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FOREWORD

Thank God for the presence of Allah Almighty, because for His mercy and blessings I
can finish a task of this chemistry critical book , given by
Freddy Tua Musa Panggabean,S.Pd,M.Pd as a lecturer of basic chemistry.

Making this paper aims to complete the task given by the lecturer concerned.
The book is titled “Chemistry".

I realize that every human being has limitations, so even with me who is still a
student. In the making of this paper there may still be many shortcomings found,
therefore I say a great apology. I hope there is criticism and suggestion from all readers
and hopefully this paper can be useful for the readers.

Medan, 3th October 2018

Khairina Rangkuti

4183121048
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD...............................................................................................................

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1.Background..........................................................................................................1

1.2. Purpose ..............................................................................................................1

1.3.Formulate Of Problem...........................................................................................1

CHAPTER II PLEMENARY

2.1 Introduction Of Book...............................................................................

CHAPTER III DISCUSSION

3.1 Identity................................................................................................

3.2 Summary.............................................................................................

3.3. Theory and Concept........................................................................................ 7

3.4 Advantage and disadvantage..................................................................

3.5 Implication................................................................................................

CHAPTER IV CLOSING

4.1. Conclusion........................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Suggestion..........................................................................................................

4.3. Reference............................................................................................................. 8
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
To find out information from a book we can get it by doing activities criticizing a
book. By criticizing a book, readers can get important information about the book to
read with various advantages and disadvantages found in the book. Criticizing a
book means conveying information about the accuracy of the book for the reader. In
it are presented various reviews about books that are criticized from various aspects
of the point of view. This review is associated with the tastes of readers in an effort to
meet the need for reading that can be used as a reference for its interests. Besides
criticizing the book can also add to our knowledge and hone our brains to think
critically in assessing a book that is used as a book of criticism. In this case, the
book criticized is Zumdahl's book about the chemistry of solutions. By criticizing this
book by comparing the two books we can find out which book is worthy of being
used as a reference book that adds to our knowledge of solution chemistry or as a
guide to learning books.

1.2 Purpose
a. To know and understand the contant both of book.
b. To know the advantage and disadvantage both of book.

1.3 Formulate of Problem


a. How the contents both book?
b. What is the benefit from both book?
CHAPTER II PLEMENARY
2.1 Introduction
CHAPTER III DISCUSION
3.1 Identify
BOOK 1
Book title: Chemistry Eight Edition
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl
Publisher: Brooks Cole
Year is published: 2010
Publish City: Boston, Newyork
Thick Books: 1,189 pages

BOOK 2
Book title: Basic Chemistry
Author: Richard Myers
Publisher: Greenwood Press
Year of issue: 2003
City of Publication: London
Thick Books: 390

