closer to bicycles at curb and gutter sites; conversely, passing motor vehicles were
driven, on average, 4 to 5 in. farther away from bicycles at the sites where the stripe was
already in place; and (d) the addition of the stripe at new locations had the effect of reducing

Page 4 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

the amount of motor vehicle encroachment into the adjacent lane on these multilane
roadways. (TRB)

11. Copenhagen city of cyclists: The bicycle account 2014

The City of Copenhagen Technical and Environmental Administration Mobility and
Urban Space, 2015, p. 13
Copenhagen is one of the top bicycle-friendly cities in the world. The story is told again and
again around the world, and no wonder the media, tourists, urban planners and politicians
flock to Copenhagen from far and wide to study the secret of our success. Many cities are
eager to follow our example. This year's Bicycle Account, for example, shows that fully 45%
of all journeys to places of work or education in Copenhagen are made by bicycle. This is an
increase of 25% as compared to two years ago. An impressive result, and no wonder others
wish to learn from us. A well-functioning city has an efficient transport system. It is
consequently of vital importance that the bicycle should continue to be the transport mode of
choice in the future: the greater the number of trips involving space-saving transport modes,
the greater the overall passability of goods and people. For this reason the expansion of
capacity in the city's most heavily trafficked sections will continue to be a focus area.

12. Cycle infrastructure design

Department for Transport London
Local transport note 2/08
This design guide brings together and updates guidance previously available in a number of
draft Local Transport Notes and other documents. Although its focus is the design of cycle
infrastructure, parts of its advice are equally appropriate to improving conditions for
pedestrians. The guidance covers England, Wales and Scotland. Where the text refers to
highway authorities (for England and Wales), the equivalent term in Scotland is a road
authority. (Website)

13. Cycle lanes: their effect on driver passing distances in urban

Stewart, M.
Transport, July, 2014, Vol.29, No.3
The current literature in the field of cycle lanes has often shown contradictory evidence as to
the benefits and risks of cycle lanes and previous work has specifically shown that on higher
speed roads, drivers may pass closer to a cyclist when a cycle lane is present. Utilising an
instrumented bicycle, we collected information as to the passing distance demonstrated by
drivers when overtaking a cyclist within the urban (30 mph/40 mph) environment. The
presented analysis shows that when a driver encounters a cyclist mid-block (i.e. not at a
junction), there are more significant variables than the presence of a cycle lane that
determines the overtaking distance. The three most significant variables identified are:
absolute road width, the presence of nearside parking and the presence of an opposing
vehicle at the time of an overtaking manoeuvre. The analysis also demonstrated that there
is a larger unknown factor when it comes to overtaking distances. We postulate that this
unknown variable is the driver himself and will vary by area, site and even time of day (i.e.

Page 5 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

different driving cultures, congestion, or frustration during peak times, etc.) making it difficult
to quantify. (EBSCO)

14. Cycling network guidance – planning and design

NZ transport Agency, 2015
Cycling Network Guidance – planning and design (CNG) aims to promote a consistent, best-
practice approach to cycling network and route planning throughout New Zealand. It sets out
a principles-based process for deciding what cycling provision is desirable, and provides
best-practice guidance for the design of cycleways. (Website)

15. Cycling to work in 90 large American cities: new evidence on the

role of bike paths and lanes
Buehler, R. & Pucher, J.
Transportation, March 2012, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 409-432
This article analyses the variation in bike commuting in large American cities, with a focus
on assessing the influence of bike paths and lanes, which have been the main approach to
increasing cycling in the USA. To examine the role of cycling facilities, we used a newly
assembled dataset on the length of bike lanes and paths in 2008 collected directly from 90
of the 100 largest U.S. cities. Pearson’s correlation, bivariate quartile analysis, and two
different types of regressions were used to measure the relationship between cycling levels
and bikeways, as well as other explanatory and control variables. Ordinary Least Squares
and Binary Logit Proportions regressions confirm that cities with a greater supply of bike
paths and lanes have significantly higher bike commute rates—even when controlling for
land use, climate, socioeconomic factors, gasoline prices, public transport supply, and
cycling safety. Standard tests indicate that the models are a good fit, with R2 ranging
between 0.60 and 0.65. Computed coefficients have the expected signs for all variables in
the various regression models, but not all are statistically significant. Estimated elasticities
indicate that both off-street paths and on-street lanes have a similar positive association
with bike commute rates in U.S. cities. Our results are consistent with previous research on
the importance of separate cycling facilities and provide additional information about the
potentially different role of paths vs. lanes. Our analysis also revealed that cities with safer
cycling, lower auto ownership, more students, less sprawl, and higher gasoline prices had
more cycling to work. By comparison, annual precipitation, the number of cold and hot days,
and public transport supply were not statistically significant predictors of bike commuting in
large cities. (TRB)

16. Decision support systems and consensus building: the case study
of the first bike lane in the City of Napoli in Italy
Pagliara, F. & Biggiero, L.
Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, February 2014, Vol. 111, pp. 480-487
Informed debate can generate democratic consensus over controversial issues, effective
engagement can bring about better policy directions, improved local services, possibly new
ways to initiate or plan for a particular situation and a better understanding of the local
context by technical experts and community members. Moreover, any transport policy
should be simulated first and its impacts assessed with a proper DSS. A case study in which
local authority did not work in this direction is represented by the new bike lane in the city of

Page 6 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

Napoli in the south of Italy. Indeed this intervention was introduced without making first any
impact evaluation (i.e. on traffic or on the local economy) or reaching the consensus among
the retailers where the lane was designed. Furthermore the bike lane was not built as part of
the wider traffic master plan and thus no political consensus was achieved as well. This
paper attempts to analyse the effects of this way of acting and supports the philosophy that
“mobility to be sustainable” should be conceived in this way.

