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DISTRIBUTION BUSINESS

DOCUMENT TITLE:

MANUAL:
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
OPERATION MANUAL

DOCUMENT I.D. NUMBER:

DS O SW 01

 Copyright Aurora
REVISIONS
REV DATE REVISION DESCRIPTION APPROVAL
NO.
1.0 1998 Interim issue GMN
Document restructured and
combined from:
Pole mounted operation manual
Ground mounted operation manual
1.1 1 Aug Layout amended GMN
2000 Section 12 revised
Minor revisions associated with
layout, testing, fuses tables and
transformer isolation
2.0 24 June 3.3 Recloser comments deleted from GMBI
2004 text
1.3 Authorisations amended
3.2 Equipment types added
7.1 Paralleling of feeders added

2.1 22 Oct Isolation to include visual break. GMBI


2004 Work Tag and Live Line Settings
replaced SEF and ARC
3 22 Mar Alignment with Power System Safety GMAM
2006 Rules and General Review

4 9 Nov Clause 7.2.8 changed and Clauses OT&RTM


2010 7.2.9 to 7.2.10 reviewed in line with
incident recommendations
5 Feb Clauses 11.5.1, 11.5.2 & 11.5.3 OT & RTM
2011 changed to comply with PSSR

6 Dec Complete document review and GM AIP


2013 Switching Sheet procedures added.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. APPLICATION 6
1.1 Scope 6
1.2 Definitions 6
2. SAFETY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT 6
2.1 Electrical Insulating Gloves 7
2.2 Low Voltage Electrical Insulating Gloves 8
2.3 Footwear 8
2.4 Arc Flash Protective Clothing 8
2.5 Head and Eye Protection 8
2.6 Operating Sticks 9
2.7 Notices 10
2.8 Pole Safety Precautions 10
2.9 Emergency Operations 11
3. SWITCHGEAR TYPES AND SPECIFICATIONS 11
3.1 General 11
3.2 Types of Switchgear 12
3.3 Choice of Switchgear 15
4. IDENTIFICATION 15
5. FAMILIARITY WITH LOCAL SYSTEM 16
6. OPERATING PROCEDURES 17
6.1 Paralleling of High Voltage Feeders 17
6.2 General Precautions when Paralleling on
High Voltage System 20
6.3 General Precautions when Paralleling on
the Low Voltage System 23
6.4 Transmission Network Control
Requirements 25
6.5 Fault Reclose Procedure 26
6.6 Single Phase Switching and
Ferroresonance 31

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6.7 Single Phasing 33
6.8 Intertripping 34
6.9 Protection Alterations for Work on or in the
Vicinity of Live HV Assets 35
7. SWITCHING SHEETS 39
7.1 General 39
7.2 Authorisation 40
7.3 Request to Access the Distribution System
(RADS) 40
7.4 Operator in Charge 41
7.5 Authorised Operators 41
7.6 Unplanned Switching Sheets 41
7.7 Oral Instructions 42
7.8 Embedded Notes 42
7.9 General Principles for Preparing and
Checking of Switching Sheets 43
7.10 Approval 45
7.11 General Principles for Actioning of Switching
Sheets 45
7.12 Switching Sequence 46
7.13 Alterations 48
7.14 Do Not Operate Tags 49
7.15 Earthing 49
7.16 Removable or Rackable Switch or Circuit
Breaker Carriages 50
7.17 Switchgear Maintenance 50
7.18 Removal of Switchgear Carriages Exposing
Live HV Conductors or Busbar Shutters 50
7.19 Standard Format 50
7.20 Switching Sheet Approved Terminology 54
7.21 Terminology Examples 56
7.22 Retention of Documents 60
7.23 Generic Switching Sheets 60

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8. ISOLATING HV CONDUCTORS OR
APPARATUS 67
8.1 Locking of Switchgear 67
8.2 Overhead Reclosers 68
8.3 Isolation of Substation Equipment 68
8.4 Isolating Pole Mounted Transformers 69
9. PROVING DE-ENERGISED – ISOLATED HV
CONDUCTORS 70
9.1 Switchgear with No Accessible Live Parts 70
9.2 Approved Testing Devices 70
10. EARTHING ISOLATED HV CONDUCTORS 72
10.1 Earthing Requirements 72
10.2 Approved Earthing Equipment 72
10.3 Application of Earthing 72
11. COMMISSIONING / RE-ENERGISING HV
APPARATUS 74
12. GENERAL OPERATING INFORMATION 75
12.1 Use of Fault Indicators 75
12.2 Replacement of Fuses 76
12.3 Abnormal Transformer LV Voltages 77
12.4 Switching Transformers 79
12.5 Embedded Generators and Alternative
Supplies 79
13. APPENDIX A: PROTECTION SYSTEMS 82
13.1 Scope and Application 82
13.2 Protection Circuits and Equipment 82
13.3 Installed Protection – Method of Operation 88
14. APPENDIX B: METERING CIRCUITS AND
EQUIPMENT 107
14.1 Voltage Metering 107
14.2 Current Metering 108
14.3 Voltage Regulation – Automatic 110

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1. APPLICATION

1.1 Scope
This document provides standard references for
operating on the Low and High Voltage Distribution
Network. This document must be read in conjunction
with the Power System Safety Rules (PSSR) and any
relevant approved procedures.

Nothing in this document overrides any requirement of


the PSSR.

1.2 Definitions
The principal terms used within this manual are defined
in the Power System Safety Rules.

Distribution Network

Aurora owned and operated electrical, mechanical and


civil assets that are under operational control.

Authorisation

All authorisations shall comply with NP R NO 17


Distribution Operator Training and Authorisation
Standard.

2. SAFETY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT


AuroraSafe is Aurora's Safety Management System that
provides the standards for safe work, to ensure we
satisfy our obligations to our employees, contractors
and the community. Nothing is this manual overrides
the general and specific responsibilities placed upon an
Operator by AuroraSafe.

For approved equipment and guidelines Refer


AuroraSafe Personal Protection Equipment Guidelines,
DM ref CO10610395.
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Should there be any doubt of the Operator's capability
to operate certain equipment or of the equipment to
perform satisfactorily, seek advice.

2.1 Electrical Insulating Gloves


AuroraSafe and live line procedures outlines the use of
gloves for mechanical and electrical protection. The
following describes the minimum requirements for the
use of gloves while operating on the distribution
network.

2.1.1 High Voltage Electrical Insulating Gloves


for Operating
HV electrical insulating gloves are not to be considered
as providing effective insulation from high voltage. They
are used to provide protection against possible potential
differeneces that may occur while operating.

HV electrical insulating gloves shall be used when


operating on the electrical system when:

 Application (High Voltage Overhead Switchgear)


 Operating uninsulated metal handles, e.g.
ganged isolator;
 When operating extendable
operating/measuring sticks;
 When applying and removing portable
earths; and
 In wet weather when operating, including
proving de-energised, phasing and height
measuring HV equipment with operating
sticks.

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 Application (High Voltage Ground Mounted
Switchgear)
 When using phasing out and proving de-
energised equipment to High Voltage
terminals;
 When applying portable earths; and
 When racking switchgear.

2.2 Low Voltage Electrical Insulating Gloves


LV electrical insulating gloves shall be used when
operating on the electrical system when:

 Operating / working on or near live low voltage


electrical apparatus / equipment;
 Working on de-energised low voltage, which
could become energised due to error, accident,
embedded generation or system failure; and
 When operating, including proving de-energised,
phasing and height measuring HV equipment with
operating sticks in dry weather unless an
approved work practice allows another method.

2.3 Footwear
Hard-toe-capped footwear is a minimum requirement
when on a field worksite or when operating.

2.4 Arc Flash Protective Clothing


Arc Flash Protection shall be applied according to the
Personal Protective Equipment Procedure DM ref
CO10610395.

2.5 Head and Eye Protection


Safety Helmets and Safety Glasses / face shield are to
be worn when an Operator is undertaking the operation
of all distribution network equipment.
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2.6 Operating Sticks
Only approved operating sticks shall be used and they
must be examined before use to ensure that they are
sound, dry and free from defects.

The Operator shall be ensured that the insulating


medium of an operating stick in use is not ‘bridged out’
by adjacent live conductors or by earthed apparatus.

Operating sticks must be wiped with an appropriate


silicon cloth or equivalent before every use when
operating on the HV system.

2.6.1 Routine Inspection and Testing


The operating stick shall be examined before use for
signs of cracks, surface damage or mechanical defects
and shall be wiped thoroughly with a clean dry cloth.

Silicon cloth pads shall be used regularly, at least


weekly, to wipe the surface of each glass fibre operating
stick to ensure the surface glazing is maintained in good
condition.

An electrical test shall be carried out every twelve (12)


months. Operating Sticks must have current
compliance test information showing date of test and
expiry date.

(Refer ESAA Code of Practice for Acceptance Test


Procedures and Precautions in Use of Insulated Switch
Sticks and Associated Equipment C (b) 6 - 1968.)

2.6.2 Care and Maintenance – Storage


Care must be taken in the handling of operating sticks
so as to avoid damage to their surface.

Sticks must be stored in a dry location.

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Storage shall be such as to ensure that the operating
sticks are not subjected to unnecessary strain or
pressure and that the sticks are kept free from contact
with sharp implements or other possible causes of
damage.

2.7 Notices
Where aparataus has been recently commissioned or
energised, hazardous condition tags shall be used in
appropriate situations, for example, recently
commissioned substations and underground
subdivisions.

2.8 Pole Safety Precautions


Pole steps or spikes must be tested by hand before
entrusting full weight upon them.

Before climbing any pole, particularly in the dark, the


proximity of live LV conductors and street light wires to
the operating position and or pole spikes should be
noted. Where necessary, exposed live LV conductors
shall be covered with approved insulating equipment in
an approved manner.

Before putting a ladder against any pole, a check is to


be made of the condition of the pole in accordance with
approved procedures. If it is branded with a
condemned cross or appears to be rotten at the base or
unsafe, do not ascend and make other operating
arrangements. Impaired poles that have been marked
with a half-cross and staked are to be treated as a pole
that has not been condemned.

Rescue kits shall be in place ready for use prior to


climbing a pole. An Operator must be accompanied by
a person who is competent and qualified in Pole Top
Rescue and Resuscitation.

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2.9 Emergency Operations
In cases of an emergency, an Operator is authorised,
even when alone, to carry out any operation necessary
to protect life or equipment, provided always that in so
doing, the Operator does not place themself in danger.

3. SWITCHGEAR TYPES AND


SPECIFICATIONS

3.1 General
Aurora Energy's indoor distribution switchgear and pole
mounted line reclosers are rated for breaking the load,
magnetising or charging currents likely to be
encountered in the system. All such switchgear is rated
for fault making, that is, it is capable of being closed
onto the maximum fault likely to be encountered.

An exception to this is Hazemeyer switchgear. It is not


rated for fault making and shall not be used for
sectionalising during fault finding.

Pole mounted switchgear has more limitations on its


use and the suitability of this switchgear to safely isolate
system components must be considered before
operation.

There is a combination of single phase and three phase


devices within the network. It is important to understand
the limitations of using single phase devices as
described in this manual.

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3.2 Types of Switchgear
Switchgear comes in four main classes.

These are:

1. Fault make – fault break;


2. Fault make – load break;
3. Load make – load break; and
4. Isolators.

3.2.1 Fault Make – Fault Break


3.2.1.1 Circuit Breakers

A circuit breaker is a device that can make and break


maximum fault current likely to occur on the section of
system controlled by the circuit breaker. They can
automatically clear a fault when detected by an
associated relay.

Some circuit breakers are fitted with an auto-reclose


function.

Various fault-detecting relays are used to trip circuit


breakers and these are discussed later in the manual.

3.2.1.2 FuseSavers

A device that can make and break maximum fault


current likely to occur on the section of system
controlled by the FuseSaver. They can automatically
clear a fault when detected and operate in conjunction
with partner EDOs.

3.2.1.3 Pole Mounted Reclosers

These are essentially circuit breakers with integral


control gear to provide auto reclosing, remote control,
remote monitoring and other functions.
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3.2.2 Fault Make – Load Break
3.2.2.1 Switch

Generally ground-mounted equipment.

Switches have no protection function.

If a switch is closed on to a fault, the switch should


close normally with no danger to the Operator. The
fault should then be cleared by a circuit breaker on the
supply side of the switch.

3.2.2.2 Switch Fuse

Generally ground-mounted equipment.

They are a switch with fuses in series with the


mechanism.

They are used to switch and protect short lengths of


cables and transformers. Most switch-fuses are fitted
with trip-all-phases devices to prevent ‘single phasing’.

The fuses are each fitted with a striker pin that


protrudes from one end of the fuse when blown. The
striker pin hits a tripping bar which trips all three phases
of the switch.

3.2.2.3 Pole Mounted Load Break Switch

An SF6 insulated, fully metal enclosed, pole mounted


switch.

They provide full fault making and load breaking


capability.

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3.2.3 Load Make – Load Break
3.2.3.1 Pole Mounted Sectionalisers

Pole mounted sectionalisers are devices designed to


work in conjunction with an automatic recloser. They are
set to operate after a specific count of recloser
operations (often 3, one less than the upstream
recloser). They open during the recloser dead time
when there is no current flow.

An actuator is used to measure current changes and


initiates the opening of phases simultaneously.

3.2.3.2 Pole Mounted Ganged Isolators

Pole-mounted ganged isolators have the ability to carry


load, but only limited ability (according to its category) to
interrupt load, magnetising or charging currents.

3.2.3.3 Pole Mounted Fuses

Pole-mounted isolators/ fuses have the ability to carry


load, but only limited ability (according to its category) to
interrupt load, magnetising or charging currents.

3.2.3.4 Isolators

Isolators are generally non-load operating equipment.


On the Distribution Network isolators such as HV links
and fuses have limited load breaking capacity.

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3.3 Choice of Switchgear
Where there is a choice of suitable equipment to de-
energise or re-energise a section of the distribution
system, the equipment should be used in the following
order of preference:

1. Ground mounted circuit breaker;


2. Ground mounted switch, Pole mounted line
recloser, Load Break Switch or FuseSaver;
3. Pole mounted ganged isolator or links with arc
breaking device;
4. Pole mounted ganged isolator or links without
arc-break device; and
5. Pole mounted fuses.

Notes:

Switching Sheets should not be unnecessarily extended


to enable the use of switchgear higher on the order of
preference when other equipment will adequately and
safely perform the required operations.

In some circumstances, the use of single-phase devices


may not be possible because ferroresonance situations
may be created, or mal-operation of earth fault
protection may occur which will cause circuit breakers to
operate.

4. IDENTIFICATION
All apparatus and associated switchgear shall be
identified and labelled according to approved
procedures prior to commissioning. If any identification
is found to be inadequate, steps must be taken to rectify
immediately.

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5. FAMILIARITY WITH LOCAL SYSTEM
Local knowledge will benefit an Operator and allow
them to identify errors or omissions more easily.
Operators should be encouraged to study the local
system layout diagrams with particular reference to the
following points:

1. Terminal Substation points of supply;


2. Sub transmission Feeders;
3. Zone Substations;
4. Voltage Regulators and their special
requirements;
5. Primary Feeders;
6. Distribution Substations;
7. The areas of supply of the above components;
8. Restrictions for inter-connection of these
components;
9. The types of switchgear in the local area;
10. Potential system hazards such as fault level
which may exceed switchgear or line capacity,
two HV circuits on the same pole and areas of
different phasing;
11. Local reclosing instructions following faults
including auto-reclosing facilities where used;
12. Local instructions for fault location including the
location of fault indicators;
13. Local communication systems; and
14. Intertripping or interlocking facilities used in
substations.

