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CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction:

Tourism is a major growth engine for economic development in providing

employment and eradication of poverty. It is providing employment to 212 million

persons and generating income of 655 billion dollars. The total size of the industry is

more than 7 trillion dollars now.

India is fast emerging as an important tourism destination in the World. International

arrivals touched 5 million per year. The campaign "Incredible India" which showcase

the best that India has to offer to the tourists has now attracted worldwide attention.

The proactive policies of the Government of India are encouraging tourism in India.

Andhra Pradesh is the leading State in the country in attracting maximum number of

domestic tourists. In 2012, 157 million domestic tourists visited Andhra Pradesh. This

marks an increase of 14% over 2011. The next four states after Andhra Pradesh along

with 2012 domestic visitors‟ figures are Uttar Pradesh (134 million), Tamil Nadu (115

million), Karnataka (32.8 million) and Rajasthan (25.9 million). These five states

accounted for about 72% of the total domestic tourist visits in 2012. The top five

states for international visitors are New Delhi, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar

Pradesh and Rajasthan. Andhra Pradesh for the first time in 2012 figures in the top 10

states at number 7 in terms of international arrivals.

1.2 Definition of Tourism

Matheson and Wall (1982) created a good working definition of tourism as "the

temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work

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and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the

facilities created to cater to their needs."

According to Macintosh and Goeldner (1986) tourism is "the sum of the phenomena

and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host

governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these

tourists and other visitors”

A Part from economic benefits, tourism encompasses social and cultural benefits as

well. From social and cultural point of view, tourism develops interaction between

cultural customs of the visitors and others of the host population. It promotes

friendship, understanding and social interactions among different parts of the world.

Realizing the importance of the tourism, all the countries in the world are promoting

tourism.

India is a vast and great country with a huge potential for tourism and has a number of

historical places and monuments, great shrines and temples, places of pilgrimage,

wild life sanctuaries, hill stations, sea resorts, places of winter sports etc.,. Besides it

offers a great variety of cultures, religions, festivals, languages, arts, crafts music etc.

the working group on tourism for the 11th five year plan (2007-2012) has set target of

12 million international visitors in 2011 at the end of the 11th plan.

1.3 Tourism in India

India has continued to remain infatuated by the manufacturing industry. This

infatuation has perhaps, been caused by the Industrial Revolution having virtually

bypassed India before independence (1780 - 1947). It was only natural that we want

to catch up on the opportunities that have been denied to us. The emphasis on setting

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up manufacturing industries in the post-independence era was natural. Nehru called

such factories and dams the new temples of India.

As any economy matures, in the process of development, it makes a transition from

agriculture to manufacturing and from manufacturing to services. In different stages

of economic growth, the relative importance of these sectors changes in terms of

employing people and their relative contribution to GDP.

Within the Asia- Pacific region, the Indian sub-continent is well poised to take

advantage of the boom in the tourism sector.

The tourism industry is undergoing a sea change with the revolutions in

communication and information technology. Everybody in the tourism industry will

have to change and rediscover its place in newly defined value chain. The role and the

service offerings will undergo a big change in the present cyber world. The 21st

century is the century of tourism magic - the most potent weapon of name, fame and

reward. Therefore, in the new millennium, most of the countries including India are

spending millions of dollars for the revamping of the existing facilities or the creation

of new ones.

India is a vast country with a history that goes back 5000 years. Its vast geographical

diversity, rich culture & heritage, fairs & festivals, snowcapped mountains, a vast

coastline, monumental attractions that span the entire country and the gaps in the

infrastructure offer tremendous potential for tourism. India, a low cost destination,

continues to exert its mesmerizing pull not only on the world tourist, but the travel

bug has also bitten the Indian tourist. India's share in world tourism, which is a

meager 0.2% as of date, is achieved 1-2% by the year 2010. As per the Hospitality and

Tourism industry projections the rise in foreign tourists to India are expected to

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touch 5 million and the domestic tourists are projected to touch 90 million by the year

2014.