3.2 SUMMARY
BOOK 1
Summary of the Main Book Contents
The solution can be gas, liquid or solid. Examples are milk, gasoline, sea water,
shampoo and so on. The qualitative term encer (relatively little zat dissolved existing)
and concentrated (a relatively large amount of solute) is often used to describe the
solution. Molarity is the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution symbolized
by M. Molality the number of moles of solute in one kilogram of solvent is symbolized
by m. Percent of mass or percentweight is percent mass substance dissolved in
solution. Fraction mol is the ratio of the number of moles of a particular component to
the total number of moles of solution. Another measure of concentration sometimes
encountered is normality symbolized by the letter N.
Normalitydefined as amount equivalent for liter solution, Where 6 equivalent
definition depends on the reaction that occurs in the solution. For an acid-base
reaction, the equivalent is an acid or base mass that can give or receive exactly 1
mole of protons (H ions+) For oxidation- reduction reactions , the equivalent is
defined as the amount of oxidizing or reducing agent that can receive or give 1 mole
of electrons. So 1 equivalent to reducing substances will react exactly 1 equivalent to
an oxidizing agent.
Equivalent mass of the oxidizer or reducing agent can be calculated from the
number of electrons in half of the reaction. Factors affecting solubility:
1.Effect of Molecular Structure Solubility is perfect if solutes and solvents have
a kind of polarity. Because it is a molecular structure that determines polarity, there
must be a definite relationship between structure and solubility. Vitamins provide an
excellent example of the relationship between molecular structure, polarity, and
solubility.
2.Pressure pressure effects have little effect on solubility of solids or liquids, it
does not significantly increase gas solubility. Carbonated drinks for example, are
always in a bottle at high pressure carbon dioxide to ensure high concentrations of
carbon dioxide in the liquid.
3.Effect of Temperature (For Liquid Solutions) Dissolution from solids occurs
faster at higher temperatures, but the amount of solid that can dissolve can increase
or decrease with increasing temperature. The vapor pressure needed to reach
equilibrium with pure solvent is greater than that required to reach equilibrium with an
aqueous acid solution. Liquid solutions that obey Raoult's law are called ideal
solutions. Raoult's law is for the same solution as the ideal gas law but the law of gas
is ideal for gas. Like gas, the ideal behavior for a solution is never perfectly achieved
but sometimes closely approaches. Almost the ideal of this behavior is often
observedwhen solutes, solutes, solvents, and solvents experience very similar
interactions. That is, in solutions where solutes and solvents are very similar, solutes
only act to dilute the solvent
The normal boiling point of a liquid occurs at a temperature where the vapor
pressure is equal to 1 atmosphere. Non-volatile dissolved substances reduce steam
solvent pressure .By because that, solution that must heated to temperature high from
the boiling point of pure solvents to reach 1 atmospheric vapor pressure. This means
that non-volatile solutes lift the boiling point of the solvent. When the solute is dissolved
in a solvent, the freezing point of the solution is lower than the pure solvent. A pure
solution and solvent is separated by a semipermeable membrane, which allows
molecules of solvent to dissolve but not to pass through. By walkingtime, volume
larutan increase and that from decrease in solvent. This flow of solvent into the solution
through a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis. Finally the liquid level stops
changing, indicating that the system has reached equilibrium. Because the liquid level
is different at this point, there is a larger onepressure hydrostatic on solution from on
solvent pure. Pressure excess this is called osmotic pressure. Mud can be suspended
in water with strong stirring. When stirring stops, most particles dissolve quickly, tfire
even after a few days some of the smallest particles remain suspended. Although not
detected in lightingnormal, presence they can showed by shine a strong beam of light
through suspension. Light scattering by particles is called the Tyndall effect and is
often used to distinguish between the right suspension and solution . Suspension of
small particles in some media is called colloidal dispersion, or oloid.
BOOK 2
To determine a soluble substance, we must examine three intermolecular
forces between the particles of the solute, between the solvent particles, and between
the particlessubstance telarut and solvent. Formation solution could happen when the
magnitude of these three forces is similar. Conversely, if the intermolecular force for
particles dissolves awaymore strong compared power Pull they for particle solvent,
then mixing does not occur. To see how this rule applies, let's look at the solubility of
several main types ofi senyawa withoutionic yawa tends to larut in pelapolar rut.
Because water is the most common polar solvent, ionic compounds tend to form a
water solution. For example, NaCl dissolves in water. Consider what happens when a
few grains of salt are sown into water. Each salt grain is a crystal lattice structure
containing millions of NaCl unit cells.
Although the ionic bond holds the NaCl unit cell together strongly, the polarity
of the water causes the positive hydrogen end of the water to be attracted to the
chloride ion(Cl-) and the end of negative oxygen to be attracted to sodium ions (Na+)
Water molecules initially interact with NaCl crystals on the surfaceoutside from grains.
Molecule water Act on a collective for draw ions from the crystal structure. The general
process by which a solute becomes dispersed in solution is known as solvation. When
water is solvent, this process is known as hydration. While many ionic compounds
dissolve in water, many do not. The term "solubility" is rather subjective. Actually there
is a degree of solubility. Substances are considered soluble if 0.1 moles can dissolve
in 1 liter of water. If less than 0.001 moles of the substance is dissolved in water, the
substance is considered insoluble. Some solutes are between two extremes. Ionic
compounds dissolve in water depending on the strength of the ionic bond holding the
compound together.Water must have power that enough for break ion bond .
The strength of bonds depends on the size and cost of the ions in the complex.
Strong ionic bonds occur when smaller ions and ions carry several costs. Therefore ,
many ionic compounds may not dissolve in water. Polar covalent molecules may or
may not dissolve in water depending on whether they have the ability to form hydrogen
bonds. For example, many alcohols will dissolve in water because the characteristic
group of OH alcohol gives them the ability to bond hydrogen with water. The pull
between alcohol and water is indicated when the same volume of two is mixed to give
a total less than the total volume of each, for example, 100 ml of 100 mL alcohol of
wateryield less than 200 mL of solution. nonpolar substances tend to be insoluble in
water, but they dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Fat, oil, fat, and gasoline, for example,
are insoluble in water, but they form layers on the water. When substances do not mix
but form different layers, they are referred to as mixed.sub nonpolar attitude could
late in solvent nonpolar as benzene or carbon tetrachloride.
Solution of Solution
Most chemical reactions involve solution. The reaction between the solution
continues to take placein atmosphere, sea, and environment natural. A number
process chemistry like refiningoil earth, production steel, purification supply water,
and mineral purification involves solution. In fact, our survival depends on many
solution reactions that occur in our body. For Table 11.3, rule 3 shows that chloride is
soluble, but the exception is for chloride compounds containing Ag. Based on this
information, the white precipitate must be silver chloride, AgCl. Mixing two solutions is
presented in Figure 11.6. The two original solutions contain potassium, chloride, silver,
and deep nitrate ionswater solution. At this timemixed, silver and chloride react to
produce deposits.
Potassium and chloride ions remain in solution and the process can be
represented by the molecular equation: KCl (aq)AgNO3 (aq)→ AgCl(s) KNO3 (aq).
The ionic equation are complete are:
K (aq) + Cl(aq) + Ag(aq) + NO3(aq)→AgCl (s) + K (aq) +NO3 (aq)
When two solutions are mixed, solid deposits can form when the ion forms a
soluble compound.
Colloid And Suspension
The two types of mixtures mentioned at the beginning of this chapter are colloid
and suspension. This mixture can be distinguished from a solution based on particle
size. They are generally opaque to light, separate on the stand, and can be filtered.
Blood is an example of suspension.
Colloid was initially distinguished from the solution by Thomas Graham (1805-
1869) as a result of his work concerning the diffusion of particles through the
membrane. Graham observed that certain substances such as starch, glue, and
gelatin did not spread through membranes such as ionic solutions. Graham uses the
term "colloid," which means glue in Greek, to describe this substance. A colloid is also
called colloidal dispersion.
A colloidal dispersion consists of two components that are similar to solution.
Colloidal particles tend to get the same thing on the surface. Another characteristic of
colloids is their ability to scatter light. This phenomenon is known asthe Tyndall effect,
named after the English physicist John Tyndall (1820-1893). This effect is observed
when colloidal dust and water particles in the scattering light of a plane from a film
projector or spotlight make visible light rays. The process by which colloidal particles
are grouped is called coagulation. Coagulation can be started by heating or adding
acid to the colloid. Colloidal coagulation is observed whenever fried eggs. The colloid
in the albumen from thickens the egg produces a mass of white solids when heated.
3.4 advantage and disadvantage
BOOK 1
ADVANTAGES
The contents of the books and explanations in the books of Steven S. Zumdahl and
Susan A. Zumdahl are complete, because they explore the material thoroughly and
also discuss material one by one so readers can sort out one by one from the material.
The cover used in Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl's book looks simple
but still interesting and simple.
One of the uniqueness of Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl's book is also
accompanied by pictures or diagrams that can clarify the discussion and be easily
known directly by the reader.
This book is suitable for students as a guide and guide to increase knowledge about
solutions. This book can also be used as a basis for students' knowledge to continue
their studies in the next semester.
The suitability of the material discussed in the solution chapter with the previous and
subsequent