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6. OPERATING PROCEDURES
The Operator's function is to carry out operation of
equipment that generally performed from pre-prepared
written switching sheets.

On occasions, the Operator will be required to prepare


their own switching sheet and must be aware of the
consequences of each switching action at all times and
conform to the procedures set out in the Power System
Safety Rules.

The requirements of any customers affected must have


been considered and dealt with by approved
procedures. Various aspects of operating are dealt with
under the following headings so that the Operator will
have a better understanding of recommended operating
procedures.

6.1 Paralleling of High Voltage Feeders


There are four main categories of paralleling on the
High Voltage system.

These are:

1. Paralleling of sections of the same feeder;


2. Paralleling of feeders originating at the same
substation busbar section;
3. Paralleling of feeders originating from the same
substation connected to different busbar sections;
and
4. Paralleling of feeders originating at different
substations or different supply transformers.

Paralleling Conditions will be prepared for situations


involving parallels between feeders from major
substations.

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In addition, Transmission Control, Distribution Control
and Operators at terminal substations may be involved
and be responsible for taking certain precautions.

6.1.1 Paralleling of Sections of the Same Feeder


This is generally known as section parallels or section
rings or ringing.

Connections through the open paralleling point to have


been phased out previously

Where earth fault relays are fitted within the loop (e.g.
associated with line reclosers), switching on single
phase devices should be avoided where ever possible.

If the situation cannot be avoided, the earth fault


protection must be disabled.

Where voltage regulator(s) are installed within the loop


formed when two branches of a feeder are inter-
connected, the regulator(s) should be switched to
manual control and adjusted to neutral tap unless
otherwise directed by Distribution Control.

6.1.2 Paralleling of Feeders Originating at the


Same Substation Busbar Section
Where voltage regulator(s) are installed within the loop
formed when two branches of a feeder are inter-
connected, the regulator(s) should be switched to
manual control and adjusted to neutral tap unless
otherwise directed by Distribution Control.

Where Line Reclosers exist within the loop their


protection function must be disabled.

Auto-reclose facility at the feeder circuit breaker must


be switched out of service.

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Switching on single-phase devices should be avoided
where possible.

If the situation cannot be avoided any earth fault


protection within the parallel must be disabled.

6.1.3 Paralleling via Single Phase Devices


Paralleling using single-phase devices is only allowed
subject to:

1. The parallel involves the same feeder or two


feeders off the same section of busbar and
supplied by the same transformer(s);
2. Paralleling condition being investigated and
approved;
3. The individual paralleling conditions have been
analysed. This is to ensure that hazardous
conditions especially transfer and out of balance
currents, have been considered. Where these
are beyond the rating of the device being
operated, the parallel is not permitted; and
4. Disabling the earth fault protection involved in the
parallel. This is to ensure that the ensuing single
phasing does not trip the protection equipment.

Where earth fault relays are fitted within the loop (e.g.
associated with line reclosers), switching on single-
phase devices should be avoided where possible.

If the situation cannot be avoided, the earth fault


settings on protection relays may be switched out of
service, or higher settings may be employed temporarily
on the earth fault relays.

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6.1.4 Paralleling of Feeders Originating from the
Same Substation Connected to Different
Busbar Sections OR Paralleling of Feeders
Originating at Different Substations or
Different Supply Transformers
Distribution Control shall investigate such parallels prior
to approving.

Where voltage regulator(s) are installed within the loop


formed when two branches of a feeder are inter-
connected, the regulator(s) should be switched to
manual control and adjusted to neutral tap unless
otherwise directed by Distribution Control.

Where Line Reclosers exist within the loop their


protection function must be disabled.

Auto-reclose facility at the feeder circuit breaker must


be switched out of service.

Paralleling using single-phase devices SHALL not be


conducted.

6.2 General Precautions when Paralleling on


High Voltage System

6.2.1 Overcurrent Protection


Since the paralleling operation is usually for the purpose
of transferring load, it follows that on the feeders
involved, over current relay settings and line recloser
ratings must be high enough to ensure that there is no
danger of operation due to the increase in load. A
reasonable margin in settings is required due to
uncertainty in the balance of load sharing during the
parallel and also because reactive load flow currents
may be quite large.

It is deemed inappropriate to parallel through fuses.


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6.2.2 Earth Fault/Leakage Protection
Earth fault protection systems based on residually
connected current transformers or core balance current
transformers, may see unbalance in the phases during
an earth fault.

This unbalance can occur while the parallel is being


made, broken, or during the period in parallel, and
hence cause a circuit breaker or line recloser to
operate.

Making or breaking the parallel with a single phase


switching device will exacerbate this problem and may
cause tripping and such switching should be avoided
when possible.

6.2.3 Operational
In preparing switching sheets care must be taken to
include setting and restoring to normal any changes
made to protection. Any changes must be approved by
Distribution Control and should be made only by
Operators authorised for the circuit breaker or device
that the protection is controlling.

6.2.4 Automatic Tap Changers


6.2.4.1 Substation Supply Transformers

When paralleling feeders, various actions may be


necessary including changing the tap change controls to
manual.

The bus section voltages at each substation shall be


adjusted to minimise transfer currents when necessary.

Tap changers at each substation may need to be


switched to manual control for the duration of the
parallel.

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If the parallel is expected to be required for an extended
period, it may be necessary to monitor the feeder
ammeters and adjust taps accordingly.

6.2.4.2 Regulators

One or more voltage regulating transformers may be


installed along the route of an HV feeder. When feeders
originate from different sources or from separate supply
transformers, interaction of automatic voltage regulating
equipment may lead to high circulating currents. During
the parallel, the voltage regulators should be placed on
manual control.

Where appropriate calculations have been conducted,


the regulating transformers may be allowed to remain in
normal operation. Such paralleling conditions shall be
approved by Distribution Control

6.2.4.2.1 Single Phase Regulator Units

Consideration must be given when making a parallel


where there are multiple Open-Delta Regulators. Each
one may introduce a level of Sensitive Earth Fault
relevant to the load on the feeder/s. Such paralleling
conditions are to be approved by Distribution Control.

6.2.5 Pole Mounted Auto Reclosers


One or more pole mounted line reclosers may be
installed along the route of an HV feeder. Before the
parallel of such a feeder the following precautions
should be taken:

Recloser to be bypassed or protection disabled.

6.2.6 Substation Circuit Breaker Auto Reclosers


The auto reclosers on Substation Feeder Circuit
Breakers are to be switched out of services during
feeder parallels.

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6.2.7 Duration of Parallel Condition
The time during which feeders are operated in parallel
should be kept as short as practicable.

6.2.8 Phasing
All new construction shall be phased out prior to
bringing into service.

If any high voltage connections are broken during any


other work and there is a possibility that they could be
incorrectly reconnected then phasing checks must be
performed. Generally, if more than one phase
connection has been broken then a phasing check will
be required.

One exception is where a high voltage line is


disconnected and because its construction is straight
through and impossible to connect incorrectly.

6.2.9 Load Balance


When paralleling two feeders of different load
capabilities, length, or impedance, it is possible that a
large transfer current may occur due to the voltage
differential at the open point. This can cause one feeder
to carry a disproportionate load, possibly overloading it
causing it to trip out. Load checks may need to be
carried out to ensure the load transfer is within the
feeder capabilities.

6.3 General Precautions when Paralleling on


the Low Voltage System

6.3.1 General
Transformers are normally not operated in parallel for
lengthy periods but where possible they should be
paralleled to minimise interruption to customers.

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6.3.2 Requirements
Transformers may only be operated in LV parallel when
their voltages are in phase and their secondary voltages
are of the same order, and preferably supplied by the
same HV Feeder.

If the phasing is not known then paralleling points must


be phased out prior to closing.

Loading on LV shall not exceed the capability of the


conductors.

Transformers should not be overloaded.

Immediately after LV parallels have been made, checks


shall be made to ensure that LV conductor ratings have
not been exceeded. If these checks are not carried out
at peak period further tests will be required.

LV parallels should only be made if a supply of


acceptable quality can be achieved.

Low voltages (below 230 volts) may cause damage to


customers’ installations and should be avoided.

All LV parallels should be removed as soon as possible


after completion of work.

6.3.3 LV Paralleling Risks


When an LV parallel is across HV Feeders, loss of
either HV feeder can cause the low voltage circuit to
supply the existing load of the feeder. This will
potentially cause significant overload on conductors that
will lead to high risks to public due to loss of circuit
clearance, or annealing and damage to fittings.

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The tripped feeder may remain ‘live’ via the LV parallel
to the energised feeder(s).

Damage to loops, links and conductors may result and


transformer and substation fuses may blow depending
on the magnitude of currents.

All paralleled transformers and LV circuits must be


thoroughly checked for possible damage.

6.3.4 LV Parallels Causing HV Parallels


Parallels involving transformers connected to feeders
supplied from different zone or terminal substations i.e.
‘across zone or terminal’ parallels, should only be made
when absolutely necessary and feeder re-arrangements
cannot be made to avoid them.

Where it is absolutely imperative that LV parallels are


made involving transformers connected to:

1. Different feeders supplied from the same terminal


or zone substation; or
2. Different feeders supplied from two zone or
terminal substations,

then:

1. Paralleling conditions must be investigated and


the risks outlined in this section must be
understood; and
2. An appropriate risk mitigation strategy be
produced.

6.4 Transmission Network Control


Requirements
Except in the case of an emergency, a period of notice
is required for planned paralleling of feeders that
originate at different terminal substations or bus
sections. The amount of notice that is required is
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detailed in the agreement between those responsible for
Transmission and Distribution Operations.

This is to enable checks to be made to ensure that any


load transfer can be accommodated and that system
conditions permit the parallel.

Where the feeders concerned originate at the same


substation, Distribution Operations expects that the
Transmission Control should be able to handle requests
for paralleling with minimal notice. Even so, as much
notice as possible should be given, except in
emergencies.

Communication must be maintained between


Distribution Operations and the Transmission Control.
Transmission Control should be notified immediately
prior to the making of the parallel and again as soon as
the parallel is broken.

6.5 Fault Reclose Procedure

6.5.1 Fault and cause identification


Where protection equipment controlling lines has
caused the line to trip and lock out, information
regarding the cause and location of the fault may be
available from:

1. Protection relay flags;


2. Line Fault Indicators;
3. Reports of flashes, explosions, trees on lines, car
hit pole, wires down, lightning etc.;
4. Investigation of reports;
5. History of the line;
6. Certainty of cause of fault or location from other
sources; and
7. An inspection of the line.

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6.5.2 Line Inspection/Patrol
Consideration whether a line inspection is warranted
should include:

1. Length of line;
2. Accessibility of line;
3. Time of day and visibility;
4. Potential risk of personnel undertaking patrol;
5. Traffic and road conditions;
6. High or extreme fire danger periods; and
7. Weather Conditions.

6.5.2.1 Severe Weather Warning

The line must be patrolled to its extremities where both:

1. A line has tripped and locked out on days where


a Severe Weather Warning has been issued by
the Bureau Of Meteorology; and
2. Multiple calls are received advising of wires down
in areas supplied by the line.

Note: This may involve the isolation of spur-lines off the


main trunk enabling restoration of the feeder followed by
further patrol and restoration of the spurs.

6.5.3 Manual Reclosure after Fault Trip and


Lockout
6.5.3.1 General Principles

Immediately before each reclose is attempted,


Distribution Operations shall gather information
regarding the cause of fault by making enquiries to:

1. Call Centre;
2. Ambulance;

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3. Police;
4. Fires service (in high or extreme fire danger
periods); and
5. Relevant work crews working on or near the line
under fault eg live-line, vegetation, switching and
repair crews etc.
Reclosing shall not be performed until relevant
work crews are clear of the line and have been
advised that a reclose is to be attempted.

6.5.3.2 Minimum Time of Initial Reclose

Before a reclose of the line is attempted, a minimum of


15 minutes shall elapse from:

1. The time of initial lockout; or


2. The first communication from affected customers.

This period of time may be reduced if the cause of the


fault has been established or removed and it is no
longer a hazard to persons or equipment.

6.5.3.3 Removal of Fault Cause

If the cause of the fault is removed or proved to no


longer be a possible hazard to persons or equipment,
the line may be reclosed immediately.

6.5.3.4 Restoration to Non Fault Areas

Power should be restored as soon as possible to areas


that are without supply but are not part of the faulted
section of line.

Priority shall be given to:

1. Critical supplies customers eg hospitals, sewage


works etc.; and
2. Feeder trunks.

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6.5.3.5 Considerations Prior to Reclose

The following aspects shall be given due consideration


before a reclose is attempted so that Distribution
Controller can make appropriate decisions about a
reclose and its possible lockout:

1. Probable cause of fault;


2. Relevant information gained eg customer reports,
relay and fault indicator operations etc.;
3. Interruption time to critical supplies eg hospitals,
sewage works etc.;
4. Impact of interruption upon customers;
5. Route of the line eg local knowledge;
6. Weather conditions existing at the time;
7. The location of work groups in the fault area;
8. Length of HV underground cable installed;
9. The demand of cold load pickup on the line; and
10. Reducing fault level at tripped device.

6.5.3.6 Disabling Auto-reclose Facilities

Where automatic reclosing facilities are fitted, the auto-


reclosing facility shall be disabled (e.g. made to 'one
shot' or 'one trip to lockout') before a reclose is
attempted.

6.5.3.7 Sectionalising

Sectionalising is the process where sections of the


distribution network are sequentially de-energised and
re-energised to locate the fault.

Once the fault is located and isolated, priority shall be


given to restoring supply to customers outside the
isolated section.

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6.5.3.8 Manual Reclosure

6.5.3.8.1 Overhead System

See also General Principles (Section 6.5.3.1).

An initial reclose can be undertaken without


sectionalising.

Any known fault indicator operations shall be analysed


before selecting sectionalising point(s).

Where a line supplies both an urban and a rural area, it


should generally be isolated at the first available
position past the urban area.

A repeat reclose may be performed 30 minutes or


greater after an initial manual reclose.

6.5.3.8.2 Underground System

See also General Principles (Section 6.5.3.1).

Initial reclosure of the line should only occur after the


line has been sectionalised as more expensive
equipment is involved, every effort should be made to
keep the number of recloses to a minimum.

6.5.3.8.3 Combined Overhead and Underground System

See also General Principles (Section 6.5.3.1).

Where the overhead portions of the feeder are


significantly larger than the underground portions,
greater than 80% overhead, the chances are in favour
of the fault being in the overhead area.

At the earliest opportunity, the major overhead and


underground components are to be separated and
treated as per Table 1.

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Table 1: Manual Reclose Methods

System Type Manual Reclose Method

Majority To be treated as an overhead system


overhead (Section 6.5.3.8.1) after the majority
of the underground system has been
isolated.

Majority To be treated as an underground


underground system (Section 6.5.3.8.2).

6.6 Single Phase Switching and


Ferroresonance
Ferroresonance is a ‘tuned circuit’ effect that can exist
when transformers (inductance) and/or insulated cables
(capacitance) are closely connected.