Currently, 89000 hotel rooms are required to support this growing boom as against the

availability of approximately 60000 rooms. By the turn of the century the demand for

hotel rooms is estimated to be in the region of 100000 rooms.

Tourism is also one of the biggest employment generating industries in India, with a

capacity to absorb an additional investment to the tune of $ 10 billion. According to

PATA (Pacific Asia Travel) tourism directly or indirectly drives more than 10% of the

worlds' employment today.

The hotel and tourism related industry has been declared as a high priority industry

for development by the government and assumes importance for its immense potential

to earn foreign exchange and is least important. In fact tourism is India's third largest

foreign exchange earner after readymade garments and jewelry, with earnings of $

2928 million in 2008-09.Significant policy initiatives, such as welcoming of private

sector, foreign and NRI investments, setting up of The Tourism Finance Corporation

of India (TFCI renders financial assistance & caters to a variety of investor‟s needs)

and Investment facilitation cell (Acts as a nodal agency that interacts between the

investor, the state governments, the premier financial bodies & the relevant

ministries) have been taken by the government.

1.4 Tourism in Telangana

a) Telangana History:

Telangana region has been ruled by many great dynasties like Sathavahanas,

Chalky‟s, Kakatiya, Mughals, Qutubshahis, Asafjahis. Of which the

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Kakathiyasimpressions on architecture are found more in these days too Sathavahanas

ruled over the Telangana for about 400 years from the 2nd century B.C. to beyond the

2nd century A.D. Sathavahanas were also called Salivahanas and Satakarnis. In the

3rd century B.C., Simukha, the founder of the Sathavahanas dynasty, unified the

various Andhra principalities into one kingdom and became its ruler (271 B.C. -- 248

B.C.).Satakarnis II, the sixth ruler of the dynasty (184 B.C.) was an able ruler who

extended his kingdom to the west. He ruled for a period of 56 years. Pulumavi I have

brought renewed strength and glory to their kingdom. The only silver lining in this

dynasty was the excellent literary work, Gathasaptasati, of Hala, the 17th

Sathavahanas king. Dharmapuri in Karimnagar was the capital city for many years.

Among Kakatiya, Prataparudra, grandson of Rudramamba was great ruler who

succeeded his grandmother in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He pushed the

western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative

reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and

developed by the VijayanagaraRayas. During the reign of Bahamani sultan Mohr Shah

III, one sultan Quli Qutub, who was born at Hamadan in Persia, came to Deccan and

started his career as a bodyguard of Mohammed Shah. With his ability and courage he

raised from one position to another till he became the Governor of Telangana, the

eastern province of Bahamani kingdom.

When the Bahamani sultanate became weak, Quli Qutub became independent and

formed his Qutubshahis Dynasty in 1518. From then, he devoted most of his energies

in extending his frontiers of his kingdom. He took possession of a part of not only

Berar in the north, but also Rajkonda, Deverkonda, Gahanpura, Kovilakonda and

Panagallu. Thus, he brought much of Telugu speaking areas into his possession. He

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defeated Sitapati of Bhogikala and captured Bellamkonda, Indrakonda, Khammam,

Warangal, etc. In 1543 Jamsheed assassinated Quli Qutub.

The Golconda fort was built by Quli Qutub. His son Jamsheed became the

King who was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim in 1550 .During his reign, trade and

commerce flourished enormously. Telangana, like Egypt, became the Mart of the

whole world. Merchants from Turkistan, Arabia and Persia used to frequent Telangana

and found their trade attractive and prosperous. In his reign two tanks namely Ibrahim

Pantam tank and Hussaian Sagar were built. He also built a bridge on river Musi,

which is known as Puranapul. The Hindus of Telangana remember him for his

patronage of Telugu literature. Many Telugu poets like Addanki Gangadher Kavi,

Kandukuri Rudra Kavi flourished in his court. He gained goodwill among his Hindu

subjects. He died in 1580, and was succeeded by his son Quli Qutub Shah.

