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SPECIAL

MACHINES
(M–SCHEME)

N. IYANARAPPAN, M.E., M.I.S.T.E.

Principal
Sri Renugambal Polytechnic College,
Polur – 606 907.
KAL PATHIPPAGAM– 99446 50380, 96266 26747

2 & 3 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Unit – I

MANUFACTURING OF PLASTIC COMPONENTS


1. Define plastic.
Plastic is a material consisting of a wide range of synthetic or
semi-synthetic organic polymers that are malleable and can be
molded into solid objects.
2. What is polymer?
A polymer is a chemical compound where many molecules are
bonded together in long repeating chains.
3. State the major classification of plastics.
a) Thermo plastics
b) Thermosetting plastics
4. Give the basic difference between thermoplastics and
thermosetting plastics.
 Thermoplastics become soft on heating, melt on heating and
can be moulded again and again.
 Thermosetting plastics can be softened on heating but they
become permanently hard on cooling. They can not be
remoulded again.
5. Give examples for thermoplastics.
1) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 2) Polyethylene (PE)
3) Polystyrene (PS) 4) Polypropylene (PP)
5) Polycarbonate (PC) 6) Polyamide (PA)
7) Acrylic (PMMA) 8) Acetal (POM)
9) Polyester 10) Polyphenylene (PPO)
6. Give examples for thermosetting plastics.
1) Polyurethanes 2) Vulcanized rubber 3) Bakelite
4) Duroplast 5) Urea-formaldehyde 6) Melamine resin
7) Epoxy resin 8) Polyimides

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7. List out the types of plastics.


1) Engineering Plastics 2) Thermosets 3) Composites
4) Structural foam 5) Elastomers 6) Polymer alloys
7) Liquid crystal polymers
8. What do you mean by engineering plastics? Give examples.
 Engineering plastics are a group of plastic materials having
better mechanical and thermal properties than the widely
used common plastics.
 Nylon, acetal, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
polycarbonate, modified polyphenylene oxide (PPO),
thermoplastic polyesters, polysulphone, polyphenylene
sulphide, etc.
9. What is thermoset? Give examples.
 Thermosetting plastics are known as thermosets.
 Examples : Phenolic moulding materials, granular
thermosetting materials based on urea, melamine,
unsaturated polyester (UP) and epoxide resins
10. List out the applications of structural foams.
 Housings for business equipment and domestic appliances
 Vehicle body panels and furniture
 Integral moulding of wall panels, support brackets, etc.
11. What are elastomers? How they are manufactured?
 Thermoplastic rubbers are called as elastomers.
 They are manufactured into the requisite shape by cross-
linking after moulding through vulcanization.
12. What are LCPs? Give examples.
 Liquid Crystal Polymers are based on thermoplastic aromatic
polyesters and they have a highly ordered structure even in
the molten state.
 PET co-polyester, co-polyamide and polyester-amide.
13. Define flammability (Critical Oxygen Index).
The flammability characteristics of plastics is described by
Critical Oxygen Index(COI). This is defined as the minimum
concentration of oxygen, expressed as volume per cent, in a
mixture of oxygen and nitrogen that will just support combustion
under the conditions of test.
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14. What is extrusion? List the types of extruders.


 Extrusion is a common method of manufacturing plastics
using a screw inside a barrel.
 Types : (i) Single screw extruder (ii) Twin screw extruder
15. What are the different zones in extruder screw?
 Feed zone : to preheat the plastic
 Compression zone : to compact the plastic
 Metering zone : to control the supply of plastic
16. List out the configurations in twin screw extruder.
a) Intermeshing counter-rotating
b) Intermeshing co-rotating
c) Non-intermeshing counter-rotating
d) Non-intermeshing co-rotating
17. Mention the different methods of extrusion.
 Sheet/film extrusion
 Blown film extrusion
 Over jacketing extrusion
 Tubing extrusion
 Coextrusion
 Extrusion coating
 Compound extrusions
18. Mention the applications of injection moulding.
Injection moulding is used to produce electric drill casings,
television housings, combs, syringes, paint brush handles,
crash helmets, gearwheels, typewriters, reflectors, telephones,
brief cases, etc.
19. State limitations of plunger type injection moulding.
 There is little mixing or homogenisation of the molten plastic.
 It is difficult to control the shot size accurately.
 The pressure at the nozzle changes from cycle to cycle.
 The torpedo causes a significant pressure loss.
20. How foam effect is achieved in plastics?
The foam effect in plastics is achieved by the dispersion of inert
gas throughout the molten resin directly before moulding.
Usually nitrogen is used for this purpose.

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21. List out the advantages of foam moulding.


