EXPERIMENT
LEVEL CONTROL
1. OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENT
Different types of level transmitter are used for different types of applications.
Some of the more important types of level transmitters are the following:
The 101.3 in the equation is the standard atmospheric pressure at the earth’s
surface in kPa.
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Vacuum gauges are used when the pressure being measured has a value less
atmospheric pressure. Vacuum pressure may be expressed as absolute pressure or
vacuum units. For example, 10 kPa vacuum signifies a pressure of 10 kPa below
atmosphere pressure, that is, an absolute pressure of 91.3 kPa (101.3 kPa – 10
kPa).
Pg Pa
Pa
Absolute vacuum=0 Pa
For measuring level in tank the differential pressure between the bottom of the
tank and the top of the tank is measured which is directly related to the
hydrostatic head created by the liquid level which can be converted to the level
using the density of the liquid.
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Pressure Transmitters
Of these methods the Silicon Resonant Sensor Method is extremely accurate and
stable. The Yokogawa transmitters are based on the Silicon Resonant Sensor
technique (Fig. 2a) that measures a straininduced frequency created by the silicon
resonators.
The entire sensor is made from a homogeneous silicon crystal. On the silicon
sensors two ‘H’ shaped resonators are provided. These resonators are patterned on
the silicon crystal itself. One resonator is at the center of the crystal while the
other is at the outer edge of the diaphragm. When no pressure is acting on the
diaphragm both the bridges oscillate at a frequency of 90 kHz.
When a pressure is applied to the diaphragm the center bridge goes into tension
and the outer bridge into compression. As a result the frequencies of one resonator
increases and the other decreases. This difference in frequencies is measured and
converted to a frequency output. The measurement can be directly converted to
digital output by pulse counters (Fig. 2b). The advantages of this technique are the
high accuracy, longterm stability and the facility to directly get digital signals
without having to use A/D conversion.
Magnetic Field
Magnetic Field
Cavity
Resonator
Diaphragm
Output
Electro Frequency
Pressure Motive
Exciting Force
Current
(a) (b)
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P= hg (1)
where P is the Pressure
h is the height of the level
is the density of the fluid
g is the acceleration due to gravity.

9.80665x10 9.80665x10 1 9.67841x10 1.0000x104 7.35559x102
4 1 1
 
1.33322x10 1.33322x10 1.35951x10 1.31579x10 1.35951x10 1
2 3 3 4
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Uncertainty of Measurement
A measurement result is not complete unless it includes a statement regarding the
uncertainty involved. Consider the measurement of a voltage by a voltmeter. Let
the voltmeter be Class 0.5 and let the Upper Range Value be 1V. Therefore the
tolerance is 0.5% of 1Volt = 0.005V = ±5mV. Let the reading obtained for the
input be 1.0004V for the input of 1 Volt. Since the reading is lying within 0.995 V
to 1.005 V, the meter tolerance is satisfied.
However, this reading of 1.0004 is the result of random errors in the
measurement. Hence we need to determine the confidence limits on this
measurement. In other words we should be able to say that the measurement has a
value of X±y to a confidence value of say 95%. Or we are guaranteeing that when
the measured value is X, that to 95% confidence the measured value is not greater
than X+y or less than Xy. This value of ±1 spanned by the measurement X is
called the confidence interval. We express it as a percentage, say 95%. What this
means is that there is a 95% chance that the measured value is lying between X±y.
Our aim is to determine the lower and upper confidence limits on the
measurement. This is called measurement of the uncertainty.
The EJA110A Differential Pressure Transmitter has very high accuracy as listed
in table 2. It is a suitable device for level measurement
Instrument Range Span Accuracy
EJA110A, 100 to +100 kPa 1 to 100 kPa ± 0.075 % of span.
Capsule M For span below 10
Differential kPa,
pressure ± [0.025+0.5/span]
transmitter % of span
Table 2: Accuracy Specifications
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In the case of liquid level measurement in an open tank, the low pressure
side of the pressure transmitter is left open to the atmosphere. The liquid
in the tank exert a pressure to the high side of the differential pressure
transmitter. This is shown in figure 3(a).
H L
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Dry Leg
H
H L
Wet Leg
H h1
H L
Wet Leg(Outside)
PHPL= g (H+h) h1g (Differential Pressure) (4)
Where is the liquid density of outside filled line is the liquid density of
the liquid in the tank
5. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
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The equipment required for performing the experiments are shown in Table 3.
In a closed control system, the controlled variable is measured and then compared
to the desired value of the controlled variable (the set point). The difference
between these two (the error) is used as input to the feedback controller. This
controller then calculates a signal to adjust the manipulated variable. Since the
manipulated variable is normally a flow, the output of the feedback controller
usually is a signal to a control valve. Disturbances that enter the process tend to
drive the controlled variable. The manipulated variable is used to compensate for
all disturbance changes If there are changes in set point, the manipulated variable
also is changed accordingly to produce the needed change in the controlled
variable.
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Procedures:
1. Open valve V7 to and turn on the pump P1(Adjust
MV(OUT) to 100%) to allow water into Tank T01. Close
valve V6 to begin filling. When the tank T01 is being filled
adjust the V6 valve to 20 % to allow a flow back to tank T02
2. Adjust control valve MV(OUT) output from the CX1000
control station to noticeably increase the water level and fill
the tank. Adjust the values using from the tuning panel
screen. This operation will facilitate a continuous flow of
water to the tank.
3. Manipulate the MV(OUT) output of the CX1000 to increase
the values upscale and decrease the values downscale.
Manual valve V6 is adjusted to allow the outflow of water
to enable the decreasing level measurement in the tank from
100% to 0% according to the graduated scale of the sight
glass.
4. Check the zero level and adjust using the BT200 terminal to
memorize the position. Ensure that the Control Valve inlet
gauge reads 4 bar and lock it .Do not exceed 4 bar.
5. The measurement of water level with increasing and
decreasing level in the tank is recorded for analysis in Table 5
(a) and (b)
6. Graphs of output from the differential pressure transmitter
with the visual level of the water from the sight glass are
plotted to analyze the sensitivity, linearity and hysterisis in
Figure 4(a) and 4(b)
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Procedures:
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7. RESULT
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a) Proportional control , P= %
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8. QUESTION
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Process Tuning
1) What is process reaction method tuning?
2) What is ultimate gain method tuning?
3) How does the valve behave during autotuning?
4) Why is PI control only suitable for Level Measurement?
9. CONCLUSION
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10. REFERENCES
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