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What is meant by vibrations? classified as mechanical vibration; involves the control of the supporting
Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The structure, the placement and arrangement of isolators, and control of the
oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random internal construction of the equipment to be protected.
such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. 15. What is an accelerometer and what is its use?
Vibration is occasionally desirable. For example the motion of a tuning fork, An accelerometer is a device for measuring acceleration. An accelerometer
the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, or the cone of a inherently measures its own motion (locomotion), in contrast to a device
loudspeaker is desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of based on remote sensing. One application for accelerometer is specifically
the various devices. configured for use in gravimetry.
2. Define Force vibration. 16. Define influence coefficients.
Forced vibration is when an alternating force or motion is applied to a It is defined as action required for or due to unit acceleration. It is used for
mechanical system. Examples of this type of vibration include a shaking deriving the equations of motion for a vibrating system. There are two types
washing machining due to an imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by of influence coefficient; stiffness influence coefficient and the flexibility
truck engine, springs, road, etc), or the vibration of a building an earthquake. influence coefficient.
In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration is dependent on the 17. What is continuous system?
frequency content of the force or motion applied, but the magnitude of the A continuous system has infinite degree of freedom hence infinite number of
vibration is strongly dependent on the behaviour of the mechanical system. natural frequencies. These systems have their inertia and stiffness properties
3. What is meant by logarithmic decrement? distributed in a continuous way.
Logarithmic decrement method is used to measure damping in time domain. 18. What are three elementary part of a vibrating system?
In this method, the free vibration displacement amplitude history of a system 1. Mass of the body
to an impulse is measured and recorded. Logarithmic decrement is the 2. Elasticity of available spring.
natural logarithmic value of the ratio of two adjacent peak values of 3. Dash – pot which is for domping
displacement in free decay vibration. 19. What is logarithmic decrement?
4. Define transmissibility. Logarithmic decrement is the “logarithmic ratio of any two consecutive
Transmissibility is a term that is a term that is used to describe the response amplitudes on the same side of the main position” it is a measure of decay of
of a vibration isolation system. Literally, transmissibility is the ratio of amplitude of the vibrating system it is denoted by
displacement of an isolated system to the input displacement. It is used to 20. Define the term magnification factor.
describe the effectiveness of a vibration isolation system. Transmissibility Magnification factor or magnifier is defined as the ratio of amplitude of
varies with frequency. vibration to the amplitude of zero frequency deflection.
5. What is dry friction damper?
The dry-friction damper consists of a shock-absorbing mass with a flexible 21. How can we make a system to vibrate in one of its natural made?
link with the frame, dry friction shoes coupled to the mass, and an expansion The motion where every point the system executes harmonic motion with
spring to provide the necessary amount of dry friction. The damper is one of is natural frequencies of the system, is called the principal mode of
designed to reduce normal pressure on the contact surfaces when there is a vibration, the amplitude for one of the masses is taken as unity the principal
change in direction of the absorbing mass by incorporating an inertia mass mode is said to be normal mode of vibration.
which has a flexible link with the shoes. During oscillation in a system, inertia 22. What is basic assumption is deriving Dunkerlay’s formula?
mass undergoes various accelerations and the greater the acceleration on 1. Dunkerlay’s formula is applicable to a uniform diameter shaft carrying several
the inertia mass the smaller is the effort with which shoes are pressed loads.
against the friction surfaces. With a sufficiently rigid link the acceleration of 2. This method can also account for f\self weight of the shift.
the inertia mass is virtually equal to the acceleration of the absorbing mass 23. How does a continuous system differ from a discrete system in the nature
which means that with maximum acceleration of the absorbing mass the dry of its equation of motion?
friction force will be the least. Continuous system is equivalent to an infinite elements of masses
6. Mention the uses of vibration. concentrated at different points. The equation of the continuous systems are
In the branch of engineering vibration is useful in the analysis, design, derived on the assumption that the bodies are homogeneous & isotropic &
construction, operation and maintenance of complex structures. that they obey Hooke’s law within the elastic limit.
7. What is Rayleigh’s method, write its applications. 24. What ate various methods available for vibration control?
It is a method used for calculating approximate natural frequencies for a 1. Removing the Causes of vibration.
vibrating system assuming a deflected shape and balancing kinetic and strain 2. Putting the screen if noise is the objection
energies. 3. Placing the machinery on proper type of isolators
8. What is the critical speed of shaft? 4. Shock absorbers
The angular speed at which a rotating shaft becomes dynamically unstable 5. Dynamic vibration absorbers.
with large lateral amplitudes, due to resonance with the natural frequencies 25. What are vibrometer?
of lateral vibration of the shaft is called as the critical speed of shaft. A vibrometer is an instrument to measure the displacement of a vibrating
9. Define continuous beam. machine part generally; the instrument natural frequency is designed twice
A beam having more than two supports is called as continuous beam. as slow as the slowest vibration recorded.
10. What is meant by natural vibration? 26. What are common type of damping?
Natural vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium 1) Viscous damping 2) dry friction damping
point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or 3) structural damping 4) slip or interfacial damping
random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. 27. Define spring stiffness and damping constant.
11. Define Resonance. Spring stiffness (K) : It is the force required to produce unit displacement in
Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude at the direction of applied force it is expressed in N/m.
a certain frequency. This frequency is known as the system’s natural K = F = N/m
frequency of vibration, resonant frequency, or eigenfrequency. S
12. Mention important types of free vibrations. Damping coefficient (C) : It is the damping force or resistance force
Type of free vibration are, pulling a child back on a swing and then letting go developed per unit velocity of viscouse fluid it is expressed in N-sec/m
or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. C = F = N/m/sec
13. What is meant by viscous damping. v
A method of converting mechanical vibrational energy of a body into heat 28. Why is it important to find the natural frequency of a vibrating system?
energy, in which a piston is attached to a support is called viscous damping. When the frequency of externally excited system equal to natural frequency
14. Define vibration isolation. of vibration system it get failure due to resonance. So to avoid the resonance
Vibration isolation, in structures, of those vibrations or motions that are at vibrating system natural frequency must be known.
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29. What happens to the response of an undamped system at resonance?


In undamped vibrating system; the system get vibrate till it’s frequency
reaches to the natural frequency. So it likely cause to failure of body. So if
system is having undamped vibration it leads’s to failure of body or system.
30. What are Principal coordinates?
Principal coordinates: The three directions in space i.e. x, y, z direction are
known as the basic or principle co-ordinates these are very important in
designing of robots as it decide the degree of freedom for every action.
31. Define the flexibility and stiffness influence coefficients.
Flexibility: It is defines as the design that can adapt any change when any
external change occurs.
Stiffness influence coefficients: It is defined as when the system is
unconstrained the stiffness matrix is positive semi definite hence a constant
is used to show the stiffness of system is knows as stiffness influence
coefficient denoted as ‘K’.
32. What is Rayleigh’s Principle?
Rayleigh principle: It is stated that the distribution of the potential and
kinetic energies of conservation, elastic system in the fundamental mode of
vibration is such that the frequency is minimum.
33. How many natural frequencies does a continuous system have?
A continuous system which is under a vibration have only one natural
frequency which create the resonance if the frequency of system matches
with natural frequency.
34. What is the difference between a vibration absorber and a vibration
isolator?
Difference between a vibration absorber and a vibration isolator:
A vibration absorber is a device that can absorb the vibration and make it’s
intensity low while an isolator is device that can keep apart the vibration
between two surface or system in contact in which one is vibrate
continuously.
35. What is an Accelerometer?
A accelerometer is device or a transducer that sense the acceleration of
system and convert in into a useful signal are known as accelerometer.
36. What are the causes of vibration?
Unbalanced centrifugal forces in the system
Elastic nature of the system
External excitation applied on the system
Winds may cause vibrations of certain systems such as electricity lines,
telephones lines etc.
37. Give two examples each of the bad and good effects of vibration
Bad effects
1. Proper readings of the instrument cannot be taken
2. Many building , structures and bridges may fall Newton’s Laws : The equations of motion of a mechanical system is
Good effects: determined from Newton’s laws of motion :
 F  ma ,  M
1. Useful for the propagation of sound
G  I
2. Vibratory conveyors
3. Musical instruments where G is the center of mass of the body.
38. Define degree of freedom of a vibrating system Energy methods: KE+PE = constant for conservative systems. Also :
The minimum number of independent coordinates required to specify the (KE)max=(PE)max .
motion of a system at any instant is known as degrees of freedom of the Mechanical System Elements: Elastic elements store potential energy, do not
system dissipate energy F=k(x2-x1)
39. In vibration analysis, can we always disregard damping? Viscous damping: Dissipates energy, forces are always opposite to the
No velocity of the body F  c( x 2  x1 )
40. Can we identify a nonlinear vibration problem by looking at its governing SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
differential equation?
Yes Harmonic Motion : Mass spring system m x  kx  0.
41. What is the difference between deterministic and random vibration? In x(0)  x0 , x (0)  v0 Solution :
deterministic the magnitude of excitation force is know but in random
magnitude of excitation is not known  n2 x02  v02  x
x(t )  Sin ( n t  tan 1 n 0 )
42. What methods are available foe solving the governing equations of a n v0
vibration problem? 2
Rayleigh method, energy method, equilibrium method n  k
m
: Natural frequency
T : Period of motion