Qutubshahis shifted his capital from Golconda to Hyderabad on the river

Musi. He built the Jamia mosque at Charminar. He died in 1611. He was succeeded

by his nephew Mohd. Qutubshahis as he had no sons. Mohd. Qutub Shah joined the

confederation of Deccan powers against Mughals to stop their advance towards

Deccan/South. He was a scholar and composed gazals, tarki, bunds and rubaya. He

died in 1662, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Sayyed Ahmed in 1667.

At this time the Mughals annexed Ahmednagar and marched towards Golconda.

Sayyed Ahmed signed the treaty, and accepted the suzerainty of Moughalemporer

Shah Johan and agreed to pay 8 lakhs of rupees as tribute to Mughals. With the

connivance of mirjumla the Mughals Emperor Aurangzeb sent his son Mohd. Sultan

in 1656, who besiegedGolconda and occupied Hyderabad. However on intervention of

Darashekou and Jahanara from Delhi, Aurangzeb was compelled to rise the size on

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payment of one crores and to surrender Chinnoor. Later Mohd Sultan married the

second daughter of Abdullah. Abdullah died in 1672 and his son-in-law Abul Hassan

succeeded him. He appointed Madonna as his Prime Minister and his brother

Akkanna as commander in chief. In 1687Aurangzeb again attacked Golconda which

successfully resisted -his advance. But due to treachery of Sardar Khan a high officer

in the Army who opened the gate of Golconda fort, captured the fort in 1687 and Abul

Hassan was made captive. They looted the city in every street and market place where

lakhs worth in cash, property, chinaware and costly carpets of aristocracy was

available.

The State of Hyderabad was founded by Mir Qamruddin Chin Qilich Khan. He was

the son of Aurangzeb's general Ghazi-ud-din Khan Feroz Jang, who traced his

ancestry to Abu Bakr, the first Khalifa. In 1713, six years after Aurangzeb's death,

emperor Farrukhsiyar made Mir Qamruddin Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title of

Nizam-ul-MulkFeroz Jang. Later, emperor Muhammad Shah conferred on him the

title of Asafjahis, by which title the dynasty is still known. By 1724, Mir Qamruddin

had made himself virtually independent of Delhi, although he and his successors

continued to profess a nominal allegiance to the Mogul emperor right up to 1858,

when the British Crown assumed the governance of India. In1799 the Nizam aided

the East India Company in the war with Tippu Sultan and after the latter‟s defeat and

death; the British gave a part of his territories to the Nizam. The death of Nizam Ali

Khan and the succession of his eldest surviving son, SikanderJah, occurred on 7

August 1803. Sikander Jah died on 21 May 1829, and was succeeded by his eldest

surviving son, Nassir-ud-Duala. By the Treaty of 1853, the province of Berar, along

with certain districts in the Raichur Doab and on the western frontier of Hyderabad,

were assigned for this purpose, their administration being taken over by British

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officers under the control of the Resident at Hyderabad. By the Treaty of 1860, except

for Berar, all the other districts assigned in 1853 were restored. Mir Mahbub Ali Khan

was a minor when he succeeded his father Afzal-ud-Duala on 26 February 1869.The

Hyderabad contingent with the exception of the artillery which was disbanded was

delocalized and incorporated in the Indian Army, with provision for the protection of

the Nizam's dominion.

Nizam Mir Usman Ali Khan Bahadur is the seventh in the line. He succeeded

to the Gaddi on 29 August 1911. In 1918 the title of "is Exalted Highness" was

conferred on him as a hereditary distinction. Shortly thereafter, by an autograph letter

from the King, he was granted the title of 'Faithful Ally of the British Government.'

Geographically, Hyderabad occupies a pivotal position in the heart of the

country. In population, revenue and importance it was the premier State in the country.

The population was nearly sixteen million and the annual revenue Rs. 26 crores. Its

area was over 82,000 square miles. Hyderabad had its own coinage, paper currency

and stamps. Hyderabad was treated by the British no differently from other Indian

States. The right of intervention in internal affairs was repeatedly asserted and

exercised.