 Foam moulded parts are more rigid than a solid moulding
 Completely free from orientation effects and the shrinkage
 Very thick sections can be moulded without sink marks.
 Less clamping force is needed per unit area of moulding
 Mould costs are less
22. What is sandwich moulding?
This is an injection moulding method in which an expensive
high performance material is used for the skin and a low-cost
recycled plastic is used for the core of the article.
23. State the advantages of gas injection moulding.
 A uniform pressure is maintained.
 Clamping forces are much lower.
 No surface imperfections.
 Lower cycle time.
24. Define calendering.
Calendering is a method of producing plastic film and sheet by
squeezing the plastic through the gap between two counter-
rotating cylinders.
25. What are the uses and advantages of rotational moulding?
Rotational moulding is used to produce hollow plastic articles.
Advantages :
 Stress-free moulding
 Low mould costs
 Fast lead times
 Easy control over wall thickness distribution

COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING

26. Define composite. What are the constituents in composite?


 A composite is a material made from two or more different
materials with different physical or chemical properties.
 Constituents : 1) Reinforcement (or) Fiber 2) Matrix
27. List out the characteristics of composite manufacturing.
 Good bonding between matrix and fibers
 Proper orientation of the fibers
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 Large amount of fibers


 Uniform distribution of fibers within the matrix material
 Proper curing of the resin
 Less amount of voids and defects
 Good dimensional control for the final part
28. What is reinforcement? Give examples.
 A reinforcement is the primary load carrying element of the
composite material. The fiber is commonly used as
reinforcement.
 Examples : Glass, carbon, Kevlar boron, ceramics
29. What is matrix? Give examples.
 A matrix supports the fibers and bonds them together in the
composite material.
 Examples : Thermoset plastic resins, thermoplastic resins,
ceramics and metals
30. List out the functions of matrix material.
 The matrix transfers any applied loads to the fibers
 It keeps the fibers in their position and orientation
 It provides compression strength and shear strength to
composite.
 It protects fibers from environmental attacks.
31. What are the different types of glass fibers?
 E glass (E for electrical grade)
 S glass (S for strength)
 C glass (C for corrosion resistance)
32. Give the difference between graphite and carbon fibers.
 If the graphene layers are stacked with three dimensional
order, the material is defined as graphite.
 If the graphene layers are stacked with two dimensional
order, the material is defined as carbon.
33. What is Kevlar? Mention its types.
 Kevlar is a commercial name for aramid fibers. Aramid fibers
are light weight, strong, and tough.
 Types : Kevlar-49(high stiffness) and Kevlar-29 (low stiffness)

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34. State the applications of boron and ceramic fibers.


 Boron fibers are used to repair cracked aluminum aircraft skins.
 Ceramic fibers are used for high-temperature applications,
such as turbine blades in a gas turbine engine.
35. What are the different forms of reinforcement or fibers.
Fibers, Filament, Strand, Tow, Yarn, Roving, Tape, Woven
fabric, Braid and Mat.
36. What is (i) Tow and (ii)Yarn.
 Tow: An untwisted bundle of continuous filaments with a
specific count,
 Yarn: A twisted bundle of continuous fibers, hence a twisted
tow. It is often used for weaving.
37. What is (i) Rovings and (ii) mat.
 Roving: A number of yarns or tows collected into a parallel
bundle without twisting.
 Mat: A sheet like material consisting of randomly oriented
chopped fibers or swirled continuous fibers held together
loosely by a binder.
38. Define (i) shelf life and (ii) pot life.
 The length of time that they can be stored and still remain
useful is called the shelf life or storage life.
 The duration that the resin stays in the pot without going bad
is called the pot life.
39. Mention some important thermosetting resins.
1) Polyester Resins 2) Vinyl Ester Resin
3) Phenolic Resin 4) Epoxy resin
5) Polyimides 6) Polybenzimidazoles (PBI)
7) Bismaleimides (BMI)
40. State the commonly used thermoplastic resin.
1) Semicrystalline Thermoplastics
2) Amorphous Thermoplastics
3) Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK)
41. Mention the applications of metal matrix.
Metal matrix are used as piston ring inserts, pistons,
connecting rods, impellers, brake calipers, sway bars, critical
suspension components, and tennis racquets