43. How do you connect several springs to increase the overall stiffness? n
By connect springs in parallel. Damped system : mx  cx  kx  0
44. What is the difference between harmonic motion and periodic motion?
The motion which repeat itself after an equal interval of time while harmonic
motion is one form of the periodic motion. All the harmonic motions are
periodic in nature while the vice-versa is not always true.
45. Define the terms: cycle, amplitude, phase angle, frequency, period and
natural frequency.
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x(0)  x0 , x (0)  v0 Underdamped solution : Sliding or Coulomb Friction


 x  (v 0   n x 0 )  t
2 2 2
 d x0  N x (t )  0
x(t )  sin(  d t  tan 1
d 0
e n
) 
d v 0   n x 0 f c ( x )   0 x (t )  0
 N x (t )  0
where d  n 1 2 : damped natural frequency 
 n t
c c : Damping ratio. Impulse response function : h(t )  e sin  d t Convolution integral :
and   
m d
cc 2m n
mx  cx  kx  F (t )
t t
Forced Vibration
x(t )   h( ) F (t   )d   F ( )h(t   )d
Or :x  2 n x   n2 x  F (t ) m 0 0

e  nt  n
t
Harmonic excitation : F (t )  F0 sin t
m d 0
 e sin  d (t   ) F ( )d
Steady state response : x(t )  X sin t   
X

1 where r   and    tan 1 2r Energy loss in damping in one period: E   Fd dx
F0 / k (1  r )  (2r )
2 2 2 n 1 r2

mx  c( x  y )  k ( x  y )  0
Base excitation :
In viscous damping: Ev  X 2 c
y (t )  Y sin t , response: x(t )  X sin t    In Coulomb damping: Ec  4mgX
X 1  (2r ) 2 In structural damping: Es  k X 2
 : Transmissibility.
Y (1  r 2 ) 2  (2r ) 2 MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
Force transmitted to the base : F (t )  c( x  y )  k ( x  y )
d  L  L
Lagrange Equations
   Qi i  1 N
r 2
1  (2r ) 2
dt  qi  qi
F (t )  FT cos(t   ) FT 
where L = T-V, qi : generalized coordinates, Qi : generalized forces.
kY (1  r 2 ) 2  (2r ) 2
Equation of Motion : Mx  Cx  Kx  F (t ) where M, C and K are nxn
Rotating Unbalance: mx  cx  kx  m0 e 2 sin t symmetric mass, damping and stiffnes matrices, x is the displacement vector,
Response : x(t )  X sin t    F is the forcing vector.

mX r2 2r
 ,   tan 1 Undamped Free Vibration
m0 e (1  r 2 ) 2  (2r ) 2 1 r 2 Assume x  ue
jt
: Eigenvalue problem : Ku  Mu 2
Measuring devices : mx  c( x  y )  k ( x  y ) Solution gives natural frequencies , and the mode shapes u.
Let z (t )  x(t )  y (t ) : Motion of mass relative to the base. Eigenvalue Problem: Kw   2 Mw has a nontrivial solution if:

mz  cz  kz  mx If y (t )  Y cos t , equation becomes:   


det K   2 M  0 . Solution gives  i2 . K   i2 M ui  0 gives ui. 
Procedure for modal analysis
mz  cz  kz  m 2 Y cos t solution : z (t )  Z cos(t   ) Calculate M 1 2 .
Z r2 ,   tan 1
2r Calculate
~
K  M 1 2 KM 1 2

Y (1  r )  (2r )
2 2 2 1 r2 Solve the symmetric Eigenvalue Problem
~
Kv   2 v with v  v T v  1 ,
The device becomes an accelerometer for low frequencies (r<0.2) and a 
to get i and vi. Form P  v1 , v2 ,vn . 
seismometer (r>3) for high frequencies. 1 2 1
Calculate S  M P and S  P M12.
T

Periodic Excitation : A periodic function F(t) with period T can be expressed Calculate the modal initial conditions : r (0)  S 1 x(0) and
in Fourier series as :
r(0)  S 1 x (0) Solve ri   i2 ri  0 .
a0 
2 Obtain the solution in physical coordinates by: x (t )  Sr (t )
F (t )    (a n cos nt  bn sin nt ) Where  ~
2 n 1 T Kv   2 v has a nontrivial solution if:
Eigenvalue Problem:

2
T
2
T
2
T 
~ 2
 ~

det K   I  0 . Solution gives  i2 . K   i2 I vi  0 gives vi. 
a0 
T0 F (t )dt a n   F (t ) cos ntdt bn   F (t ) sin ntdt
T0 T0 Mode Expansion Method : Let q  M 12
x . Then, the equations are
mx  cx  kx  F (t ) ~ n
Single DOF system:

tranformed to Iq

  Kq  0 . Solution is : q(t )  d sin(  t   )v
i 1
i i i i
a
x(t )  0   ( xcn (t )  x sn (t )) where: viT q (0) and  v T q(0) . Physical solution is:
2k n 1 Where: di   i  tan 1 i T i
an k sin  i vi q (0)
xcn (t )  cos( nt   n ) x  M 1 2q .
(1  n r )  (2nr ) 2
2 2 2
Forced Response: Mx  Kx  F (t ) The same procedure for modal
bn k  2nr 
sin( nt   n )  n  tan 
1
x sn (t )  2 2 
analysis applies.
(1  n r )  (2nr )
2 2 2 2 1 n r  Make the coordinate transformation x(t)=Sr(t).
Non-periodic Forcing Single DOF system :
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Modal equations become : Ir(t )  r (t )  S 1 F (t ) . where Types of Vibrations


~
  diag (i2 )  PT KP . There are three important types of vibrations from subject point of view:
Solve the decoupled equations in modal coordinates r(t) and then back Free or natural vibrations,
transform to physical coordinates x(t). Damped vibrations,
Damped Systems: In general modal analysis does not apply to damped Force vibrations.
systems. It applies only if the system is proportionally damped. In this case: Free or natural vibrations : If the vibrations of a particle after giving it an
C  M  K . In this case the modal equations are: initial displacement remain continued, then the vibrations are called free or
Ir(t )  diag (2 ii )r  r (t )  S 1F (t ) . where natural vibrations. No external force acts on the particle. In other words, the
vibrations of the particle with fundamental frequency under the influence of
diag (2 i i )  P T M 1 2 CM 1 2 P . the restoring force are called free vibrations.
Damped vibrations : The vibrations of a body whose amplitude goes on
reducing over every cycle of vibrations are known as damped vibrations. This
Impedance Method for Harmonic Forcing: Mx  Cx  Kx  Fe jt is due to the fact that a certain amount of energy possessed by the vibrating
body is always dissipated in overcoming frictional resistance to the motion.In
Assume x(t )  Xe jt ,  these vibrations, the amplitude of the vibrations decreases exponentially due


