Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

ARCH 523




equity and economic viability into
the creation of places with distinct
beauty and identity.

 Urban design is the process of

designing and shaping cities, towns
and villages. Whereas architecture
focuses on individual buildings, urban
design address the larger scale of
groups of buildings, of streets and
public spaces, whole neighborhoods
and districts, and entire cities, to
make urban areas functional,
attractive, and sustainable
"The building of cities is one of
 Urban design is an inter-
man's greatest achievements."
disciplinary subject that unites all the
built environment professions, -Edmund Bacon
including urban planning, landscape
architecture, architecture, civil and Urban design involves place-
municipal engineering. making - the creation of a setting
that imparts a sense of place to an
area. This process is achieved by
 It involves the arrangement
establishing identifiable
and design of buildings, public
neighborhoods, unique architecture,
spaces, transport systems, services,
aesthetically pleasing
and amenities.
public places and vistas, identifiable
landmarks and focal points, and a
 Urban design blends
human element established by
architecture, landscaping, and city
compatible scales of development
planning together to make urban
and ongoing public stewardship.
areas functional and attractive.
Other key elements of place
making include: lively commercial
 Urban design is about making
centers, mixed-use development with
connections between people and
ground floor retail uses, human-scale
places, movement and urban form,
and context-sensitive design; safe
nature and the built fabric. Urban
and attractive public areas; image-
design draws together the many
making; and decorative elements in
strands of place-making,
the public realm.
environmental stewardship, social

Urban design can significantly THE SCOPE OF URBAN DESIGN
influence the economic,
environmental, social and cultural From Historical, Professional, and
outcomes of a place: Policy Context….. Why? to provide a
framework for exploring the meaning
 Urban design can influence and scope of urban design in
the economic success and socio- contemporary planning and urban
economic composition of a locality— development
whether it encourages local
businesses and entrepreneurship; Central Argument: UD is neither big
whether it attracts people to live architecture nor limited to urban
there; whether the costs of housing landscape issues. It does not operate
and travel are affordable; and solely at the interface between
whether access to job opportunities, planning and architecture.
facilities and services are equitable.
 Urban design determines the UD is a problem-solving activity with
physical scale, space and ambience applications to spatial decision-
of a place and establishes the built making at all scales of urban
and natural forms within which planning
individual buildings and infrastructure
are sited. As such, it affects the The need for UD as a discipline has
balance between natural arisen as a result of the fundamental
ecosystems and built environments, cultural, political, social and
and their sustainability outcomes. economic changes.
 Urban design can
influence health and the social and Other issues include the impact of
cultural impacts of a locality: how environmental issues and quality of
people interact with each other, how life on the nature of the city and how
they move around, and how they use urban form can best be adapted to
a place. our current and future needs.

Although urban design is often It has proved difficult to provide a

delivered as a specific ‘project’, it is in simple, commonly accepted
fact a long-term process that definition of the scope of UD
continues to evolve over time. It is this
layering of building and infrastructure
types, natural ecosystems,
communities and cultures that gives 1. The Region, City, and Town
places their unique characteristics
and identities.

2. Architecture

2. The Neighbourhood, District, and


3. Public Spaces
3. The Block, Street, and Building


Urban Design involves the
1. Infrastructure design and coordination of all that
makes up cities and towns:

BUILDINGS - Buildings are the most

pronounced elements of urban
design - they shape and articulate

space by forming the street walls of throughout the city. They include
the city. Well designed buildings and road, rail, bicycle, and pedestrian
groups of buildings work together to networks, and together form the total
create a sense of place. movement system of a city. The
balance of these various transport
systems is what helps define the
PUBLIC SPACE - Great public spaces quality and character of cities, and
are the living room of the city - the makes them either friendly or hostile
place where people come together to pedestrians. The best cities are the
to enjoy the city and each ones that elevate the experience of
other. Public spaces make high the pedestrian while minimizing the
quality life in the city possible - they dominance of the private
form the stage and backdrop to the automobile.
drama of life. Public spaces range
from grand central plazas and
squares, to small, local LANDSCAPE - The landscape is the
neighbourhood parks. green part of the city that weaves
throughout - in the form of urban
parks, street trees, plants, flowers, and
STREETS - Streets are the connections water in many forms. The landscape
between spaces and places, as well helps define the character and
as being spaces themselves. They beauty of a city and creates soft,
are defined by their physical contrasting spaces and
dimension and character as well as elements. Green spaces in cities
the size, scale, and character of the range from grand parks such as
buildings that line them. Streets Central Park in New York City and the
range from grand avenues such as Washington DC Mall, to small intimate
the Champs-Elysees in Paris to small, pocket parks.
intimate pedestrian streets. The
pattern of the street network is part of
what defines a city and what makes

