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Hailey Pinto


English Literature (4)

6 February 2019

Annotated Bibliography

Leibler, Jessica H et al. “Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston,

MA” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 14,8 928. 18

Aug. 2017, doi:10.3390/ijerph14080928.


In this article, Jessica Leibler talks about personal hygiene practices among many

homeless people. After reviewing many articles about hygiene, health, sanitation, and homeless

statistics, Jessica Leibler states that many homeless people in the United States experience many

obstacles to self-care and personal hygiene. She states that they have limited resources, such as a

limitations to clean showers, laundry services, and hygienic facilities for hand washing and

private needs. These limitations increase the risk for infectious diseases and mental health. She

examines the consequences of poor hygiene, such as many who have a limited access to personal

hygiene practices are prone to negative long-term health outcomes. My topic focus on women’s

hygiene, but this article provided an overall view of the whole homeless population and the

population itself . It will support my background research on the importance of personal health

and hygiene for women. I would like to know how these hygienic limitations affect homeless

women on a daily base.

Mitchell, M. K., Ramsey, L. R., & Nelson, S. (2018). The body image of women at a homeless
service center: An analysis of an underrepresented, diverse group.Gender Issues, 35(1),

38-51. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-017-9192-y



In this article, authors Melanie Mitchell, Laura Ramsey, and Sarah Nelson explore

homeless women and their concerns with body image. They explore into hygiene as a concern

that contributes to women’s self-esteem and body image issues. The authors created a written

questionnaire in a homeless center in Boston, Massachusetts about the reasoning behind

women’s low self-esteem and appearance. The study revealed that 54% of one’s self evaluations

were explained by the fact of the limited access to hygiene products. Women who had self-

confidence and access to hygiene products reported positive high levels of body image. This

research gave me information I can trust due to the evidence they provided, such as the studies

they performed and the information they received by that experiment. The information in this

article can support my topic on the importance and impacts of hygiene and health on homeless

women. It sparked the idea of creating a study about the effects on the limited access to hygiene

for homeless women. The article gave short amount of information, but everything was

supported by evidence and the purpose was clear. Therefore, the research will be relevant for my

overall capstone experience.

Sarma, Bhaswati. “Importance of Maintaining Good Hygiene During Periods:Sanitary Napkins.”

Heyday | Natural Sanitary Napkins, 29 Jan.




In this article, author Sarma Bhaswati explains the importance of maintaining

good hygiene for women during menstruation. Sarma Bhaswati states that one’s

economic status and stability is a major contributor to poor feminine hygiene. The author

states that poor hygiene and the lack of proper feminine necessities can increase the

chances of one getting diseases, such as Toxic Shock Syndrome. Not having the proper

feminine necessities can increase the chances of getting cervical cancer, which can be

transferred by lacking hygienic sanitation. Many homeless women are willing to risk

these factors in order to maintain a sense of feminine “purity”. This article gave me

valuable information that I can use to reveal the risks that women take when they are in

desperate need. The article will support my topic and will help many get a deeper

understanding of the purpose of my capstone. Most of the information I received is

usable, but some parts serve a purpose in the article to prove the author’s purpose. But I

will not be using many of those parts because I feel partially uncomfortable talking about

them. This article contributed to my research on hygiene and health for homeless women.

Shay, Kylyssa. “Homeless Periods: A Problem of Poverty, Dignity, and Feminine Hygiene.”

Soapboxie, Soapboxie, soapboxie.com/social-issues/Homeless-Periods-Suck.


In this article, Kylyssa Shay states that homeless menstruation is a problem of poverty,

feminine hygiene, and health. Women live in misery because they do not have the products

needed to get through the month. The author states that although homeless women find different

alternatives to feminine sanitary products, they still face many risks. Homeless women are
denied access to restrooms and showers, increasing health risks received by poor hygiene.

Women in need have to make choices such as either choosing a meal for the day or choosing

feminine products. Kylyssa Shay provides evidence from medical studies from the Stanford

Center. She states that women are usually sleep deprived, which increases cramping, fatigue, and

headaches. Not being hygienic when it comes to one’s menstruation increases the perception of

pain. The article acknowledges women to support others in need, by providing hygiene kits ideas

and methods to spread awareness. This article gave me a ton of information for my

capstone.Most of the information given is usable and the information was at an appropriate level.

The article is valuable because the author states her perspective on this topic, due to her once

being a homeless women in need of feminine necessities.

“Period Power: Homelessness and Periods In The US.” Lunette, Lunette, 20 Mar. 2018,



This article talks about the power of women’s menstruation. The article states the severe

suffering homeless women experience during their menstrual cycle. It also states that in “2017

Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress of the U.S Department of Housing and Urban

Development”, the percent of female homelessness is thirty-nine percent. This thirty-nine

percent of women suffer from a lack of menstruation products, shelters, restrooms, and hygienic

necessities. The price of menstrual and hygienic products has increased drastically and most

homeless women find themselves using socks, napkins, clothing, plastic bags, and toilet paper,

just to find ways to not be publicly humiliated. These women risk many diseases, such as toxic

shock syndrome. This is not just a basic hygiene issue, but an overall health issue. The article

states that feminine products is a major necessity, not a luxury or a privilege. This resource
allowed me to receive valuable information for my capstone, such as homeless women statistics

and the amount of suffering homeless women experience when they do not have accessible

hygienic products. It taught me ways that I myself can help women in need and what I can do to

raise awareness among my community.