X  M 2  jC  K 1
F or X  ZF where Z is the
to damping forces like frictional force, viscous force, hysteresis etc.
Forced Vibrations : When the body vibrates under the influence of external
system impedance matrix. periodic force, the n the vibrations are known as forced vibrations.The body
does not vibrate with its natural frequency, but it vibrates with the frequency
Rayleigh Quotient: Is used to estimate the first natural frequency if an of the driver. The amplitude of the vibrations decreases due to damping
approximate first mode shape is known. forces, but on account of energy gained from the external source, it remains
constant. In these vibrations, the amplitude and energy remains constant
uT Ku
R(u )  T  12 with respect to the time.
u Mu Q. 2. EXPLAIN DIFFERENT TYPES OF FREE VIBRATIONS.
Vibration Absorbers: Steady state vibration amplitude of the main mass
becomes zero when   k a ma
  dr . Define  
p  k m Answer.
a ma m There are three types of free vibrations:
and  2 4 2

  a . Frequency equation is :  r  1   (1   ) r  1  0.
2
 Longitudinal vibrations,
p Transverse vibrations,
where r   . Torsional vibrations.
a
Let us consider a weightless bar of length whose one end is fixed and
TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS: • The vibrating systems, which
other end carries a disc as shown in fig. The system may have one of the
require two coordinates to describe its motion, are called two-degrees-of –
above mentioned three types of free vibrations.
freedom systems. • These coordinates are called generalized coordinates
when they are independent of each other and equal in number to the
degrees of freedom of the system. • Unlike single degree of freedom system,
where only one co-ordinate and hence one equation of motion is required to
express the vibration of the system, in twodof systems minimum two co-
ordinates and hence two equations of motion are required to represent the
motion of the system. For a conservative natural system, these equations can
be written by using mass and stiffness matrices. • One may find a number of
generalized co-ordinate systems to represent the motion of the same
system. While using these co-ordinates the mass and stiffness matrices may
be coupled or uncoupled. When the mass matrix is coupled, the system is
said to be dynamically coupled and when the stiffness matrix is coupled, the
system is known to be statically coupled. • The set of co-ordinates for which
both the mass and stiffness matrix are uncoupled, are known as principal co-
ordinates. A two-dof system differs from the single dof system in that it has (a) Longitudinal Vibrations (b) Transverse Vibrations (c) Torsional
two natural frequencies, and for each of the natural frequencies there Vibrations
corresponds a natural state of vibration with a displacement configuration
known as the normal mode. Mathematical terms associated with these Fig. Types of Free Vibrations
quantities are eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Longitudinal vibrations : When the particles of a bar or disc move parallel to
the axis of the shaft, then the vibrations are known as longitudinal vibrations
Q.1. DEFINE VIBRATION. WHAT ARE ITS DIFFERENT TYPES? EXPLAIN. as shown in fig. (a). The bar is elongated and shortened alternately and thus
the tensile and compressive stresses are inducted in the bar. The motion of
Vibration spring mass system is longitudinal vibrations.
Transverse Vibrations : When the particles of the bar or disc move
when a particle goes on one side from mean position and returns back approximately perpendicular to the axis of the bar, then the vibrations are
and then it goes to other side and again returns back, then it is known as known as transverse vibrations as shown in fig.(b). In this case, bar is straight
one vibration. In other words, to and fro motion of a particle about a and bent alternately. Bending stresses are induced in the bar.
fixed point is known as vibration. Torsional Vibrations : When the particles of the bar or disc get alternately
twisted and untwisted on account of vibratory motion of suspended body, it
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is said to be undergoing torsional vibrations as shown in fig. (c). In this case, The motion is simple harmonic motion.
torsional shear stresses are induced in the bar.

Q.3. DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF FREE


LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS.

Answer.
Natural frequency of Free Longitudinal Vibrations

Let us consider a spring mass system as shown in fig. given below.

For longitudinal vibrations, the value of static vibration S may be


obtained from the relation,

E = Young’s modulus

Q.4. DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF FREE


TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS.

Answer. Let us consider a system as shown in fig.

(a) (b)
(c)

Fig. Natural Frequency of free Longitudinal Vibrations

From equilibrium position as shown in fig.(b),

Fig. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations

Now, if mass is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance as


shown in fig.(c) and released, then

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get


Hence, the natural frequency of free transverse vibrations are same as that
of longitudinal vibrations. Therefore,
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Q.5. DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF FREE


TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS.
r.
Let us consider a single rotor system as shown in fig.

Q.6. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES, HARMFUL EFFECTS AND REMEDIAL


MEASURES OF VIBRATIONS?

Answer.
Causes of Vibrations in machines
For minimizing the undesired vibrations of machines, it is utmost important
to find the causes of vibrations in them. The major cause of vibration in
Fig. Natural Frequency of Free Torsional Vibrations machines is unbalancing. So it can also be said that vibrations are the
symptoms of unbalance. The basic cause is the non symmetrical mass
distribution in various machine components. The various causes of vibrations
are listed as below:
q = Torsional stiffness of shaft
Lack of Compact Soil : If the soil under the foundation of machine is not
compact or has settled down being wet or loose, then it may lead to
misalignment of the machine which will result in development of vibrations.
Unbalance Parts : The machine consists of a number of rotating and
I = Mass moment of inertia = reciprocating parts having motion in different planes. If these are not
dynamically balanced, the unbalanced parts may produce unbalanced forces,
which may give rise to unbalanced couples resulting in development of
vibrations in machines.
Loose Fittings : If the machine components are not properly fitted i.e. nuts,
bolts and screws including foundation bolts are not properly tightened or
they get loosened during operations, then these may lead to development of
vibrations in the machines.
Disturbance due to Vibration Waves : If the heavy machines such as
pneumatic hammer, presses,etc. are installed in the near by space, then they
produce sound waves due to their working which in turn impinge on the
adjoining machines resulting in vibrations in them. A train passing through a
plant where a precision machining is being done, may result in vibrations in
the machines which may lead to manufacturing defects.
Effect of Temperature : The temperature may cause changes in structure
From which, which increases in vibrations, by bringing critical speed closer to operating
speed. Thus a machine which is smooth in cold may be rough when it is hot
due to vibrations.
Hydraulic Vibrations : These may occur from cavitation in pumps. These may
be excited by fluid flows and other condition also.
Manufacturing Defects : The manufacturing defects such as non-symmetry in
cast parts, non homogeneity of materials, poor distribution of mass in a
It should be noted that torsional stiffness of shaft may
completely machined component, variation in mass distribution etc. the
be found out from the following torsional equation: causes which will lead to vibrations.
Lack of Isolation : If the vibrations produced in a machine are not isolated by
means of rubber pads or other isolating materials. Between machine and
foundation, the vibrations may be transmitted to the adjoining machines
also.
Incorrect Alignment : In a machine, there are many parts fastened together
for transmission of power. If the driving and the driven parts are not properly
aligned or there is no proper alignment between foundation and the
machine, the vibrations may set up in the machine.
Harmful Effects : As discussed earlier in the article that if the vibrations are
allowed to exist in the machine parts, the machine produces unwanted
noise, high stresses, wear and premature failure of parts. This will not only
reduce the efficiency of machines, but also shorten their life. The vibrations
are also a great source of human discomfort in the form of physical and
mental strain. This adversely effects the working efficiency of the workers.
7|Page

