0 views

Uploaded by Jolina Ayngan

Probability

- Statistics homework answers - Stats Homework Answers
- Projek Add Math (2)
- Ms-08 Comlete Book- Unit -9
- Intro Stat
- Illustrative Practical
- 2685434
- Research Methods in Psychology - Paul G. Nestor
- 107247-0205797504_text
- Jsi Ppt Paper3 2018
- MINITAB Software Application Training Couse Outline 3Days
- Little Inference Book
- Nature
- 2019 group investigation structure - quantitative
- acuc
- Online Activity
- 2-Lijphart
- 1.Normality.pdf
- Introduction to research.pdf
- 150518437-Additional-Mathematics-Project-Work-2013-Statistics.docx
- Effects of Mass Consciousness- Changes in Random Data During Global Events 23

You are on page 1of 2

Salonga

COA – 1C

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide

simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, they

form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.

Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from inferential statistics. With descriptive statistics

you are simply describing what is or what the data shows. With inferential statistics, you are trying to

reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. For instance, we use inferential

statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population might think. Or, we use inferential

statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a

dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study. Thus, we use inferential

statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions; we use descriptive statistics

simply to describe what's going on in our data.

Descriptive Statistics are used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form. In a

research study we may have lots of measures. Or we may measure a large number of people on any

measure. Descriptive statistics help us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way. Each

descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary. For instance, consider a simple number

used to summarize how well a batter is performing in baseball, the batting average. This single number

is simply the number of hits divided by the number of times at bat (reported to three significant digits).

A batter who is hitting .333 is getting a hit one time in every three at bats. One batting .250 is hitting

one time in four. The single number describes a large number of discrete events. Or, consider the

scourge of many students, the Grade Point Average (GPA). This single number describes the general

performance of a student across a potentially wide range of course experiences.

Every time you try to describe a large set of observations with a single indicator you run the risk

of distorting the original data or losing important detail. The batting average doesn't tell you whether

the batter is hitting home runs or singles. It doesn't tell whether she's been in a slump or on a streak. The

GPA doesn't tell you whether the student was in difficult courses or easy ones, or whether they were

courses in their major field or in other disciplines. Even given these limitations, descriptive statistics

provide a powerful summary that may enable comparisons across people or other units.

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Inferential statistics, unlike descriptive statistics, is the attempt to apply the conclusions that have

been obtained from one experimental study to more general populations. This means inferential

statistics tries to answer questions about populations and samples that have not been tested in the

given experiment.

If you conduct a survey, the goal is to apply the conclusions to a more general population,

assuming the sample size is large enough and the sample representative enough of the broader

public. This is important because studies and experiments need to state and conclude something

about general populations and not just about the sample that was studied.

For example, suppose there is a training program that claims to improve test scores and an

experimenter wants to verify the claims. She starts with two groups, one taking the training program

and the other not (the control). She measures the test scores in the beginning and at the end, making

sure that the starting test scores are, on an average, the same for both test groups. The researcher finds

that the test scores for those who take the training are indeed higher now, and this difference

is statistically significant. She rejects her null hypothesis. Merely stating the results for the two groups in

terms of average score difference and representing this in the form of graphs is descriptive statistics.

But if she concludes that the training program is effective in improving test scores (in general, and for

all people), then this is inferential statistics.

It's tempting to assume that descriptive statistics alone signals the end of an experiment, or to

fail to draw a distinction between the results of descriptive statistical tests and your analysis. Statistics

are powerful tools, but it's the analysis provided afterwards by inferential statistics that explicitly makes

claims about what those results mean, why, and in what context. Remember that inference involves

moving focus from smaller and more specific to larger and more general.

It should be noted that inferential statistics always talks in terms of probability, but this can be made

highly reliable by designing the right experimental conditions. The inferences are almost always an

estimate with a confidence interval. There are however some cases where there is simply a rejection

of a hypothesis that is involved, which is the case if the experiment is designed to refute some claim.

Several models are available in inferential statistics that help in the process of analysis. These models

need to be chosen with care, since an error in assuming one model might give faulty conclusions about

the experiment.

For example data might be assumed to be described by a probability density with

some variables that need to be determined in the experiment. However, there are some cases when

such an assumption cannot be made, which usually occurs during experiments involving sampling of

a human population in social science experiments. Therefore, one needs to take all precautions in

order to arrive at the right conclusions through inferential statistics.

The central tendency of a distribution is an estimate of the "center" of a distribution of values. There are

three major types of estimates of central tendency:

The Mean or average is probably the most commonly used method of describing central

tendency. To compute the mean all you do is add up all the values and divide by the number of

values. For example, the mean or average quiz score is determined by summing all the scores and

dividing by the number of students taking the exam. For example, consider the test score values:

15, 20, 21, 20, 36, 15, 25, 15

The sum of these 8 values is 167, so the mean is 167/8 = 20.875.

The Median is the score found at the exact middle of the set of values. One way to compute

the median is to list all scores in numerical order, and then locate the score in the center of the sample.

For example, if there are 500 scores in the list, score #250 would be the median. If we order the 8 scores

shown above, we would get:

15,15,15,20,20,21,25,36

There are 8 scores and score #4 and #5 represent the halfway point. Since both of these scores are 20,

the median is 20. If the two middle scores had different values, you would have to interpolate to

determine the median.