This diagram shows the

approximate hierarchical relationship
TRANSPORT - Transport systems
between the elements of urban
connect the parts of cities and help design, followed by a brief definition
shape them, and enable movement of each of the elements. The section

below provides basic explanations for movement between locations, and
terms that are commonly used for modes of transport.
urban design in the Australian
context. DENSITY + MIX
The intensity of development and
the range of different uses (such as
residential, commercial, institutional
or recreational uses).

The scale of buildings in relation to
height and floor area, and how they
relate to surrounding land forms,
buildings and streets. It also
incorporates building envelope, site
coverage and solar orientation.
Height and massing create the sense
of openness or enclosure, and affect
the amenity of streets, spaces and
URBAN STRUCTURE other buildings.
The overall framework of a region,
town or precinct, showing STREETSCAPE + LANDSCAPE
relationships between zones of built The design of public spaces such as
forms, land forms, natural streets, open spaces and pathways,
environments, activities and open and includes landscaping,
spaces. It encompasses broader microclimate, shading and planting.
systems including transport and
infrastructure networks. FACADE + INTERFACE
The relationship of buildings to the
URBAN GRAIN site, street and neighbouring
The balance of open space to built buildings (alignment, setbacks,
form, and the nature and extent of boundary treatment) and the
subdividing an area into smaller architectural expression of their
parcels or blocks. For example a facades (projections, openings,
‘fine urban grain’ might constitute a patterns and materials).
network of small or detailed
streetscapes. It takes into
consideration the hierarchy of street DETAILS + MATERIALS
types, the physical linkages and The close-up appearance of objects
and surfaces and the selection of

materials in terms of detail, gardens, and is often referred to as
craftsmanship, texture, colour, ‘green infrastructure’.
durability, sustainability and
treatment. It includes street furniture, SOCIAL + ECONOMIC FABRIC
paving, lighting and signage. It The non-physical aspects of the
contributes to human comfort, safety urban form which include social
and enjoyment of the public factors (culture, participation, health
domain. and well-being) as well as the
productive capacity and economic
PUBLIC REALM prosperity of a community. It
Much of urban design is concerned incorporates aspects such as
with the design and management of demographics and life stages, social
publicly used space (also referred to interaction and support networks.
as the public realm or public
domain) and the way this is SCALE
experienced and used. The size, bulk and perception of a
The public realm includes the natural buildings and spaces. Bulk refers to
and built environment used by the the height, width and depth of a
general public on a day-to-day basis building in relation to other
such as streets, plazas, parks, and surrounding buildings, the street,
public infrastructure. Some aspects setbacks and surrounding open
of privately owned space such as space. For example, a large building
the bulk and scale of buildings, or set amongst other smaller buildings
gardens that are visible from the may seem ‘out of scale’.
public realm, can also contribute to
the overall result. URBAN FORM
At times, there is a blurring of public The arrangement of a built up area.
and private realms, particularly This arrangement is made up of
where privately owned space is many components including how
publicly used. close buildings and uses are
together; what uses are located
TOPOGRAPHY, LANDSCAPE AND where; and how much of the natural
ENVIRONMENT environment is a part of the built up
The natural environment includes the area.
topography of landforms, water
courses, flora and fauna—whether URBAN DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
natural or introduced. It may be in
the form of rivers and creeks, lakes, 1. Urban structure – How a place
bushland, parks and recreational is put together and how its
facilities, streetscapes or private parts relate to each other

2. Urban typology, density and equals, an important
sustainability - spatial types component in building social
and morphologies related to capital.
intensity of use, consumption
of resources and production
and maintenance of viable
3. Accessibility – Providing for SPACE
ease, safety and choice when
moving to and through places The most prominent aspect of urban
4. Legibility and way finding – design. The following artistic
Helping people to find their principles are an integral part of
way around and understand creating form and spatial definition –
how a place works
5. Animation – Designing places
to stimulate public activity 2. UNITY
6. Function and fit – Shaping
places to support their varied
intended uses 4. PROPORTION
7. Complementary mixed uses – 5. SCALE
Locating activities to allow
constructive interaction 6. HIERARCHY
between them 7. SYMMETRY
8. Character and meaning –
Recognizing and valuing the 8. RHYTHM
differences between one 9. CONTRAST
place and another
9. Order and incident – 10. CONTEXT
Balancing consistency and 11. DETAIL
variety in the urban
environment in the interests of 12. TEXTURE
appreciating both 13. HARMONY
10. Continuity and change –
Locating people in time and 14. BEAUTY
place, including respect
for heritage and support for
contemporary culture
11. Civil society – Making places
where people are free to
encounter each other as civic