REMEDIES FORCED VIBRATION [8] is caused by an external force that acts on the
Vibrations can be controlled by system. In this case, the exciting force continuously supplies energy to the
system. The vibration that takes place under the excitation of external forces
Removing or controlling or balancing the disturbing forces. is called forced vibration.
Changing the natural frequency so that it is far away from the operating
frequency of machines so as to avoid resonance.
All the causes of vibrations mentioned above can be corrected to a degree by  If excitation is harmonic, the system is forced to vibrate at excitation
dynamic and static balancing. Care must be taken for foundations, loose frequency . If the frequency of excitation coincide with one of the
fittings, alignments, soil below foundations etc. The causes which cannot be natural frequencies of the system, a condition of resonance is
corrected should be isolated. The natural frequency of a machine can be encountered and dangerously large oscillations may result, which
altered by mounting it on flexible supports. The torsional vibrations can be results in failure of major structures, i.e., bridges, buildings, or airplane
decreased by decreasing the diameter of the shaft, increasing the length of wings etc.
shaft or using flexible couplings. The natural frequency of shaft can be  Thus calculation of natural frequencies is of major importance in the
increased by making it rigid. study of vibrations.
 Because of friction & other resistances vibrating systems are subjected
Vibration Isolation to damping to some degree due to dissipation of energy.
If perfect balancing of machine parts is not possible, the various steps for
 Damping has very little effect on natural frequency of the system, and
isolating the machine should be taken which are listed below:
hence the calculations for natural frequencies are generally made on
the basis of no damping.
Place the isolators such as springs, rubber pads, felts, glass fibre, lead,
asbestos, cork, plastic etc. as the case may be, below the machine.  Damping is of great importance in limiting the amplitude of oscillation
If this is not feasible, study should be carried out to increase the weight of at resonance.
the machine.
Once machine is isolated from the floor, ways to avoid vibrations from 
transmission through connecting pipes and ducts should be looked into.
Fexible connectors, spring hangers and duct wrapping etc. should be used.
The side air gaps between the foundation and the floor should be provided.
Q.6. Define resonance.
Answer.
When the frequency of external force is equal to the natural frequency of the
vibrations, resonance takes place, amplitude or deformation or displacement
will reach to its maximum at resonance and the system will fail due to
breakdown. This state of disturbing force on the vibrating body is known as
the state of resonance.
Q.7. Define time period related to vibratory motion.
Answer. Fig. 7 Forced vibration: system forced by a harmonic external force (left),
The time interval after which the motion is repeated itself is called time system forced by a time-dependent displacement (right).
period. It is usually expressed in seconds.
Q.8. Define time cycle related to vibratory motion.
Answer.
 SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION [10] is periodic and deterministic oscillation. Under
certain conditions, the equilibrium state in such a vibration system becomes
The motion completed during one time period is called cycle.
unstable, and any disturbance causes the perturbations to grow until some
Q.9. Define frequency related to vibratory motion.
effect limits any further growth. In contrast to forced vibrations, the exciting
Answer. The number of cycles executed in one second is called frequency. It
force is independent of the vibrations and can still persist even when the
is usually expressed in hertz (Hz).
system is prevented from vibrating. The force acting on a vibrating object is
usually external to the system and independent of the motion. However,
there are systems in which the exciting force is a function of the motion
variables (displacement, velocity or acceleration) and thus varies with the
motion it produces. Friction-induced vibration (in vehicle clutches and
MECHANICAL VIBRATION is defined as the measurement of a periodic brakes, vehicle-bridge interaction) and flow-induced vibration (circular wood
process of oscillations with respect to an equilibrium point. Mechanical saws, CDs, DVDs, in machining, fluid-conveying pipelines), fluttering of
airplane wing (Fig. 9) are examples of self-excited vibration.
vibrations are oscillations that repeat within a time period. The design of
string instruments, such as guitars, is based on the strings vibrating at a OSCILLATING MOTIONS :
certain frequency. The study of vibrations is concerned with the oscillating motion of elastic
bodies and the force associated with them.
DIFFERENT CLASSES OF VIBRATION: free (undisturbed) and forced All bodies possessing mass and elasticity are capable of vibrations.
(disturbed), damped and undamped (has negligible or no damping), Most engineering machines and structures experience vibrations to some
nonlinear and linear, and random (unpredictable) and deterministic. degree and their design generally requires consideration of their oscillatory
motions.
Oscillatory systems can be broadly characterized as linear or nonlinear.
 FREE VIBRATION [8] of a system is vibration that occurs in the absence of Linear systems :
external force. The sources of free vibration are initial displacement of
Nonlinear systems :All systems tend to become nonlinear with increasing
system from equilibrium or give the initial velocity to the system. Free
vibration takes place when a system oscillates under the action of forces amplitudes of oscillations. Oscillatory Motion
inherent in the system itself due to initial disturbance, and when the
externally applied forces are absent.
 Repeat itself regularly for example pendulum of a wall clock
• The system under free vibration will vibrate at one or more of its natural
frequencies, which are properties of the dynamical system, established by its  Display irregularity for example earthquake
mass and stiffness distribution.
Periodic Motion – This motion repeats at equal interval of time T.
8|Page

Period of Oscillatory – The time taken for one repetition is called period. THE SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE,[1] also known as superposition property,
states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more
stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each
stimulus individually. So that if input A produces response X and
input B produces response Y then input (A + B) produces response (X + Y).
Frequency - , It is defined reciprocal of time period.
The homogeneity and additivity properties together are called Superposition.
A linear function is one that satisfies the properties of superposition.
The condition of the periodic motion is

FREE VIBRATIONS

where motion is designated by time function x(t)


 Objective of the present section will be to write the equation of
motion of a system and evaluate its natural frequency, which is
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF) : mainly a function of mass, stiffness, and damping of the system
from its general solution.
The number of independent co-ordinates required to describe the motion of
a system is termed as degrees of freedom.  In many pratical situation, damping has little influence on the
natural frequency and may be neglected in its calculation.
For example Particle - 3 dof (positions) Rigid body-6 dof (3-positions and 3-
 In absence of damping, the system can be considered as
orientations)
conservative and principle of conservation of energy offers
Continuous elastic body - infinite dof (three positions to each particle of the
another approach to the calculation of the natural frequency.
body).
 The effect of damping is mainly evident in diminishing of the
 If part of such continuous elastic bodies may be assumed to be rigid (or vibration amplitude at or near the resonance.
lumped) and the system may be considered to be dynamically VIBRATION MODEL :
equivalent to one having finite dof (or lumped mass systems).
 Large number of vibration problems can be analyzed with sufficient  The basic vibration model consists of a mass, spring (stiffness) and
accuracy by reducing the system to one having a few dof. damper (damping) as shown in Figure 2.1.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT TERMINOLOGY :

 Peak value : Indicates the maximum response of a vibrating part. It also


places a limitation on the “rattle space” requirement.
 Average value : Indicates a steady or static value (somewhat like the DC
level of an electrical current) and it is defined as

where x(t) is the displacement, and T is the time 


span (for example time period) Figure 2.1: Spring-damper vibration model.

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION : The inertia force model is

 Simplest form of periodic motion is harmonic motion and it is (2.1)


called simple harmonic motion (SHM). It can be expressed as
where m is the mass in kg, is the acceleration in m/sec2 and Fi is the
inertia force in N.
The linear stiffness force model is
where A is the amplitude of motion, t is Fs= kx
the time instant and T is the period of motion (2.2)
where k is the stiffness (N/m), x is the displacement and Fs is the spring force.
Harmonic motion is often represented by projection on line of a point The damping force model for the viscous damping is
that is moving on a circle at constant speed. (SHM Animation)

(2.3)
where c is the damping coefficient in N/m/sec, is the velocity in m/sec
and Fd is the damping force.

UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION

A spring mass system as shown in Figure 2.2 is considered. For simplicity at


present the damping is not considered.

Figure 1.1: The Simple Harmonic Motion


9|Page

For this system having springs connected in series or parallel, equation


The direction of x in the downward direction is positive. Also velocity, , (2.13) is still valid with the equivalent stiffness as shown in Figures
acceleration, , and force, F, are positive in the downward direction 2.4 and 2.5.

Equation of Motion (EOM):

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.5

ENERGY METHOD :

From Figure 2.2(d) on application of Newton's second law, we have In a conservative system (i.e. with no damping) the total energy is constant,
and differential equation of motion can also be established by the principle
or of conservation of energy.
For the free vibration of undamped system: Energy=(partly kinetic energy +
From Figure 2.2(b), we have (i.e. spring force due to static partly potential energy).
deflection is equal to weight of the suspended mass), so the above equation Kinetic energy T is stored in mass by virtue of its velocity.
becomes Potential energy U is stored in the form of strain energy in elastic
deformation or work done in a force field such as gravity, magnetic field etc.
T + U =Constant
(2.4)
The choice of the static equilibrium position as reference for x axis datum has
eliminated the force due to the gravity. Equation (2.4) can be written as
Hence
or
(2.5) ENERGY METHODS can also be used to analyse the vibration behaviour of a
system, just as we used the Newton's laws of motion. Law of conservation of
energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be
only converted from one form to another. In a simple vibrating spring – mass
with system, the two forms of energy are the kinetic energy and the potential
(2.6) energy. Thus this principle means that the relative contribution of the kinetic
and potential energies to the total energy of the system can change from
where is the natural frequency (in rads/sec). Equation (2.5) satisfies the time to time, but the total energy of the system itself has to remain constant.
simple harmonic motion condition
RAYLEIGH'S METHOD is based on this principle. Let, T=Kinetic Energy
V=Potential Energy U=Total Energy The system shown in fig 7.4.1 has the
The undamped free response can also be written as kinetic energy of the form 7.4.1 And the Potential Energy of the form

NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THE SYSTEM, writing equation for two positions

T1 + U1 = T2 + U2 =
constant (2.17)
where, 1 & 2 represents two instants of time.
Let 1 represents a static equilibrium position (choosing this as the reference
point of potential energy, here U1=0 ) and 2 represents the position
corresponding to maximum displacement of mass and at this position
velocity of mass will be zero and hence T2 = 0. Equation (2.17) reduces to
where A & B are constants to be determined from initial conditions, which is T1 + 0 = 0
same as equation + U2 (2.18)
If mass is undergoing harmonic motion then T1 & U2 are maximum values.
Equivalent Stiffness of Series and Parallel Springs : Tmax = Umax
10 | P a g e

DAMPED SYSTEM due to friction between the internal planes, which slip or slide as the
deformations take place.
When a body having material damping is subjected to vibration, the stress-
Vibration systems may encounter damping of following types:
strain diagram
 Internal molecular friction.
shows a hysteresis loop. The area of this loop denotes the energy lost per
 Sliding friction
unit volume
 Fluid resistance
of the body per cycle due to damping
Generally mathematical model of such damping is quite complicated and not
4. SLIP OR INTERFACIAL DAMPING
suitable for vibration analysis.
Microscopic slip occur on the interfaces of machine elements in contact
Simplified mathematical model (such as viscous damping or dash-pot) have
under fluctuating
been developed which leads to simplified formulation.
loads. The amount of damping depends upon the material combination,
A mathematical model of damping in which force is proportional to
surface roughness at
displacement i.e., Fd = cx is not possible because with cyclic motion this
interface, contact pressure and the amplitude of vibration.
model will encounter an area of magnitude equal to zero as shown in
Figure 3.1(a). So dissipation of energy is not possible with this model.
The damping force (non-linearly related with displacement) versus
displacement curve will enclose an area, it is referred as the hysteresis loop VISCOUSLY DAMPED FREE VIBRATION :
(Figure 3.1(b)), that is proportional to the energy lost per cycle.
Viscous damping force is expressed as,
FREE DAMPED VIBRATION

In many practical systems, the vibrational energy is gradually converted to (3.16)


heat or sound. c is the constant of proportionality and it is called damping co-efficient.
Due to the reduction in the energy, the response, such as the displacement Figure 3.2 shows spring-damper-mass system with free body diagram.
of the system, From free body diagram, we have
gradually decreases. The mechanism by which the vibrational energy is
gradually converted
into heat or sound is known as damping. Although the amount of energy
converted into heat (3.17)
or sound is relatively small, the consideration of damping becomes important
for an accurate
prediction of the vibration response of a system. A damper is assumed to
have neither mass
nor elasticity, and damping force exists only if there is relative velocity Let us assume a solution of equation(3.18) of the following form
between the two ends
of the damper. It is difficult to determine the causes of damping in practical
systems. Hence (3.19)
damping is modeled as one or more of the following types. where s is a constant (can be a complex number) and t is time.
Types of Damping
So that and , on substituting in equation (3.18), we
1. Viscous damping
get,
2. Coulomb damping
3. Structural damping
4. Slip or interfacial damping
From the condition that equation (3.19) is a solution for all values of t , above
equation gives a characteristic equation (Frequency equation) as
VISCOUS DAMPING
Viscous damping is the most commonly used damping mechanism in
vibration analysis.
When mechanical systems vibrate in a fluid medium such as air, gas, water,
or oil, the
resistance offered by the fluid to the moving body causes energy to be Equation (3.20) has the following form
dissipated. In this case,
the amount of dissipated energy depends on many factors, such as the size solution of which is given
and shape of the
vibrating body, the viscosity of the fluid, the frequency of vibration, and the
velocity of the
as
vibrating body. In viscous damping, the damping force is proportional to the
Solution of equation (3.20) can be written as
velocity of the
vibrating body. Typical examples of viscous damping include (1) fluid film
between sliding
surfaces, (2) fluid flow around a piston in a cylinder, (3) fluid flow through an
orifice, and (4)
fluid film around a journal in a bearing. (3.21)
2. COULOMB DAMPING
Here the damping force is constant in magnitude but opposite in direction to Hence the general solution of equation (3.18) from equations
that of the (3.19) and (3.21) is given by the equation
motion of the vibrating body. It is caused by friction between rubbing
surfaces that either are
dry or have insufficient lubrication. (3.22)
3. STRUCTURAL DAMPING where A and B are integration constants to be determined from initial
When a material is deformed, energy is absorbed and dissipated by the conditions.
material. The effect is
11 | P a g e

Substituting equation (3.21) into equation (3.22).

(3.23)

The term outside the bracket in RHS is an exponentially decaying function.


The term

 Figure 3.4: Critical damping

CRITICALLY DAMPED SYSTEMS :


can have three cases.

OVERDAMPED SYSTEM
We obtained two roots
Two terms in solution combines to give one constant

From equation (3.32) for critically damped case (when ), we have

(i) : exponents in equation (3.23) will be real numbers.

 No oscillation is possible as shown in Figure 3.3.


 This is an OVERDAMPED SYSTEM (Figure 3.3).

EQUATION OF MOTION FOR DAMPED SYSTEM can be expressed in terms



 Figure 3.3: Overdamped system
of and as

CRITICAL DAMPING

 iii) Critical case between oscillatory and non-oscillatory motion : (3.27)


This form of equation is useful in identification of natural frequency and
damping of system.
It is useful in modal summation of MDOF system also.
The roots of characteristic equation (3.20) can be written as
 Damping corresponding to this case is called CRITICAL
DAMPING, cc

 (3.28)
(3.25)
 Any damping can be expressed in terms of the critical damping by
with
a non-dimensional number called the DAMPING RATIO
Depending upon value of damping ratio we can have the following cases

(3.26)
 Response corresponding to the critical damping case is shown
, overdamped condition (Figure 3.3)
in Figure 3.4 for various initial conditions.
, underdamped condition (Figure 3.7)

, critical damping (Figure 3.4)

, undamped system (Figure 3.8)

LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT :
12 | P a g e

Rate of decay of free vibration is a measure of damping present in a system.


Greater is the decay, larger will be the damping.
Damped (free) vibration, general equation of the response is given as

Defining a term logarithmic decrement which is defined as the natural


logarithm of the ratio of any two successive amplitudes as shown Figure 3.6.

Figure 4.2: Force polygon


The steady state response of the system can be determined by solving
equation(4.1) in many different ways. Here a simpler graphical method is
used which will give physical understanding to this dynamic problem. From
solution of differential equations it is known that the steady state solution
(particular integral) will be of the form
since

Td = damped period, where =


damped natural frequency As each term of equation (4.1) represents a forcing term viz., first, second
and third terms, represent the inertia force, spring force, and the damping
We have damped period , we get forces. The term in the right hand side of equation(4.1) is the applied force.
logarithmic decrement as One may draw a close polygon as shown in figure 4.2 considering the
equilibrium of the system under the action of these forces. Considering a
reference line these forces can be presented as follows.

(3.
38)  Spring force = (This force will make

Since , the above equation reduces to an angle with the reference line, represented by line
OA).
(3.39
 Damping force = (This force
STEADY STATE RESPONSE DUE TO HARMONIC OSCILLATION : will be perpendicular to the spring force, represented by line AB).
Consider a spring-mass-damper system as shown in figure 4.1. The equation
 Inertia force = (this force
of motion of this system subjected to a harmonic force can be is perpendicular to the damping force and is in opposite direction
given by with the spring force and is represented by line BC) .

(4.1)  Applied force = which can be drawn at an


where, m , k and c are the mass, spring stiffness and damping coefficient of
angle with respect to the reference line and is represented
the system, F is the amplitude of the force, w is the excitation frequency or
by line OC.
driving frequency.

ROTATING UNBALANCE

Figure 4.1 Harmonically excited system


13 | P a g e

Figure 4.1 : Vibrating system with rotating unbalance

One may find many rotating systems in industrial applications. The


unbalanced force in such a system can be represented by a mass m with
eccentricity e , which is rotating with angular velocity as shown in Figure 4.1.