When a voltage is applied to a series circuit containing


capacitance and inductance, a condition known as
resonance occurs if the reactive ohms of the
capacitance are equal to the reactive ohms of the
inductance. The result of resonance is the formation of
high voltages (or voltage magnification) across the
inductance and the capacitance.

This series circuit may be set up during single phase


switching, as a length of HV cable provides a
capacitance while a transformer provides inductance.

6.6.1 Precautions
Wherever possible avoid switching underground cable
connected transformer installations on single-phase
devices eg pole mounted fuses or Hazemeyer Magnefix
switchgear, etc.

High voltages across the single-phase devices may


exist whilst switching is in progress to energise or de-

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energise an unloaded transformer connected to an
underground cable.

6.6.1.1 Where Single Phase Switching Devices have to be


Used

The following is a guide to where single-phase devices


are to be used and there may be ferroresonance
conditions created.

Switch from a point close to, and preferably at, the


transformer first and then, when necessary, carry out
switching at more remote points.

If necessary, switching may be able to be carried out on


the nearest three-phase switch and the single-phase
devices operated only while de-energised.

If more than 30 metres of HV cable has to be switched


with the transformer, where possible ensure that some
resistive (heating) load is connected on all three LV
phases of the transformer. Depending on the length of
cable a load of approximately 5 to 10% is required.

6.6.1.2 Recommended Values

The following table shows commonly used combinations


of cables and transformers. Isolation or breaking of
load currents may be performed on single-phase
devices where the cable length, as shown in Table 2, is
not exceeded.

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Table 2: Ferroresonance cable length
Ferroresonance –
Energising or de-energising load
Transf. Max
Rating Voltage Cable size length
(kVA) (metres)
300 11kV 95mm² 16
500 11kV 95mm² 30
500 11kV 240mm² 25
750 11kV 95mm² 45
500 22kV 50mm² 7
750 22kV 50mm² 10

6.7 Single Phasing

6.7.1 General
Overhead transformer and high voltage fuses are not
normally fitted with ‘trip all-phases devices’ to trip the
three phases when one or more fuses blow.

This means that if one phase fuse blows, a transformer


will remain energised from the other two phases. This
condition is known as single phasing.

The result is low and unbalanced voltage on the low


voltage side of the transformers and damage may be
caused to customer's motors or other equipment where
the customer has not protected against this. A ‘single
phasing’ condition must therefore be removed as soon
as possible.

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6.7.2 Overhead Devices
Single-phase conditions can be removed by:

1. Opening of a series connected ganged isolator or


line recloser if the connected capacity is
excessive or if a ferroresonance condition may
exist; or
2. Draw the remaining fuses (if conditions above do
not exist).

6.7.3 Ground Mounted Devices


Hazemeyer-MD4 switch-fuses are not fitted with trip-all-
phases devices to trip out the switch when one or more
fuses blow. This will cause single phasing.

6.8 Intertripping
Sometimes it is necessary for more than one circuit
breaker or switch-fuse to trip when faults occur in
certain circumstances or in certain positions in the
distribution system.

The Operator must know if this facility is used in the


Operator’s area and where the intertrip may be switched
off.

The intertrip must be switched off if only one of the


circuit breakers or switch-fuses is to be opened for any
reason, otherwise the others will open when the first is
opened. It is also important that the intertrip is switched
back into service after all circuit breakers or switch-
fuses are restored to their normally closed position.

Intertripping may be achieved by two different methods:

1. Intertripping via protection relays; and


2. Intertripping via circuit breaker/switch status
auxiliary switch.

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6.8.1 Intertripping via Protection Relays
In some situations, a fault-detecting relay is used to trip
more than one circuit breaker, either directly or via
auxiliary relays usually employing a DC trip supply. The
circuit breakers concerned are normally in different
substations. Operators must be aware if the facility is
used in their area and, when faults and trippings occur,
must check all circuit breakers involved in the
intertripping arrangement.

For normal switching operations, no additional


precautions are necessary as the operation of one
circuit breaker will have no effect on the others.

6.8.2 Intertripping via Circuit Breaker/Switch


Status Auxiliary Switch
The other intertripping method used employs auxiliary
switches in a circuit breaker or switch-fuse to directly
trip one or more neighbouring devices, usually within
the one substation.

These auxiliary switches are mechanically operated by


the movement of the circuit breaker or switch-fuse. They
close when the circuit breaker or switch-fuse opens.

The auxiliary switch then connects an AC or a DC trip


supply to the trip coils of the other devices involved. A
further simple on-off switch is provided in order that the
intertripping facility can be removed from service when
required.

6.9 Protection Alterations for Work on or in the


Vicinity of Live HV Assets
Where work activities necessitates altering the normal
setting of feeder circuit breaker or line recloser Sensitive
Earth Fault (SEF), Live Line, and Auto Reclose (A/R)
protection, the following is to be adopted.

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Notes:

‘Live Line Setting’ switches the substation circuit


breaker protection auto-reclosing facility to one (1) trip-
to-lockout and sets the tripping time for overcurrent,
earth and sensitive earth faults to a fast setting. (i.e.
reduces the time to trip)

‘Work Tag Setting’ is the same as ‘Live Line Setting’


when applied to a Nulec pole-mounted recloser

Examples of Line work where protection alteration is


required includes:

 Live HV Line Work;


 Running LV conductor under live HV;
 Erecting pole near live HV; and
 Close-vicinity vegetation management work.

Any alterations to protection settings shall be performed


by an Operator

SUBSTATION NULEC OYT / ESR


CB RECLOSER RECLOSER

Worksite A Worksite B Worksite C

SUBSTATION OYT / ESR


CB RECLOSER

Worksite D Worksite E

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6.9.1 Alteration of Protection Settings
6.9.1.1 Worksite A:

Substation Circuit Breaker:

 Set the substation circuit breaker protection to


‘Live Line Setting’.

If the substation circuit breaker protection does not have


a ‘Live Line Setting’ then:

 Set the substation circuit breaker Sensitive Earth


Fault (SEF) relay to the ‘Instantaneous’ mode;
and
 Set the substation circuit breaker Auto-reclosing
facility to ‘One (1) Trip-To-Lockout’.

6.9.1.2 Worksite B:

Nulec Recloser:

 Set the Nulec Recloser protection setting to ‘Work


Tag Setting’.

6.9.1.3 Worksite C:

OYT Recloser:

 Set the OYT Recloser protection Auto-reclosing


facility to ‘One (1) Trip-To-Lockout’.

AND

Nulec Recloser:

 Set the Nulec Recloser protection setting to ‘Work


Tag Setting’.

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6.9.1.4 Worksite D:

Substation Circuit Breaker:

 Set the substation circuit breaker protection to


‘Live Line Setting’.

If the substation circuit breaker protection does not have


a ‘Live Line Setting’, then:

 Set the substation circuit breaker Sensitive Earth


Fault (SEF) relay to the ‘Instantaneous’ mode and
 Set the substation circuit breaker Auto-reclosing
facility to ‘One (1) Trip-To-Lockout’.

6.9.1.5 Worksite E:

OYT /Recloser:

 Set the OYT Recloser protection Auto-reclosing


facility to ‘One (1) Trip-To-Lockout’.

AND

Substation Circuit Breaker:

 Set the substation circuit breaker protection to


‘Live Line Setting’.

If the substation circuit breaker protection does not have


a ‘Live Line Setting’, then:

 Set the substation circuit breaker Sensitive Earth


Fault (SEF) relay to the ‘Instantaneous’ mode

6.9.2 Period of Setting


The setting of these facilities is to be conducted in a
prudent manner. Where these settings are maintained
for extended periods, the possibility of lock-outs place
System Reliability at risk. This activity can clearly cause
widespread interruption should a transient fault occur

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and the extent of time engaged in such fashion should
be limited.

Wherever possible the alteration of any protection for


Live Line work is to be conducted as soon as
practicable PRIOR to the close proximity work. The
protection is to be returned to normal as soon as
practicable once the work has finished.

For vegetation work it is acceptable to set Auto-Reclose


facilities for planned work at the commencement of the
working day. Vegetation crews need to confirm this has
been set prior to commencing their work, and must call
Distribution Control as soon as their work on that feeder
is completed.

6.9.3 Requests
The work party leader must ensure that permission to
commence work is obtained from the Distribution
Control prior to commencement and provide immediate
advice when the work is completed.

6.9.4 Notice
A suitable entry advising, ‘live-line work is in progress’,
shall be logged in the control room.

6.9.5 Completion of Work


On completion of work protection is to be returned to its
normal setting.

7. SWITCHING SHEETS

7.1 General
Switching Sheets are required for all High and Low
Voltage switching on Aurora’s Distribution Network.

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Details of when required and exceptions are outlined in
the Power System Safety Rules (PSSR).

Service and street light work are generally exempt from


Switching Sheets. Where service or LV phasing or
phase rotation is affected by switching items on the LV
distribution network then embedded notes or items shall
be added to ensure correct phasing and rotation. For
example, where an LV open point that does not phase
out is moved.

Removal of service fuses for guarding against back


feeds is not normally included on a switching sheet.

The intent of a Switching Sheet is to provide as much


information possible for an Operator to operate the
correct device in the correct sequence maintaining
system and switchgear integrity and provide an
understanding of the consequence of the operation.

7.2 Authorisation
Persons who compile/prepare or check Switching
Sheets must have undertaken appropriate training and
be authorised by Operating Standards as a Distribution
Operator. Operators shall only prepare and check
Switching Sheets that involve devices that they are
authorised to operate. Distribution Control DC
Operators are authorised to prepare and check
switching sheets for all device types.

This does not preclude persons in training preparing a


switching sheet and having it co-signed by an
Authorised Operator.

7.3 Request to Access the Distribution System


(RADS)
Permissions for all planned switching sheets shall be
generated using the online Request to Access the
Distribution System (RADS) tool. The RADS tool is the

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 40 of 113


responsibility of Distribution Control and includes
timelines for the creation and actioning of all planned
switching sheets.

7.4 Operator in Charge


It is necessary for the overall control of switching sheet
operations to be controlled by one person. This person
shall be known as the Operator In Charge and is
responsible for ensuring authorised persons complete
all items in the correct sequence. The Operator in
Charge may also be an Operator involved in the
switching. The Operator In Charge shall be clearly
identified on page one of all copies of all switching
sheets.

Where there are multiple operating parties and the


Operator in Charge delegates the actioning to other
Operators, they must ensure the other Operator has a
copy of the switching sheet and must enter a time
against each switching item prior to actioning or
delegating the next item.

7.5 Authorised Operators


Authorised Operators are to operate only equipment
and devices that they are authorised to operate.

7.6 Unplanned Switching Sheets


Unplanned Switching Sheets are, in principle, prepared
as for normal planned operation work. The main
difference is that due to the unknown nature of faults,
the Switching Sheet items may be prepared and
consequent actions conducted one at a time.

Distribution Control is responsible for preparing all


unplanned Switching Sheets in the standard format.
Preparation and checking may be delegated to field
Operators if Distribution Control has received a copy of
and approved the switching sheet prior to actioning.

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The Operator will verify its correctness by reference to
system diagrams and onsite inspection. If a Generic
Switching Sheet is fit for purpose then Distribution
Control may approve the use providing it is prepared
and checked by two Authorised Operators, one of which
may be from Distribution Control.

Permission to commence must be received from


Distribution Control for all Switching Sheets.

The Distribution Control Operator shall be the Operator


in Charge unless responsibility has been delegated to
another Operator.

Operators are permitted to execute any appropriate


switching operation to remove an existing or potential
hazard to life or property provided that such action is
reported to Distribution Control as soon as possible.

Where an Access Authority is issued as a consequence


of a non-generic unplanned Switching Sheet then the
isolation and earthing content of the switching shall be
checked by an Authorised Operator, field or Distribution
Controller other than the person who prepared.

7.7 Oral Instructions


An Operator receiving the oral instruction must write it
down and confirm by reading it back to the Operator in
Charge before carrying out the switching operation.

7.8 Embedded Notes


Embedded notes may be added where additional
information assists the Operator to understand system,
service or customer requirements relating to single or
multiple items. Such notes must be on the same page
and prior to the first related item. All embedded notes
shall be formatted the same as the following items 1
and 2 to include an item number and time column.

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SWITCHGEAR
ITEM STATION No.
EQUIPMENT OPERATOR OPERATION REMARKS TIME
No. AND NAME
NAME/LETTER

1. Approval to commence Switching Sheet given by


___________________________________________________ of Distribution Control

2. Customers have been notified of outages, confirmed by:


_____________________________

3. C123 Pole 11kV Links Close Rings


2 Smith Feeder
Street 51-001

4. C456 Pole 11kV Links Open Breaks


12 Green ring
Street Feeder
51-001

Any actions that must be done as part of the switching


sequence shall be identified as a switching item.

7.9 General Principles for Preparing and


Checking of Switching Sheets
1. The Switching Sheet shall have its own unique
number on each page of the switching sheet;
2. The objective of the Switching Sheet must be
clearly defined within the description;
3. Only approved abbreviations from PSSR shall be
used within Switching Sheets headers;
4. When using more than one sheet for an operating
objective eg. Page 1 of 2 and Page 2 of 2 cross
referencing must be used;
5. The Switching Sheet shall include confirmation of
permission to start from Distribution Control as
item 1 as an embedded note, if required;
6. The Switching Sheet shall include confirmation of
customer notification as item 2 as an embedded
note if required;
7. A separate Switching Sheet shall be prepared for
each objective;
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 43 of 113
8. All devices/equipment must be identified by
Station Number and Name, Device Type/Number
and Label;
9. Where the operation of a device is by remote
control/SCADA, the Operator shall be identified
on the Switching in the Operator column;
10. The Switching Sheet must be checked against
the latest versions of schematics and asset
records when used;
11. Switching Sheet shall include approved
terminology, where applicable;
12. The switching sequence shall be arranged with
safety of the Operator in mind;
13. The switching sequence shall satisfy device
capability;
14. The switching sequence shall satisfy system
capability;
15. The switching sheet shall include confirmation of
any required pre-commissioning tests or checks;
16. The switching sequence shall allow for transfer of
load such that minimum interruption of supply
occurs;
17. Concurrent switching items shall have an
identifying embedded note at the start of and at
the end of the concurrent items;
18. Isolation items shall be identified by entering
‘Isolation Point – Apply DO NOT OPERATE Tag’
in the remarks column;
19. Where devices require a specific action for
isolation after opening to ensure against
inadvertent closing, such as locking out a RL27
load break switch. All such actions shall be
described as a switching item;
20. Earthing items shall be highlighted;
21. All items shall be legible and clearly defined;

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22. All switching sheet pages shall be signed by the
person who prepares and checks prior to
approval. Generic switching sheet are an
exception as they are approved for use prior to.
The intent is for the signature to clearly identify
the person signing, where the signature does not
achieve this then the person must print their
name prior in addition to signing. Electronic
signatures are acceptable for the preparer;
23. All items shall be checked for accuracy and
completeness before each page is signed;
24. The Operator who signs as prepared cannot sign
as checked;
25. The end of a switching sequence shall be clearly
defined, ruled off for pad format or end statement
for electronic format; and
26. The consequence of the switching items shall be
described in the remarks column.

7.10 Approval
Distribution Control must approve all Switching Sheets.
In some cases where a switching is prepared in the field
from information not available to Distribution Control
then approval is assuming that the information from the
field is correct. For example, low voltage circuit detail.

