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Nuclear Suppliers Group


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The NSG Logo

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent
nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can
be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.

Contents
 1 History
 2 Participating Governments
 3 Future members
 4 Role in India-US nuclear agreement
 5 References
 6 External links

History
The NSG was founded in response to the Indian nuclear test in May 1974 and first met in
November 1975. The test demonstrated that certain non-weapons specific nuclear technology
could be readily turned to weapons development. Nations already signatories of the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) saw the need to further limit the export of nuclear equipment,
materials or technology. Another benefit was that non-NPT and non-Zangger Committee nations,
then specifically France, could be brought in.

A series of meetings in London from 1975 to 1978 resulted in agreements on the guidelines for
export, these were published as INFCIRC/254 (essentially the Zangger "Trigger List") by the
International Atomic Energy Agency. Listed items could only be exported to non-nuclear states
if certain International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards were agreed to or if exceptional
circumstances relating to safety existed.

The name of the "London Club" was due to the series of meetings in London. It has also been
referred to as the London Group, or the London Suppliers Group.

The NSG did not meet again until 1991. The "Trigger List" remained unchanged until 1991,
although the Zangger list was regularly updated. The revelations about the Iraqi weapons
program following the first Gulf War led to a tightening of the export of so-called dual-use
equipment. At the first meeting since 1978, held at the Hague in March 1991, the twenty-six
participating governments agreed to the changes, which were published as the "Dual-use List" in
1992, and also to the extension of the original list to more closely match the up-to-date Zangger
list. A regular series of plenary meetings was also arranged as was the regular updating of the
two key lists.

Participating Governments

Member states of the NSG

Initially the NSG had seven participating governments: Canada, West Germany, France, Japan,
the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1976-77, participation was
expanded to fifteen with the admittance of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Italy, the
Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland. Germany was reunited in 1990 while
Czechoslovakia broke up into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993. Twelve more nations
joined up to 1990. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union a number of former republics were
given observer status as a stage towards future membership. China became a participating
government in 2004. The European Commission and the Zangger Committee Chair participate as
observers. The NSG Chair for 2015-2016 is Argentina.[1] India and Pakistan are trying to become
members of the group.[2]

As of 2016 the NSG has 48 members:[3]

 Argentina
 Australia
 Austria
 Belarus
 Belgium
 Brazil
 Bulgaria
 Canada
 People's Republic of China
 Croatia
 Cyprus
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Estonia
 Finland
 France
 Germany
 Greece
 Hungary
 Iceland
 Ireland
 Italy
 Japan
 Kazakhstan
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Malta
 Mexico
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Norway
 Poland
 Portugal
 Romania
 Russia
 Serbia
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
 South Africa
 South Korea
 Spain
 Sweden
 Switzerland
 Turkey
 Ukraine
 United Kingdom
 United States[4]
Future members
During a state visit to India in November 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced U.S.
support for India's participation in the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Wassenaar Arrangement, the
Australia Group and the Missile Technology Control Regime, "in a phased manner," and to
encourage the evolution of regime participation criteria to that end, "consistent with maintaining
the core principles of these regimes."[5][6][7]

During a visit to India in December 2010, French President Sarkozy also expressed his country's
backing for India's inclusion in Nuclear Suppliers Group.[8]

The United Kingdom has for a long time been a supporter of India's inclusion in the Nuclear
Suppliers Group.[9]

During Republic Day visit of India in January 2015, Obama said that India was ready for NSG
membership. China's Foreign Ministry offered conditional support for Indian membership in the
NSG, but also called for "prudence and caution" over the issue.[10]

Pakistan has also applied for NSG membership in May 2016.[11] Russian president Vladimir
Putin has also offered unconditional support to India's entry into NSG.

Switzerland also announced its backing on India's Membership in 48 member group on 6 June
2016 during PM Modi's visit to Geneva.[12] President Obama reiterated U.S. support for India's
NSG membership on 8 June 2016 during PM Modi's visit to Washington DC.[13] Japan has
expressed support for India's bid for membership of the NSG.[14]

In June 2016, India got crucial support from Mexico in its bid to become a member of the NSG
ahead of a plenary meeting of the 48-nation bloc whose members are allowed to trade in and
export nuclear technology.[15]

Role in India-US nuclear agreement


Main article: Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement § NSG waiver

In July 2006, the United States Congress amended U.S. law to accommodate civilian nuclear
trade with India. A meeting of NSG participating governments on 21–22 August 2008 on an
India-specific exemption to the Guidelines[16] was inconclusive. Several participating
governments, including Austria, Switzerland, Norway, Ireland, and New Zealand, expressed
reservations about the lack of conditions in the proposed exemption.[17] In another meeting on
September 6, 2008, the NSG participating governments agreed to grant India a "clean waiver"
from its existing rules, which forbid nuclear trade with a country which has not signed the
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NSG's decision came after three days of intense
U.S. diplomacy.[18] The approval was based on a formal pledge by India stating that it would not
share sensitive nuclear technology or material with others and would uphold its voluntary
moratorium on testing nuclear weapons. The pledge was contained in a crucial statement issued
during the NSG meeting by India outlining the country's disarmament and nonproliferation
policies.[19]

References
1. Nuclear Suppliers Group: Organisation
2. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/indias-nsg-application-likely-to-
hit-roadblocks-on-june-9-2836938/
3. [1] NUCLEAR SUPPLIERS GROUP.
4. [2] NUCLEAR SUPPLIERS GROUP.
5. "Obama seeks expanded India-US trade". Al Jazeera English. 6 November 2010.
Retrieved 7 November 2010.
6. "Obama in Mumbai Calls India Market of the Future". Voice of America. 6 November
2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
7. FACT SHEET: U.S.-INDIA PARTNERSHIP ON EXPORT CONTROLS AND NON-
PROLIFERATION, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, November 8, 2010.
8. India and France hold key nuclear talks, December 6, 2010
9. "Written Answers - India". Hansard. 1 July 2013. 1 July 2013 : Column 504w. Retrieved
2 July 2013.
10. [3]
11. Haider, Reuters | Mateen (2016-05-20). "Pakistan formally applies to join nuclear
suppliers club". www.dawn.com. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
12. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/pm-narendra-modi-us-visit-
switzerland-president-schneider-ammann-2837438/
13. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-36476504
14. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Will-work-together-to-ensure-India-is-in-NSG-
Japan/articleshow/52644783.cms
15. http://www.abplive.in/india-news/mexico-backs-indias-nuclear-suppliers-group-nsg-bid-
president-enrique-pena-nieto-announced-his-support-after-holding-meeting-with-
narendra-modi-358885
16. Text of U.S. NSG Proposal on India
17. Nuclear suppliers propose terms for U.S.-India deal
18. NSG waiver enables participating governments to provide India full civil nuclear
cooperation
19. Thirty words that saved the day

External links
 NSG - Official Website
 “The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its origins, role and activities.”
 Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines Part 1 - Trigger List
 Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines Part 2 - Dual Use
 NSG draft waiver for India

Categories:
 Nuclear weapons
 Intergovernmental organizations
 Nuclear proliferation
 Organizations established in 1974

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