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Biology Matters G.C.E.

'O' Level (2nd Edition): Textbook Answers Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Nutrition in Plants

Investigation 7.1 (page 115)

4. (a) Colourless
(b) Green
5. Colourless
6. The alcohol has dissolved and removed the chlorophyll from the leaf.
8. The iodine turns blue-black, indicating that starch is present.
9. To denature the enzymes that change starch to sugars

Investigation 7.2 (page 116)

5. Only the parts exposed to sunlight will be stained blue-black. Sunlight is necessary
for starch formation/photosynthesis.
6. To make sure that starch is absent in the leaves at the beginning of the experiment

Investigation 7.3 (page 116)

5. Only the green parts of the leaf will be stained blue-black.


6. Only those parts containing chlorophyll will manufacture starch, i.e. chlorophyll is
necessary for photosynthesis.

Investigation 7.4 (page 117)

6. The iodine remains brown for the leaf exposed to air without carbon dioxide. The
iodine turns blue-black for the leaf in the control set-up.
Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis.

Investigation 7.5 (page 118)

5. The glowing splinter rekindles or bursts into flame.


6. Oxygen. No gas is given off by the green plant in the control experiment.
7. The presence of air would cause the experiment to have inaccurate results at the
end of the experiment.
8. The rate of gas production indicates the rate of photosynthesis.

Investigation 7.6 (page 124)

6. Increasing the light intensity increases the rate of bubbling and therefore the rate of
photosynthesis, until a constant rate is reached.
7. To ensure that the plant is supplied with sufficient carbon dioxide.
8. Allows the plant to adapt to the surrounding conditions like light intensity before the
readings are taken.

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Biology Matters G.C.E. 'O' Level (2nd Edition): Textbook Answers Chapter 7

Investigation 7.7 (page 125)

7. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of bubbling and therefore the rate of
photosynthesis.
8. The temperature at which the rate of bubbling is the fastest varies slightly from one
type of plant to another. Generally, this temperature is between 40C and 45C.
9. The rate of photosynthesis decreases. This is due to the denaturation of enzymes,
which are made of proteins, and so are affected by high temperatures.

Investigation 7.8 (page 125)

7. Increasing the concentration of sodium hydrogencarbonate solution increases the


rate of bubbling and therefore the rate of photosynthesis, until a constant rate is
reached.

Test Yourself 7.1 (page 128)


1.
Treatment Reason
1. Put the leaf in boiling water To kill the cells and stop enzyme reactions
for two minutes. that change starch to sugars
2. Put the boiled leaf in a To dissolve and remove the chlorophyll
boiling tube of methylated (decolourise the leaf)
spirit/ethanol/alcohol. Put the
boiling tube in a beaker of
hot water.
3. Gently put the decolourised To soften the leaf and make it more
leaf back into the hot water. permeable to iodine solution

2. (a) Leaf LA was picked from a plant in sunlight and where all the conditions
essential for photosynthesis were present. Leaf LB was picked from a plant
where at least one of the conditions essential for photosynthesis was absent.
(b) Sunlight and carbon dioxide
(c) Leaf LA. This is because all the conditions essential for photosynthesis
were present for leaf LA.

3. (a) Graph shape should look like Figure 7.10.


(b) The rate of photosynthesis increases with increasing light intensity.
(c) The carbon dioxide concentration or temperature of the surroundings become
the limiting factors.
(d) – Increase the temperature to the optimum temperature (about 40–45C
for most plants). Temperature is a limiting factor. Increasing the
temperature increases the rate of enzyme reaction in the
light-independent stage.
– Increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in the surroundings.
Carbon dioxide is a limiting factor at high light intensity. Increasing
carbon dioxide concentration increases the rate enzyme reaction in the
light-independent stage.

Investigation 7.9 (page 133)

1. Numerous air bubbles are seen on the lower surface of the leaf. Few or no air
bubbles are seen on the upper surface of the leaf.
2. Heat causes the air in the air spaces in the leaf to expand. Excess air escapes
through the stomata as air bubbles. More stomata are found on the lower surface of
the leaf than on the upper surface.
3. To provide sufficient heat to expand the air in the air spaces in the leaf.

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Biology Matters G.C.E. 'O' Level (2nd Edition): Textbook Answers Chapter 7

Test Yourself 7.2 (page 135)

(a) The cuticle is a waxy layer. It prevents water from adhering to the surface of the leaf
and blocking up the stomata.
(b) Air chambers provide buoyancy for the leaves to float in water. This enables the
leaves to obtain sufficient sunlight and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
(c) Air chambers store carbon dioxide produced at night during respiration for
photosynthesis in the daytime. They also store oxygen produced during
photosynthesis in the daytime to be used for respiration at night.

Get It Right (page 136)

(a) True
(b) False
Photosynthesis releases oxygen gas.
(c) False
Concentration of oxygen is not a limiting factor in photosynthesis.
(d) False
Spongy mesohpyll cells are loosely packed with numerous intercellular spaces
for the diffusion of gases
(e) False
The xylem vessels transport water and mineral salts.

Let’s Review (page 137)

Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions


1. D
2. B

Section B: Structured Questions

1. (a) Light, chlorophyll, a suitable temperature


(b) – The sugar formed, glucose, is used immediately by plant cells in
tissue respiration to provide energy for cellular activities, or for the
formation of cellulose cell walls.
– Excess glucose is converted into sucrose and transported away.
– Excess glucose is stored temporarily as starch in the leaf.

2. (a) Light intensity, temperature or carbon dioxide concentration


(b) (i) Light intensity
(ii) Water in the soil
(c) Carbon dioxide concentration

3. (a) Carbon dioxide diffuses into the stomata while water vapour and
oxygen diffuse out of the stomata.
(b) Oxygen diffuses into the stomata while carbon dioxide diffuses out of
the stomata.

Section C: Free-Response Questions

1. Refer to Table 7.2.

2. Refer to ‘How do carbon dioxide and water enter the leaf?’ in Section 7.2.

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