Generic Switching sheets are approved prior to


preparation.

7.11 General Principles for Actioning of


Switching Sheets
1. Only Operators authorised for the devices
concerned will perform the operations, this does
not preclude trainee Operators operating under
the direct supervision of an Authorised Operator;
2. The Operator In Charge must check to ensure the
switching is appropriate prior to commencement;

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3. There must be a time inserted for each item prior
to actioning the next item;
4. For all operating other than Distribution Control,
immediately prior to actioning a switching item, it
must be confirmed that the device to be operated
corresponds to the information on the switching
sheet by the Operator and a second person.
Each person shall initial each item before
actioning the next. The second person is not
required where other approved control measures
are in place;
5. When taking over a partly-actioned Switching
Sheet, the contents must be fully understood
before continuing;
6. Where a Switching Sheet has an Access
Authority or Apparatus Interface Statements
involved, the document number and name of the
person it is issued to must be passed to
Distribution Control for entry into the Daily Log;
7. Switching Sheet start, stop and completion times
must be entered into the Daily Log;
8. Distribution Control must hand address any
schematic changes as soon as possible after the
completion of a Switching Sheet; and
9. DO NOT OPERATE tag shall only be removed by
an Authorised Operator actioning a switching
sheet corresponding to the detail on the tag.
Where a tag has not been removed and found
later then it may only be removed by an
Authorised Operator with permission from
Distribution Control.

7.12 Switching Sequence


The switching sequence must be followed exactly in all
cases unless concurrent items have been identified on
the Switching Sheet.

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Concurrent Items are items that are identified, grouped
together and may be completed in any order. The intent
is to only make items concurrent when they are of a
similar nature. It is permissible to carry out items
concurrently as long as such switching does not
compromise the safety of the system or operating
personnel. The concurrent items shall be identified on
the switching sheet at the start and at the end of each
concurrent sequence by an embedded note.
SWITCHGEAR
ITEM STATION No.
EQUIPMENT OPERATOR OPERATION REMARKS TIME
No. AND NAME
NAME/LETTER

5. Items 6,7,8 can be done concurrently

6. LV links Close

7. LV links Close

8. LV links Close

9. Confirm items 6,7,8 have been completed

10. Items 11,12,13 can be done concurrently


11kV Ganged Isolation
11. Isolator Open Point
Apply DO
NOT
OPERATE
tag
11kV Ganged Isolation
12. Isolator Open Point
Apply DO
NOT
OPERATE
tag
11kV Ganged Isolation
13. Isolator Open Point
Apply DO
NOT
OPERATE
tag
14. Confirm items 11,12,13 have been completed

15. Items 16,17,18 can be done concurrently

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SWITCHGEAR
ITEM STATION No.
EQUIPMENT OPERATOR OPERATION REMARKS TIME
No. AND NAME
NAME/LETTER
11kV Overhead Prove De-
16. Conductors energised
and Earth
11kV Overhead Prove De-
17. Conductors energised
and Earth
11kV Overhead Prove De-
18. Conductors energised
and Earth
19. Confirm items 16,17,18 have been completed

7.13 Alterations
If a switching sheet has to be altered in any way then
approval must be given by Distribution Control. Any
alterations or error must be initialled and clearly ruled
out with a single line. Correction tapes or fluids must
not be used.

Where approval to change the operating sequence is


granted by Distribution Control, the Switching Sheet
must be amended, checked and re-authorised before
work resuming. Re-countersigning is the normal
method of re-authorising the Switching Sheet.
Switching must not commence on an altered Switching
Sheet until the alterations have been initialled by an
Authorised Operator. The alteration must be checked
by an Authorised Operator with appropriate knowledge
and not be the person amending.

Where a field Operator is involved the field Operator


shall record the name of the Distribution Control
approving officer on the Switching Sheet. The
Distribution Control approving officer shall record the
name of the field Operator on the Switching Sheet.

The altered switching sheet shall be clearly identified by


some means of version control to ensure the correct
switching is being actioned. Where there are multiple
field copies of a switching sheet all participating
Operators must be made aware of the alterations by the
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 48 of 113
Operator in Charge. Those Operators actioning altered
items must have the changes recorded on their copy as
above.

7.14 Do Not Operate Tags


Where an open point has been checked open and a DO
NOT OPERATE tag fitted then there must be a
corresponding item on the switching sheet to remove
the tag.

7.15 Earthing
All earthing items shall be highlighted.

There shall be a separate item for each set of earths


applied or earthing device operated.

Where Earth Switches are operated they shall be


identified in the SWTCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
NAME/LETTER column as Earth Switches with a prefix
of their operating voltage and followed by the device
number and cubicle label in inverted commas.

Where Earth Switches are being closed then there shall


be a separate switching item for proving de-energised
immediately prior to the closing item.

Where portable earths are being installed then proving


de-energised and the application of the earths shall be
described within the one switching item. For example,
‘Prove De-Energised and Earth’.

‘Apply DO NOT OPERATE tag’ must be entered in the


remarks column when appropriate.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 49 of 113


7.16 Removable or Rackable Switch or Circuit
Breaker Carriages
If a removable or rackable switch or circuit breaker
carriage is racked or moved then each action must be
shown as a switching item.

7.17 Switchgear Maintenance


If the objective of a switching sheet is switchgear
maintenance then the switching sheet shall include all
items necessary to access the switchgear to be
maintained. That is, if the switchgear mechanism needs
to be racked down and withdrawn from its cubicle then
the switching sheet shall describe every movement of
such mechanisms.

7.18 Removal of Switchgear Carriages Exposing


Live HV Conductors or Busbar Shutters
If HV conductors have been exposed and are
accessible as a consequence of a switching item then
additional items must immediately follow to ensure the
conductors are covered. For example, if a RGB24 line
switch is removed and the bus remains live then an item
must be included to fit a blank or covering device
immediately. Locks and tags must be placed to prevent
access to exposed Bus Bar Shutters and cable spouts
that remain live.

7.19 Standard Format


The following formats shall be used for all planned and
unplanned Switching.

1. The standard format generated by Distribution


Control’s Switching writing program.
2. Page 1 and 2 in pad format available from stores.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 50 of 113


Any other formats used shall be approved by
Distribution Control prior to use.

The following describes the minimum information


required on the header of page 1 of all switching sheets:
DATE Commencement date of the
Switching Sheet
ADVERTISED Times advertised to affected
TIMES customers
PERMIT TIMES Times access authorities are
required
NUMBER A unique number issued by
Distribution Control
COMMENCE TIME Planned commence time
WORK LOCATION/ Location of switching followed by
DESCRIPTION a clear description of its objective
WORK GROUP The work group that the switching
is being performed for
OPERATOR IN Name of Operator In Charge
CHARGE
OTHER Name of other Operators involved
OPERATORS

The following describes the information required within


the seven columns of the switching sheet body:

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 51 of 113


ITEM NO The first item shall be number 1
with all following items numbered
sequentially. Note: Items 1 & 2
will be permission to commence
and customer notification
confirmation where required.
STATION No. AND Description of where the device
NAME to be operated is located. Where
the device has a unique control
station number then it must be
used followed by the address or
pole location. Pole locations
must include Pole number and
Street name. The six digit ID
number may be used but is not
mandatory. For locations without
a control station number then the
identifying number, if available,
and address must be used.
Where the device to be operated
is within a building type or ground
mounted substation then the
station number and name must
be included in full, no
abbreviations.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 52 of 113


SWITCHGEAR Description of voltage and device
EQUIPMENT to be operated. The operating
NAME/LETTER: voltage must always be entered
first followed by the device
description. Eg; 11kV Ganged
Isolator, 11kV Fuses, 11kV Line
Switch, 22kV Earth Switch, and
22kV Circuit Breaker.
Where a Substation device #
exists they shall be included after
the device description.
If the device has an identifying
label then it must be included in
inverted commas following the
device description. The
information within the inverted
commas must reflect exactly what
exists on the device label. Eg;
11kV Circuit Breaker ‘A-
University No. 1 Substation’
OPERATOR: Operators name. For remotely
operated items then the
responsible control room’s name
shall be entered during switching
preparation. For local operations
then this column shall be left
blank. Field Operators shall be
identified using this column when
actioning.
OPERATION: Describes required operations.
Eg; OPEN or CLOSE etc.
REMARKS: Describes the consequence of
the operation and additional
relevant remarks.
TIME: Time when item was actioned

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 53 of 113


7.20 Switching Sheet Approved Terminology
Switching Sheets shall include, where appropriate, but
not limited to the following table of descriptors. Refer
PSSR attachment F for approved abbreviations.
SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER
??V Miniature Circuit Breaker Adjust to ?? kV Across Fuses
??kV Auto-Reclose Protection Adjust to Across Ganged Isolator
??kV Bus Section Circuit AUTOMATIC Across Links
Breaker Control Breaks ring in feeder ??
??kV Bus Bar Shutters Adjust to LOCAL Breaks Ring in LV Circuit
??kV Bypass Ganged Isolator Control Confirm Volts Greater Than
??kV Cable Adjust to MANUAL 230 volts
??kV Cable Links Control Connect to Overhead Line
??kV Capacitor Bank Adjust to REMOTE De-energises HV Cable
??kV Circuit Breaker Control De-energises HV
??kV Earth Fault Protection Adjust to NEUTRAL Conductors
??kV Earth Switch Tap Earthing Point
??kV Feeder Check & Record Earths cable
??kV Fuses Loads Energises HV Cable
??kV Ganged Isolator Check & Record Energises HV Conductors
??kV Incoming Ganged Isolator Phase Rotation Energises Regulator
??kV Incoming Links Check & Record From Overhead
??kV Isolator Phasing Conductors
??kV Line Switch Check & Record If correct, then:
??kV Links Position If the same as Previously
??kV Live Line Clamps Check & Record Recorded, then:
??kV Load Break Switch Voltages Interrupts ??? kVA
Lockout Lever Check CLOSED Isolates HV Cable
??kV Loops Check Earths Isolates HV Conductors
??kV Midspan Fuse/Links Applied Isolation Point Apply DO
??kV Outgoing Ganged Isolator Check Earths NOT OPERATE tag
??kV Outgoing Links Removed Remove DO NOT
??kV Overhead Conductors Check INSERTED OPERATE tag
??kV Recloser Check OPEN Lock in CLOSED position
??kV Recloser Protection Check REMOVED Parallels feeders ?? and ??
??kV Recloser TRIP & CLOSE Close Parallels transformers
Toggle Switches Confirm in DELAY Phase --> N ______ Volts
??kV Regulator Mode Restores ??? kVA
??kV Regulator Tapchanger Confirm on Restores Supply
??kV Sectionaliser AUTOMATIC Rings feeder ??
??kV Sensitive Earth Fault Control Rings LV Circuit
Protection Confirm on LOCAL RN______ CN______
??kV Switch Control PN______
??kV Switch Fuse Confirm on RN______ WN______
??kV Switch Caps MANUAL BN______
??kV Three Phase Switch caps Control Tap _____ /
??kV Temporary Ganged Confirm on __________Volts
Isolator REMOTE To Overhead Conductors

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 54 of 113


SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER
??kV Transformer Droppers Control To Suit Transformer Rating
??kV Transformer Intertrip Confirm NEUTRAL Unparallels feeders ?? and
??kV Transformer Tapchanger Tap ??
Control Selector Switch Confirm PASSED Unparallels transformers
LV Board Connect MGU &
LV Bus Bars Supply Load
LV Bus Section Links Connect to
LV Cable Overhead
LV Cable Links Conductors
LV Circuit Breaker Discharge
LV Conductors Disconnect from
LV Midspan Fuse/Links Overhead
LV Fuses Conductors
LV Links Disconnect MGU
LV Loops Insert
LV Switch Insert Fuses
LV Transformer Fuses Install cubicle
LV Transformer Link/Fuses maintenance
LV Transformer Terminals cover
Transformer No. ? LV Circuit Lock in CLOSED
Breaker position
Transformer No. ? LV Links Make Ready for
Service
Open
Phase Out
Prove De-energised
Prove De-Energised
and Close
Prove De-Energised
and Earth
Pull DOWN
Push UP
Rack to Isolated
position
Rack to Isolated
position and
Remove
Rack to Service
position
Insert and Rack to
Service position
Remove
Remove Earths
Remove cubicle
maintenance
cover
Remove Fuses
Select AUTO
RECLOSE
Select

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 55 of 113


SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER
Instantaneous
Select One TRIP
TO LOCKOUT
Select TIME DELAY
Short OUT
Switch Earth Fault
Protection OFF
Switch Earth Fault
Protection ON
Switch IN to Service
Switch OFF
Switch ON
Switch OUT of
Service
Switch Protection IN
Switch Protection
OUT
Switch Sectionaliser
OFF
Switch Sectionaliser
ON
Unlock

7.21 Terminology Examples

Nulec RL27 Load Break Switch


SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER

11kV Load Break Switch Open Interrupts ???kVA


11kV Load Break Switch Close Restores ???kVA
?? Kv Load Break Switch Remove DO NOT
Push UP
Lockout Lever OPERATE tag
Isolation Point
?? Kv Load Break Switch
Pull DOWN Apply DO NOT
Lockout Lever
OPERATE tag

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 56 of 113


Reyrolle LMT and EE OLX isolate and earth cable
SWITCHGEAR
EQUIPMENT OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER
11kV Circuit Breaker ’Label’ Open De-energises HV Cable
11kV Circuit Breaker ’Label’ Close Energises HV Cable
Rack to Isolated
11kV Circuit Breaker ‘Label’
position
Rack to Isolated
11kV Circuit Breaker ‘Label’ position and
Remove
Insert and Rack
11kV Circuit Breaker ‘Label’ to Feeder Earth
position
Insert and Rack
11kV Circuit Breaker ‘Label’ to Service
position
Lock in
11kV Busbar Shutters
CLOSED
‘Label’
position
11kV Busbar Shutters
Unlock
‘Label’
Prove De-
11kV Cable ‘Label’
energised
Apply DO NOT
11kV Earth Switch ‘Label’ Open
OPERATE tag
Apply DO NOT
11kV Earth Switch ‘Label’ Close
OPERATE tag

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 57 of 113


Schneider RM6 and equivalent
SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER

De-energises HV Cable
Isolation Point
11kV Line Switch ‘Label’ Open
Apply DO NOT
OPERATE tag
11kV Line Switch ‘Label’ Close Energises HV Cable
Prove De-
11kV Cable ‘Label’
energised
Apply DO NOT
11kV Earth Switch ‘Label’ Close
OPERATE tag
Remove DO NOT
11kV Earth Switch ‘Label’ Open
OPERATE tag

Brown Boveri RGB 12/24


SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER

11kV Line Switch ‘Label’ Open De-energises HV Cable


11kV Line Switch ‘Label’ Close Energises HV Cable
Isolation Point
Rack to Isolated
11kV Line Switch ‘Label’ Apply DO NOT
position
OPERATE tag
Rack to Isolated Isolation Point
11kV Line Switch ‘Label’ position and Apply DO NOT
Remove OPERATE tag
Install Cubicle
11kV Cable ‘Label’ Maintenance
Cover
Remove Cubicle
11kV Cable ‘Label’ Maintenance
Cover
Install Bus Bar
11kV Cable ‘Label’
Cover
Remove Bus
11kV Cable ‘Label’
Bar Cover
Prove De-
11kV Cable ‘Label’ energised and
Earth
11kV Cable ‘Label’ Remove Earths

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 58 of 113


11kV Switchgear Cambridge Zone ABB D4
SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER

11kV Feeder Circuit Breaker


Open De-energises HV Cable
Device # ‘Label’
11kV Feeder Circuit Breaker
Close Energises HV Cable
Device # ‘Label’
11kV Transformer Circuit
Open
Breaker Device # ‘Label’
11kV Transformer Circuit
Close
Breaker Device # ‘Label’
11kV Bus Tie Circuit
Open
Breaker Device # ‘Label’
11kV Bis Tie Circuit Breaker
Close
Device # ‘Label’
Isolation Point
11kV Feeder Circuit Breaker Rack to Isolated
Apply DO NOT
Device # ‘Label’ position
OPERATE tag
11kV Feeder Circuit Breaker Rack to Service Remove DO NOT
Device # ‘Label’ position OPERATE tag
Prove De-
11kV Cable ‘Label’
energised
Apply DO NOT
11kV Earth Switch ‘Label’ Close
OPERATE tag
Remove DO NOT
11kV Earth Switch ‘Label’ Open
OPERATE tag

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 59 of 113


Hazemeyer Magnefix MD4
SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
OPERATION REMARKS
NAME/LETTER

De-energises HV Cable
Isolation Point
11kV Switchcaps ‘Label’ Remove
Apply DO NOT
OPERATE tag
Energises HV Cable
11kV Switchcaps ‘Label’ Insert Remove DO NOT
OPERATE tag
De-energises HV Cable
11kV Three Phase Isolation Point
Remove
Switchcaps ‘Label’ Apply DO NOT
OPERATE tag
Energises HV Cable
11kV Three Phase
Insert Remove DO NOT
Switchcaps ‘Label’
OPERATE tag
Prove De-
11kV Cable ‘Label’ energised and
Earth
11kV Cable ‘Label’ Remove Earths
Install Access
11kV Switchcaps ‘Label’
Cover and Lock
Remove Access
11kV Switchcaps ‘Label’
Cover

7.22 Retention of Documents


All field copies of completed Switching Sheets and
associated Access Authorities shall be returned to
Operating Standards within two weeks of completion.