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42. What are the stages in curing resin?
 A stage: The components of the resin have been mixed but
the chemical reaction has not started.
 B stage: The components of the resin have been mixed and
the chemical reaction has started.
 C stage: The resin is fully cured.
43. What is prepreg?
The term prepreg stands for pre-impregnated. Prepregging
involves the incorporation of the partially cured resin with the
fibers. The fiber and viscous resin combination is called prepreg.
44. What is sizing and finish in glass fiber manufacturing?
 Sizing is a chemical used to reduce the friction between the
fibers to prevent breakage.
 Finish is a chemical used to protect the surface of the fibers
and to provide good bonding with the matrix material when
the composite is made.
45. What is the use release agent in composite manufacturing?
Since the resins used are highly adhesive, the product may
stick to the mould. So, a proper releasing agent such as wax
or poly vinyl alcohol should be applied on the mould surface for
easy removal of the product.
46. What are the applications of hand laminating process?
The hand laminating is used to make low cost components
such as boats, wind-turbine blades, architectural mouldings
and corrosion-resistant components in the chemical process
industry.
47. List out the steps in autoclave processing.
1) Prepregs preparation
2) Mould preparation
3) Laying up prepregs on the tool to make the part
4) Vacuum bag preparation
5) Curing of the part in autoclave
48. What is bleeder, barrier and breather?
 A bleeder material is applied outside the release film to
absorb the excess resin from the lay-up.
 Barrier film is used to control the resin flow in the bleeder.

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 A breather material is placed outside the bleeder material to
remove excess air or volatiles developed during the curing
process.
49. What is autoclave? Mention its uses.
 An autoclave is a large pressure vessel with an integral
heating capacity.
 It is used for curing composite parts by a controlled cycle of
temperature and pressure.
50. State the limitations of autoclave processing.
1) Initial cost of tooling is high.
2) Running and maintenance cost is high.
3) Large equipment is required.
4) The processing time is comparatively high.
5) Not suitable for small products.
51. What is filament winding? State the different types of winding.
 Filament winding is a simple operation in which continuous
fiber in the form of rovings are wound over a rotating
mandrel to make a composite structure in the form of
surfaces of revolution.
 Different types of winding are : polar, helical, layer, hoop,
longitudinal, and combination winding
52. State the types of mandrels used in filament winding.
Different types of mandrels are : extractable, collapsible,
breakable and dissolvable mandrels.
53. Mention the applications of filament winding.
Filament winding is used for manufacturing products such as
pressure vessels, rocket motor casing, chemical storage tanks,
pipelines, gas cylinders, fire-fighters, breathing tanks, etc.
54. What is pultrusion process? State its applications.
 Pultrusion is a continuous process used primarily to produce
long, straight shapes of constant cross-section.
 Pultrusion process is used to produce beams and girders
used in roof structures, pipes, bridges, ladders, frameworks,
fishing rods, tool handles, bus components, sign posts, etc.
55. List out the advantages of liquid composite moulding.
1) The production rate is more.
2) The initial cost and manufacturing cost are less.
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3) Fibers with different orientations can be built up.
4) A variety of mould shapes and sizes can be prepared.
5) The product have smoother finish on both sides.
6) Metallic moulds are not required.
7) Product thickness can be controlled easily.
8) Curing can be done at room temperature.

Unit – II
PLANER
1. List out the reciprocating types of machine tools.
1) Planer 2)Shaper 3) Slotter
2. State any four types of planer.
1) Double housing planer 2) Open side planer
3) Pit planer 4) Edge planer
5) Divided table planer
3. Which part reciprocates in planer?
In planer, work piece is held on the table and reciprocates
horizontally.
4. Where is the tool head mounted in planer?
The tool head is mounted on the cross rail.
5. What is the purpose of divided table planer?
The main purpose of divided table planer is to minimize the idle time.
6. Give the specifications of planer.
1) The distance between the two columns
2) Dimensions of the table ( length and width)
3) Maximum stroke length of table
4) When the cross rail is its upper most position, the distance
between the top of the table and bottom of the cross rail.
5) Net weight of the planer
6) Type of drive
7. What are the quick return mechanisms used in planer?
1) Open and cross belt drive 2) Electric drive
3) Hydraulic drive

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8. What are the methods used for holding work piece in planer?
1) T-bolts 2) Strap clamps 3)Support blocks
4) Screw jack 5) Planning fixture
9. Mention the operations performed in planer.
1) Machining horizontal surface 2) Machining vertical surface
3) Machining angular surface 4) Machining T-slots

SHAPER

10. How the shapers are classified according to the table design?
1) Standard or plain shaper 2) Universal shaper
11. What do you mean by vertical shaper?
Slotting machine (slotter) is known as vertical shaper.
12. What are the principal movements in universal shaper?
1) The table can be moved horizontally and vertically.
2) The table can be swiveled to a required angle about an axis
parallel to the ram movement.
13. What is draw cut shaper?
It is a type of shaper in which the metal is cut when the ram
moves towards the column.
14. Mention the specifications of shaper.
1) Maximum length of stroke
2) Maximum cross wise movement of the table
3) Maximum vertical movement of the table
4) Type of shaper
5) Type of driving mechanism
6) Net weight of shaper
15. What is the purpose of providing quick return mechanism
in shaper?
The purpose of providing quick return mechanism is to move
the ram at a faster speed during return stroke.
16. In which stoke, the sped of the ram is faster?
The speed of ram is faster in the return stroke.