17. Developing crash modification functions to assess safety effects

of adding bike lanes for urban arterials with different roadway and
socio-economic characteristics
Park, J., Abdel-Aty, M., Lee, J. & Lee, C.
Accident Analysis & Prevention, January 2015, Vol. 74, pp. 179-191
Although many researchers have estimated crash modification factors (CMFs) for specific
treatments (or countermeasures), there is a lack of studies that explored the heterogeneous
effects of roadway characteristics on crash frequency among treated sites. Generally, the
CMF estimated by before–after studies represents overall safety effects of the treatment in a
fixed value. However, as each treated site has different roadway characteristics, there is a
need to assess the variation of CMFs among the treated sites with different roadway
characteristics through crash modification functions (CMFunctions). The main objective of
this research is to determine relationships between the safety effects of adding a bike lane
and the roadway characteristics through (1) evaluation of CMFs for adding a bike lane using
observational before–after with empirical Bayes (EB) and cross-sectional methods, and (2)
development of simple and full CMFunctions which are describe the CMF in a function of
roadway characteristics of the sites. Data was collected for urban arterials in Florida, and
the Florida-specific full SPFs were developed. Moreover, socio-economic parameters were
collected and included in CMFunctions and SPFs (1) to capture the effects of the variables
that represent volume of bicyclists and (2) to identify general relationship between the CMFs
and these characteristics. In order to achieve better performance of CMFunctions, data
mining techniques were used. (Google Scholar)

18. Economic impact of investments in bicycle facilities: case study of

North Carolina's northern outer banks
Meletiou, M., Lawrie, J., Cook, T., O'Brien, S. & Guenther, J.
Transportation Research Record, 2014, No. 1939, pp. 15-21
The northern Outer Banks coastal area in North Carolina is well suited to drawing bicycle
tourism because of its geography, climate, and attractions. In 2003, the North Carolina
Department of Transportation commissioned a study to examine the value of public
investment in bicycle facilities that have been constructed in this area over the past 10 years
at a cost of approximately $6.7 million. A particular challenge in conducting this study was
that tourists visited the Outer Banks for a variety of reasons, not just for cycling. Thus, the
collection of information on the amount and nature of bicycling activity and on the spending
patterns of bicyclists in the area was critical for the development of an economic impact
analysis. Researchers surveyed cyclists using the bicycle facilities (shared-use paths and
wide paved shoulders) and obtained data from self-administered surveys of tourists at visitor
centres during the primary tourist season. The data collected were then used to determine
the economic impact of bicycling visitors to the area. Seventeen percent of tourists to the
area reported that they bicycled while there; this translates to 680,000 people annually. The

Page 7 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

economic impact of bicycling visitors is significant: a conservative annual estimate is $60

million, with 1,407 jobs created or supported per year. This is almost nine times greater than
the one-time expenditure required to construct the facilities. Continued investment in bicycle
facilities is expected to increase this favourable economic impact and is therefore
recommended. (TRB)

19. Estimating level of service of mid-block bicycle lanes considering

mixed traffic flow
Bai, L., Liu, P., Chan, C. & Li, Z.
Transportation Research – Part A: Policy and Practice, July 2017, Vol. 101, pp. 203-
The primary objective of the study was to identify the factors that influenced the comfort
perception of e-bike, e-scooter and bicycle riders in mid-block bicycle lanes on urban streets
and to estimate the bicycle level of service (BLOS) of a mid-block bicycle lane with mixed
two-wheeled traffic. Data were collected at thirty locations on thirty different streets in
Nanjing area in China. Pearson’s Chi-square tests were conducted to make comparisons of
the comfort perception among different cyclist groups. The factors that significantly affected
the comfort perception of the cyclists included the age of the cyclists, the type of two-
wheeled vehicles, the volume of two-wheeled vehicles, the width of mid-block bicycle lanes,
the proportions of e-bikes and e-scooters in two-wheeled vehicles, the physical separation
between motorized, bicycle and pedestrian lanes, the slope of bicycle lanes, the roadside
access points and the roadside land use. Ordered probit models were developed to
quantitatively evaluate the impacts of different contributing factors on the comfort perception
of the riders of e-bikes, e-scooters and bicycles. The results showed that compared to the
riders of bicycles, the riders of e-bikes and e-scooters were more likely to perceive a poor
comfort level. The comfort perception of the cyclists increased with an increase in the width
of the mid-block bicycle lane, whereas it decreased with an increase in the volume of two-
wheeled vehicles. The proportions of e-bikes and e-scooters in two-wheeled vehicles
negatively affected the comfort perception of the cyclists. In addition, the presence of
physical separation between the motorized, bicycle and pedestrian lanes significantly
increased the comfort perception of the cyclists. With the comfort perception models, a
procedure was developed and insights were gained to help transportation professionals
estimate the BLOS of a mid-block bicycle lane with mixed two-wheeled traffic.

20. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and

assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina
Pulugurtha, S. & Thakur, V.
Accident Analysis & Prevention, March 2015, Vol. 76, pp. 34-41
The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle
lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare
risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate
the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to
assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of
on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of
driveways, unsignalised approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk
to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six

Page 8 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were
extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per
centre-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles travelled
(MVMT), the number of all crashes per centre-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per
MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at
higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than
when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering
all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant
negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number
of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an
increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle
lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-
street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalised approaches
to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and,
facilitating wider right-most travel lane if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided reduces
occurrence of bicycle crashes and lowers risk to bicyclists on roads.(ScienceDirect)

21. Evaluation of shared-use facilities for bicycles and motor vehicles

Harkey, D. & Stewart, J.
Transportation Research Record, January 1997, Vol. 1578, No. 1, pp. 111-118
This study was conducted for the Florida Department of Transportation with an objective of
evaluating the safety and utility of shared-use facilities to provide engineers and planners
comprehensive results that can be used in planning, designing, and constructing roadways
to be shared by motorists and bicyclists. The results were developed from an analysis of
observations of bicyclists and motorists interacting on different types of roadways. The
evaluation included roadways with wide curb lanes, bicycle lanes, and paved shoulders.
Locations from both rural and urban environments were included and varied in terms of
motor-vehicle speed, traffic volume, lane width, and number of lanes. The operational
measures of effectiveness used in evaluating the different types of facilities included (a)
lateral placement of the bicyclist, (b) lateral placement of the motor vehicle, (c) separation
distance between the bicycle and the motor vehicle, and (d) encroachments by the motorist
or bicyclist during the passing manoeuvre. Results of the analysis showed that the type of
facility (wide curb lane versus bicycle lane versus paved shoulder) does have a significant
effect on the separation distance between bicyclists and motor vehicles; this distance
ranged from 1.80 to 1.95 m (5.9 to 6.4 ft). The findings also indicated that paved shoulders
and bicycle lanes generally result in similar interactions between motorists and bicyclists
and that when compared with wide curb lanes they offer some distinct advantages to both
user groups. The results also indicated that bicycle lanes as narrow as 0.92 m (3 ft) provide
sufficient space for motorists and bicyclists to interact safely. At the same time, a 1.22-m (4-
ft) wide bicycle lane tended to optimize operating conditions because there were very few
differences in the measures of effectiveness when 1.22-m lanes were compared with wider
lanes. (EBSCO)

22. Examining the impact of cycle lanes on cyclist-motor vehicle

collisions in the city of Toronto
Bhatia, D., Richmond, S., Loo, C., Rothman, L., Macarthur, C. & Andrew, H.
Journal of Transport & Health, December 2016, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 523-528

Page 9 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

A pre-post design was used to evaluate the frequency of cyclist-motor vehicle collisions
(CMVCs) pre- and post-installation of 7 cycle lanes in Toronto, Canada. Study data was
obtained from Toronto Police Service reports for collisions occurring between 1991 and
2010. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to determine the effect of cycle lane
installation on CMVC frequency. Over the study period (January 1, 1991–December 31,
2010), a total of 23,959 collisions between cyclists and motor vehicles were reported in
Toronto. Of these collisions, 329 occurred on the 7 lane segments included in this analysis.
There was no statistically significant change, pre to post implementation of painted cycle
lanes; however, a 19% reduction in the frequency of collisions per segment-month
(IRR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.03) was observed. There were also no statistically significant
differences in the frequency of collisions that resulted in minimal/minor injuries (IRR=0.84,
95% CI: 0.59, 1.20) or in major/fatal injuries (IRR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.51, 1.01). There was a
statistically significant increase in collisions that resulted in no injuries (IRR=5.00, 95% CI:
1.44, 17.28). The implementation of painted cycle lanes had a non-significant effect in
reducing collisions between cyclists and motor vehicles. Cycle lanes could be considered as
a means to facilitate active transportation while reducing risk for cyclists, given the
conservative nature of our estimate. Further research is needed on intersection treatments,
cycle tracks, and bike volumes. (ScienceDirect)

23. Making cycling safer and more attractive: the NZ Transport

Agency’s cycling safety action plan
NZ transport Agency, 2015
Outlines New Zealand’s ‘whole-of agency’ approach to cycling.