7.23 Generic Switching Sheets

7.23.1 Discussion
Generic Switching Sheets have been created so that
Field Operators can prepare and check Switching
Sheets using standard templates. The use and
suitability of these templates are to be approved by
Distribution Control.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 60 of 113


It is intended that Generic Switching Sheets will be
available for simple common tasks that are performed
on a regular basis. They will not include Low Voltage
parallels or manipulation of high voltage feeder trunks
where interconnection is possible. Where
reconductoring is being performed, generic switching
sheets shall not be used.

7.23.2 Approval
The use of and suitability of a Generic Switching Sheet
must be agreed to and approved for use by Distribution
Control at the time of RADS submission.

7.23.3 Preparation
All Generic Switching Sheets are to be prepared by an
Operator authorised for the apparatus involved or a
Distribution Controller. All items, other than those
deleted, must have all appropriate control station,
switchgear and operation detail completed prior to being
checked. The preparer must print and sign their name
on all pages prior to the switching being checked.

7.23.4 Checking
All Generic Switching Sheets are to be checked by an
Operator authorised for the apparatus involved or a
Distribution Controller, but not the preparer. The
checker must print and sign his or her name on all
pages prior to the switching being commenced.

7.23.5 Items or Access Authorities Not Required


When an Item or Access Authority is not required, it
must be clearly ruled out with one line through all
columns including the time and initialled by the
preparing person.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 61 of 113


7.23.6 Additional Items Required
Additional Items must not be added to a Generic
Switching Sheet. If a Generic Switching Sheet cannot
achieve the desired objective without additional items
being added, then another switching sheet shall be
prepared in accordance with this procedure.

7.23.7 Use of Multiple Generic Switching Sheets


Multiple Generic Switching Sheets must not be used in
conjunction with one another to achieve one objective.
If a single Generic Switching is not fit for purpose then
another Switching Sheet shall be prepared in
accordance with this procedure.

7.23.8 Format
All Generic Switching Sheets are available in a PDF
format that will allow printing only. This is to ensure the
format and content remains consistent and accurate.

7.23.9 Available Generic Switching Sheets


Note: A PDF file of each Generic Switching Sheet can
be downloaded from the Operating Standards Intranet
Web Site.

http://thevolt/divisions/network/Dist_Ops_Stds/default.as
px

1. Transformer replacement with top of high voltage


fuses remaining live
2. Transformer replacement with fuses
disconnected via live line clamps
3. Transformer replacement with fuses
disconnected using Live Line Crew
4. Transformer tap change
5. Spur isolation
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 62 of 113
6. Replace spur fuse carriers with fuses
disconnected using Live Line Crew
7. Replace spur fuse carriers with fuses
disconnected via Live Line Clamps
8. Install 1 transformer on spur
9. Install 2 transformer on spur
10. Isolate spur and replace 1 transformer
11. Overhead low voltage Isolation
12. Isolate three phase regulator
13. Commission low voltage underground cable
14. Isolate Tee Off with two Transformers via Live
Line Clamps and Install Transformer
15. Isolate Tee Off with two Transformers via Live
Line Clamps and replace Pole
16. Commission O/H Transformer
17. Commission LV Underground Cable Extension
18. Isolate spur with up to 3 transformers via live line
19. Commission spur without spur fuses with up to 3
transformer via live line
20. Commission spur with spur fuses with up to 3
transformer via live line
21. Extend HV spur from a transformer pole and
commission up to 2 transformers
22. Commission Spur with Spur Fuses with up to
three transformers via Live Line Clamps
23. Ground Mounted Transformer Tap Change with
LV Links
24. Ground Mounted Transformer Tap Change with
LV CB

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 63 of 113


7.23.10 User Guide
7.23.10.1 Generic Switching 1, 2 and 3

To be used for replacing overhead transformers where


there is no LV interconnection. In sheet 1 the top of the
HV fuses remain live therefore the fuses are the
‘Isolation Point’ and cannot be worked on. The
transformer droppers cannot be disconnected.

If the droppers need to be replaced or disconnected


then sheet 2 or 3 must be used. These will allow
disconnection of the fuses from the overhead mains via
live line clamps using sheet 2 or live line crew using
sheet 3.

7.23.10.2 Generic Switching 4

To be used for changing transformer tap position.

7.23.10.3 Generic Switching 5

To be used for completing simple tasks on a spur where


connections are not broken and phasing checks are not
required. Suitable for replacing pin pole, vegetation
cutting, replace conductor tie or replace crossarm.

7.23.10.4 Generic Switching 6 and 7

To be used for replacing single phase spur fuses or


three phase spur fuses where it is impossible to alter
the phase connections. If the connections between the
overhead conductors and the fuses are to be replaced
then these will not suit, as there are no phase rotation
checks.

7.23.10.5 Generic Switching 8 and 9

To be used for installing one or two new single or three


phase transformers on a spur with no low voltage
interconnection.

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7.23.10.6 Generic Switching 10

To be used for replacing one single or three phase


transformer on a spur with no low voltage
interconnection.

7.23.10.7 Generic Switching 11

For low voltage isolation of up to two circuits with up to


four associated normally open points.

7.23.10.8 Generic Switching 12

For the isolation of a Ground Mounted three phase


regulator. NOT for single phase Cooper’s regulators.

7.23.10.9 Generic Switching 13

Used to commission a new low voltage cable with no


interconnection. Would typically be a LV cable
providing a point of attachment for customer
connections.

7.23.10.10 Generic Switching 14

To commission a new single or three phase transformer


on a tee off which is connected by live line clamps and
has up to two transformers already connected. Not
suitable if there is any LV interconnection on new
transformer.

7.23.10.11 Generic Switching 15

To replace pole, without breaking connections, on a tee


off which is connected by live line clamps and has up to
two transformers already connected.

7.23.10.12 Generic Switching 16

To commission a new overhead transformer connected


to the overhead mains via live line clamps. Could be

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 65 of 113


used when live line connect the fuses to the overhead
mains the commission transformer.

7.23.10.13 Generic Switching 17

Used to commission a low voltage underground cable


extension supplied from a pole or substation with no
interconnections. Items 1 or 2 should be used but not
both.

7.23.10.14 Generic Switching 18

To isolate a tee off using live line procedures and


complete simple tasks where connections are not
broken and phasing checks are not required. OK for
replacing pin pole, vegetation cutting, replace conductor
tie or replace crossarm.

7.23.10.15 Generic Switching 19 and 20

Used for live line to commission new high voltage tee off
or spur with or without spur fuses with up to three single
or three phase transformers.

7.23.10.16 Generic Switching 21

Used to extend a high voltage spur from a transformer


pole and commission up to two single or three phase
transformers.

7.23.10.17 Generic Switching 22

Used for non-Live Line Crews to commission a HV spur


with up to three transformers where a Live Line Crew
has installed the spur fuses with live line clamps.

7.23.10.18 Generic Switching 23

Used to adjust transformer tap on ground mounted


transformer where transformer is fitted with LV isolating

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 66 of 113


links. Not suitable when low voltage parallels are used
to maintain supply.

7.23.10.19 Generic Switching 24

Used to adjust transformer tap on ground mounted


transformer where transformer is fitted with a LV Circuit
Breaker. Not suitable when low voltage parallels are
used to maintain supply.

7.23.11 Request for Change or Addition to Generic


Switching Sheets
Change requests to be emailed to Aurora Energy
Operating Standards at:

operating.standards@auroraenergy.com.au

for consideration

8. ISOLATING HV CONDUCTORS OR
APPARATUS
The Power System Safety Rules states that apparatus
shall be Isolated by the use of an approved method.
The following describes minimum approved isolation
methods.

8.1 Locking of Switchgear


Switchgear can often be locked in the 'closed', 'open',
'open and isolated' and where applicable, in the
'earthed' position. Unless some unusual circumstance
applies, such as switchgear that may be accessible to
unauthorised persons, switches should not be locked in
the 'closed' position.

When work is to be carried out on equipment made de-


energised and isolated, or isolated and earthed by the
action or position of an indoor HV switch, then the

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 67 of 113


switch shall be locked in position for the duration of the
work.

8.2 Overhead Reclosers


Overhead Reclosers shall not be used as isolation
points.

8.3 Isolation of Substation Equipment

8.3.1 Circuit Breaker – Non-Withdrawable


Series isolator to be opened to provide adequate
isolation, if available.

8.3.2 Circuit Breaker – Withdrawable


Circuit breaker to be racked to the isolated position.

8.3.3 Switches – Non-Withdrawable


An approved earthing device shall be applied to confirm
isolation.

Note: Merlin Gerin Circuit Breakers are to be treated as


a non-withdrawable switch and are to have the earth
switch closed to confirm isolation.

8.3.4 Switches / Switch Fuse – Withdrawable


Switches / Switch Fuses are to be racked to the isolated
position.

Hazemeyer - Withdrawable Switch-Caps

Removal of the switch-caps and installation of spout


covers and Access Cover are required to provide
isolation.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 68 of 113


8.3.5 Switch-Fuses – Non-Withdrawable
The fuse cartridges are to be removed, after opening
the switch.

8.4 Isolating Pole Mounted Transformers

8.4.1 Work on Transformer and Fuse Leads


8.4.1.1 HV Isolation

Isolation is to be provided from the overhead HV by


removal of the Transformer HV fuses and application of
earths. This will allow access to the fuse leads but not
the fuse terminals as work on an isolation point is not
allowed. If access to the fuses is required to change the
fuse leads then further isolation is necessary, for
example disconnecting the fuses from the overhead
mains via live line tap tails or isolating the overhead
mains.

8.4.1.2 LV Isolation

If the LV circuit supplied by the transformer is de-


energised, the transformer LV links/fuses or one series
break between de-energised LV conductors and the
work site is required.

There is to be two series breaks between live LV


conductors and the work site if:

1. The LV circuit supplied by the transformer


remains energised from adjacent circuit(s);
2. The transformer LV circuit terminates on the
same pole as other live LV conductors; or
3. The transformer LV circuit passes above, below
or adjacent to other live LV conductors.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 69 of 113


9. PROVING DE-ENERGISED – ISOLATED HV
CONDUCTORS

9.1 Switchgear with No Accessible Live Parts


Where the switchgear has no accessible live parts or
when proving de-energised equipment is otherwise not
provided, it is permissible to prove de-energised at other
positions near the switchgear or on the LV side of a
connected transformer.

If such positions are not available and earthing can be


carried out using an integral fault rated earth switch,
then earthing is permitted after all precautions have
been taken.

9.2 Approved Testing Devices


Several types of approved testing devices are provided
for use on various voltages and for application to
different types of switchgear and conductors.

All testing devices are labelled with the voltage for


which they are suitable.

The section of the device that may be held by hand is


identified, where applicable. In specified circumstances,
some devices may only be used with additional
insulation such as by holding with an operating stick.

Under no circumstances shall an approved testing


device be applied to conductors that may be at a higher
voltage than the voltage for which the device is
intended.

No person shall endeavour to use an approved testing


device, unless they have received instructions in the
method of use or a practical demonstration and is fully
competent to use the device.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 70 of 113


9.2.1 Contact Type
The contact type requires the head of the testing device
to touch the conductor to be tested and accordingly
have adequate insulation to permit the Operator to
apply the device with safety.

Contact type testing devices are to be tested as per


manufacturer’s instructions and test reports recorded.

9.2.2 Non Contact Type – Portable


The non-contact type must not be brought into contact
with energised equipment while hand-held and must be
attached to an approved operating stick.

Should the required distance to obtain indication be less


than the minimum safe approach distance from live
conductors, as specified in the Power System Safety
Rules, then additional insulation must be provided.

9.2.3 Non Contact Type – Equipment Mounted


In the later range of indoor substation equipment being
installed 'in built voltage' detection devices are
available. These generally are small neon indicators
housed on the face of the equipment, and are approved
for use.

9.2.4 Non- approved Testing Devices


Under no circumstances shall an operating stick alone
or ‘buzz-stick’ be used for proving de-energised
conductors.

9.2.5 Indication of Live Conductors


The correct application of the proving de-energised
procedure will have proved that the conductors are safe
for earthing. However, further voltage may still occur on

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATION MANUAL DS O SW 01 Page 71 of 113


the conductors due to induction from adjacent parallel-
energised feeders or due to the existence of sections of
underground cable in the isolated section, which may
retain a voltage charge until earthed.

Accordingly, the isolated conductors must be treated as


live until earthed.

If the testing device indicates the existence of any


voltage on the isolated conductors, all points of isolation
shall be physically confirmed and additional testing shall
be performed.

10. EARTHING ISOLATED HV CONDUCTORS

10.1 Earthing Requirements


Earths shall be connected to recognised earthing points
in accordance with the requirements of the Power
System Safety Rules.

10.2 Approved Earthing Equipment


Portable earthing and short circuiting devices shall be of
an approved design and have the required size of
conductors and fittings to safely conduct possible fault
currents. Earthing devices for HV applications shall be
rated at 14.0 kA.

Earthing devices may be incorporated in switchgear or


be supplied separately for manual use.