WHIRLING OF SHAFT : (4.15)

Whirling is defined as the rotation of the plane made by the bent shaft and
the line of the centre of the bearing. It occurs due to a number of factors,
some of which may include (i) eccentricity, (ii) unbalanced mass, (iii)
gyroscopic forces, (iv) fluid friction in bearing, viscous damping.

Hence,
(4.16)

as and

From equation

Figure 4.6: Whirling of shaft


(15),
(4.18)
Substituting equation (4.18) in equation (4.15) yields
Consider a shaft AB on which a disc is mounted at S . G is the mass center of
the disc, which is at a distance e from S. As the mass center of the disc is not
on the shaft center, when the shaft rotates, it will be subjected to a
centrifugal force. This force will try to bend the shaft. Now the neutral axis of
the shaft, which is represented by line ASB, is different from the line joining
the bearing centers AOB. The rotation of the plane containing the line joining
bearing centers and the bend shaft (in this case it is AOBSA) is called the (4.19)
whirling of the shaft.
Considering unit vectors i , j , k as shown in the figure 4.6(b), the acceleration

of point G can be given by


or

(4.9)
Assuming a viscous damping acting at S. The equation of motion in radial
direction

(4.10) (4.21)

(4.12) (4.2
2)
The eccentricity line e = SG leads the displacement line r = OS by phase

angle which depends on the amount of damping and the rotation speed
(4.13)

Considering the synchronous whirl case, i.e.


ratio When the rotational speed equals to the natural frequency or
critical speed, the amplitude is restrained by damping only. From equation
(4.15)

where is the phase angle between e and r . (22) at very high speed , and the center of
mass G tends to approach the fixed point O and the shaft center S rotates
Taking , from equation (4.12) about it in a circle of radius e.
14 | P a g e

SUPPORT MOTION

Many machine components or instruments are subjected to forces from the


support. For example while moving in a vehicle, the ground undulation will
cause vibration, which will be transmitted, to the passenger. Such a system
can be modelled by a spring-mass damper system as shown in figure 10. Here (14)
The steady state amplitude and Phase from this equation are
the support motion is considered in the form of , which is
transmitted to mass m , by spring (stiffness k) and damper (damping
coefficient c). Let x be the vibration of mass about its equilibrium position.

(15)

Figure 1: A system subjected to support motion Figure 2: Freebody


diagram
Now to derive the equation of motion, from the freebody diagram of the
mass as shown figure 2

(1) VIBRATION ISOLATION :


let z = x-y (2) In many industrial applications, one may find the vibrating machine transmit
forces to ground which in turn vibrate the neighbouring machines. So in that
contest it is necessary to calculate how much force is transmitted to ground
(3) from the machine or from the ground to the machine.

(4)
As equation (4) is similar to equation (1) of lecture 1, solution of equation (4)
can be written as

(5)

and
If the absolute motion x of the mass is required, we can solve for x = z +
y. Using the exponential form of harmonic motion

(7)
Figure 4.5 : A vibrating system
(8)
Figure 4.5 shows a system subjected to a force and

vibrating with .
(9)
This force will be transmitted to the ground only by the spring and damper.
Substituting equation (9) in (1) one obtains
Force transmitted to the ground

(10)

(18)

(1 It is known that for a disturbing force , the amplitude of


2) resulting oscillation

(13)
15 | P a g e

(4.27)

Where is a constant with units of force displacement.


By the concept of equivalent viscous damping

Substituting equation (4.19) in (4.18) and defining the transmissibility TR as or


the ratio of the force transmitted Force to the disturbing force one obtains
VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS
AN ACCELEROMETER
is a device that measures proper acceleration.[1] Proper acceleration, being
the acceleration (or rate of change of velocity) of a body in its own
instantaneous rest frame,[2] is not the same as coordinate acceleration,
being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system. For example, an
accelerometer at rest on the surface of the Earth will measure
an acceleration due to Earth's gravity, straight upwards (by definition) of g ≈
9.81 m/s2. By contrast, accelerometers in free fall (falling toward the center
of the Earth at a rate of about 9.81 m/s2) will measure zero.
(4.20) Accelerometers have multiple applications in industry and science. Highly
Comparing equation (4.20) with equation (4.17) for support motion, it can be sensitive accelerometers are components of inertial navigation systems for
noted that aircraft and missiles. Accelerometers are used to detect and monitor
vibration in rotating machinery. Accelerometers are used in tablet
computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always
displayed upright. Accelerometers are used in drones for flight stabilisation.
Coordinated accelerometers can be used to measure differences in proper
acceleration, particularly gravity, over their separation in space; i.e., gradient
of the gravitational field. This gravity gradiometry is useful because absolute
gravity is a weak effect and depends on local density of the Earth which is
EQUIVALENT VISCOUS DAMPING :
quite variable.
In the previous sections, it is assumed that the energy dissipation takes place
Single- and multi-axis models of accelerometer are available to detect
due to viscous type of damping where the damping force is proportional to
magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, as a vector quantity, and
velocity. But there are systems where the damping takes place in many other
can be used to sense orientation (because direction of weight changes),
ways. For example, one may take surface to surface contact in vibrating
coordinate acceleration, vibration, shock, and falling in a resistive medium (a
systems and take Coulomb friction into account. Also in many cases energy is
case where the proper acceleration changes, since it starts at zero, then
dissipated in joints also, which is a form of structural damping. In these cases
increases). Micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
one may still use the derived equations by considering an equivalent viscous
accelerometers are increasingly present in portable electronic devices and
damping. This can be achieved by equating the energy dissipated in the
video game controllers, to detect the position of the device or provide for
original and the equivalent system.
game input.
The primary influence of damping on the oscillatory systems is that of
An accelerometer measures proper acceleration, which is the acceleration it
limiting the amplitude at resonance. Damping has little influence on the
experiences relative to freefall and is the acceleration felt by people and
response in the frequency regions away from resonance. In case of viscous
objects.[2] Put another way, at any point in spacetime the equivalence
damping, the amplitude at resonance is
principle guarantees the existence of a local inertial frame, and an
accelerometer measures the acceleration relative to that frame.[3] Such
accelerations are popularly denoted g-force; i.e., in comparison to standard
(4.25) gravity.
For other type of damping, no such simple expression exists. It is possible to Conceptually, an accelerometer behaves as a damped mass on a spring.
however, to approximate the resonant amplitude by substituting an When the accelerometer experiences an acceleration, the mass is displaced
equivalent damping Ceq in the foregoing equation. The equivalent to the point that the spring is able to accelerate the mass at the same rate as
damping Ceq is found by equating the energy dissipated by the viscous the casing. The displacement is then measured to give the acceleration.
damping to that of the nonviscous damping with assumed harmonic motion. In commercial
devices, piezoelectric, piezoresistive and capacitive components are
(4.26) commonly used to convert the mechanical motion into an electrical signal.
Piezoelectric accelerometers rely on piezoceramics (e.g. lead zirconate
Where must be evaluated from the particular type of damping. titanate) or single crystals (e.g. quartz, tourmaline). They are unmatched in
terms of their upper frequency range, low packaged weight and high
temperature range. Piezoresistive accelerometers are preferred in high shock
applications. Capacitive accelerometers typically use a silicon micro-
STRUCTURAL DAMPING :
machined sensing element. Their performance is superior in the low
When materials are cyclically stressed, energy is dissipated internally within
the material itself. Experiments by several investigators indicate that for frequency range and they can be operated in servo mode to achieve high
stability and linearity.
most structural metals such as steel and aluminum, the energy dissipated per
cycle is independent of the frequency over a wide frequency range and
VIBROMETER
proportional to the square of the amplitude of vibration. Internal damping
fitting this classification is called solid damping or structural damping. With
the energy dissipation per cycle proportional to the square of the vibration A vibrometer is generally a two beam laser interferometer that measures the
frequency (or phase) difference between an internal reference beam and a
amplitude, the loss coefficient is a constant and the shape of the hysteresis
test beam. The most common type of laser in an LDV is the helium–neon
curve remains unchanged with amplitude and independent of the strain rate.
Energy dissipated by structural damping can be written as laser, although laser diodes, fiber lasers, and Nd:YAG lasers are also used.
The test beam is directed to the target, and scattered light from the target is
16 | P a g e