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17. Name the type of quick return mechanism used in shaper.


1) Crank and slotted link mechanism
2) Whitworth quick return mechanism
3) Hydraulic quick return mechanism
18. What are the methods of holding work pieces in shaper?
1) Clamping in a vise 2) Clamping directly on table
3) Clamping on an angle plate 4) Clamping over a V – block
5) Fixture
19. Mention the various operations performed in shaper.
1) Machining horizontal surface
2) Machining vertical surface
3) Machining angular surface
4) Machining keyways, grooves and slots.
20. What is cutting speed in shaper?
Cutting speed is defined as the velocity with which the metal is
removed by the tool from the work piece. It is expressed in m/min.
21. Define depth of cut in shaper.
It is the thickness of metal removed in one stroke. It is
expressed in mm.
22. What is the main difference between shaper and planer?
In shaper, tool reciprocates and work piece is stationary. In
planer, the work piece reciprocates and tool is stationary.

SLOTTER

23. Give the names of different types of slotter.


1) Punch slotter 2) Tool room slotter
3) Production slotter 4) Keyseater slotter
24. State the functions of rotary table in slotter.
1) The top of the table has T-slots for fitting the work holding device.
2) Number of key ways with regular intervals can be cut by
indexing the circular table to required angle. Splined shaft
and splined hole can be produced by this method.

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25. Write the specifications of slotter.
1) Maximum length of stroke
2) Diameter of circular table
3) Maximum crosswise and longitudinal movement of the table
4) Type of drive
5) Net weight of slotter
26. Name the types of quick return mechanism used in slotter.
1) Whit worth quick return mechanism
2) Variable speed reversible electric motor drive
3) Hydraulic drive
27. Mention the various feed given in slotter.
1) Longitudinal feed 2) Cross feed 3) Circular feed
28. What are the different operations performed in slotter?
1) Machining flat surfaces 2) Machining curved surfaces
3) Machining grooves and keyways

BROACHING

29. State the types of broaching machines.


1) Horizontal broaching machine
2) Vertical broaching machine
3) Continuous broaching machine
30. Write down the limitations of broaching.
1) The cost of the broach is high.
2) Large work pieces cannot be machined.
3) Heavy depth of cut cannot be given.
4) Thin work piece cannot be machined.
5) Not suitable for producing less number of work pieces.
31. What are the types of broach tools?
1) Push broach 2) Pull broach 3) Solid broach
4) Progressive broach 5) Burnishing broach
32. Differentiate between pull broach and push broach.
A push broach is pushed through the work piece during
machining. A pull broach is pulled through the work piece
during machining.

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33. What is progressive broach?


It is a type of broach in which the cutting teeth are made so that
the widths of teeth are progressively increasing.
34. What is burnishing broach?
It is a type of broach in which the cutting teeth are made as
round shape at the end. This broach is rubbed over the work
piece for giving good surface finish.
35. Mention the uses of rear pilot in broach.
It supports the broach after the last tooth leaves the work piece.
36. Name the broaching operations.
1) Surface broaching 2) Hole broaching
3) Keyway broaching 4) Spline broaching
37. What is spline broaching?
Spline broaching is the process of cutting number of key ways
at equal distance in the inner periphery of the hole.

Unit – III
MILLING MACHINES
1. Classify the column and knee type milling machine.
1) Plain milling machine 2) Universal milling machine
3) Omniversal milling machine 4) Vertical milling machine
2. What are the various movements that can be made in
universal milling machine?
1) Vertical movement 2) Cross wise movement
3) Longitudinal movement 4) Angular movement
3. What is the difference between universal and omniversal
milling machine?
The knee of the omniversal milling machine can be swiveled
about a horizontal axis. This movement cannot be done in
universal milling machine.
4. What is plano miller?
Plano miller is a type of milling machine in which the construction
and working are similar to a double housing planer.

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5. Write the specifications of milling machine.


