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ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module


1.1. Calibration of a differential pressure transmitter for open-tank level measurement

1.2. Determination of the resistance and capacitance of a level process.
1.3. Identify the different closed loop responses of the Level Control System with
different PID control actions.
1.4. Recognize Ultimate Gain Methods for optimal tune the controller in the system.


Different types of level transmitter are used for different types of applications.
Some of the more important types of level transmitters are the following:

i. Measurement based on hydrostatic head. Pressure and differential

pressure measurement.
ii. Conductance and capacitance type probes.
iii. Sonar devices
iv. Gamma Ray devices.

In the current experiment, measurement based on pressure and differential pressure

is used. The liquid in a vessel exerts hydrostatic pressure which is proportional to
the liquid density and the head of the liquid. For constant density the measurement
of the hydrostatic pressure or pressure at the bottom of the vessel is directly related
to the level of liquid in the vessel. This principle is widely used for level
measurement because of its simplicity and low cost.

Absolute pressure, gauge pressure, differential pressure and vacuum

Pressure is the force exerted by a gas or liquid on a surface. The SI unit of

pressure measurement is the Pascal (Pa). Other common units are N/m 2, Torr, psi
and bar. It is critical to specify the reference point of the pressure.

When we measure a pressure in a system with perfect vacuum or absolute zero as

the basis then we call the value of the pressure as the absolute pressure. When the
pressure is measured with reference to the atmospheric pressure as the basis then
the measurement is called the gauge pressure. The relationship between absolute
pressure and gauge pressure is expressed as,
Pa= Pg+ 101.3
where,Pa and Pg= Absolute and gauge pressures respectively, kPa

The 101.3 in the equation is the standard atmospheric pressure at the earth’s
surface in kPa.

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Vacuum gauges are used when the pressure being measured has a value less
atmospheric pressure. Vacuum pressure may be expressed as absolute pressure or
vacuum units. For example, 10 kPa vacuum signifies a pressure of 10 kPa below
atmosphere pressure, that is, an absolute pressure of 91.3 kPa (101.3 kPa – 10

Measurement above atmospheric pressure

Pg Pa

Atmospheric pressure= 101.3 kPA

Vacuum measurements Pvacuum

Absolute vacuum=0 Pa

Fig. 1 Relationship between absolute, gauge and vacuum measurements

Differential pressure signifies the difference in pressure between two points.

Differential pressure measurement is useful for measuring flow or level.
In the case of flow, a device like orifice or venturi tube is introduced into the flow
path. This creates a pressure drop between the upstream and down stream points
of the orifice that is related to the flow rate. Hence by measuring the pressure
difference between the upstream and down stream points of the orifice we can
measure the pressure drop and hence calculate the flow rate.

For measuring level in tank the differential pressure between the bottom of the
tank and the top of the tank is measured which is directly related to the
hydrostatic head created by the liquid level which can be converted to the level
using the density of the liquid.

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Pressure Transmitters

The deflection of the mechanical transducers due to the action of pressure is

converted to an electrical signal by a variety of methods. Linear Variable
Differential Transducers (LVDT), Potentiometric Transducers, Capacitance
Transducers, Piezoresistive and Silicon Resonant Bridges are some of the more
important methods used for this purpose.

Of these methods the Silicon Resonant Sensor Method is extremely accurate and
stable. The Yokogawa transmitters are based on the Silicon Resonant Sensor
technique (Fig. 2a) that measures a strain-induced frequency created by the silicon

The entire sensor is made from a homogeneous silicon crystal. On the silicon
sensors two ‘H’ shaped resonators are provided. These resonators are patterned on
the silicon crystal itself. One resonator is at the center of the crystal while the
other is at the outer edge of the diaphragm. When no pressure is acting on the
diaphragm both the bridges oscillate at a frequency of 90 kHz.