24. Multicriteria analysis for evaluation of bike lane routes integrated

to public transportation
Ana, S., Pinto, I., Ribeiro, D. & Delgado, J.
Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, December 2014, Vol. 162, No. 1, pp. 388-
The integration of the bicycle with the passenger public transportation is efficient to increase
the sustainable urban mobility strategy and improves quality of life. The objective of this
paper is the development of a method to assist in evaluating the “best” cycling route
integrated to public transportation and to consider among other criteria, the factors of
individual choice of cyclists. To validate the proposed method was used as case study
Mussurunga Station, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. The results showed that in the perception of
the cyclist the main criteria that influence the choices of their paths are related to safety
aspects. (EBSCO)

25. National cycle network design guidance stage 1 report – best

practice review
Southey-Jensen, B., Fowler, M., Groundwater, C., Wilke, A. & Ward, J.
NZ transport agency, 2015, p. 1843
The Cycling Safety Panel identified the need for further guidance in cycle facility design; an
action that is supported by the industry. In response to this, the NZ Transport Agency (’the
Agency’) initiated the National Cycle Network Design Guidance Project, which includes
guidance for both planning cycle networks and designing facilities. The project aim is to

Page 10 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

develop a ‘framework’ that identifies and consolidates the appropriate guidance into a
resource that is ’fit for purpose’ for the sector. The ‘framework’ will be an online tool that is
aligned with the One Network Road Classification (ONRC) approach. (NZ Transport

26. No bicycle lanes! shouted the cyclists - a controversial bicycle

project in Curitiba, Brazil
Duarte, F. & Procopiuck, M.
Transport Policy, March 2014, Vol. 32, pp. 180-185
After many years without any substantial improvement in bicycle infrastructure in Curitiba, a
4-km Leisure Bicycle Lane was implemented in the central area of the city in 2011. The
project was one of several that City Hall hurriedly implemented following pressure from bike
activists. On the Sunday the project was launched, more than three thousand cyclists are
estimated to have used the bicycle lane; of these, 300 cycled alongside the lane, outside it,
against it. They made the front pages of newspapers, disrupted the sociotechnical
framework of bicycle policy in the city and put bicycles on the political agenda of the
municipal elections. This paper discusses why, in a city renowned worldwide for its public
transportation system and for having more than a 100 km of bicycle lanes, a bicycle project
failed after being sabotaged by cyclists and was definitively abandoned in February 2013.
Based on interviews with key actors, including public officials, journalists, and bicycle
activists, this paper concludes that the failed bicycle lane unveils the profound and urgent
social and political dimensions embedded in what had been presented by municipal
authorities as a neutral technical solution.

27. Part 1: Bicycles: how pavement markings influence bicycle and

motor vehicle positioning: Case study in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Houten, R. & Seiderman, C.
Transportation Research Record, 2014, No. 1939, pp. 1-14
The purpose of this study was to determine how pavement markings influence bicyclist and
motorist positioning, particularly how far bicyclists travel from parked cars. The research
examined the effects of the sequential addition of the component markings of a bicycle lane
on a road with on-street parking in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The data measured were the
distance that cars parked from the curb, the distance that bicyclists rode from the curb, and
the distance that traveling motor vehicles drove from the curb. Data on bicyclists and
moving motor vehicles were gathered by videotaping. The three pavement marking
treatments—an edge line demarcating the travel lane, the edge line and bicycle symbols,
and a full bicycle lane—were all effective at influencing bicyclists to ride farther away from
parked cars than when no pavement markings were present. All three treatments
significantly increased the percentage of cyclists riding more than 9 and 10 ft from the curb;
these distances were used as benchmarks for where cyclists should ride to be farther from
the opening-door zone of a parked car. There was variation between the signalized and the
uncontrolled intersections. Before-and-after intercept surveys of cyclists and motorists were
administered. In the before survey, cyclists most often responded that the best way to
improve bicycling on Hampshire Street was to add bicycle lanes. Cyclists also rated the full
bicycle lane most favourably in the after survey. There was no change in cyclist comfort
levels between the before and the after surveys. When motorists were asked what made

Page 11 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

them most aware of cyclists on the street; the most common response in the before survey
was "nothing." In the after survey, the most common response was "the bicycle lane." (TRB)

28. Physically separated bikeways: A game changer for bicycle mode

DuBose, B.
Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, Vol. 81, No. 4, pp. 54-58
The Institute of Transportation Engineers Pedestrian and Bicycle Council is currently
producing an information report that presents findings on the current state of practice for
installing separated bikeways in North America. The purpose of this report is to assist in
determining the current and potential utility of separated bikeways in the United States and
Canada and to develop research statements for further investigation of the safety and latent
demand for separated bikeways. The report will be available later this year. As a category,
physically separated bikeways fit somewhere between pathways and bike lanes. Though
commonly used around the world, most notably Denmark and the Netherlands, they are not
explicitly discussed in transportation manuals in the United States. Alternatively, two-way
shared use paths adjacent to roadways are fairly common in the United States. (First)

29. Planning for Cycling

Gallagher, R. & Parkin, J.
Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation, 2014
Cycling is an important part of urban transport. However, for many years its role has been
neglected in the UK, with the focus mainly on the needs of motor traffic. Cycling is one of
the most sustainable forms of transport, and increasing its use has great potential. To
release this potential, highways, public spaces and other rights-of-way need to be organised
accordingly. Planning for cycling is discussed in these guidelines; detailed design of
infrastructure and facilities for cycle users will be examined elsewhere. (Website)