1) The table length and width
2) The maximum vertical, longitudinal and crosswise
movement of the table
3) Number of spindle speeds
4) Taper hole size of the spindle nose
6. What are the work holding devices used in milling
machine?
1) Plain vise 2) Swivel vise 3) Universal vise
4) Indexing head 5) Milling fixture
7. What is the use of indexing head in milling machine?
Indexing head is a device used to divide the periphery of the
work piece in to any number of equal divisions. Indexing head
is used for cutting gears, splines on shafts and helical grooves
on drill and reamers.
8. Mention the tool holding devices in milling?
1) Arbor 2) Adapters 3) Spring collets
9. What is the difference between standard arbor and stub arbor?
The length of the stub arbor is smaller than the standard arbor.
10. What is the use of adapter in milling machine?
Adapter is used for holding taper shank cutter. It is used when
the taper shank of the cutter is smaller than the spindle taper.
11. Mention the use of spring collet in milling machine.
Spring collet is used for holding straight shank milling cutter.
12. Give the types of milling cutters.
1) Plain milling cutter 2) Slab milling cutter
3) Metal slitting saw 4) Side milling cutter
5) Angle milling cutter 6) End milling cutter
7) T- slot milling cutter 8) Wood ruff key slot milling cutter
9) Fly cutter 10) Form cutter
13. What is the use of end mill cutter?
End mil cutter is used for machining slots, accurate holes and
narrow flat surfaces. It is also used for profile milling.
14. Mention the use of woodruff key milling cutter.
Woodruff key milling cutter is used to cut woodruff key slots on shafts.

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15. When the fly cutter is used?
This cutter is used when the standard cutter for particular
operation is not available.
16. Mention the type of cutter used for milling gears.
Form milling cutter is used for milling gears.
17. What are milling cutter angles?
1) Relief angle 2) Primary clearance angle
3) Secondary clearance angle 4) Lip angle
5) Radial rake angle
18. What is upmilling?
Upmilling is a process in which the metal is removed when the
cutter teeth move upwards. The cutter rotates opposite to the
direction of feed of work piece.
19. Define climb milling.
Climb milling is a process in which the metal is removed when
the cutter teeth move downwards. The cutter rotates in the
same direction as the feed of work piece.
20. State the types of milling operations.
1) Plain milling 2) Side milling 3) Face milling
4) End milling 5) T- slot milling 6) Form milling
7) Straddle milling 8) Gang milling
21. What is straddle milling?
Straddle milling is a process of machining two vertical surfaces
of the work piece at a same time.
22. What is gang milling?
Gang milling is the process of machining several surfaces of
the work piece at a same time.
23. Define indexing? List out the types of dividing head.
Indexing is a method of dividing the periphery of the work piece
in to any number of equal divisions. A dividing head is used for
indexing. Two types of dividing heads are :
1) Plain or simple dividing head 2) Universal dividing head
24. What are the uses of indexing plate and sector arm?
 Indexing plate is a circular disc having number of equally
spaced holes arranged in concentric circles. An indexing
plate is used for rotating the crank to required amount.

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 The sector arm can be set to any number of holes between
the two arms. This is used to avoid the errors in counting of
holes during indexing.
25. List out the methods of indexing.
1) Direct indexing or rapid indexing
2) Plain indexing or simple indexing
3) Compound indexing
4) Differential indexing
5) Angular indexing
6) Linear indexing
26. Mention the rule for direct indexing and simple indexing.
24
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑐𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑁
40
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑐𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑁
𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑁 – 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒.
27. How compound indexing is performed?
The operation is carried out by providing two separate simple
indexing movements :
(a) By rotating the crank with the help of handle in usual way
keeping index plate fixed.
(b) After releasing the lock pin, rotating crank and index plate
with the help of handle in the same or opposite direction.
28. Write the rules for differential indexing.
(𝐴 − 𝑁)
1) 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = × 40
𝐴
40
2) 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑐𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑘 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝐴
3) 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑠
a) 𝐼𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 (𝐴 – 𝑁) 𝑖𝑠 + 𝑣𝑒, 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑖𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑟.
b) 𝐼𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 (𝐴 – 𝑁) 𝑖𝑠 − 𝑣𝑒, 𝑛𝑜 𝑖𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑤𝑜 𝑖𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑟
𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝐴 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝑁 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠
29. What is angular indexing? Give its rule.
Angular indexing is the method of dividing the circumference
of the work piece to any number of divisions of equal angle.

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𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒙 𝒄𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒌 𝒎𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕
𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 (𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑠)
= (𝑜𝑟)
9
𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 (𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠)
=
540
30. What is linear indexing? State its rule.
Linear indexing is the method of dividing the linear distance
(length) into number of equal divisions.
𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒙 𝒄𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒌 𝒎𝒐𝒗𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕
𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
= × 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
1
𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 × ( )
40

GEAR GENERATING PROCESSES


31. Mention the various gear generating processes.
1) Gear shaping 2) Gear planning 3) Gear hobbing
32. Write the advantages of gear shaping.
1) A single cutter of specified module can be used for cutting
gears having different number of teeth and the same module.
2) Internal gears can be cut easily.
3) As the machining is continuous, the rate of production is high.
4) Elliptical gear, face gear and cluster gears can also be cut.
33. Mention the advantages gear planning.
1) A single cutter of specified module can be used for cutting
gears having different number of teeth and the same module.
2) Cluster gears can also be cut.
3) The tooth profile generated by this method is of accurate
shape and size.
34. Mention the limitations in gear planning.
1) Internal gears and worm gears cannot be produced.
2) Gears with large thickness cannot be cut easily.
3) Production rate is less.
35. What is hobbing?
Hobbing is the process of generating gears by using a cutter
called hob.