When a pressure is applied to the diaphragm the center bridge goes into tension
and the outer bridge into compression. As a result the frequencies of one resonator
increases and the other decreases. This difference in frequencies is measured and
converted to a frequency output. The measurement can be directly converted to
digital output by pulse counters (Fig. 2b). The advantages of this technique are the
high accuracy, long-term stability and the facility to directly get digital signals
without having to use A/D conversion.

Magnetic Field

Magnetic Field


Electro Frequency
Pressure Motive
Exciting Force
(a) (b)

Fig. 2 Silicon Resonant Pressure Transmitter

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Differential Pressure used in Level Measurement

Differential Pressure method is a hydrostatic means of level measurement. They

rely on the pressure of the measured liquid head to provide indication. The
differential pressure transmitter is used commonly in continuous level
When the height of liquid level measured is at a pressure greater or less than the
atmospheric pressure, it must be compensated on the low side of the differential
pressure transmitter by zero suppression or elevation.
Zero Elevation is applied to compensate the effect of the head caused by the
sealed fluid in the reference leg of the transmitter in level measurement in a
closed or pressurized tank.
Zero Suppression is applied to compensate the effect of the liquid head in the
pipe connecting the transmitter to a tank when the transmitter is mounted below
the tank connection,

The level (h) to be measured is related to the pressure exerted on it by:

P= hg (1)
where P is the Pressure
h is the height of the level
 is the density of the fluid
g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Unit and Conversion in Pressure Measurement

The table below is a conversion table between the various pressure units that are available
in industry
Pa Bar kgf/cm2 Atmosphere mmH2O mmHg
1 1x 10 1.01972x10 9.86923x10 1.01972x10 7.50062x10-2
- -1
5 -6

1x105 1 1.01972 9.86923x10 1.01972x104 7.50062x102


9.80665x10 9.80665x10 1 9.67841x10 1.0000x104 7.35559x102
4 1 -1

1.01325x10 1.01325 1.03323 1 1.03323x104 7.60000x102


9.80665 9.80665x10- 1.0000x10-1 9.67841x10 1 7.35559x10-2

5 -5

- -
1.33322x10 1.33322x10 1.35951x10 1.31579x10 1.35951x10 1
2 3 3 -4

Table 1: Pressure Unit Conversion Table.

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module


Uncertainty of Measurement
A measurement result is not complete unless it includes a statement regarding the
uncertainty involved. Consider the measurement of a voltage by a voltmeter. Let
the voltmeter be Class 0.5 and let the Upper Range Value be 1V. Therefore the
tolerance is 0.5% of 1Volt = 0.005V = ±5mV. Let the reading obtained for the
input be 1.0004V for the input of 1 Volt. Since the reading is lying within 0.995 V
to 1.005 V, the meter tolerance is satisfied.
However, this reading of 1.0004 is the result of random errors in the
measurement. Hence we need to determine the confidence limits on this
measurement. In other words we should be able to say that the measurement has a
value of X±y to a confidence value of say 95%. Or we are guaranteeing that when
the measured value is X, that to 95% confidence the measured value is not greater
than X+y or less than X-y. This value of ±1 spanned by the measurement X is
called the confidence interval. We express it as a percentage, say 95%. What this
means is that there is a 95% chance that the measured value is lying between X±y.
Our aim is to determine the lower and upper confidence limits on the
measurement. This is called measurement of the uncertainty.
The EJA110A Differential Pressure Transmitter has very high accuracy as listed
in table 2. It is a suitable device for level measurement
Instrument Range Span Accuracy
EJA110A, -100 to +100 kPa 1 to 100 kPa ± 0.075 % of span.
Capsule M For span below 10
Differential kPa,
pressure ± [0.025+0.5/span]
transmitter % of span
Table 2: Accuracy Specifications


ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Open Tank System:

In the case of liquid level measurement in an open tank, the low pressure
side of the pressure transmitter is left open to the atmosphere. The liquid
in the tank exert a pressure to the high side of the differential pressure
transmitter. This is shown in figure 3(a).