In 1985 Reading, then Viceroy, ascertained that the sovereignty of the British Crown

was supreme in India. The Viceroy pointed out that it was the right of the British

Government to intervene in the internal affairs of Indian States, and that the Nizam

did not stand in a category separate from that of rulers of the other Indian states.

In March 1946 the cabinet mission advised the princely states regarding the

future of their merger after the formation of independent India, and separate Pakistan

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for Indian Muslims. This was further clarified in May 1946 referring to the lapse of

paramountcy and formation of federation. The congress opposed the Independent

states outside the Federal Union, but the Muslim league was encouraging the states to

remain Independent. Nizam of Hyderabad was under the influence of a fanatical body

called Ittehadul Musulmin under Kasim Razvi, declared his intention to remain as an

independent state.

Soon after the announcement of His Majesty's Government's plan of 3 June

1947, the Nizam issued a firman declaring his intention not to send representatives to

the Constituent Assembly of either Pakistan or India, and making it clear that on 15

August he would be entitled to resume the status of an independent sovereign. It had

been his ambition to secure Dominion Status for his State, on the withdrawal of the

British and treatment then henceforth as a member of the British Commonwealth of

Nations. When he saw that clause 7 of the Indian Independence Bill did not permit

that grant of Dominion Status to an Indian State. The Nizam sent a delegation to Delhi

on 11 July headed by the Nawab of Chhatari, President of the Executive Council, to

meet Lord Mountbatten.

Meanwhile Laik Ali was pressing that the Hyderabad issue should be taken to

the United Nations Organization. On 17 August, he wrote to Nehru that Hyderabad

had decided to solicit the good offices of the United Nations Organization in order

that the dispute between Hyderabad and India might be resolved and a peaceful and

enduring settlement arrived at. The Indian Government did not agree that Hyderabad

had any right in international law to seek the intervention of the United Nations

Organization or any other outside body for the settlement of the issue. And as the

Government of India regarded the Indo-Hyderabad dispute as a purely domestic one,

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they did not recognize the Nizam's claim to invoke the good offices of the United

Nations in that connotation.

b) Telangana Tourism:

The Telangana region with Hyderabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nalgonda, Medak,

Khammam, Mahaboobnagar, Nizambad, Ranga Reddy and Warangal can be called

the Tourist Destination of the south.There were many dynasties which ruled over the

Telangana region, the art and architecture they encouraged still enlivens Telangana.

Period of Kakatiya was termed as a Golden era. They have built many forts, temples

and lakes. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between the architecture and sculpture.

One of the important temples, with intricate design, the temple of Palempeta, can be

described as a gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan Temple architecture. Thousand

Pillar temple at Hanmakonda, Ramappa Temple and Warangal fort and other forts and

lakes are some of the excellent architecture pieces of Kakatiya.

There are many a number of historic places to visit. To name a few, Mecca Masjid,

Birla mender, Lumbini Park, Shilparamam, HussaianSagar lake, Ocean park, Ramoji

Film city, Nehru Zoological Park, Public gardens, Osman Sagar, Jama Masjid and

NTR Gardens, Charminar, Golconda Fort, Paigah Palace, Ashurkhana, QutubShahi

tombs, State legislative assembly, Falaknuma Palace, Asmangarh fort, Kingkoti

Palace, Chiran Fort, Salarjung Museum, Birla Science Planetarium and Birla

Archaeological Museum. Ikat Fabrics, Perfumes, Bidriware Metal crafts, Bangles and

Pearls in Hyderabad. Basara Saraswathi Temple, Adilabad, The only Saraswathi

temple in south India, Pocheru and Kuntla waterfalls, Nirmal handicrafts in Adilabad.

Elgandal Fort, Sri Raja Rajeswari Temple in Vemulawada,Karimnagar, silver filigree

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works, Nakasha Paintings, Ramadugu stone crafts in Karimnagar. Sri Sita

Ramachandra Swamy Temple in Bhadrachalam, Khammam, Alampur Temples of

Mahaboobnagar, Medak Church, Jain Temple, Kolanpak and Pochampalli Textile

Center in Pochampalli,

1.5 Tourism Market segmentation

Marketing segmentation is a customer oriented philosophy. We first identify customer

needs in a sub –market. Then we design a product and / or a marketing programmed

to reach that sub-market (segment) and satisfy those needs.