30. Portland Bicycle plan for 2030 – a world class bicycling city
Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2010
Having more Portland residents choose to bicycle for transportation will address numerous
public objectives. The Portland Bicycle Plan for 2030 positions Portland for the tremendous
growth in bicycling that the City expects over the next 20 years. A major theme of the new
plan is that the City must plan and design for people who are not yet riding, and must create
conditions that make bicycling more attractive than driving for short trips. The Portland
Bicycle Plan for 2030 includes a list of capital projects and recommended actions. It
recommends strengthening City policies in support of bicycling, providing more and better
bicycle parking, expanding educational and encouragement programs and developing
ongoing measures of success. The plan recommends expanding the network of planned
bikeways from 630 to 962 miles, based on three key strategies. (Website)

31. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle
Xu, C., Yang, Y., Jin, S., Qu, Z. & Hou, L.
Accident Analysis & Prevention, February 2016, Vol. 87, pp. 59-67

Page 12 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of
bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey
sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion
were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various
widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analysed by using one-way ANOVA. We
further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modelling and analysing the
relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male
cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied
for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of
cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle
path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in
this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings
could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. (ScienceDirect)

32. Recommended bicycle lane widths for various roadway

National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), 2016, Report. 766, p. 73
This volume presents an analysis of the research and design guidance for bicycle lane
widths on existing travel lane widths and parking lane widths. The conclusions are most
applicable to urban and suburban roadways with level grade and a posted speed limit of 30
mph and should be used cautiously for the design of roadways with motor vehicle speeds
outside of the range of 25 to 35 mph, and in particular for higher-speed roadways. (TRB)

33. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review

DiGioia, J., Watkins, K. E., Xu, Y., Rodgers, M. & Guensler, R.
Journal of Safety Research, June 2017, Vol. 61, pp. 105-119
This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety
research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is
examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies.
Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data
and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward
some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle
treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority
treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding
appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research
will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and
guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure.

34. Safety perceptions and reported behaviour related to cycling in

mixed traffic: a comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen
Chataway, E. S., Kaplan, S., Nielsen, T. A. S. & Prato, C. G.
Transportation Research – Part F, 2014, Vol. 23, pp. (2014) 32-43
This study explores the differences in safety perceptions and reported behaviour of cyclists
in mixed traffic between an emerging cycling city (Brisbane, Australia) and an established
cycling city (Copenhagen, Denmark). Perceptions and reported behaviour were retrieved

Page 13 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

from a custom-designed web-based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities.
Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while
distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to
cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analysed with structural equation models.
Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive
mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely
to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists in
Copenhagen tend to use less helmets and to cycle more while being

35. Shared road is double happiness: Evaluation of a “Share the road”

Høye, A., Fyhri, A. & Bjørnskau, T.
Transportation Research – Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, October 2016,
Vol. 42, Part 3, pp. 500-508
A road sign with the text «Share the road» and a picture of a smiling cyclist and a passing
car was evaluated in a before–after study with surveys among cyclists and car drivers. The
sign was set up at two sites on a test road near Oslo in summer 2014. A similar road was
used as a comparison. About two thirds of the participants on the test road had noticed the
sign. The majority liked it and agreed with its message. Cyclists have more often noticed the
sign than car drivers have and they were somewhat more positive towards the sign. Effects
on self-reported behaviour and the perceived behaviour of others were evaluated by
comparing changes from the before- to the after-period between test and comparison road.
Self-reported behaviour of both cyclists and car drivers has improved on the test road after
the sign was set up, especially in overtaking situations, and these results are in accordance
with how cyclists and car drivers perceived each other’s behaviour. The general perception
of other road users has improved as well. The results are most likely representative of
similar roads with a large proportion of car traffic that is related to recreation and a relatively
low level of conflict. (ScienceDirect)

36. Shared roadway implementation guidance

Robertson, J. & Hawkins, G.
Journal of Transportation Engineering, August 2013, Vol. 139, No. 8, pp. 833-839
Shared roadways have automobiles and bicycles operating in the same travelled way, which
may negatively affect traffic operations; there is limited guidance on appropriate shared
roadway implementation. To provide guidance on shared roadway implementation, this
paper uses microsimulation models and a sensitivity analysis to evaluate automobile quality
of service on shared roadways. After the sensitivity analysis, automobile quality of service is
compared to bicycle quality of service on shared roadways. Using the results of the
sensitivity analysis and comparison, guidance is provided on the implementation of shared
roadways. This study finds that outside lane width and bicycle volume affect automobile
quality of service on shared roadways. Additionally, higher values for unsignalised access
points per kilometre (per mile), heavy vehicle percent, and signalized intersection crossing
distance result in bicycle quality of service being less than automobile quality of service.
Using this study’s findings, shared roadway implementation guidance is provided for four-
lane divided urban street segments. Future research should develop shared roadway

Page 14 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

implementation guidance using microsimulation models calibrated to observed data.