Fig 3(a) Open Tank Measurement

PL= atmospheric pressure

PH-PL= g (H+h) (Differential Pressure) (2)
Where  is the liquid density of the liquid in the tank

Closed Tank System:

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Closed tank measurements have 2 considerations. There is dry leg

measurement as shown in fig 3(b) and wet leg measurement as shown in
fig 3(c).

Dry Leg


Fig 3(b) : Closed tank dry leg measurement

Dry Leg (Outside)

PH-PL= g (H+h) (Differential Pressure) (3)
Where  is the liquid density of the liquid in the tank

Wet Leg
H h1


Fig 3(b) : Closed tank wet leg measurement

Wet Leg(Outside)
PH-PL= g (H+h)- h1g (Differential Pressure) (4)

Where  is the liquid density of outside filled line  is the liquid density of
the liquid in the tank


ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

The equipment required for performing the experiments are shown in Table 3.

Unit Name Model Number

Level transmitter calibration and
level dynamics unit
Control Measurement Station CX1000

Differential pressure transmitter Yokogawa Model No. EJA110A

Digital indicator Yokogawa Model No. UM330

Handheld Communicator BT200-00

Table 3: Equipment Required


In a closed control system, the controlled variable is measured and then compared
to the desired value of the controlled variable (the set point). The difference
between these two (the error) is used as input to the feedback controller. This
controller then calculates a signal to adjust the manipulated variable. Since the
manipulated variable is normally a flow, the output of the feedback controller
usually is a signal to a control valve. Disturbances that enter the process tend to
drive the controlled variable. The manipulated variable is used to compensate for
all disturbance changes If there are changes in set point, the manipulated variable
also is changed accordingly to produce the needed change in the controlled

Ultimate Gain Method

The closed loop-tuning method conducted with the controller in automatic mode
and the integral and derivative actions turned off. The controller gain is varied
until even the slightest error causes a sustained oscillation in the process variable.
The smallest controller gain that can cause such an oscillation is called the
ultimate gain PBu. The period of those oscillations is called the ultimate period
PU. The appropriate tuning parameters can be computed from these two values
according to the following rules. Refer to table 8

Table 4: Approximate PID values using Ultimate Gain Method

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Controller Proportional Integral Derivative

Mode Band PB Time Time
(%) TI (sec) TD ( sec)
P 2*PBU Max. Min .
PI 2.2*PBU 0.83PU Min .
PID 1.7*PBU 0.5*PU 0.125*PU

Experiment 1: Calibration of a differential transmitter for level measurement in an

open tank.

1. Open valve V7 to and turn on the pump P1(Adjust
MV(OUT) to 100%) to allow water into Tank T01. Close
valve V6 to begin filling. When the tank T01 is being filled
adjust the V6 valve to 20 % to allow a flow back to tank T02
2. Adjust control valve MV(OUT) output from the CX1000
control station to noticeably increase the water level and fill
the tank. Adjust the values using from the tuning panel
screen. This operation will facilitate a continuous flow of
water to the tank.
3. Manipulate the MV(OUT) output of the CX1000 to increase
the values upscale and decrease the values downscale.
Manual valve V6 is adjusted to allow the outflow of water
to enable the decreasing level measurement in the tank from
100% to 0% according to the graduated scale of the sight
4. Check the zero level and adjust using the BT200 terminal to
memorize the position. Ensure that the Control Valve inlet
gauge reads 4 bar and lock it .Do not exceed 4 bar.
5. The measurement of water level with increasing and
decreasing level in the tank is recorded for analysis in Table 5
(a) and (b)
6. Graphs of output from the differential pressure transmitter
with the visual level of the water from the sight glass are
plotted to analyze the sensitivity, linearity and hysterisis in
Figure 4(a) and 4(b)


ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module


1. Check the Control Measurement Station CX1000 is at

MANUAL mode, adjust the Level Controller output (MV)
of CX1000 to 50%.Verify the control valve stem position
of LCV01 is open at about 50%. Set P=100%, I=6000 , D=
off at the CX1000 and start pump P1.