The Mode is the most frequently occurring value in the set of scores. To determine the mode,

you might again order the scores as shown above, and then count each one. The most frequently

occurring value is the mode. In our example, the value 15 occurs three times and is the model. In some

distributions there is more than one modal value. For instance, in a bimodal distribution there are two

values that occur most frequently.

Notice that for the same set of 8 scores we got three different values -- 20.875, 20, and 15 -- for the

mean, median and mode respectively. If the distribution is truly normal (i.e., bell-shaped), the mean,

median and mode are all equal to each other.

- Statistics homework answers - Stats Homework AnswersUploaded bymorris7oneal9
- Projek Add Math (2)Uploaded bylacusochan
- Ms-08 Comlete Book- Unit -9Uploaded byanandjaymishra
- Intro StatUploaded bylmaraujo67
- Illustrative PracticalUploaded byMurni Ibrahim
- 2685434Uploaded byMartin Macias
- Research Methods in Psychology - Paul G. NestorUploaded bymagnia bog
- 107247-0205797504_textUploaded bycormac
- Jsi Ppt Paper3 2018Uploaded byAdyani Ahmad
- MINITAB Software Application Training Couse Outline 3DaysUploaded byeddiekuang
- Little Inference BookUploaded byDeepesh
- NatureUploaded byMary Ann Tonera Pateño
- 2019 group investigation structure - quantitativeUploaded byapi-341123529
- acucUploaded byAnonymous hkWIKjoXFV
- Online ActivityUploaded byP'ng Fei Mun
- 2-LijphartUploaded byEulalia Schwindt
- 1.Normality.pdfUploaded byDavid Wong
- Introduction to research.pdfUploaded byCon Orense
- 150518437-Additional-Mathematics-Project-Work-2013-Statistics.docxUploaded byMin Kookie
- Effects of Mass Consciousness- Changes in Random Data During Global Events 23Uploaded byAlberto Correa
- Bayesian Nonparametric Weighted SamplingUploaded byFelipe Antonio Gallego López
- Esempi OLSUploaded byMantequilla89
- publication5.pdfUploaded bySylvanus
- AnovaUploaded bymidori
- Ex_2_RUploaded byELI
- nice_09114Uploaded byJon Jon
- NARRATIVE REVIEW: APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL TOOLS IN CONSTRUCTION SAFETY RESEARCHUploaded byMj Dimapilis
- Research DesignUploaded byrameshsagapariya
- 1099BI103D03520171 Biologi Sebagai IlmuUploaded byimam21syahid
- conducting a user study.pptUploaded byFemi Alabi

- LECTURE NOTES ON INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETYUploaded byedwineiou
- Ancient WondersUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- 1_overview of AccountingUploaded byMichelle Matubis Bongalonta
- ElasticityUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- Filipino Is Worth Dying ForUploaded byMa Michelle Francisco
- Assignment Intermediate Financial AccountingUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- Nstp Reflection 3Uploaded byJolina Ayngan
- CVP AnalysisUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- MesoamericaUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- AAA MATHUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- Decision makingUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- NSTP REFLECTION 2.docUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- 23367406 Lecture Notes on Introduction to Science Technology and SocietyUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- EconUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- ScienceUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- AaaaaaaUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- Intellectual Revolutions That Defined SocietyUploaded byJolina Ayngan
- Ethics In Negotiation.docUploaded byJolina Ayngan

- Lesson 4 Measure of Central TendencyUploaded byrahmanzaini
- Application Modele de Regression MultipleUploaded byAndreea Ioana Bologa
- The Practice of Statistics Solution ManualUploaded byizumi sekiya
- Chapter 11 DataUploaded byMegan Jones
- Descriptive and Inferential StatisticsUploaded byabusroor2008
- Additional Mathematics Project Work Form 5 2014 (Autosaved)Uploaded bydeborahkong9900
- Statprob Final AssignmentUploaded byRaihan Alisha Nabila
- 133 Business StatisticsUploaded byziabutt
- toleranslar_ingilizceUploaded byAngela Birlea
- Co-efficient Of VariationUploaded byMegan Miles
- Effect SizesUploaded bydash
- Box and Whisker Plot Multiple Choice with key.pdfUploaded byMahtab Alam
- Indra Kusuma G2A009120 Bab 8Uploaded byAnonymous owgfxCP
- Mb0040 Statistics for Management Assignments Feb 11Uploaded byAnilkumarsanctum
- Tutorial 1 (Week 2)Uploaded bysdfklmjsdlklskfjd
- Advanced Topics in SPCUploaded byAngélica Ramos Lopez
- eureka math grade 6 module 6 parent tip sheetUploaded byapi-324380772
- 3) S1 Representation and Summary of Data - DispersionUploaded byRyantyler13
- r05220101-probability-and-statisticsUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- 6-27Uploaded bySunu Pradana
- SM-1Uploaded byAmit Yadav
- StatisticsUploaded bymukhamad ikhwan nahdudin
- Doane SolutionsUploaded byMohammed Ali
- REV1.pdfUploaded bylaila
- Statistical Symbols & Probability Symbols (μ,σ,..Uploaded byLes Cano
- data spssUploaded byMuhammad Ferhat E.S.
- Secrets of Good CorrelationsUploaded byterrabyte
- BPMA26II.docxUploaded byMynoortheen
- Quantitative analysis assignmentUploaded bysarangpethe
- Applied Statistics SummaryUploaded byRutger Wentzel