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36. What are the types of gears that can be generated in
hobbing?
Spur gears, helical gears and worm gears can be generated by
hobbing process.
37. Name the finishing processes for gears.
1) Gear burnishing 2) Gear shaving
3) Gear grinding 4) Gear lapping
38. Define gear shaving.
Gear shaving is a cold working method of gear finishing in which a
very hard gear shaving cutter in the form of a rack or a pinion is used.
39. What is gear burnishing?
Gear burnishing is a cold working method of finishing gear teeth
in which the work gear is held between the three burnishing
gears and all the gears are rolled together.
40. What are the methods of gear grinding?
a) Formed wheel gear grinding
b) Generation gear grinding
41. Define gear lapping.
Gear lapping is used for finishing hardened gears accurately.
In this method, the work gear is held between the three lapping
gears and all the gears are rolled together.
42. Name the materials used for producing gears.
1) Cast iron 2) Steel 3) Alloy steel 4) Brass
5) Bronze 6) Aluminium 7) Nylon 8) Fiber
43. Write down the uses of brass gears.
Brass gears are used in small motor, measuring instruments,
cameras, toys, electrical appliances, etc.
44. Mention the uses of aluminium gears.
Aluminium gears are used in measuring instruments, toys,
cameras, electrical appliances, etc.
45. Write down the uses of nylon gears.
Nylon gears are used in television, radio, measuring
instruments, time gears, cameras, projector, etc.
46. What are the uses of fiber gears?
Fiber gears are used in measuring instruments, tape recorders,
projectors, televisions, comparators, etc.
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Unit – IV
ABRASIVE PROCESSES
1. What is abrasive process?
Abrasive process is a process of removing metal in the form of
small chips by using a rotating abrasive wheel.
2. Mention the types of rough grinders.
1) Floor stand grinders 2) Bench grinders
3) Portable grinders 4) Abrasive belt grinder
5) Swing frame grinder
3. Classify precision grinders.
1) Cylindrical grinders 2) Internal grinders 3) Surface grinders
4. Write down the uses of portable grinders.
Portable grinder is used for rough grinding of large forgings,
castings and welded joints at the work spot itself.
5. Give the uses of abrasive belt grinder.
Abrasive grinder is used for rough grinding of small and
irregular shaped work pieces.
6. What are the methods used in centre type cylindrical grinding?
1) Traverse grinding 2) Plunge cut grinding 3) Taper grinding
7. When the transverse grinding is used?
This method is used when the length of work piece is more than
the width of grinding wheel.
8. What is plunge cut grinding?
It is a grinding method used when the length of the work piece
to be ground is lesser than the width of the grinding wheel.
9. What do you mean by centerless grinding?
It is a method of grinding in which the work piece is placed in a
floating condition between two grinding wheels.
10. What are the methods of centerless grinding?
1) Through feed 2) In feed 3) End feed
11. What is the use of planetary type centerless grinding?
This type of grinder is used for grinding the internal surfaces of
the heavy work pieces that cannot be rotated.

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12. Classify the surface grinders.
1) Horizontal spindle - reciprocating table surface grinder
2) Horizontal spindle - rotary table surface grinder
3) Vertical spindle - reciprocating table surface grinder.
4) Vertical spindle - rotary table surface grinder.
13. Classify tool and cutter grinder.
1) Bench type tool and cutter grinder
2) Universal type tool and cutter grinder
3) Radius toll grinder
14. Write down the specifications of grinding machine.
1) Maximum size of the work piece that can be held in the machine.
2) Diameter of grinding wheel .
3) Maximum travel of wheel head.
4)Dimension of the table
5) Power of the motor.
6) Net weight of the grinding machine.
15. Name the natural abrasives.
1) Sand stone or solid quartz 2) Emery
3) Corundum 4) Diamonds
16. Mention the artificial abrasives.
1) Aluminium oxide 2) Silicon carbide
17. What are the types of bonds used in grinding wheels?
1) Vitrified bond (V) 2) Silicate bond (S)
3) Resinoid bond (B) 4) Rubber bond (R)
5) Shellac bond (E)
18. Define grit.
Grit number is equal to the number of meshes in 25.4mm (1 inch)
length of the screen through which the abrasive grains can pass.
19. What is grade in grinding wheels?
Grade is the strength with which the abrasive grains are held
together by the bond. It refers to the hardness of the wheel.
20. Define structure.
The structure of a grinding wheel refers to the spacing between
the two adjacent abrasive particles.