collected and interfered with the reference beam on a photodetector, TUNED VIBRATION ABSORBER
typically a photodiode. Most commercial vibrometers work in
a heterodyne regime by adding a known frequency shift (typically 30– Consider a vibrating system of mass , stiffness , subjected to a
40 MHz) to one of the beams. This frequency shift is usually generated by
a Bragg cell, or acousto-optic modulator.[1] force . As studied in case of forced vibration of single-degree of
A schematic of a typical laser vibrometer is shown above. The beam from the freedom system, the system will have a steady state response given by
laser, which has a frequency fo, is divided into a reference beam and a test
beam with a beamsplitter. The test beam then passes through the Bragg cell,
which adds a frequency shift fb. This frequency shifted beam then is directed
to the target. The motion of the target adds a Doppler shift to the beam
given by fd = 2*v(t)*cos(α)/λ, where v(t) is the velocity of the target as a
function of time, α is the angle between the laser beam and the velocity
vector, and λ is the wavelength of the light.
Light scatters from the target in all directions, but some portion of the light is
collected by the LDV and reflected by the beamsplitter to the photodetector.
This light has a frequency equal to fo + fb + fd. This scattered light is combined
with the reference beam at the photo-detector. The initial frequency of the
laser is very high (> 1014 Hz), which is higher than the response of the
detector. The detector does respond, however, to the beatfrequency
between the two beams, which is at fb + fd (typically in the tens of MHz
range).
The output of the photodetector is a standard frequency modulated (FM)
signal, with the Bragg cell frequency as the carrier frequency, and the (1)which will be
Doppler shift as the modulation frequency. This signal can be demodulated
to derive the velocity vs. time of the vibrating target. maximum when Now to absorb this vibration, one may add a
A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is a scientific instrument that is used to secondary spring and mass system as shown in figure 13.
make non-contact vibration measurements of a surface. The laser beam from
the LDV is directed at the surface of interest, and the vibration amplitude and
frequency are extracted from the Doppler shift of the reflected laser beam Hence, if a system called the primary system with a
frequency due to the motion of the surface. The output of an LDV is generally
a continuous analog voltage that is directly proportional to the target velocity stiffness mass is subjected to an exciting force or base motion to
component along the direction of the laser beam. vibrate, it is possible to completely eliminate the vibration of the primary
Some advantages of an LDV over similar measurement devices such as system by suitably designing an attached spring-mass system (secondary
an accelerometer are that the LDV can be directed at targets that are difficult
to access, or that may be too small or too hot to attach a physical transducer. system) with stiffness and mass such that the natural frequency
Also, the LDV makes the vibration measurement without mass-loading the of the secondary system coincide with the exciting frequency.
target, which is especially important for MEMS devices.

. (12)

This is the principle of dynamic vibration absorber.

From equation (1) it may be noted that the primary system will have
resonance when the natural frequency of the primary system coincide with
A LONGITUDINAL VIBRATION is a continuous periodic change in the that of the excitation frequency.
element's displacement. In this type of vibration the motion by the medium
is always parallel to the direction of waves.

In case OF TRANSVERSE VIBRATION the moving medium is the right angled to Resonant frequency of the vibration absorber
the direction of waves.

TORSIONAL WAVE is the special type of wave also known as twisted wave
it is only exist in solid matter.in these type of wave propagating motion is
always periodic.
17 | P a g e

CENTRIFUGAL PENDULUM VIBRATION ABSORBER


Proof : Consider a linear system and now applying force the work done
The centrifugal pendulum vibration absorber was devised and patented in
France about 1935 and at the same time it was independently conceived and
put into practice by E. S. Taylor. Its purpose was to overcome serious force X displacement =
torsional vibration problem inherent in geared radial aircraft-engine –
propeller system. Later it was modified and incorporated into automobile IC
engines in order to reduce the torsional vibrations of the crankshaft. This was Then applying force , the work done =
done by integrating the absorber mass with crankshaft counter balance
mass.
However due to application of force i undergoes further

The tuned vibration absorber is only effective when the frequency of displacement, and the additional work done by
external excitation equals to the natural frequency of the secondary spring
and mass system. But in many cases, for example in case of an automobile
becomes .
engine, the exciting torques are proportional to the rotational speed ‘n'
So, total work
which may vary over a wide range. For the absorber to be effective, its
natural frequency must also be proportional to the speed. The characteristics
of the centrifugal pendulum are ideally suited for this purpose.
done
(14)
MULTIDEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
Now if one reverses the order application of forces, i.e, first a force acts
Properties of Vibrating Systems:
Since the elastic behavior of motion may be expressed in terms of the
stiffness or flexibility, the equations of motion may be formulated by either at j followed by a force acting at i , the work done will

the stiffness matrix or the flexibility matrix .


be
In stiffness formulation , the force is expressed in terms of (15)
Since the work done in the two cases must be equal
displacement by

(11)
Also one may write hence,
(16)

(12)
which leads to the flexibility approach . Stiffness matrix :
The choice as to which approach one should adopt depends on the problem.
Some problems are more easily pursued as the basis of stiffness, whereas for For a three dof system, the force and displacements are related by stiffness
others the flexibility approach may be desirable. matrix as

Flexibility matrix:

For a three degree-of-freedom system, the displacement as forces are


related by flexibility matrix as

(17)

The stiffness is defined, as the force required at point i to have unit


displacement at point j, displacement at other places being zero.

So are the forces required at points 1,2,3


The flexibility influence coefficient is defined as the displacement
at i due to unit force applied at j with all other forces equal to zero. Thus the respectively to have unit displacement at 1, i.e., .
first column represent displacement corresponding to
ORTHOGONAL PROPERTIES OF THE EIGEN VECTORS:
Similarly, second column represents the
stem can be shown to be orthogonal with respect to the mass and stiffness
displacements for and so on.
matrices. In equation (1) the equation for the i th mode
be

Reciprocity theorem : States that in a linear system

(1
8)
18 | P a g e

Premultiplying by the transpose of mode j,

(19) Hence, . Similarly substituting

Now start with the equation for the jth mode and premultiplying by to
obtain,

(20)
Hence,
Since and are symmetric matrices
Here are the normal modes.

o verify that the normal modes of this system are


Subtracting (20) from (19), orthogonal,

(22)

. .
(23)
Equation (23) shows the orthogonal character of the normal modes.
If i = j, Modal Participation in Free Vibration

To find how much of each mode will be present in the resulting free

(24) vibration, one may write the free vibration


as
and are known as the generalized mass and generalized stiffness
of the ith mode.

DETERMINE THE NORMAL MODES FOR THE FOLLOWING SYSTEM AND (25)
SHOW THAT THE MODES ARE ORTHOGONAL

where is the i th normal mode and the coefficient represent the


amount of i th mode present in the free vibration. Premultiplying equation

(25) by and taking note of the orthogonal property one gets,


Solution:
Here

(26)

So,

Solving , one will get To


TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS may result in shafts from following forcings:

obtain the normal modes, one may find the adj


 Inertia forces of reciprocating mechanisms (such as pistons in
Internal Combustion engines)
 Impulsive loads occurring during a normal machine cycle (e.g.
during operations of a punch press)
 Shock loads applied to electrical machineries (such as a generator
line fault followed by fault removal and automatic closure)
Here,
 Torques related to gear tooth meshing frequencies, turbine blade
passing frequencies, etc.

For machines having massive rotors and flexible shafts (where system natural
frequencies of torsional vibrations may be close to, or within, the source
One may note that the normalized frequency range during normal operation) torsional vibrations constitute a
value of both the columns of the above matrix are same. potential design problem area.
19 | P a g e

In such cases designers should ensure the accurate prediction of machine


torsional frequencies and frequencies of any of the torsional load
fluctuations should not coincide with torsional natural frequencies.

Hence, determination of torsional natural frequencies of a dynamic system is


very important.

Simple systems with a single disc mass: Consider a rotor system as shown
in Figure 4.1. The shaft is considered as massless and it provides the stiffness
only. The disc is considered as rigid and it has no flexibility. If we give a small
initial disturbance to the disc in the torsional mode and allow it to oscillate
its own, it will execute free vibrations. The oscillation will be simple harmonic 2. Field matrix:
motion (SHM) with a unique frequency, which is called natural frequency of
the rotor system.
For shaft element 2 as shown in Figure 4.9(a), the angle of twist is related to
its torsional stiffness and to the torque, which is transmitted through it, as

(4
.29)

Since the torque transmitted is same at either end of the shaft, hence

(4.30)

Combining equations (4.29) and (4.30), we get

Damping in torsional systems:

Damping may come from (i) the shaft material and (ii) the torsional vibration
damper. The torsional vibration damper is a device which may be used to
MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
join together two-shaft section as shown in Figure 4.13. It transmits a torque,
which is dependent upon of the angular velocity of one shaft relative to the
• When there are several numbers of discs in the rotor system it becomes a other.
multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system.