Segmentation is the act of dividing a market in to distinct group or buyers

whom might require separate products and / or marketing mix –Philip Kilter

Market segmentation is the process of dividing a heterogeneous market into

homogeneous sub-units markets. Segmentation is important as it helps the firm to get

customer focused.

The segmentation process divides the market on the basis of several factors.

Segmentation includes the following;

A. Geographic segmentation

B Demographic segmentation

C. Socio –Economic segmentation

D. Psychological segmentation

E. Behavioral segmentation

(a) Geographical

Operational areas, e.g.; sales region, sales districts, cities, region, climate.

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(b) Demographic

Age, sex

Literate education, marital status

Family size income

Education:-

Primary education, secondary education, Higher education

Occupation:-

Language:

Hindi, English, Urdu, Telugu, nationality, any other.

(c) Socio –Economic Income

levels Consumption

levels

Caste:

Scheduled caste

Scheduled tribal caste,

General

Backward

Religion:
Hindu
Christian
Jain
Sikh
Muslim, any other
(d) Psychological

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Individual life styles

Personality types

Perceptual differences

Motivational differences

(e) Behavioral

Levels of brand loyalty

Loyalty to fashions

Patterns of purchase

1.6 Marketing Mix: Tourism

Jerome McCarthy an American Professor in Marketing popularized the Marketing

Mix in terms of 4Ps- Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The strategies for the 4 Ps

have to be modified when applied to services due to the special features of the

services. The challenges encountered by the service marketer-like heterogeneity, the

requirements of customers, interaction with customers while delivering service and

perishable or absence of marketing mix to include people, processes, and physical

evidence. The additional prescribed Ps refers to the activities that are essential to meet

the challenges posed by three unique characteristics of services:

a. Simultaneity or inseparability of service provider from customer

(Participants/people)

b. The inability to hold inventory of service making it critical for the service

process to flow smoothly to match demand and supply ( Processes)

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c. The need to make highly intangible service offering appear tangible

(Physical Evidence).

a) Product: ( Service Package)

Service is products, even though intangible, they are things. In services

marketing consumers buy attributes that are converted into benefits. Like other

consumer goods, services are convenience, shopping or specialty goods with

all that implies. For these, customers may be willing to go to considerable

lengths to acquire the special attributes or benefits they deem essential for full

and complete satisfaction. Many services are custom designed products.

Services are intangible and heterogeneous and cannot be easily being

separated from their producers. Intangible dominant products like services

cannot be stored nor can they be transported. But the services must be readily

available to meet the demand. It is rather difficult to brand services. Because

of their intangible nature, packaging and labeling decisions are difficult, which

means that services marketers are limited in their use of the package to

promote service offerings.

b) Price

Pricing in service-oriented enterprises is usually demand oriented with many

sellers charging what the traffic will bear. Most service marketers follow

competitive price policies, their services either at the market price or slightly

below. In service, marketing market may be segmented into three or four

separate segments that are price sensitive and responsive. Flexible and

differential pricing seems much more prevalent in the marketing of services.

Some service marketers either do not have a written price list or do not follow

it in making price quotations. Prices are more arbitrarily determined in terms

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of eliminating peak demand or to increase demand during slack periods. It is

very common for the firms to charge different prices to different customers for

essentially the same bundle of services. In quoting prices, some firms try

mainly to recover the costs incurred, to meet competition, to increase sales

volume, and to make profits.

In services, marketing pricing is based on the following considerations:

 Set annual total profit and sales volume goals.

 Target a definite profit margin when quoting prices for each job.

 Determine and understand cost structure.

 Review and update their price schedules regularly.

 Work to secure higher rather than lower average price.