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21. What are the types of grinding wheels?


1) Peripheral grinding wheel 2) Face grinding wheel
3) Form grinding wheel 4) Mounted wheel or points
22. Give the example of standard marking system of grinding
wheel.
Example : 51–A–46–L–6–V–23
51 – Prefix; A – Aluminium oxide (abrasive);
46 – Grain size; L – Grade; 6 – Structure;
V – Vitrified bond; 23 – Manufacturer’s record
23. What is glazing?
After long use, the cutting surface of the grinding wheel
becomes smooth and gets a glass like appearance. It is called
glazing.
24. Define loading in grinding wheels.
During grinding, the spaces between the abrasive particles in a
grinding wheel are filled with metal particles. This is called loading.
25. What is dressing?
Dressing is an operation of removing glazing and loading from
a grinding wheel. This is done by using a tool called dresser.
26. Define truing.
Truing is the operation used to bring back the original shape of
the grinding wheel by using a diamond tipped tool
27. What is the need for balancing of grinding wheels?
The weight of the grinding wheel should be evenly distributed
throughout the body of the wheel. Otherwise, unbalanced
centrifugal force will be developed. This will lead to busting of
the wheel at high speed.

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NON-CONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESSES
28. Name the widely used unconventional machining processes.
1) Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
2) Chemical Machining (CHM)
3) Electro Chemical machining (ECM)
4) Electro Chemical Grinding (ECG)
5) Electrical Discharge Machining (EDC)
6) Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)
7) Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
29. How metal is removed in ultrasonic machining process?
The metal is removed form the work piece as minute chips by
the abrasion and erosion of abrasive particles.
30. Write down the applications of ultrasonic machining? (Or)
Name the process used to machine carbide and tungsten.
1) It is used for producing holes in hard and brittle materials
like glass, ceramics, carbides, diamonds, etc.
2) It is used for making wire drawing dies in tungsten carbide
or diamond.
3) It is used for machining in both conducting and non-
conducting materials.
31. Write down the steps involved in chemical machining.
1) Cleaning 2) Masking 3) Edging 4) Demasking
32. What is etching?
It is a part of process in chemical machining in which the work
piece is immersed in a hot chemical called etchant.
33. Write down the applications of chemical machining.
1) It is used for making curved and irregular shaped cavities.
2) It is used for removing less amount of metal from thin metal
sheets.
3) It is used to produce complex shapes in electronic
components, air craft parts and automobile parts.
34. What are the applications of electro chemical machining?
1) It is used for making complex shapes in hard materials.
2) Gas turbine blades, impeller and air craft parts can be
produced by this method.

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3) The method is used for producing blind holes, through
holes and irregular shaped cavities.
4) It is used for rough machining of heavy and large forgings.
35. Mention the method of metal removal in ECG process.
The metal is removed form the work piece by electro chemical
action and abrasive action of grinding wheel.
36. How metal is removed in EDM process?
The metal is removed from the work piece due to erosion
caused by an electric spark at high temperature.
37. State the applications of EDM.
1) This method is used for producing small holes in nozzles.
2) It is used for machining hard and brittle materials like
tungsten carbide, stellite, etc.
3) It is used for sharpening tool and cutters.
4) It is used for cutting off the work piece.
38. What is plasma?
When a gas is heated to a very high temperature, it gets
ionized. The ionized gas is called plasma.
39. What are the applications of plasma arc machining?
1) It is used for cutting stainless steel and aluminium alloys.
2) It is used for cutting required profile in hard alloy steels.
40. Write down the method of metal removal in LBM.
The portion of the work piece is melted and vapourised due to
the high temperature of the LASER beam.
41. List out the applications of LBM.
1) It is used for producing very fine and minute holes.
2) It is used for producing holes in surgical needles.
3) It is used for producing holes in hard materials like ceramics.
42. State the limitations of LBM.
1) The cost of equipment is high.
2) The machined holes will not be perfectly round.
3) The efficiency of the process is less.
4) Large amount of metal cannot be removed.