37. Sharing is (s)caring? Interactions between buses and bicyclists on

bus lanes shared with bicyclists
Ceunynck, T., Dorleman, B., Daniels, S., Laureshyn, A., Brijs, T., Hermans, E. & Wets,
Transportation Research – Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, April 2017, Vol.
46, Part B, pp. 301-315
This paper presents the results of an observation study of interactions between bicyclists
and buses on shared bus lanes. The aim of the paper is to analyse bicyclists’ safety on bus
lanes shared with bicyclists. Straight sections of two bus lanes shared with bicyclists in
Belgium are observed. All interactions between bicyclists and buses over two full weeks are
recorded and analysed. Additionally, the lateral position and riding speed of bicyclists that
are in interaction with buses are compared with the behaviour of bicyclists that are not in
interaction with buses. One of the observed bus lanes is in line with road design guidelines
in a number of countries that state that a sufficiently narrow bus lane (<3.5 m) is
hypothesised to be safer than a somewhat wider bus lane; the other observed bus lane is
deemed too wide according to these guidelines and is hypothesised to lead to close
overtaking manoeuvres. The results show that close interactions between bicyclists and
buses are relatively frequent on both types of analysed bus lanes. Close overtaking
manoeuvres (a bus overtakes a bicyclist with a lateral distance less than 1 m) as well as
close bicycle-following situations (a bus drives behind a bicyclist with a time gap less than 2
s) are quite common on both analysed bus lanes. The analyses could not confirm the
hypothesis that a sufficiently narrow bus lane is safer than a wider bus lane. On the
contrary, close interactions seem even slightly more common on the narrower bus lane.
Slightly more close overtaking manoeuvres take place on the narrower bus lane, but the
difference is not statistically significant. Additionally, more bicycle-following situations take
place on the narrower bus lane because overtaking is more difficult. The results show that
buses often maintain a close time gap in these situations. The overtaking speed of the
buses is, however, significantly higher on the wider bus lane compared to the narrower one.
Moreover, the presence of a bus has an influence on the behaviour of bicyclists. Bicyclists
who get overtaken by a bus ride more closely to the edge of the road than bicyclists who are
not in interaction with a bus. While the road design guidelines assume that bicyclists take up
a width of one meter from the edge on bus lanes shared with bicyclists, the observations
show that bicyclists take up much less space while being overtaken. The presence of a bus
does not have a significant influence on the standard deviation of the lateral position of the
bicyclist. On the narrower bus lane, some findings suggest that bicyclists who are involved
in an interaction with a bus ride faster than bicyclists who are not involved in an interaction
with a bus. (ScienceDirect)

38. Should state DOTs prefer bicycle lanes or wide curb lanes? – final
Dennison, A.
FHWA-AZ-2008, No. 598
This report investigates collisions between bicycles and motor vehicles to ascertain their
relationship (if any) to a Bicycle Lane or Wide Curb Lane for the purpose of informing State

Page 15 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

Departments of Transportation. A literature review describes progress of Federal legislation

supporting bicycle travel and implementation of bicycle facilities, their application in various
jurisdictions, agency liability, and the debate between advocates of Wide Curb Lanes and
Bicycle Lanes. A survey of DOT officials nationwide reveals the importance of available
space and input from municipalities in designing bicycle facilities. An examination of fatal
bicyclist/motorist collisions in Arizona suggests strong relationships to human error and
“failure to yield” infractions, and negligible relationships to road conditions or mechanical
failure. Based on the evidence, this report cannot determine that a relationship exists
between collisions, Bicycle Lanes, or Wide Curb Lanes. Further investigation of this topic is
recommended. (FIRST)

39. Signposts for cyclists

Holland-Cycling.com, 2017
Internet guide to cycling in Holland. I.e. “Dutch cycle paths are so well signposted, that even
if you might not always know precisely where you are, you can hardly get lost. Just cycle on
to the next signpost which will point you in the right direction. The distances given on the
signposts are in kilometres. If you don’t know the area, it can be useful to have a map so
you know the location of the destinations on the signposts”.

40. Street design manual

New York City Department of Transportation, 2015, p. 248
Chapter 2: Bike lane and paths

41. Study of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes

Hunter, W., Stewart, J. & Stutts, J.
Transportation Research Record, January 1999, Vol. 1674, No. 1, pp. 70-77
A comparative analysis of bicycle lanes (BLs) versus wide curb lanes (WCLs) was done.
The primary analysis was based on videotapes of almost 4,600 bicyclists from 48 sites in
Santa Barbara, California; Gainesville, Florida; and Austin, Texas. The videotapes were
coded to evaluate operational characteristics and conflicts with motorists, other bicyclists, or
pedestrians. Significant differences in both operational behaviours and conflicts were
associated with BLs and WCLs, but they varied depending on the behaviour being analysed.
Wrong-way riding and sidewalk riding were much more prevalent at WCL sites compared to
BL sites. The aggregated data showed that significantly more motor vehicles passing
bicycles on the left encroached into the adjacent traffic lane from WCL situations compared
to BL situations. Proportionally more bicyclists obeyed stop signs at BL sites; however,
when a stop sign was disobeyed, the proportion of bicyclists with both "somewhat unsafe"
and "definitely unsafe" movements was higher at BL sites. The vast majority of observed
bicycle-motor vehicle conflicts were minor, and there were no differences in the conflict
severity by type of bicycle facility. Bicyclists in WCLs, however, experienced more bike-
pedestrian conflicts, whereas bicyclists in BLs experienced more bike-bike conflicts. The
overall conclusion is that both BL and WCL facilities can and should be used to improve
riding conditions for bicyclists. The identified differences in operations and conflicts
appeared to be related to the specific destination patterns of bicyclists riding through the
intersection areas studied and not to characteristics of the bicycle facilities. (EBSCO)