10.3 Application of Earthing

10.3.1 General
The Authorised Operator shall be responsible for the
application of earths to a recognised earthing point and
the isolated conductors. All HV conductors within the
work site as described on an Access Authority MUST be

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isolated, proved de-energised and earthed prior to the
Access Authority being issued.

10.3.2 Placement of Operational Earths


Earths shall be placed at either:

1. At the work site, provided an earth is placed


between the work site and all points of isolation;
2. Between the work site and all points of isolation;
or
3. At all points of isolation.

10.3.3 Transformer Fuse Leads and Fused Spurs


within the Worksite
Fused spurs or transformer fuse leads within the work
site as described on an Access Authority MUST be
isolated, proved de-energised and earthed prior to that
Access Authority being issued.
10.3.4 Earthing Aerial Transformers
Work On Transformer and Fuse Leads

Isolation is to be provided from the overhead HV and


LV.

The degree of isolation required depends on the


transformer LV circuit arrangement. See ‘Isolating HV.
Conductors or apparatus’ - ‘Isolation Aerial
Transformers’.

10.3.5 Work on Overhead Line Incorporating


Aerial Transformers
When work is to be performed on overhead line
conductors, earths need not be applied to transformer
HV leads provided that earths are placed between the
transformer and the work location.

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If there is no earth applied to the transformer leads and
no earth between the transformer and the work location,
then additional isolation is required by removing the HV
fuses and opening the LV transformer link/fuses.

10.3.6 Work Earths


It is the responsibility of the Person In Charge of an
Access Authority to ensure that work earths are
connected at or within sight of the work location - except
as provided in the Power System Safety Rules -
'Substations and Underground Cables'.

10.3.7 Application of Earths to Overhead Line


Conductors
Earths shall be applied to the overhead line conductors
by clamping onto any of the following:

1. ‘Earthing bolt’ attached to the connecting plate of


HV links or fuses;
2. Main conductors; and
3. Conductor loops.

Earths must not be applied to the helical termination


where it does not fully enclose the conductor or to HV
link blades.

The selection of the location as described above is


dependent on safety requirements.

Where an earth lead passes through live bare LV


conductors, insulated mats or covers shall be applied to
the conductors it passes between or adjacent to.

11. COMMISSIONING / RE-ENERGISING HV


APPARATUS
Where a cable and or associated equipment, including
switchgear, has remained de-energised for periods in

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excess of 30 continuous days, it shall not be brought
into service without suitable energising tests being
conducted.

12. GENERAL OPERATING INFORMATION

12.1 Use of Fault Indicators


In some areas of the distribution system, fault indicators
have been installed to provide additional fault location
information. A fault indicator will operate when a current
of approximately double the normal value is followed by
a loss of supply.

Fault indicators are incorporated in some makes of


ground-mounted switchgear. They are commonly used
on overhead line conductors.

Where a number of fault indicators are installed at


various locations on a feeder, a detected fault would be
beyond the furthest fault indicator from the source that
has operated.

Most fault indicators are designed to not register a fault


due to feeder inrush or cold-load pickup.

Most line fault indicators automatically reset themselves


after a set period of time following restoration of supply
to the powerline.

In some earth fault situations, fault indicators may not


operate successfully. This can be misleading when
identifying the cause or direction of a fault. Any
instances are to be reported to Distribution Operations
so HV Plans can be altered appropriately.

Where practicable following a fault, all Ground Mounted


Substation fault indicators are to be reset.

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12.2 Replacement of Fuses

12.2.1 HV Overhead Transformer and Section


Fuses
When replacing fuses, ALL fuses should be replaced at
the same time.

The reason being that, even though the other phase


fuses may not have blown, they may have been
weakened by the fault current. It would take a less
current to rupture the fuse(s) next time due to the
elements within the fuse(s) being significantly damaged.
This effectively down rates the fuse size.

The only exception is where the line or transformer was


exposed to a single phase fault such as a lightning
strike on one phase. However, when in doubt, all fuses
should be replaced.

12.2.2 Boric Acid Fuses


When replacing Boric Acid fuses only replace the
faulted fuse.

12.2.3 HV Ground-mounted Fuses


Replaced ground-mounted fuses should be retested by
micro-ohm meter to identify whether the fuse is within its
resistance rating.

Fuses outside of the resistance rating are to be


discarded.

Fuses inside of the resistance rating are to be returned


to stock.

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12.2.4 LV Fuses
12.2.4.1 Phase to Phase Contact

Replace all fuses.

12.2.4.2 Phase to Earth Contact

Replace the blown fuse.

12.2.4.3 Overload

Replace the blown fuse.

12.3 Abnormal Transformer LV Voltages

12.3.1 Normal Voltage Two Phases to Neutral, No


Voltages on Third Phase to Neutral
Caused by one phase open circuited in the LV windings
or connections.

Check the external connections at the LV terminals. If


the fault persists the transformer should be removed
from service.

12.3.2 No Voltage or High Voltage


Between any phase and neutral at the LV terminals with
no load connected or high voltage across one phase to
neutral and low voltages across other phases to neutral
with unbalanced load connected.

Caused by the neutral open circuited.

To locate the open circuit, use a voltmeter and Network


Analyser to check the voltages to neutral at various
points. If external to the tank it can be rectified on site,
but if internal and neutral cable connection is

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satisfactory, the transformer should be removed from
service.

A misaligned tap change switch may also cause the


above.

12.3.3 High Voltage Phase to Neutral


Caused by short-circuited turns on the HV winding.

This condition will usually cause heavy currents to flow


in the affected portion and will be accompanied by the
smell of burnt oil and insulation.

The transformer should be removed from service.

12.3.4 Low Voltage Phase to Neutral


Caused by short-circuited turns on the LV winding.

This condition will usually cause heavy currents to flow


in the affected portion and will be accompanied by the
smell of burnt oil and insulation.

The transformer should be removed from service.

12.3.5 Normal Voltage One Phase to Neutral, Half


of Normal Voltage on Other Two Phases to
Neutral
Caused by open circuit on one HV lead.

Check the connections of the HV leads. If the fault


persists, the transformer should be removed from
service.

12.3.6 Normal Voltage Two Phases to Neutral,


Low Voltage One Phase to Neutral
Caused by open circuit in the HV winding.
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The tap change switch should be checked and if the
fault persists, the transformer should be removed from
service.

12.4 Switching Transformers


Individual transformers should, wherever possible, be
switched in the following manner.

Transformers with ganged three phase switching


facilities (Primary and Secondary sides):

1. Open HV isolating device first


2. Open LV isolator device second

Transformers with ganged three phase switching


facilities (Primary side only):

1. Open HV isolating device first


2. Open LV isolator device second

Transformers without ganged three phase switching


facilities, i.e. no operation:

1. Open LV isolator/s first


2. Open H V fuses second

12.4.1 Restoration
The restoration should be conducted in the reverse
order of isolation.

12.5 Embedded Generators and Alternative


Supplies
Embedded generators are capable of supplying voltage
into the distribution system from customers'
installations. The common types are; hydro generators,
diesel generators, inverters via solar cells etc.

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Considering the amount of embedded generation now
connected to the Distribution Network every customer
service MUST be treated as a possible source of
supply.

Embedded generators can supply at either high or low


voltages and are dependent upon the method of
incoming supply that the individual customer has. ie it
can only supply back into the system at the voltage the
customers takes their supply at.

12.5.1 Precautions when Working on the System


Special precautions must be adopted when working on
apparatus within the section that embedded generators
are connected to.

These precautions being:

1. The embedded generator is to be considered as


live.
2. The section to be worked upon is isolated from
the embedded generator;
3. Appropriate application of earthing; or
4. Live work covered by Approved procedures.

The low voltage Network must be isolated according to


approved procedures. Every customer service must be
considered a source of supply. The low voltage
Network must not be considered isolated unless all
primary supplies and customer installations are isolated.

Where service fuses are removed to guard against


inadvertent back feeds then such isolations would not
normally be part of a switching sheet.

Where the low voltage Network has been isolated from


the supply transformer and the customer services
remain connected then the circuit shall be considered to
be de-energised but not isolated. If work is to be

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performed on a de-energised circuit then additional
safety measures must be used to guard against an
inadvertent back feed. If an Access Authority is issued
for a low voltage circuit then it must include the status of
the circuit, isolated or de-energised. When de-
energised the Access Authority must note the additional
safety measures in place to guard against any possible
back feed. The use of insulating gloves is the minimum
safety measure required.

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13. APPENDIX A: PROTECTION SYSTEMS

13.1 Scope and Application


This section provides a general description of some
components of protection systems and their method of
operation.

A general understanding of these principles, together


with detailed familiarity with the types of protection used
in local areas and in substations is essential for safe
operating and maintenance of supply.

After receiving initial instruction, any opportunity should


be taken to maintain knowledge of this equipment either
by inspection or by study of protection diagrams.

13.2 Protection Circuits and Equipment

13.2.1 Security of System


13.2.1.1 Safety

The safety of the public, personnel, and the prevention


of damage to equipment depends entirely upon the
security of protection systems.

Protection systems are normally called upon to operate


only when abnormalities occur. To ensure that the
devices will operate speedily and correctly on those
comparatively rare occasions, adequate maintenance
and routine observation are essential.

13.2.1.2 DC supply

A vital part of the security of the system is the DC


supply.

The condition of battery supplies including output


voltage and state of charge should be checked

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regularly; e.g. batteries associated with automatic line
reclosers, and substation circuit breakers. There are
various maintenance regimes run by Distribution
Business field personnel for this purpose.

13.2.1.3 Abnormalities

Any abnormalities in protection systems such as relay


flags showing, fuses blown, links out or switches off
should be reported immediately to Distribution
Operations.

13.2.2 Voltage Transformers


A voltage transformer, as used in protection and
metering systems, is a specially wound transformer for
connection to the high voltage system and designed to
produce a secondary voltage in an accurate ratio from
primary to secondary winding. The standard secondary
output voltage is 110 volts.

13.2.2.1 Voltage Transformer Output

The output of a voltage transformer is used for:

1. Metering: either indicating voltmeters, recording


voltmeters, or energy meters e.g. pole mounted
HV metering units.
2. Voltage Regulation: Operation of transformer
voltage regulating relay associated with automatic
voltage regulating transformers, and to detect
direction of current flow in reversible voltage
regulators.
3. Protection: the secondary voltage is used in some
relays; e.g. to supply the directional element of
directional overcurrent, directional earth leakage
and distance relays.

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13.2.2.2 Other Uses

In other forms of protection the voltage transformers


may also be used to supply an earth fault type of
protection that detects an out of balance voltage
condition. The V.T. may also be used to supply various
forms of under-voltage relay.

13.2.3 Current Transformers


A current transformer is a specially wound transformer
for connection to the high voltage or low voltage system
and designed to reproduce a secondary current in an
accurate primary to secondary ratio. The standard
secondary current produced by current transformers is
generally 5 amps or 1 amp with a primary current of, for
example, either 50 amps, 100 amps, 200 amps, 400
amps or 800 amps.

13.2.3.1 Secondary Voltage

The secondary voltage produced by a current


transformer under normal conditions is relatively low
namely 20 to 30 volts.

The full-load secondary current normally produced by


the current transformers of high voltage reclosers, is
one amp.

13.2.3.2 Connections

It is essential that the secondary connections of a


current transformer should never be open-circuited
while the primary winding is energised. Under such
conditions high voltages can occur across the open-
circuited secondary terminals.

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13.2.3.3 Functions

The functions of a current transformer are two-fold,


namely:

1. Metering: to provide a convenient means of


metering high voltage current at low voltage, such
as indicating ammeters or recording ammeters or
wattmeters, etc., e.g. pole mounted HV metering
units.
2. Protection: to provide low voltage current to
supply relays in various forms of protection
systems. Protection type current transformers are
designed to higher orders of accuracy at overload
and under fault conditions, and are capable of
accepting higher overloads than metering current
transformers. The secondary output of protection
current transformers is used to operate many
varieties of protection relay. Types in general use
will be described later in this Section.

Note:

A protection current transformer differs from a metering


current transformer in that it is required to maintain
given accuracy over an extended overload range, e.g.
20 times rated current.

13.2.4 Relays – General


13.2.4.1 Classes

Relays may be classified in two general types according


to their functions:

1. Detection Relays - to which the secondaries of


current transformers or voltage transformers are
directly connected.
2. Auxiliary Contact Relays - which may be
connected between a detection relay and a circuit

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breaker trip coil, or connected to supply
annunciators (alarm indicators) or alarms.

Both of the above types of relay may, or may not, be


equipped with flag indicators. The contacts may be
either automatically or manually reset.

13.2.4.2 Operation

The magnitude of the energy required to operate a


detection type relay can generally be varied by
alterations to settings or connections within the relay.
The accuracy or correctness of relay settings
determines the effectiveness of any given protection
system. Substation or Protection Engineers, calculate
the appropriate settings of individual relays that are
required to provide correct co-ordination between the
components in the protection system. Relay settings
must not be altered by Operators unless specifically
authorised to do so.

13.2.4.3 Familiarity

It is essential that Operators are familiar with the types


of relays that are installed on feeders or substations
within their area. It is particularly necessary to be able
to identify detection relays from contact relays, namely
relays that will initiate a tripping which may then pass
via a tripping relay to a circuit breaker. In resetting
relays after operation it is necessary to firstly reset the
initiating detection relay.

13.2.4.4 Recording

The information provided by relays (and counters) after


a fault condition is vital. This information must always
be recorded in a Log Book or Note Book before
resetting and considered in detail before any attempt is
made to reclose a tripped circuit breaker, or a locked-
out automatic line recloser.

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13.2.5 Principles of Protection Operation
A basic protection circuit consists of several
components, namely:

1. A device for converting the quantity or energy


which it is desired to measure into manageable
proportions - such a device commonly being a
current transformer or voltage transformer.
2. A detection relay that measures a quantity or
energy concerned and compares it with pre-
determined values and closes contacts when
necessary.
3. A tripping-coil, mounted on the circuit breaker and
energised from the relay.

13.2.5.1 Operation

The protection transformer and associated relays are in


circuit continuously. That is, energy at normal levels is
passed without any action from the relays.

However, when a fault condition occurs current flow is


increased many times, e.g. 20 times normal. For
example, in a simple overcurrent fault on a feeder
where the normal load current is say approximately 300
amps, the fault current may amount to 3000 amps, or
more.

When such current under fault conditions exceeds the


settings of the protection relays the trip coil on the circuit
breaker is energised and tripping of the circuit breaker
results.

13.2.5.2 Clearing Times

Since the distribution system is not designed to supply


currents of high magnitude for long periods of time it is
necessary for the protection system to clear such faults
as quickly as possible. Normal protection operation
would permit a fault to be cleared within approximately
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1/5th of a second after detection. Protection settings
(which determine the clearing times) are dependent on
variables such as fault level and the number of
downstream protection devices on the feeder trunk. The
settings are designed to ensure the effective
coordination of downstream devices.

13.3 Installed Protection – Method of Operation

13.3.1 Transformer Protection


13.3.1.1 Buchholz

The Buchholz relay provides a means for the detection


of internal faults at an early stage of development,
thereby avoiding major breakdown. The relay is only
fitted on large transformers (750 kVA and above).

The Buchholz relay can only be fitted to transformers


having conservator vessels and is installed in the
pipeline between the transformer and its conservator
tank.

The relay comprises an oil-tight container fitted with two


internal floats which operate mercury switches
connected to external alarm and tripping circuits, e.g.
via a fault throwing switch. The relay may be operated
by a slow collection of gas, a surge of oil, or a drop in oil
level.

