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22 ‘Sony and Philips invented the CD in the early 1980s. We moved house a fat when | was a ki. Early clocks were usual very unreliable. Did the ancient Egyptians have more advanced technology than other civilisations? Single completed actions Repeated or habitual actions in the past General truths about the past Permanent situations and states inthe past The main events in a story Frank turned on the TV and sat on the sofa The present (in conditional sentences) | if we didn't have computers, what would the world be tke? (see Unt 11 for more information) The present (after wish t's time, (6 rather Michael didn’t waste so much time playing video games. would rater, etc) {see Unit 13 for more information) Ged ed — ‘To emphasise contrast in the past | Perhaps our grandparents did't have emai, but they did have the telephone and telegrams. To emphasise strong feeling inthe past || did enjoy our visit tothe Science Museum last summer. er + In general, the past simple is used to refer to periods of ime or moments which are finshed. The present perfect is used to refer to periods of time which continue up tothe preset. ¥ The nineteenth century saw many technological advances, such asthe camera and the electric lightbulb ¥ There have been many technological advances in recent yeas, the most important being the spread of the Intemet The past simple is used t refer to evens ata spectc time inthe past. The present perfect is used when the specific time something happened isn't important or relevant, or when the present result ofa past event is important, ¥ | sent my frst esa sie months ago. ¥ Have you ever sent an e-mai before? ieee Actions in progress at a particular Were you chatting to Matt onine at midnight iss night? ‘moment inthe past Actions in progress around a particular | At the turn of the twentieth century, many discoveries were being made ‘moment inthe past in pysics and other sciences. Temporary situations and series of At the time, was working fora large software company in Calta actions inthe past Changing ard evening stations, | was geting strated with my interne ror so decided to change. in the past ‘Annoying or amusing past habits When she was young, Tita was always taking things apart to see how they worked, (usually wth always) Background information ina story ‘twas raining outside and people were making their way home after work. Actions in progress over a period of time | Were you writing emai all yesterday morning? ‘Two actions in progress atthe same time | While I was playing a computer game, my brother was doing his homework. ‘The present and the future (in conditional | Would you be happier i you were studying computer science? sentences) (ee Unit 1 for more information) ‘The present and the future (after wish, | I wish we were going tothe computer far next weekend. its time, mould rather, etc) | (see Unt 13 for more information) _ !PC_c3O3C OO Pasttime Unit 3 Ere * We often use the past continuous to describe background events in progress and the past simple forthe main evens. We were talking about MP3s when Andrea mentioned her new music website We normally use the past simple to describe regular or repeated actions inthe past, not the past continuous, When |was a chi, | visited my grandmother every week i ei In general, the past continuous is used to refer to actions in pronress during periods of tine or at moments which are finished. The present perfect continuous is used to refer to actions in progress during periods of time which continue up to ‘the present ¥ Wie were working on my computer forfour hours yesterday. ~/ We have been working on my compute forfour ours 80 far. Past perfect simple Situations and states before the past | Had you had your computer ng before it broke down? Completed actions before a moment Wen taking fims appeared, the cinema had aiready become a popular form in the past of entertainment | When Dimitra called, { had managed to fix her computer. A series of actions continuing up to 2 | By the time ofhis death, Thomas Edison had invented 2 number of things that ‘moment inthe past changed everyay ie, Completed actions where the important | beat Jason at International Captain because d played i aot with my brother. | thing is the result ata moment in the past [eed eeadee ea Actions and situations continuing up to a | She'd been writing computer games for aver ten years before she finaly had ‘moment in the pastor just before a | aft. | moment inthe past) Pest habits, particularly forthe The ancient Greeks would rely on the power of saves, rather than machines, stant past 'E - weuiscan as be used wth coninuous infinite when we are refering to habitneng actions nprosess. Whenever | went to James's house, he would usually be playing on his computer. + Would isnot usualy used to refer to past states. asthabis and sls, parc wr | Famed Seo Shang oe obo comment ov og lances te dnt est | OY) = en ta cd tte cas ved vied oe ata aon ea er i 7 Atttt peopl found itstrange sending messages by mobil, bt now eveyoe's used to o (qn ai ayes aoe yer pees = I's surprising how quickly people in the nineteeth century got used to travelling by train. 23 Unit 3 Grammar A Circle the correct word or phrase. 1 Rick should know about the meeting because | told / have told him about it yesterday. 2 Did you meet / Have you met ist Juy while you were both backpacking around Europe? 3 In esigning because the pressure at work has become / became too much for me. 4 Amonth ago, | got / have got a letter from Neil, but | havent replied 5 Julie was / has been anxious to speak to you since she heard about your accident. 6 I had / have had no idea you were such a good chess player. 7 Ifyou finished / have finished, put your hand up and ll colect your exam paper. 8 There were / have been a numiber of diferent reasons for our divorce. 9 Itwas my birthday last week and my grandad gave / has given me a new laptop. 10 | don't know who's responsible because | didn't work / haven't worked here lon. 11 My brother and | were never allowed / have never been allowed to chew gum when we were young 12 My parents sent / have sent me to a private school until was 12. B Write tho verb in brackets in the correct form, past simple or past continuous, in each gap. You may hhave to use the passive form. 1 When the explosion happened, hundreds of people (pass) through the airport. 2 When I heard the phone ring, | .. (stop) writing to answer it. 3 Any (read), so she didr't see me walking past. at (have) piano lessons every week from the age of six onwards, 5 We decided to leave the beach because it (get) dark and we wanted to get home wile there was stil some light. 6 Jessica already (think) of leaving university before she failed her first year exams? 7 Since the hotel had a pool, you (swim) every day? 8 The Industrial Revolution (attract) many people from the country tothe city. 9 The Hubble Space Telescope (put) into orbit around the Earth in 1990. 10 Sorry I couldn't come on Friday, but (work) on my project. 11 By the time we (arrive), the party was almost over 12 The national park (create) to protect local wid. C Write a verb from the box in the correct form in each gap. 24 appear complete » disappear * get » go * Kidnap » Took + make * mean » open pres rain remind * see + start» take * travel » watt ® wear * work High-tech trouble ital (1) as | made my way home from work. We (2) on a top secret computer program, and everyone (3) pretty nervous about finishing on time, so it was good to get away from the office. It (4) and it seemed like everyone (5) home at the same time, anxious to avoid getting wet. | (6) down into the underground station and (7) for the train when | (8) her at the end of the platform. She (9) ared leather jacket that (10) me of someting seen in afm, atthough couldnt remember when. As | watched, she (11) her handbag and (12) ‘out what looked like a hand-held computer. She (13) something onthe screen, then (14) inmy rection. Suddeiy, my mobie phone (25) 3 sound that (16) Thad