Page 16 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

42. Sustrans design manual for cycle friendly design

April 2014, p. 36
This handbook contains a concise illustrated compendium of technical guidance relating to
cycling: it can stand alone as a ‘tool box’ of ideas but also links to a library of relevant on
line resources. It is very visual but contains the essential technical details, and was inspired
by earlier guidance produced by the City of Edinburgh Council.

43. The politics of bicycle lane implementation: The case of

Vancouver's Burrard Street Bridge
Siemiatycki, M., Smith, M. & Walks, A.
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, March, 2016, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp.
Shifting commuters out of cars and into active modes of transportation such as bicycling is
necessary if communities and cities are to become more environmentally sustainable.
Coupled with the resistance of drivers to change modes is a resistance on behalf of the
politicians they elect to support the building of infrastructure for active transportation,
particularly when this means taking resources away from the dominant automobile-based
mode. Before scholars promote specific policies or methods for dealing with such issues, it
is necessary to understand what strategies have been successful and unsuccessful in
attaining a shift of resources into active transportation infrastructure such as bicycle lanes.
Vancouver presents a case study of both such strategies. In 1996 a pilot project aimed at
transferring a lane on the Burrard Street Bridge from cars to bicycles failed and ended in
political acrimony. However, another such pilot attempted in 2009 was successful with the
lanes made permanent shortly afterward. This article documents what transpired and
analyses the reasons for the initial failure and the subsequent realization 13 years later. The
Burrard Street Bridge story provides lessons for how bicycle lanes, even those that take
space away from cars, might be implemented in other contexts, given the reality of a politics
that favours a status quo dominated by automobility. (EBSCO)

44. The possibility of solving cycling transport in central urban areas

Kalašová, A. & Krchová, Z.
Transport Problems, 2011, Vol. 6, No. 2
The rapid urban development in recent years has been reflected not only by the change in
structure and size of towns, but especially by the increase in population mobility, which is
strongly reflected by the fact that urban centres are clogged with individual transport,
therefore, experts are dealing with possibilities of alternative solutions. Especially bicycle
transport for its significant reach, readiness to ride, easy operation and relatively high
cruising speed has the appropriate conditions for further successful development. In our
contribution we would like to outline some problems with the equality issues of bikes in the
street area. (Google Scholar)

45. The space race: a framework to evaluate the potential travel-time

impacts of reallocating road space to bicycle facilities
Burke, C. & Scott, D.
Journal of Transport Geography, October 2016, Vol. 56, pp. 110-119

Page 17 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

When building a cycling network, planners have the option of constructing bicycle facilities
at different design widths. However, increasing the width of bicycle facilities reduces lane
space for motor vehicles, in turn impacting a road's level of service. Presently, no framework
exists to systematically measure the potential travel time consequences of employing wider
bicycle facilities on a road network. In this paper, we demonstrate how the Network
Robustness Index (NRI) can be used to identify the bicycle facility design that limits traffic
disruption for any road link in an urban network. To demonstrate the utility of the new
approach, we use a theoretical, generalizable network and compare it against an approach
used in current bike lane planning practice. The results show that if a planner is challenged
to build a road network of wider bicycle facilities while at the same time minimizing potential
impacts on motor vehicle traffic, their decision-making power improves when using the NRI
to support this aim. If widely adopted, this new evaluation framework may lead to the
development of better urban cycling networks that consist of wider bicycle facilities.

46. Trails, lanes, or traffic: Valuing bicycle facilities with an adaptive

stated preference survey
Transportation Research – Part A: Policy and Practice, May 2007, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp.
This study evaluates individual preferences for five different cycling environments by trading
off a better facility with a higher travel time against a less attractive facility at a lower travel
time. The tradeoff of travel time to amenities of a particular facility informs our
understanding of the value attached to different attributes such as bike-lanes, off-road trails,
or side-street parking. The facilities considered here are off-road facilities, in-traffic facilities
with bike-lane and no on-street parking, in-traffic facilities with a bike-lane and on-street
parking, in-traffic facilities with no bike-lane and no on-street parking and in-traffic facilities
with no bike-lane but with parking on the side. We find that respondents are willing to travel
up to twenty minutes more to switch from an unmarked on-road facility with side parking to
an off-road bicycle trail, with smaller changes associated with less dramatic improvements.

