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# NPTEL – ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING-I

Module 9
Lecture 37
DRILLED-SHAFT AND CAISSON FOUNDATIONS

Topics
1.1 DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY-LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY
1.2 EXAMPLES & SOLUTIONS
1.3 SETTLEMENT OF DRILLED SHAFTS AT WORKING LOAD

## DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY-LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY

From equation (6), for saturated clays with 𝜙𝜙 = 0, 𝑁𝑁𝑞𝑞∗ = 1; hence the net base resistance
becomes

Where

## 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢 = undrained cohesion

The bearing capacity factor 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ is usually taken to be 9. Figure 9.58 from chapter 9
indicates that, when the 𝐿𝐿/𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 ratio is 4 or more, 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ = 9 which is the condition for most
drilled shafts. Experiments by Whitaker and Cooke (1966) showed that, for belled shafts,
the full value of 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ = 9 is realized with a base movement of about 10%-15% of 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 .
Similarly, for straight shafts (𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 = 𝐷𝐷𝑠𝑠 ), the full value of 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ = 9 is obtained with a base
movement of about 20% of 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 .

The expression for the skin resistance of drilled shafts in clay in similar to equation (48
from chapter 9), or
𝐿𝐿=𝐿𝐿
𝑄𝑄𝑠𝑠 = ∑𝐿𝐿=01 𝛼𝛼 ∗ 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢 𝑝𝑝 Δ𝐿𝐿 [9.23]

Where

## 𝑝𝑝 = perimeter of the shaft cross section

The value of 𝛼𝛼 ∗ that can be used in equation (23) has not yet been fully established.
However, the field test results available at this time indicate that 𝛼𝛼 ∗ may vary between
1.0 to 0.3. figure 9.16 shows the variation of 𝛼𝛼 ∗ with depth (𝛼𝛼𝑧𝑧∗ ) at various stages of
loading for the case of the drilled shaft discussed in figure 9. 6. The values of 𝛼𝛼𝑧𝑧∗ were
derived from figure 9. 10c. At ultimate load, the peak value of 𝛼𝛼𝑧𝑧∗ is about 0.7 with an
average of 𝛼𝛼 ∗ ≈ 0.5.

Figure 9.16 Variation of 𝛼𝛼𝑧𝑧∗ with depth for the drilled shaft load test shown in figure 9. 6
(after Reese et al.,1976)

Kulhawy and Jackson (1989) reported the field test results of 106 straight drilled shafts-
65 in uplift and 41 in compression. The magnitudes of 𝛼𝛼 ∗ obtained from these tests are
shown in figure 9. 17. The best correlation obtained from these results is
𝑝𝑝
𝛼𝛼 ∗ = 0.21 + 0.25 � 𝑐𝑐 𝑎𝑎 � ≤ 1 [9.24]
𝑢𝑢

Figure 9.17 Variation of 𝛼𝛼 ∗ with 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢 /𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑎 (after Kulhawy and Jackson, 1989)

Where

## So, conservatively, we may assume that

𝛼𝛼 ∗ = 0.4 [9.25]

Reese and O’Neill (1989) suggested the following procedure to estimate the ultimate and
allowable (based on settlement) bearing capacities for drilled shafts in clay. According to
this procedure, we can use equation (17) for net ultimate load, or

## The following values are recommended for 𝛼𝛼𝑖𝑖∗ :

𝛼𝛼𝑖𝑖∗ = 0 for the top 5 ft (1.5 m) and bottom 1 diameter, 𝐷𝐷𝑠𝑠 , of the drilled shaft. (Note: If
𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 > 𝐷𝐷𝑠𝑠 , then 𝛼𝛼 ∗ = 0 for 1 diameter above the top of the bell and for the peripheral
area of the bell itself).

## 𝛼𝛼𝑖𝑖∗ = 0.55 elsewhere

And
𝐿𝐿
𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 = 6𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 �1 + 0.2 𝐷𝐷 � ≤ 9𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 ≤ 80 kip/ft 2 (3.83 MN/m2 ) [9.27]
𝑏𝑏

Where

## 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = average undrained cohesion within 2𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 Below the base

If 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 is large, excessive settlement will occur at the ultimate load per unit area, 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 , as
given by equation (27). Thus, for 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 > 75 in. (1.91 m), 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 may be replaced by 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 ,
or

## 𝑄𝑄𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 𝐹𝐹𝑟𝑟 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 [9.28]

Where
2.5
𝐹𝐹𝑟𝑟 = 𝜓𝜓 (in .)+𝜓𝜓 2
≤1 [9.29]
1 𝐷𝐷 𝑏𝑏

𝐿𝐿
𝜓𝜓1 = 0.0071 + 0.0021 �𝐷𝐷 � ≤ 0.015 [9.30]
𝑏𝑏

## 𝜓𝜓2 = 0.45(𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 )0.5 (0.5 ≤ 𝜓𝜓2 ≤ 1.5)

↑ [9.31]
kip/ft 2

Figure 9.18 and 9.19 may now be used to evaluate the allowable load-bearing capacity
based on settlement. (Note that the ultimate bearing capacity in figure 9. 19 is
𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 , not 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 ). To do so

Figure 9.18 Normalized side load transfer vs. settlement for cohesive soil (after Reese
and O’Neill, 1989)

Figure 9.19 Normalized base load transfer vs. settlement for cohesive soil (after Reese
and O’Neill, 1989)

## 1. Select a value of settlement, s.

2. Calculate ∑𝑁𝑁
𝑖𝑖=1 𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑖 𝑝𝑝 ∆𝐿𝐿𝑖𝑖 and 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 .
3. Using figure 9.18 and 9.19 and the calculated values in step 2, determine the side
4. The sum of the side load and the end bearing load gives the total allowable load.