HERITAGE OF URBAN DESIGN the minimal leftover space for
 The Acropolis
Although contemporary A religious and defensive
professional use of the term 'urban structure up on the hills, with no
design' dates from the mid-20th definite geometrical plan.
century, urban design as such has Layout:
been practiced throughout - once thought to lack
history. Ancient examples of visible design relationships :
carefully planned and no geometrical axial
designed cities exist in Asia, Africa, relationship
Europe and the Americas, and are - BUT, a very definite visual
particularly well known within relationship
Classical Chinese, Roman and  The Agora
Greek cultures - Whereas the Acropolis
THE BEGINNINGS: consisted of masses
articulations space, the
Innovations that influenced the buildings of the Agora served as
development of early cities: facades to form an enclosed
1. Rectilinear town planning urban space.
or Grid - Product of the  Greek Towns
farmers - Athens as a city was a cluster
of irregular cells.
2. Circular (fencing) - Gridiron Layout:
product of the herdsmen; - Plan of Athens harbor, Piraeus
defensive role was attributed to Hippodamus
3. Radiocentric plans- when - Areas of finite size,
circular settlement comprehensible to the eye,
enlarged; fortress cities and politically workable
- Neopolis : when a town
ANCIENT GREECE reaches its maximum size, a
“new town” is built
- The early Greek cities were
- Paleopolis : old town
quasi-rectilinear, the houses
being small cubicles and the
early towns a jumbled mass of
irregular rectangular cells. The
- The Romans used a set of
street was not treated as a
proportions that would harmoniously
principal design element but as
relate the various parts of a building

to each other but not necessarily to Adopted Greek Forms but with
human measure. different scale – monumental, had
a social hierarchy
- Roman use of street pattern as
module : to achieve a sense of MEDIEVAL TIMES
overpowering grandeurs : made for
military government - The decline of Rome’s power left
many outpost settlements all over
 The Republican Forum Europe which became the nuclei of
- or “The Roman Forum”, the most new societies.
famous forum  Siena
- was designed by architect Siena is composed of several
Vitruvius who felt the proportions political sections, each
needed to be 3:2 (length to width) occupying prominent
topography, each with its local
- level area is small, about 6 acres small square, but together
focusing on one of the finest
piazzas in the world and, a short
- a development of steadily distance from the piazza, on a
increasing political power (509 BC central dominating cathedral.
– 27 BC)
 Medieval Town Designs
- buildings have no formal
In medieval times the practice
relationship between each other
of architecture as an art
- Curia : senates assembly house; revolved principally about
forum’s most important building fortification, churches, guild
- successive buildings are larger halls, and burghers’ houses.
than their predecessors Visible Exteriors
- suits the viewing conditions of
small spaces
 The Imperial Forum
- Architectural or urban masses
- considerations and human
were made subordinate to spaces
scale : fine accent in
- composed of plazas formed by landscape
Street Layout
- colonnades act as transition and - is functional, although with
link to plazas. no logical form
 Roman Cities

THE RENAISSANCE AND • Geometrical forms of cities
BAROQUE PERIOD were proposed.
• Vienna emerged as the City of
 Ideal Cities culture and the arts – the first
- 1440 (beginning of “university town”
Renaissance) • Landscape architecture
- Leon Battista Alberti : foremost showcased palaces and
theoretician gardens, best displayed in the
plans of Lenotre for Versailles in
- Alberti’s De Architectua France and its adaptation in
 Accomplishments of early the design of Kartsruhe in
Renaissance Germany
- Public works
- Civic improvement projects
 Rebuilding FERRARA: is the first 1. Washington DC
modern city in Europe
- Palazzo Diamenti : most
famous structure

- Biaggio Rossetti : architect

and town planner regarded as
aone of the world’s earliest
modern urban designers
- Rosetti’s plan:
2. Cartagena, Columbia
1. street widening, new
buildings, wall
2. Enlarge the town
3. Carryon with the plan

• In 15th Century France the

kings achieved unity and
display their affluence and
power by improving and
beautifying their cities.

3. Salt Lake City, UT

4. Copenhagen, Denmark

5. Strasbourg, France