 Strive for greater pricing flexibility.

c) Place

Channels of distribution for intangible dominant products such as service are

generally limited to the buyers and sellers. Channels of distribution for

services are direct and short, that is, from direct marketer to ultimate

consumers. However, though the channel is short, there are arising a number

of marketing intermediaries whose task is to make the exchange process

between marketer and consumer work more smoothly. Means of distribution

used consisted of distinct organizational entities between the producers of a

service and the user for the purpose of making the services more readily

available. In a service-oriented „product‟ however, it may be more fitting to

consider that any extra corporate entity between the producer of a service and

prospective users, which is utilized to make the service available and/ or more

convenient, is a marketing intermediary for that service.

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d) Promotion

Promotion is an important part of the marketing mix for many marketers. The

key to successful promotion, whether it be advertising or personal selling is

„benefiting‟ the products. It is very important to define the „product‟ in terms

of what the customer wants and not in terms of what the marketer makes and

sells. To successfully promote intangible dominant products such as services,

they are often personalized. Personalizing the service around a tangible person

is one way of concretizing the intangible nature of service firms and their

products. To successfully promote services, they must be made to have a

favorable positive image constructed to project attributes of the service. In the

case of services, the producer and the marketer are virtually inseparable.

Sellers are often expected to be knowledgeable professionals who can give

needed advice and counseling. Sales promotion in the traditional sense of

sampling, demonstrations and point of purchase display are severely limited

because of the characteristics of the intangible dominant service product.

However, service firms do on occasion use premiums and contests. Market

oriented publicity is also used extensively for such service oriented products as

entertainment and sporting events. No service marketer would overlook the

opportunity to positively affect public opinion through its news releases or its

staged activities designed in part to alter public perceptions or otherwise

modify behavior.

(i) Various promotional tools that constitute the promotional

mix of an organization

 Advertising:

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Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of

goods or services by an identified sponsored in such media as

magazines, newspapers, television, radio, outdoor posters,

signboards etc.

 Personal Selling:

An oral presentation of the service in a conversation with one

or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making sales

 Sales Promotion:

Those marketing activities that stimulate consumer purchasing

and dealer effectiveness such as displays, shows, exhibitions,

demonstrations, coupons, contests etc, are usually short term

activities.

 Publicity:

Non-personal stimulation of demand for a product or service by

generating commercially significant news in published media

or by obtaining a favorable presentation on radio, television etc

 Public Relations:

The planned and sustained efforts to establish and maintain

goods take place between an organization and its public. These

public are all the groups of people and organizations, which

have an interest in the service company.

 Word of mouth publicity:

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Personal recommendations by the current users of the service.

It constitutes the favorable references made to others by

satisfied customers of the service.

 Direct marketing:

It encompasses a number of media like direct mail,

telemarketing, and mail order etc., used to promote service

directly to individual customers.

 Net advertising:

The internet revolution has offered a new media for marketers

to promote the product on the net on the various web sites or

portals reaching out to millions of net browsers.

The combination of the above promotional tools forms

the promotional mix of an organization. The goal is to

communicate a message to some person or persons in order to

get a favorable response (attitude change or purchase).

e) People

Of all controllable variable marketing executives have at their disposal, the people

factor in the service marketing mix is perhaps the least they can rely on in getting

their marketing mix right and the important one they have a get right. The

problem lies in inseparability of the production/consumption interface, and

therefore, the satisfaction of not only the recipient of the service, that is the

customer, but also the providers of the service, that is the company‟s own

personnel become extremely important. Service personnel are present at two

levels within the organization-contact personnel and support personnel. Contact

personnel are those individuals whom the customers see- such as

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waiters or receptionists and whom the customers judge the service upon when

they search for tangible clues as to the quality of service. The value they

attribute to the service relies a great deal on the conduct of the contact

personnel. Employees need to become „ambassadors for the organization‟ as

the quality of the service and the quality of the service providers are

inseparable‟. The more competent the customer contact personnel, the better

the service business client relationship will be which will culminate in the

service organization receiving a positive reference. If service organizations

care about both employees and customers, the payoff will be in terms of

increase motivations and satisfaction, a high level of service quality as

compared to the quality expected by customers and therefore customers

satisfaction and in turn, hopefully, customer loyalty and increased level of

business activity.