Example 3

Figure 9.20 shows a drilled shaft without a bell. Here, 𝐿𝐿1 = 27 ft, 𝐿𝐿2 = 8.5 ft, 𝐷𝐷𝑠𝑠 =
3.3 ft, 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢(1) = 1000 lb/ft 2 , and 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢(2) = 2175 lb/ft 2 . Determine:

Figure 9.20

## a. The net ultimate point bearing capacity

b. The ultimate skin resistance
c. The working load, 𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤 (𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 = 3)

Solution

## Part a from equation (22),

𝜋𝜋
𝑄𝑄𝑝𝑝(net ) = 𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ = 𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢(2) 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ = �� 4 � (3.3)2 � (2175)(9) = 167,425 lb ≈ 167.4 kip

𝛼𝛼 ∗ = 0.4

## 𝑄𝑄𝑠𝑠 = (0.4)(10.37)[(1000 × 27) + (2175 × 8.5)] = 188,682 lb ≈ 1188.7 kip

Example 4

A drilled shaft in a cohesive soil is shown in figure 9.21. Use Reese and O’Neill’s
method to determine:

Figure 9.21

## a. The ultimate load-carrying capacity (equations 26 through 31)

b. The load-carrying capacity for an allowable settlement of 0.5 in.

Solution

Part a

## From figure 9. 21,

∆𝐿𝐿1 = 12 − 5 = 7 ft

Hence

## Again, from equation (27),

𝐿𝐿 20+5
𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 = 6𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 �1 + 0.2 𝐷𝐷 � = (6)(3000) �1 + 0.2 � �� = 40,500 lb/ft 2
𝑏𝑏 4

= 40.5 kip/ft 2

Check:

## So, use 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 = 27 kip/ft 2 .

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 = 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 � 4 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏2 � = (27) ��4 � (4)2 � ≈ 339.3kip

Hence

𝑄𝑄𝑢𝑢 = Σ 𝛼𝛼𝑖𝑖∗ 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢(𝑖𝑖) 𝑝𝑝 Δ𝐿𝐿𝑖𝑖 + 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 = 52.7 + 339.3 = 392 kip

Part b
Allowable settlement 0.5
= (2.5)(12) = 0.167 = 1.67%
𝐷𝐷𝑠𝑠

The trend line shown in figure 9. 18 indicates that, for a normalized settlement of 1.67%

## (0.89)(Σ 𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑖 𝑝𝑝 Δ𝐿𝐿𝑖𝑖 ) = (0.89)(52.7) = 46.9 kip

Again,
Allowable settlement 0.5
= (4)(12) = 0.0104 = 1.04%
𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏

The trend line shown in figure 9.19 indicates that, for a normalized settlement of 1.04%,
the normalized end bearing is about 0.57, so

## SETTLEMENT OF DRILLED SHAFTS AT WORKING LOAD

The settlement of drilled shafts at working load is calculated in manner similar to the one
outlined in section 17. In many cases, the load carried by shat resistance is small
compared to the load carried at the base. In such cases, the contribution of 𝑠𝑠3 may be
ignored. Note that in equation (63 and 64) the term D should be replaced by 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 for drilled
shafts.

Example 5

Refer to example 3. Estimate the elastic settlement at working loads (that is, 𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤 =
118.7 kip). Use equations (62, 64, and 65). Given: 𝜉𝜉 = 0.65, 𝐸𝐸𝑝𝑝 = 3 × 106 lb/in2 ,
𝐸𝐸𝑠𝑠 = 2000 lb/in2 , 𝜇𝜇𝑠𝑠 = 0.3 and 𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 24.35 kip.

Solution
�𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 +𝜉𝜉𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 �𝐿𝐿
𝑠𝑠1 = 𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝 𝐸𝐸𝑝𝑝

## 𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 118.7 − 24.35 = 94.35 = 94.35 kip

[24.35+(0.65×94.35)](35.5)
𝑠𝑠1 = 𝜋𝜋 3×10 6 ×144
= 0.000823 ft = 0.0099 in.
� ×3.32 �� �
4 1000

𝑄𝑄𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐶𝐶𝑝𝑝
𝑠𝑠2 = 𝐷𝐷𝑏𝑏 𝑞𝑞 𝑝𝑝

## 𝑞𝑞𝑝𝑝 = 𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑢(𝑏𝑏) 𝑁𝑁𝑐𝑐∗ = (2.175 kip/ft 2 )(9) = 19.575 kip/ft 2

Hence
(24.35)(0.04)
𝑠𝑠2 = (3.3)(19.575) = 0.015 ft = 0.18 in.

## Again, from equations, (65 and 66 from chapter 9),

𝑄𝑄 𝐷𝐷
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑠𝑠3 = � 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 � �𝐸𝐸𝑠𝑠 � (1 − 𝜇𝜇𝑠𝑠2 )𝐼𝐼𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑠𝑠

𝐿𝐿 35
𝐼𝐼𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 2 + 0.35�𝐷𝐷 = 2 + 0.35�3.3 = 3.15
𝑠𝑠

So

94.35 3.3
𝑠𝑠3 = �(𝜋𝜋×3.3)(35.5)� � 2000 ×144 � (1 − 0.32 )(3.15) = 0.0084 ft = 0.1 in.
1000

Total settlement

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