It is not advisable to return a transformer to service after


the occurrence of a Buchholz trip without extensive
testing to determine the cause.

13.3.1.2 Gas Impulse

The gas impulse relay is a similar device to the


Buchholz relay as described above but does possess
some basic differences. In this system a conservator
tank on the transformer is not installed. The gas
impulse relay is installed via a breather pipe on the lid of

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the transformer. The relay contains a diaphragm
actuated by gas pressure produced by internal
transformer faults. The diaphragm operates a mercury
switch that activates an alarm or trip as desired. A
valve in the diaphragm allows normal breathing of the
transformer.

13.3.1.3 Oil Surge

The oil surge relay is a further variation of the Buchholz


relays in which a single vane is rotated by the violent
passage of oil up the conservator pipe. Relay contacts
produce an immediate tripping of the transformer circuit
breaker(s).

13.3.1.4 Oil and Winding Temperature

The load which a transformer of specified conductor


size and design may carry is determined ultimately by
the operating temperature of the windings. In the case
of large power transformers such as those installed in
zone substations, it is desirable to monitor this operating
temperature. The useful life of a transformer is also
dependent on the life of its insulation which ages rapidly
at elevated temperatures. It is estimated that an
increase of 8C above maximum prescribed operating
temperature in the temperature of normal insulation
doubles the rate of deterioration.

To provide adequate protection, two temperature


indicators are generally provided:

1. A thermometer or temperature indicator which


measures the temperature of the upper layer of
transformer oil.
2. An indicator that measures the temperature of the
transformer winding either directly or by reference
to a current transformer

The oil temperature indicator would normally only


operate an alarm circuit and may be set at
approximately 70C. The winding temperature indicator
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may be used to operate either an alarm circuit or trip or
both. The setting of the indicator may produce an alarm
at approximately 90C and a trip at approximately
110C.

On some types of zone transformer, contacts from the


temperature indicator are also used to switch on cooling
fans or a pump in the oil circulating circuit.

13.3.1.5 Differential

In order to provide speedy tripping of larger power


transformers in the event of faults on the transformer
windings, a type of protection known as Differential or
Biased-Differential is used. This type of protection
detects phase to phase or phase to earth transformer
winding faults and is capable of tripping a transformer
generally before the liberation of gas and the
consequent operation of the Buchholz relay as
previously described.

This system requires a current transformer installed on


the high voltage side of the transformer and a second
current transformer installed on the low voltage side of
the transformer with the secondaries of both C.Ts
connected to a Differential Relay. The principle upon
which this protective system depends is that the current
entering the protected zone is equal to that leaving it.

Obviously in the case of power transformers due


allowance must be made for the transformation ratio by
the correct choice of protective current transformers.

The purpose of these ratios is to provide approximately


the same current in the secondaries of each current
transformer under normal or through fault conditions.

During internal fault conditions, ie a fault within the


transformer between the two sets of current
transformers, the out-of-balance current or difference in
current will flow through the coil of the differential relay.

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This basic form of differential protection is known as the
Merz-Price circulating current system.

In most installations the type of protection installed on


transformers is known as Biased-Differential protection.
This scheme is essentially the same as the simple
Merz-Price system with the exception that restraining or
bias coils are inserted in series with the wiring
connecting the secondary windings of the current
transformer. The relay operating coils are connected to
the centre point of the bias coils. By employing this
improvement, difficulties arising from transformer inrush
magnetising current, change of turns ratio due to tap
changing or through fault instability, are reduced due to
the action of the bias coils, which when carrying current
exert a restraining torque on the relay, to prevent mal-
operation.

On any occasion when a differential relay operates,


reclosure of the transformer must not be performed until
all possible causes have been investigated and the
supervisor advised.

13.3.1.6 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection

In some sections of the system a form of protection


known as Sensitive Earth Fault protection is installed.

This would generally apply only to zone substation


transformers. The function of this type of protection is
to detect low value earth faults that may otherwise go
unnoticed. It becomes necessary in sections of a
system where there is no normal earth leakage
protection on feeders, such as will later be described.

In the case of a zone substation power transformer, with


a star connected secondary winding, the protection may
be operated from a current transformer connected in the
transformer neutral that is between the neutral point of
the secondary winding and the station earth mat.

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When a zone substation power transformer has a delta-
connected secondary winding the current transformer is
installed in the connection from the neutral earthing
transformer to earth. The ratio of such current
transformers would normally be fairly low, such as 150/5
amps.

As the name of the system also implies the setting


would normally be quite low, such as 20%, namely,
operating at only 30 amps of primary current. In order
to provide time for any other auxiliary protection to
operate, a fairly long time setting is normally applied,
such as 5.0 seconds. That is, the fault must remain for
this time before the sensitive earth leakage operates.

From the example of the relay setting quoted, it is


apparent that such protection will operate at fault
conditions that may not be normally detected by other
forms of feeder protection. However, there are also
disadvantages in the use of this type of protection. In
particular, considerable care must be exercised when
paralleling a feeder supplied from a transformer
employing such protection with a feeder from another
source.

Out-of-balance currents, that is, not fault currents, are


quite sufficient to operate this type of protection or even
less sensitive forms of earth leakage protection.

To prevent mal-operation during conditions of


paralleling it is necessary to isolate the return path for
out-of-balance current by opening the transformer
neutral earthing isolator (where it is fitted to the
transformer) at one of the supply sources.

Alternatively, mal-operation may be prevented by


temporarily increasing the current settings of the earth
leakage relays. Such actions should only be taken on
the advice or request of Distribution Control.

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It is imperative that earthing and protection systems be
restored to normal conditions, after any temporary
alteration, as soon as possible.

13.3.1.7 Earth Fault Check or Frame Leakage Check

A system of earth fault check or frame leakage check as


installed generally at a zone type substation, is as the
name implies a back-up to other systems of earth fault
or frame leakage protection. Mal-operation may often
occur in earth fault systems of protection due to out-of
balance currents rather than genuine earth faults.

The function of this system of protection is to


discriminate between these two conditions.

Any genuine earth fault current must return to the


transformer from which it emanated. This return path is
normally provided by the cable sheaths, water-pipes or
the general mass of earth which allows the earth fault
current from the fault condition, which may in fact be
some miles from the transformer source, to return to the
earthed neutral point of the supply transformer.

By installing a current transformer in the transformer


neutral, again between the star point of the secondary
winding and the station earth mat, it is possible to
monitor such returning currents.

The secondary of this current transformer is connected


to an earth fault check or frame leakage check relay.

The contacts of the frame leakage check relay are then


connected in series with the contacts of any other earth
fault relay within the zone and the appropriate circuit
breakers that it is desired to trip in the event of a
genuine fault. A counter relay may also often be
connected to the frame leakage check. relay. By this
means the occurrence of any earth fault may be
checked on inspection.

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13.3.1.8 Fault Throwing Switches

These switches are now not very common. They were


generally installed in rural zone substations. They
consist of a weight or spring-operated earthing switch,
usually single pole, which may be unlatched by the
action of a small solenoid.

They are used to deliberately connect an earth fault


through a resistor to one phase of a line, or bus, in order
to make a distant circuit breaker operate and disconnect
that area of the distribution system. For example,
where transformer circuit breakers are not fitted at a
substation, the transformer Buchholz trip circuit may be
arranged to operate a fault-throwing switch and hence
improve the degree of transformer protection.

At some rural zone substations where supply to the


primary feeders is from a delta-connected winding, an
artificial earthed star point is established by using an
earthing transformer. These earthing transformers are
short time rated and any sustained earth fault may
result in the earthing transformer being burnt out.

To guard against this situation a current transformer is


inserted in the earthing transformer earth connection.
The current transformer supplies a sensitive earth fault
relay which after a time delay (usually 5-10 seconds),
trips a fault-throwing switch which removes supply to
the substation by tripping a remote feeder circuit
breaker.

Where a fault-throwing switch is installed on a feeder,


the phase to which it connects should be known. This
then aids the analysis of upstream relay operations and
could suggest the possibility that a feeder fault has been
caused by operation of a fault-throwing switch.

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13.3.2 HV Switchboard Protection
13.3.2.1 Frame Leakage

This form of protection is applicable to some types of


high voltage switchboard in which all components are
enclosed in a metal frame or cubicle. The complete
frame is provided with suitable insulation between the
frame and station earth. This insulation normally
consists of bakelite sheeting or similar material between
the floor of the substation and the switchboard.

This system also requires an insulated gland in cable


terminations between the cable sheath and the cable
box mounted on a switchboard frame.

A current transformer is connected between the


switchboard frame and the station earth mat.

This current transformer is generally of a fairly low ratio


such as 150 to 5 amps, or maybe a 400/5 ratio. The
secondary of the current transformer supplies a frame
leakage detection relay that is designed to operate
almost instantaneously at a low predetermined setting.
The detection relay will then supply the trip coil of
relevant circuit breakers. In the case of multi circuit
breaker switchboards a multi trip relay would also be
required between the detection relay and the circuit
breakers in order to trip all possible sources of high
voltage supply.

Such a system will detect the passage of any current


between the switchboard frame and earth, which may
result from the breakdown of insulation between high
voltage conductors and the switchboard frame. The
high-speed operation of the relay will ensure speedy
clearing of a fault before the occurrence of excessive
damage.

Where frame leakage protection is installed it is


essential that the switchboard frame should not be

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accidentally connected to station earth thereby
bypassing the frame leakage current transformer and
rendering the protection inoperative.

13.3.3 HV Feeder Protection


13.3.3.1 Over-current – Non-directional

The simplest and the most usual method of protecting a


feeder, either underground or overhead, is by means of
applying non-directional over-current protection.

The protection system is designed to detect any


situation where two or more energised conductors are
brought together in a fault situation. It is not necessary
for the neutral point, if any, of the supply transformer to
be earthed. The protection may be installed on either
the high voltage or low voltage systems. The protection
may also operate for earth faults on an earthed neutral
system if the value of the fault current is large enough.

The requirements include current transformers inserted


in the outgoing active conductors from the controlling
circuit breaker, and a simple detection relay. The ratio
of the current transformer in a high voltage system may
be, for example, 200/5 amps or 400/5 amps. The relay
used would generally be of the induction disc type in
older installations, or solid-state type in newer
installations, and generally have an inverse operating
characteristic (where the higher the fault current the
shorter will be the operating time of the relay) and a
definite minimum time of operation. More fixed time
relays are now being installed in new substations and
unless the fault is very large the operating time is
independent of the value of the fault current.

The secondary of the current transformer is connected


directly to the current coils of the relay, which are
normally energised and normally passing load current.
On the occurrence of a phase-to-phase fault on the
protected feeder, the current rises to several thousand
amps in the primary side with a consequent proportional
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increase in the secondary of the current transformers
and the relay. When the fault current passing through
the relay exceeds the setting, with respect to both
current and time, the contacts of the relay are closed by
the rotation of the relay disc, or solid state circuit, and
the tripping circuit of the circuit breaker is energised.

The actual time of operation and the relationship


between the current plug settings and the time multiplier
settings for a relay of this type is generally shown on a
small graph on the nameplate of the relay.

Earth faults will normally be detected by an earth fault


relay but may also operate an overcurrent relay, if the
fault current is high.

As the name implies, this type of non-directional relay


will actually operate in either direction of current flow.
This means that in a case of overcurrent protection
installed either at the beginning of a feeder or further out
in a feeder that is paralleled with an alternative supply, it
is possible for the protection to operate for a fault on
either side of the current transformers and relays. In
some cases this could be a disadvantage that must be
guarded against.

Earth faults will normally be detected by an earth fault


relay, but may also operate an overcurrent relay, if the
fault current is high or continues for excessive time.

13.3.3.2 Over-current – Directional

In some areas of the system there may be two or more


high voltage feeders, supplying a zone substation for
example, which are permanently paralleled.

In this situation, it is necessary to provide protection


which will not only open the circuit breaker at the
sending end of a feeder but also to open the receiving
end at the zone substation.

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It is also particularly essential to discriminate between
the faulted feeder and the paralleled feeders that should
remain energised. In this application, at the receiving
end of the feeder a directional overcurrent relay is
installed.

The function of this type of relay in conjunction with its


current transformers is to pass any current in the normal
direction of supply, that is either normal load current or
even fault current, but to operate for any reverse current
flow indicating a fault between the point of supply and
the receiving end.

This is achieved by the use of an overcurrent relay


similar to that previously described but with the addition
of a second element in series.

This second element, namely the directional element, is


supplied with both voltage and current from the feeder
being protected. The directional element ensures
through its appropriate connections that the fault current
being measured is in the reverse direction. The
overcurrent element of the relay then operates in a
normal manner.

13.3.3.3 Earth Leakage – Non-directional

Earth leakage or earth fault protection is the normal


companion to overcurrent protection for protecting a
feeder, either underground or overhead, or a
transformer. The system is designed to detect any
situation where one or more energised conductors are
brought to the ground or in contact with any form of
earth return.

When applied to feeder protection it is necessary for the


star point of the supply transformer to be earthed.

The current transformers used for this protection are


normally the same as those previously described which
supply overcurrent system of protection. However, in
the case of the simple form of unrestricted earth fault
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protection the element of the earth fault relay is
connected between the star point of the current
transformer windings and earth.

The relay used may be instantaneous in operation or


fixed time or more generally of the induction disc type
with an inverse operating characteristic and definite
minimum time of operation.

On the occurrence of a phase to earth fault, the


operation of the relay and tripping sequence is as
previously described for overcurrent protection.

In order to provide fast and effective clearing of earth


faults, the setting of the relay is usually fairly low, such
as 20% with a 400/5 current transformer. That is, the
relay will operate at faults in excess of 80 amps in the
high voltage feeder.

Care is necessary before paralleling high voltage


feeders employing earth fault protection, which are
supplied from different sources. If such paralleling is
made or broken with single phase isolators or single
phase switchgear it is quite possible that out-of-balance
currents in excess of the setting may occur. Such out-
of-balance currents will operate the relay and
consequently trip the circuit breaker at either end.

If calculation indicated that a load transfer or out-of-


balance of the order of the relay setting is likely to
occur, and unless other more suitable means (e.g.
frame leakage check relay or shorting plugs) to prevent
possible mal-operation are available, it is necessary to
increase the setting of the earth fault relay prior to the
paralleling. Such action must only be taken on the
advice of or request from System Control or Distribution
Control

If alteration to relay settings is necessary it is essential


that such alterations exist for a minimum period and in
particular it is essential that the relays be reset on
completion of the operation.
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13.3.3.4 Earth Fault – Directional

The directional earth Fault protection by way of an earth


fault relay is the companion to the directional
overcurrent relay. The function of this type of protection
is to detect earth fault conditions occurring in a system
of two or more paralleled high voltage feeders. The
same current transformers are used as for the
directional overcurrent system and the relay itself has
an additional element to detect a fault current in the
reverse to normal direction of power flow.

13.3.3.5 Sensitive Earth Fault

On some feeders within the distribution system sensitive


earth fault (sensitive earth fault) protection is installed.
This type of protection will detect earth faults of
relatively low values.

In substations where the secondary winding of the


power transformer is delta connected an artificial
earthed star point is established by using an earthing
transformer.