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Unit – V
CNC MACHINES

1. Define numerical control.


Numerical control of machine tools may be defined as a method
of automation in which various functions of machine tools are
controlled by letters, numbers and symbols.
2. What are the components of NC system.
1. Program of instructions
2. Machine Control Unit (MCU)
3. Machine tool
3. Define CNC.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is defined as a NC system
that utilizes a dedicated microcomputer to perform some or all
of the basic numerical control functions. Numerical control (NC)
system is a method of automation in which various functions of
machine tools are controlled by letters, numbers and symbols.
4. List out the components in MCU.
1) Central processing unit
2) Memory
3) Input / Output interface
4) Controls for machine tool axes and spindle speed.
5) Programmable logic controller
5. Mention the advantages of CNC machines.
1) More than one program can be stored in the CNC controllers.
2) CNC controllers have multiple data entry capabilities such as
punched tape, magnetic tape, floppy diskette, compact disc
and manual data input.
3) The part program in the MCU computer memory can be edited
and optimized at the machine site itself.
4) Linear, circular, helical, parabolic, and cubic interpolations can
be executed in a CNC system.
5) The CNC machines have the facility of simulating the part
program without actually running it on the machine tool.

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6. State the features of CNC machines.


1) Storage of part programs into computer memory.
2) Automatic determination of optimum tool path.
3) Simultaneous execution of various functions.
4) Automatic tool changing.
5) Automatic work piece positioning.
6) Automatic checking of finished work piece dimensions.
7) High speed cutting of complex contours.
8) Tool breakage detection and recovery.
7. What is CNC turning centre?
The CNC turning centre is a machine tool capable of
performing various turning and related operations, on work
piece in one setup under CNC system.
8. What is turn-mill centre?
CNC turn–mill centre is a combined machine tool which can
perform the turning as well as milling operations in the same
machine tool under CNC system.
9. What is CNC machining centre?
The CNC machining centre is a machine tool capable of
performing multiple machining operations on work piece in one
setup under CNC system.
10. What is universal machining centre?
Some horizontal machining centres have the capability of tilting
the spindle axis from horizontal to vertical position under
computer control. These are called universal machining centre.
11. What is CMM?
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) is an electromechanical
system designed to determine the location, orientation,
dimensions and geometry of a component or object.
12. What are the components of CMM?
1) Probe head and probe to contact the work piece surface.
2) Displacement transducers to measure the coordinate values of
each axis.
3) Mechanical structure that provides motion of the probe.
4) Drive system and control unit to move each of the three axes.
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13. List out the benefits of CMM.


1) The inspection cycle time is reduced.
2) The operator errors in measurements and setup are reduced.
3) CMM is more accurate and precise than manual inspection.
4) CMM has better repeatability.
5) The operation of CMM is simple.

COMPONENTS OF CNC MACHINES

14. State the requirements of a good slideways system.


 Low coefficient of friction at varying slide velocities
 Minimum difference between static and dynamic friction
coefficients
 Low rate of wear
 High stiffness at the sliding joints
 Good damping capacity
 Negligible stick–slip
15. Mention the types of slideways.
1) Friction slideways (Guideways with sliding friction )
2) Anti-friction slideways (Guideways with rolling friction )
16. List out the advantages of linear motion bearings.
1) The drive equipment is more compact.
2) Smooth motion is obtained with reduced vibration and shock.
3) Stick–slip problem is completely eliminated.
4) A small quantity of lubrication is sufficient.
5) Little wears and long life.
17. State the advantages of recirculating ball screw and nut.
1) Coefficient of friction is low.
2) Transmission efficiency is very high.
3) Stick–slip phenomenon is absent.
4) Backlash is completely eliminated.
5) Little wears and long life.

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18. What is ATC?


Automatic tool changer (ATC) is an important part of a CNC
machine. An ATC picks up a tool from the tool magazine and
replaces it with the tool in the spindle.
19. What is tool magazine? List out its types.
 Tool magazine is a device used in CNC machines for storing
the tools.
 The main types of tool magazines used in CNC machines are:
(1) Tool turret (2) Drum or disc type magazine
(3) Chain type magazine
20. What is transducer?
Transducers are feed back devices used for measuring the
velocity and position of the components in CN machines.
21. What is the difference between rotary encoder and linear
transducer?
 Rotary encoder measures the rotary speed of the lead screw.

 Linear transducer measures the displacement of the machine


slide from a fixed datum.
22. Define in-process probing?
In-process probing is a system used in CNC machines for
periodic checking and adjusting dimensional tolerances of the
part in process.
23. List out the cutting tool materials for CNC machines.
1. High Speed Steel (HSS)
2. Cemented Carbides
3. Ceramics
4. Cermets
24. What are the materials used as tool inserts?
Cemented carbide, polycrystalline, diamond, and cubic boron
nitride.
25. Mention the different shapes of tool inserts.
Round, triangle, square, rhombus and diamond are the
common shapes of tool insert.

 
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