• When the mass of the shaft itself may be significant then the analysis
described in previous section (i.e. single or two-disc rotor systems) is
inadequate to model such systems, however, they could be extended to
allow for more number of lumped masses (i.e., rigid discs) but resulting
mathematics becomes cumbersome.

• Alternative methods for analysis of MDOF systems are

1. Transfer matrix method and


2. Finite element method
3. (i) Transfer Matrix Method : A multi-disc rotor system supported
on frictionless supports is shown in Figure 4.8. Figure
4.9(a) and 4.9(b) show free body diagrams of a shaft and a disc,
respectively. At a particular station in the system, we have two Torsional dampers can be used as a means of attenuating system vibration
and to tune system resonant frequencies to suit particular operating
state variables: angular twist and T1 torque. Now in conditions. The damping in the system introduces phase lag angles to the
subsequent sections we will develop relationship of these state system displacement and torque. The displacement and torque parameters
variables between two neighbouring stations and which can be must now be represented mathematically both in the inphase and
used to obtain governing equation of the whole system. quadrature components (i.e., cosine and sine terms) or in the form of the
complex number.
20 | P a g e

CONTINUOUS SYSTEM  The concept of orthogonality is applicable to both discrete and


continuous systems.
n this module the equation of motion of continuous systems or distributed  The eigen value problem in case of discrete system takes the from
mass systems will be derived using both d'Alembert principle and extended of algebraic equations while in continuous systems differential
Hamilton's principles. Different one-dimensional systems such as longitudinal equations and some times integral equations are obtained.
vibration of rod, transverse vibration of string, torsional vibration of rod and Eigenvectors of the discrete system becomes eigenfunction of the
transverse vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams will be considered in this continuous system.
module.
LONGITUDINAL VIBRATION OF ROD
Introduction to Continuous systems
Let u ( x,t ) be the axial displacement of an element dx of the rod.
In the previous modules we have studied about discrete mass system, which From Hook's law
are modeled as single, two or multi-degrees of freedom systems. In these
cases the system has a definite number of lumped masses, stiffness elements
and damping elements. For example the cantilever beam with a tip mass as (1)
shown in Figure 10.1 is modeled as a single degree of freedom system with a Applying Newton's second law (Fig. 10.6)
spring and a mass. The stiffness k of the system was calculated using the
following equation.

(2)

(3)
Fig : Cantilever beam with a tip mass P = force at x
A = Cross sectional
area
E = Young's
Modulus.

is
the mass of the
Here W is the weight of the attached mass, is the deflection of the beam element
with length L, Young's modulus Eand moment of inertia I. The natural
frequency can be calculated using the formula = Mass per unit
volume.
From equation (3) If
AE is const

where m is the attached mass. In this calculation we have neglected the mass
of the beam. Hence it may be observed that by considering a point mass at
the tip we obtained one natural frequency of the system. Instead of
modeling this system as a single-spring mass if one consider the beam to be
consist of several masses, then the system can be modeled as a multi-degree
of freedom system as shown in figure 10.2(a). But as the dimension of each
or (5)
elemental mass considered in the above case is arbitrary, one may consider
the beam as a continuous system with infinite number of distributed mass
and stiffness and hence has infinite number of natural frequencies
or where (6)
 So in contrast to the discrete mass system, in distributed mass or It may be observed that we are getting the same wave equation in this case
continuous system the system has infinite number of natural where only c is different. It can be shown that c represent the velocity of the
frequencies and corresponding to each natural frequency, the wave in the rod.
system will have a distinct mode shape.
THE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN CASE OF TORSIONAL VIBRATION OF ROD
 It may be observed that the response of the continuous system
depends time and space coordinate (location). But in case of
discrete system the response is only a function of time. Hence
while the equation of motion of discrete systems are written in The boundary conditions in case of torsional vibration of rod are given in
terms of ordinary differential equations, in case of continuous Table 2.
system they are written in terms of partial differential equations.
 It may be noted that all the real systems are continuous system. Boundary Boundary
 A continuous system for analysis purpose can be reduced to a Case condition left condition right
finite number of discrete models. Each discrete model can be x=0 x=l
reduced to an eigen value problem.
 In case of continuous system the solution yields infinite number of
eigen values and eigen functions where as in discrete system the
eigen values and eigen vectors are finite. Fixed end
21 | P a g e

Free end
that the acceleration is proportional to displacement q(t), one

may take the proportionality constant equal to to have simple


harmonic motion in the system. If one take a positive constant, the response
will grow exponentially and make the system unstable. Hence one may write
equation (4) as

(5)

Inertia Jp Hence,
Case (6)
Boundary condition left x = 0
Boundary condition right x = l
Torsional damper
And
(7

Taking (8)
The above equation can be written as

(9)
The solution of equation (6) and (9) can be given by

(
SOLUTION OF EULER BERNOULLI EQUATION 10)

In the last two lectures the equation of motion of lateral vibration of string,
longitudinal vibration of rod and torsional vibration of shafts were carried
Hence,
out using Newton's law and Hamilton's principle. In all these three cases the
equation of motion of the system reduces to that of Wave equation, which
can be given by
DUNKERLEY'S METHOD (SEMI EMPIRICAL) APPROXIMATE SOLUTION

Let W1, W2 ,….Wn be the concentrated loads on the shaft due to


(1) masses m1, m2,….mn and D1, D2,…… D3 are the static deflections of the shaft
To find the response of the system one may use the variable separation under each load. Also let the shaft carry a uniformly distributed mass
method by using the following equation. of m per unit length over its whole span and static deflection at the mid span

(2) due to the load of this mass be . Also


Let
is known as the mode shape of the system and q(t) is known as the
time modulation. Now equation (1) reduces to = Frequency of transverse vibration of the whole system.

= Frequency with distributed load acting alone

= Frequency of transverse vibration when each of W1,


W2 ,….Wn ....act alone.
According to Dunkerley's empirical formula

or
(4)

Since the left side of equation (4) is independent of time t and the right side Dunkerley's method
is independent of x the equality holds for all values of t and x . Hence each gives lower bound approximation.
side must be a constant. As the right side term equals to a constant implies For a simply supported Euler Bernoulli's beam
22 | P a g e

number of assumed functions than using by a single assume functions as in


Rayleigh's method.
It gives the more accurate result than the previous method.
In the case of transverse vibration of beams, if n functions are chosen for
approximating the deflection W(x), can be written as
for simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load, maximum
deflection occur at midpoint.

where, are linear independent functions of


W = total weight the spatial coordinate x which satisfy the boundary condition of the problem,

and are the coefficient to be found.


As the Rayleigh quotients have stationary value near the natural mode by
differentient by differentiating the Rayleigh quotient with respect to these
coefficients will yield a set of homogeneous algebraic equations, which can
So,
be solved to obtain the frequencies.

Hence TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS :


imilarly for a fixed-fixed beam with loading the maximum deflection can be
A continuous beam has uniform distribution of its mass and stiffness along its
length. Transverse vibrations result in bending deformation of beams (both
given by the linear and angular displacements). The Euler-Bernaulli beam theory is
considered which assumes a plane cross-section remains plane after bending
and remains perpendicular to the neutral axis of the beam before and after
bending. Figure 12.1 shows a continuous beam under distributed external
In this case for the first mode force F(x,t) and concentrated force, F0(t).

So,
For Cantilever Beam

In this case for the first mode

Figure 12.1: A beam under various kinds of transverse loadings


o,
In case of concentrated loading the natural frequencies can be determined

from the relation , where is the deflection under that


load. One may note for the commonly used cases.

Figure
12.2(a): The beam under the elastic deformation

THE RAYLEIGH-RITZ METHOD

This is considered as an extension of Rayleigh's method. A closer


approximation to the natural mode can be obtained by superposing a