Feeders originating from these substations have


sensitive-earth-leakage-protection as the single phase
to earth fault currents are limited to a maximum value of
approximately 200 amps. Settings are normally very
low 3% on 200/5 amp C.T. with a time setting of 4.0 to
5.0 seconds.

In other situations sensitive earth leakage protection is


installed in substations where earth fault currents may
be very high.

In these substations the settings may be increased to


values such as 16 amps primary current with a 5.0
second time delay. The sensitive earth fault relay is an
instantaneous relay and has an auxiliary time delay
relay to provide the time component. The facility is
provided to switch this protection to an instantaneous
mode. This is achieved by switching the instantaneous
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sensitive earth fault ‘IN/OUT’ switch to the ‘IN’ position.
The time delay shall be removed when live line work is
being carried out on feeders.

Sensitive earth fault relays are provided on 11 kV and


22 kV pole mounted line reclosers. In the case of the
11 kV reclosers they are connected to core balance or
residually connected current transformers through which
insulated cable leads to the recloser pass and in the
case of the 22 kV reclosers they are connected to built
in residually connected current transformers.

The relays operate at nominal pre-set 4 to 6 amp


primary currents except on the newer 11 kV reclosers
where the current is adjustable between 0.5 and 5
amps. Some relays have pre-set time delays of 0.3
seconds, 0.5 seconds or higher and in other cases time
delay setting ranges between 0.1 and 15 seconds are
incorporated.

13.3.3.6 Translay – Pilot Wire

Translay-Pilot Wire, or Feeder Protection, describes the


type of protection applicable to high voltage feeders,
generally underground, which is used where a high
accuracy of discrimination is necessary.

The system requires a set of current transformers at


each end of the feeder or section thereof being
protected, together with reliable pilot wires between the
associated relays. The system is capable of detecting
phase to phase or phase to earth faults. The principle
of operation is similar to that previously described under
the heading Differential Protection for Transformers.
The principle of the system being that the current
entering the protected zone is normally equal to that
leaving it.

When applied to the protection of a feeder there can be


a considerable distance between the current
transformers at the respective ends of the protected
zone. This gives rise to a principle difference between
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the differential system used on the transformers and the
system for use on feeders. Namely, it would not be
acceptable to have a current circulating system
operating over the pilot wires for a considerable
distance. Namely, in this system the pilots are normally
energised but no current flows under normal conditions.

The relays used are an induction disc type current relay.


Variable current settings are provided but no variation in
time setting is possible. The operation of the relays is
very fast but somewhat dependent upon the magnitude
of fault current. The type of relay in general use has a
restriction on the amount of load that can be tee-
connected between the current transformers and each
end of the protected feeder. Generally this intermediate
load can be up to approximately 500 kVA.

Larger feed or intermediate loads require a special type


of relay.

13.3.3.7 Distance

Distance protection relays are used primarily to protect


sub-transmission feeders and some distribution feeders.
As their name implies they measure distance, i.e. they
recognise a fault occurring within the protected section
of the line from the fact that the distance from the relay
to the fault is less than the setting of the relay. The
distance to the fault is measured in terms of line length.
This is done by measuring the impedance of the line,
which is almost directly proportional to its length.
Normally the relay measures a higher impedance than
that of the line because it also measures the impedance
of the load.

To a limited extent, these combined overcurrent and


earth leakage measuring relays may indicate the
distance from the substation to the fault position. They
may also be used to clear close-in faults, normally the
heaviest ones, quickly. A Zone 1 indication on the relay
may mean the fault was somewhere in the first half or
three quarters of the feeder. Zone 2 or 3 indication
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means the fault was towards the end of the feeder or
well down lighter spur lines.

When a fault occurs this short-circuits the load and the


relay measures only the remaining impedance of the
line. If, however, the fault is not a dead short-circuit its
impedance in parallel with that of the load and the lines
to the load is added to that faulted line section

This makes the fault appear to be more distant than it


really is. For this reason and because the relay cannot
be made with complete accuracy there has to be a
second distance measuring unit to take care of faults at
the far end of the protected line section. Further, a third
unit is generally provided to give back-up protection for
the first two units of the distance relay in further
sections.

The distance relays used are of two types, namely


Reyrolle Type TS1, having three zones of operation,
and the Siemens relay having up to five zones of
operation.

The system of protection and both relays are capable of


detecting phase to phase or phase to earth faults. In
the case of the simpler Reyrolle relay, there are three
flags to indicate the faulted phase plus two flags to
indicate the zone of operation. There is no positive
indication of earth fault on the Reyrolle relay; this can
only be deduced. The Siemens relay has positive flag
indication for a phase fault or an earth fault, plus
indicators for the respective time zones.

The operation of this method of protection requires


current transformers at the sending end only, namely
the protection is completely at the sending end, no pilot
wires or remote connections being involved. The relays
comprise overcurrent starting elements plus impedance
measuring elements and finally timing elements that
provide the appropriate zone of operation of the relay.

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It is essential that a record be maintained at the
substation containing such equipment, of the
significance of the particular zones as applicable.
Namely, the first zone of operation of the relay may
include say 85% of the feeder. The second zone of
operation may include the remaining 15% of the feeder
to the substation at the receiving end. And finally, the
third zone may include the transformer at the receiving
end substation.

When such relays operate it is essential to carefully


study the flags that have operated and decide the
probable location of the fault before any further action is
taken.

13.3.3.8 Overcurrent Series Trips

In some situations where overcurrent and possibly earth


fault protection on a feeder is desirable, it is not
necessary to provide the full facilities of a circuit-breaker
together with overcurrent and earth fault relay
protection. A cheaper form of protection may be
achieved by the use of circuit breakers or reclosers
having in-built series trip coils.. Tripping is achieved by
the coil due to its solenoid operation applied to an
internal piston mechanically coupled to the tripping
mechanism. Variation in timing is achieved through an
oil dash-pot device.

The fault current at which such trip coils operate is


determined at the time of manufacture and no further on
site adjustment is possible. Minimum operating current
is approximately twice the rating of the trip coil. Earth
fault protection requires the inclusion of additional
current transformers and appropriate earth fault relay
and circuitry.

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13.3.4 Alarm Systems
13.3.4.1 General Functions

13.3.4.1.1 Operation

Some form of alarm system, generally supervises the


operation of protection equipment in substations where
continuity of supply or continuous functioning of
equipment is of high priority.

The function of all alarm systems is to bring to attention


an abnormal condition that requires investigation and
rectification.

13.3.4.1.2 Initiation

The alarms are initiated from the secondary contacts of


protection relays or suitable contact-making devices.
The alarms may operate audible or visible signals,
either locally or remotely or both. Visible alarms may be
of the illuminated lamp type or flag type annunciators.

13.3.4.2 Types of Alarm Condition

The type of condition originating the alarm will dictate


priority of attention to alarm signals. Alarm conditions
may be classified into two general types:

13.3.4.3 Urgent Alarm Conditions

Any abnormal condition involving interruption to supply


or loss of equipment. Fire Alarms.

13.3.4.4 Non-Urgent Alarm Conditions

Various warning conditions, such as:

Tap-changers out of step.

Transformer oil and winding temperatures high.

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DC bus - under or over voltage.

AC or DC failure.

Trip supply failure.

Water level high.

Cable oil pressure low.

Regulator - motor supply failure.

13.3.4.5 Priority of Action

13.3.4.5.1 Urgent Alarm Conditions:

Every endeavour should be made to reach the point of


origin of the alarms within 10-30 minutes.

13.3.4.5.2 Non-Urgent Alarm Conditions:

Such conditions should be investigated as expeditiously


as possible, within 1 to 2 hours of initiation.

13.3.4.5.3 Unclassified Alarm Conditions:

If the type of alarm condition is unknown, then it should


be treated as potentially urgent.

13.3.4.5.4 General Procedure

Acknowledge and silence audible alarm.

Examine annunciator panel - record indications -


acknowledge.

Examine protection relays - record indications.

Proceed in accordance with Manual Instructions for


restoration after fault conditions, or in accordance with
local instructions.

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14. APPENDIX B: METERING CIRCUITS AND
EQUIPMENT

14.1 Voltage Metering


Indicating or instantaneous voltmeters are generally
confined to terminal substations and larger zone type
substations.

14.1.1 Indication
The voltmeters may be connected directly to fixed
phases or connected via a voltmeter phase change
switch. If the latter, a difference in phase-to-phase
voltages may be noted. Such difference is caused by
load out-of-balance in the system. The average or
mean phase to phase voltage should normally be read
and recorded, unless automatic voltage regulating
equipment is installed, in which case the phases to
which that equipment is connected should be observed.

14.1.2 Accuracy
Substation or protection personnel will normally perform
periodic testing and adjustment of indicating voltmeters.
The accuracy of indicating voltmeters is not always
high. Occasionally there may be an intentional zero
error. An attached label will usually indicate this.
Operators should not attempt to adjust readings by
alteration of zero adjustment

14.1.3 Abnormal Readings


Any abnormal difference between phases should be
followed up immediately. Such difference may be due
only to a blown voltage transformer fuse, primary or
secondary, or more seriously due to an open phase
conductor in the system. If a recording voltmeter is not
installed the indicating voltmeter should be read and

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recorded in the Substation Log, or similar, at suitable
intervals.

14.1.4 Voltage – Recording


Continuous voltage recording at major substations is
achieved by the installation of recording-voltmeters..

Where a recording voltmeter is not permanently


installed in a substation a portable instrument may be
temporarily installed. These voltmeters are normally at
110 volts.

The chart record from the instruments should be


examined at regular intervals, dated and any abnormal
differences in voltage noted and reported.

14.2 Current Metering

14.2.1 Ammeters
Indicating ammeters are generally installed on either
incoming or outgoing high voltage feeders at major
substations. Again, these instruments may be
permanently connected to particular phases or installed
with a phase change switch.

Where phase change switches are installed they should


be used to maximum advantage.

On restoration of supply to a feeder that has been


interrupted the load in all phases should be checked to
ensure that open circuit has not occurred in any of the
phases. This would be indicated by the obvious out-of-
balance in ammeter readings, due to the blowing of line
fuses or actual burning through of a conductor.

The feeder ammeters should also be consistently used


to ensure that the current rating of switchgear,
conductors and equipment is not exceeded.

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14.2.1.1 Maximum Demand Ammeter

In some types of distribution substations the total load


on the substation is measured by means of a maximum
demand ammeter. Such ammeters are usually supplied
from current transformers installed on the low voltage
busbars.

The M.D. ammeters use two pointers, the first driving a


slave pointer which remains in a maximum position.
This type of instrument usually contains a thermal
movement with a delay of approximately 30 minutes for
correct indication of applied current. Care must be
exercised in resetting the maximum pointer - it should
only be returned to the position of the driving pointer.

14.2.2 Energy and Demand Metering


In some terminal substations, zone substations and
distribution substations, a combination energy and
maximum demand meter meters the load on the
substation. The energy component of the meter is a
standard kilowatt/hour meter.

14.2.2.1 Operation

The maximum demand component of the meter is


driven from the kilowatt/hour section for an interval
generally of 15 minutes, after which it is reset. Care
must be exercised in resetting the maximum demand
pointer - this should only be returned to the position of
the pusher pointer.

Maximum demand meters should be read, recorded and


reset frequently. In the event of addition or subtraction
of load to a substation the maximum demand meters
should also be read and reset.

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14.2.3 Temporary Metering
Periodically it is necessary to install temporary portable
instruments such as recording voltmeters or recording
ammeters in substations.

It is essential that the utmost care be employed in the


connection and wiring of such portable instruments to
ensure that they do not cause an accident or failure in
the substation.

Recording voltmeters should preferably be plugged in to


a power outlet or connected via voltage test terminals
provided for the purpose. Temporary connections must
never be made direct to bus-bars and must always be
appropriately fused.

When it is necessary to connect portable recording


ammeters in a substation they should always be
connected in a metering circuit rather than in a
protection circuit. It is essential that the secondary of a
current transformer never be open circuited.

14.3 Voltage Regulation – Automatic

14.3.1 General Principles


The voltage applied to the system is automatically
regulated at various levels.

Normally this is carried out at terminal substations, zone


substations or major substations and voltage regulating
transformers on long feeders.

The type of equipment used and the detailed method of


operation varies slightly according to the type of
installation - in particular determined by the requirement
of controlling one transformer or a group of
transformers. The general principle, however, is fairly
uniform.

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14.3.1.1 Operation

A voltage transformer, as previously described, is


connected to the secondary side of the power
transformer. The secondary of this V.T. is connected to
a voltage regulating relay.

In mechanical types, such as the AVR relay the voltage


supplies the coil of a solenoid in the relay. A pivoted
beam, attached to a restraining spring, mechanically
balances the force on the solenoid. In the simplest type
of relay the desired balance between the voltage on the
solenoid and the restraining spring is achieved by
manual variation of the tension on the spring.

After initial setting any variation of voltage as applied to


the solenoid results in a movement of the balanced
beam which can be utilised to close contacts, initiating
corrective action. The corrective action involves a
signal to the onload tap changing motor in the power
transformer to raise or lower the taps in the appropriate
direction to correct the variation in voltage.

In order to avoid unnecessary operation of tap changers


for variations in voltage of only short duration, a time
delay device is incorporated, which may be set from 10
seconds to 120 seconds.

More modern regulating transformers are fitted with


solid state relays which achieve the same as described
above but in some units there is no visible indication of
the balance between the voltage setting and the actual
voltage.

14.3.2 Line Drop Compensation


The principal function of automatic voltage regulation is
to maintain a reasonably constant system voltage by
applying correction when the voltage drops according to
increase in load and vice versa at off-peak periods. A
further improvement is possible if the voltage in fact is

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boosted at periods of peak load in order to compensate
for voltage drop at points farther from the sending
substation. The line drop compensation equipment
provides this latter facility.

14.3.2.1 Operation

A supplementary circuit is connected in series with the


solenoid coil of the voltage-regulating relay.

the use of a current transformer connected in the


outgoing feeder or in the supply transformer it is
possible to reproduce a voltage drop proportional to the
load occurring. This additional voltage drop is injected
in the solenoid circuit of the voltage-regulating relay.
The desired amount of boost is determined by settings
of resistance and reactance in the supplementary circuit
that are determined by calculations of the equivalent
impedance of the outgoing feeders.

Since there is some variation in functions and labelling


of tap change equipment in various situations it is
necessary for local instruction to be given. Complete
familiarity with the tap change controls is essential. As
described elsewhere, it is necessary when paralleling
feeders from different zone or terminal substations to
take various actions including rendering the tap change
controls non-automatic.

Mal-operation or out-of-step conditions between group


transformers should be corrected and/or reported to
Distribution Control.

14.3.3 Group Control


The foregoing describes the method of operation for a
single transformer or the principle for a group of
transformers. To apply automatic voltage regulation to
a group of transformers, one set of equipment as
described above is required, namely voltage

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transformer, voltage regulating relay and auxiliary
equipment.

The control of additional transformers is then achieved


by signalling from the master or initiating transformer
tap changing equipment to the tap changing equipment
of the other transformers in the group.

There are two basic means of achievement of this


multiple transformer tap changing system.

Firstly, a group/individual system in which the voltage-


regulating relay initiates tap changes to all transformers
in the group simultaneously.

The second system in general use employs a


master/follower system in which the voltage regulating
relay initiates a tap change to the master transformer
which then in turn initiates the corresponding tap
change to the follower transformer.

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