DISADVANTAGES
In the books of Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl, the study of the concept
of words and sentences presented is difficult for the reader to understand or not easily
understood when read.Almost bany ak-equation equation that diulang- reset. And the
words are very standard.
In the books of Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl, he explained the material
in a convoluted manner and made the reader confused.
The language and sentences used in the book are quite difficult to understand and
digest, the words are not so easy to understand so the reader must be more serious
and concentrate when reading it.

BOOK 2
ADVANTAGES
Describe the concept clearly and directed.
There are various pictures and graphics to explain the material discussed in the
book.
Using language that is easy to understand in explaining the material discussed.
DISADVANTAGES
In Richard Myers's book there is no example of a solution about the solution and the
discussion so it does not add to the reader's opinion about the solution material in this
book.
The formula about the solution in this book is not explained in full.
This book is not equipped with a periodic table in the introductory section or back
page of the book so that it gives difficulty for the reader to determine the mass number
and atomic number ofan element or compound.

3.4 Theory And Concept

3.5 Implications
Based on the results of the assessment that has been done through
summarizing the contents of the two books and giving an overview of the assessment
of the strengths and weaknesses of each book, the consequences obtained are books
that title Chemistry essay from Zumdahl Steven and Susan A. Zumdahl is a book that
most good used as guidelines learning for students and students, because in
Zumdahl's book on chemistry, the material outlines in detail and corresponds between
the previous and the following chapters. Although there are words that are somewhat
difficult to digest or understand, the completeness of the material in this book makes
this book the best book from the two books that I have criticized.
CHAPTER IV CLOSING

4.1 Conclusion
Based on the results of the criticism we obtained, it can be concluded that the
contents of Steven Zumdahl's main book are very complete and explanatory in the
bookvery accurate, because show material on a complete and too discuss material
one by one so that readers can sort out one by one from the material , but besides
that this book has the disadvantage of not presenting words / sentences effectively
and efficiently. Therefore readers sometimes feel confusedfor understand the
intention fill in book.
While in in book Comparative essay Richard Myers to review briefly the
contents of the material and not as complete as review the material in the book Steven
Zumdahl but in the book Richard Myers did not use the word / phrase that is too
complicated to understand that the book Richard Myers menjelafill in the contents of
the materi use language that is easy to understand. Therefore, these two books can
be used as learning guide books, especially chemistry learning, but in my opinion a
better book to be used as a guide or a more accurate learning reference is the main
book written by Steven Zumdahl.

4.2 Suggestion
To get a good book that can be used as a learning guideor as book reference
learn then we must review book critically. We must judge books from various aspects,
starting from the front of the bookto to part fill in book. Good no book for used as a
source of learning also depends on book critics. Therefore, let us be able to criticize
the book critically and in detail so that we obtain superior books as learning guidelines.

4.3 Refferences
Richard, Myers.2003.Basic Chemistry. London: Greenword Press
Zumdahl, Steven S. & Susan A. Zumdahl. 2010.Chemistry Eight Edition. USA: Brooks
Cole