47. Trucks and bikes: sharing the roads

Pattinson, W. & Thompson, R.
Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, March 2014, Vol. 125, 20, pp. 251-261
More cycling in urban areas could alleviate congestion that would benefit logistics
operations as well as provide health and environmental benefits to the community at large.
However, cycling within many Australian cities is currently being impeded due to poor road
design and the absence of best practice freight vehicle standards (amongst other
deterrents). Rising levels of fear and road trauma are creating the opportunity to address
safety issues associated with the interaction between trucks and bicycles in urban areas.
Those involved in city logistics can help to promote cycling and other forms of active
transport by participating in the development and implementation of measures that increase
the level of safety for cyclists. Measures that could be supported include: intersection
design, design modifications for trucks, education of drivers, cyclists and road managers,
enforcement aimed at behavioural change, as well as logistics customers requiring the use
of safer trucks. Road management approaches with integrated safety benefits include
designating routes and times for the movement of freight vehicles to avoid cyclists and
requiring the trucks used in urban areas to have better visibility (e.g. lower driver position).

Page 18 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

This paper discusses several measures for improving the safety of cyclists including freight
vehicle engineering and truck driver training programs as well as environmental
management and land use changes. (ScienceDirect)

48. Urban bikeway design guide

National Association of City Transportation Officials
The purpose of the NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide (part of the Cities for Cycling
initiative) is to provide cities with state-of-the-practice solutions that can help create
complete streets that are safe and enjoyable for bicyclists. The NACTO Urban Bikeway
Design Guide is based on the experience of the best cycling cities in the world. The designs
in this document were developed by cities for cities, since unique urban streets require
innovative solutions. Most of these treatments are not directly referenced in the current
version of the AASHTO Guide to Bikeway Facilities, although they are virtually all (with two
exceptions) permitted under the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). The
Federal Highway Administration has posted information regarding MUTCD approval status
of all of the bicycle related treatments in this guide and in August 2013 issued a
memorandum officially supporting use of the document. All of the NACTO Urban Bikeway
Design Guide treatments are in use internationally and in many cities around the US.

49. User Perceptions of the Quality of Service on Shared Paths

Hummer, J., Rouphail, N., Hughes, R., Fain, S., Toole, J., Patten, R., Schneider, R.,
Monahan, J. & Do, A.
Transportation Research Record, 2014, 1939, pp. 28-36
Shared-use paths are becoming increasingly busy across the United States. Path designers
need guidance on how wide to make new or rebuilt paths and on whether to separate the
different types of users. The current guidance is not specific, has not been calibrated to
conditions in the United States, and does not accommodate the range of modes found on a
typical path. The purpose of this project, sponsored by FHWA, was to develop a level-of-
service (LOS) estimation method for shared-use paths that overcomes these limitations. The
focus of this paper is on the collection of the perceptions of path users and the development
of a model relating those perceptions to operational and path variables. Companion papers
describe the efforts made to develop equations explaining path operations and to develop
an LOS estimation tool based on the perception model. For this effort, the project team
collected the perceptions of 105 volunteers viewing 36 video clips from 10 paths. Analysis
showed that variables related to path operations and the path width had the strongest
relationships to the overall quality of the trail experience. The recommended model for
overall rating included terms for path width, the number of meeting and passing events, and
the presence of a centre-line. The model was statistically sound; it should be easy to use.
Analysts should be able to use the model and the procedure for determination of the LOS,
which is based on the model, with confidence, knowing that it is well grounded on the
perceptions of a large sample of trail users.

Page 19 of 20
Integrated bike lanes
Literature survey

50. We can all get along: the alignment of driver and bicyclist roadway
design preferences in the San Francisco Bay
Sanders, R.
Transportation Research – Part A: Policy and Practice, September 2016, Vol. 91, pp.
Two trends in the United States – growth in bicycling and enthusiasm for complete streets –
suggest a need to understand how various roadway users view roadway designs meant to
accommodate multiple modes. While many studies have examined bicyclists’ roadway
design preferences, there has been little investigation into the opinions of non-bicyclists who
might bicycle in the future. Additionally, little research has explored the preferences of the
motorists who share roads with cyclists – despite the fact that motorists compose the vast
majority of roadway users in the United States and similarly developed countries. This paper
presents results from an internet survey examining perceived comfort while driving and
bicycling on various roadways among 265 non-bicycling drivers, bicycling drivers, and non-
driving bicyclists in the San Francisco Bay Area. Analysis of variance tests revealed that
both drivers and bicyclists are more comfortable on roadways with separated bicycling
facilities than those with shared space. In particular, roadways with barrier-separated bicycle
lanes were the most popular among all groups, regardless of bicycling frequency. Striped
bicycle lanes, a common treatment in the United States, received mixed reviews: a majority
of the sample believed that they benefit cyclists and drivers through predictability and
legitimacy on the roadway, but the lanes were rated significantly less comfortable than
barrier-separated treatments – particularly among potential bicyclists. These findings
corroborate research on bicyclists’ preferences for roadway design and contribute a new
understanding of motorists’ preferences. They also support the U.S. Federal Highway
Administration’s efforts to encourage greater accommodation of bicyclists on urban streets.

Page 20 of 20