2. Open the discharge valve V6 to 20 º when water increase

until 50% of tank T1 and observe its discharge at tank T02.
Ensure that the Control Valve inlet gauge reads 4 bar
and lock it Do not exceed 4 bar.

3. Regulate manually the control valve from the controller

CX1000 (MANUAL mode) so that the water level in tank
T01 remains at steady state. Use the EJA110A as the
reference for height value. This is an operational exercise
of controlling level manually.

4. Set the control station CX1000 Process Value(PV),

Manipulated Value (MV) and Set Point (SP) are displaying
50 % (ie 50 % water tank level) Set the Recorder to AUTO
Mode and Press START to begin recording.

5. Introduce a 20º change in the output discharge valve V6.

Wait until the level response reaches its steady state.
Observe and record the process reaction from the above
step change of 20º discharge opening . Reduce the P
Values in CX1000 until you obtain oscillations of PV and
MV. Record this in fig 5.

6. From the graph, plot and determine the respective process

parameters in table 6. Refer to table 4. These parameters
could be used for computation of optimal settings for
controller tuning using the Ziegler Nichols Ultimate Gain
Method and plot the new response in Fig 6 for P , PI and
PID.(Change data for P, PI and PID on tuning screen-
Always give disturbance when value of PID is change.)

7. Obtain the optimized values( Try and error according to

value from Ziegler Nichols Ultimate Gain Method) and
plot in Fig 7.

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module


Table 5: Open tank Calibration

(a) Upscale Calibration

Level Sight EJA110A UM330

Tank Glass (mmH2O) output
(%) (mm) (mA)
(b) Downscale Calibration

Level Sight EJA110A UM330

Tank Glass (mmH2O) output
(%) (mm) (mA)

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Fig 4a : Linearity Curve of Open Tank Calibration

Fig 4b : Hysterisis Curve of Open Tank Calibration

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Ultimate Gain, PBU,= ___%. Period, PU = s

Fig 5: Oscillatory Response

Table 6: Approximate Values from Ultimate gain Method

Controller Proportional Band Integral Derivative

Mode P (%) Time(I) Time(D)
TI (sec) TD ( sec )
P off off
PI off

a) Proportional control , P= %

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

b) Value for PI control , P= %,I= sec

c) PID control ,P=_____%,I=____Sec, D=____Sec

Fig 6: Response curve for Different Controls

c) PID control ,P=_____%,I=____Sec, D=____Sec

Fig 7: Optimized Response curve for Different Controls


Pressure Transmitter as a level sensor

1) What is the effect of a change in density on the level measurement
by differential pressure transmitter?
2) Why is the differential pressure unit more suitable for measurement
of level in closed pressurized tanks?

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

Level Tank dynamics

1) Does the installed position of the differential pressure transmitter have

an effect on measurement ?
2) Describe the meaning of open tank and closed tank measurement?
How do the measurements compare?

Process Tuning
1) What is process reaction method tuning?
2) What is ultimate gain method tuning?
3) How does the valve behave during auto-tuning?
4) Why is PI control only suitable for Level Measurement?


From my observation the Suitable PID


ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module



1. Yokogawa, EJA110A, EJA120A and EJA130A Differential Pressure

Transmitters User’s Manual, 7th Edition, IM 01C21B01-01E
2. Yokogawa, DAQSTATION CX1000/CX2000Functional Changes
Resulting from firmware Upgrae (Version 3.02) User’s Manual, 1st
Edition, IM 04L31A01-05E

ENT 364/4 – Control Systems Laboratory Module

3. Yokogawa, Models UM350 / UM330 Digital Indicator with Alarms -

Installation User’s Manual, 2nd Edition, IM 05F01D02-01E
4. Yokogawa, Models DAQSATION
CX1000ModelCX1006/CX1206,Operation Guide 3rd Edition,
IM 04L31A01-04E
5. Yokogawa, Model BT200 BRAIN Terminal User’s Manual, 4th
Edition, IM 01C00A11-01E
6. SMC Instruction Manual, 1DG3, Membrane Air Dryer Unit