f) Process

The process element of the service marketing mix is concerned with the way

in which the service is delivered to the customers. The two important points in

this aspect are the inseparability characteristic of services has an important

implication for how the service company‟s personnel deliver the service to the

customer and how the customer participates in the service delivery process

and the auxiliary aspect of service that is the added value of the service,

become an important competitive weapon in differentiating the service from

competitors when the service is experiences by customers. The overall

effectiveness of the service process fundamentally depends on how the

customers use the service that reinforces the point that service have been

defined as „acts rather than things‟ and this casts some light on the concept of

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process. Many benefits from services occur not so much because of what is

offered, as in the way of which it is offered.

g) Physical Evidence

Since a service is inherently intangible, it is important for the client to search

for tangible or physical clues, which enable them to evaluate the service.

Service firms must be aware that every aspect of the company with which the

consumer comes into contact will be used as a measure of the level of service

that he can expect from the organization. Physical evidences are those tangible

clues, which the customer may receive during the process of receiving the

service. Physical evidence can be categorized into two- Peripheral evidence

and essential evidence.

Peripheral evidence: Is usually „processed as part of the purchase of a service, but it

has little or no independent value‟

Essential evidence:Unlike peripheral evidence, the consumer cannot possess it.

However, essential evidence may be so dominant in its impact on service purchase

and use that it must be considered virtually an element in its own right

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Table No. 1.1

Expanded marketing mix of services

Product Place Promotion Price People Process Physical

evidence

Physical Channel type Promotion Flexibility Employee Flow of activities- Facility design

attributes Outlet blend Sales Price level research Customized Aesthetics

Quality location people Terms Training Standardized Functionality

level Intermediaries Advertising Differentiati Motivation Number of stores- ambient

product Segmentation Sales on Rewards simple/Complex conditions

lines Franchising promotion Discounts Teamwork Level of customer Equipment

Branding Managing Publicity Allowances Communica involvement employee dress

Positioning channels Direct ting culture Business card

New Motivating marketing and values Statements

services channel Guarantees

members Corporate

identity

Corporate image.

Source: „Services marketing‟ Vasanti Venugopal, Raghu v.n.p.84

All the marketing strategies adapted by four types of Tourisms is to attract, maintain

and retaining visitors (tourists). Viewed from the sense an attempt is made have to

analyze and discuss these services in 7 P‟s framework of services in marketing Mix.

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The marketing strategies (7 P‟s) are to be applied to the prevailed tourism in

Telangana region. They are.

(a) Pilgrimage Tourism.

(b) Eco-Tourism

(c) Entertainment tourism.

(d) Jungle Tourism.

1.7 Review of Literature

Keeping in view the growing trends in tourism industry, its vital role in the economy

studies have been made to examine various aspects related to tourism management.

The studies conducted on several issues of tourism in India are briefly presented

below:

1
Anand.MM (1976) :- attempted to analyze the nature of the multidimensional role of

hotels in promotion of tourism. He examined the working and structure of hotels. He

discussed elaborately of the correct forecasting of demand to meet the needs of the

growing tourists.
2
Dutta .S (1980) : studied about the problems faced by tourism industry in the

northeastern sector, because of its non-accessibility non-availability of

accommodation, and transportation. According to him, even though it is blessed with

dense forests, rivers, mountains and wild life to attract the eco-tourism and naturists

but little efforts are made to develop this region as eco-tourist destination
3
ChibS.N (1981) : In his study examined various causes for the slow growth of the

tourism in India. He mainly criticized bureaucratic bottlenecks and because of the

non-officials appointment at top level in tourism corporations of government sector.

22
4
KatgaraA.J (1981) :- In his article stresses the need of governments help and support

for the development of tourism in India.-“prospects of tourism in India"


5
Rama Devi (1984) : Conducted a study on the administration of the TTD Act of

1979, which was passed for better administration and governance. She pointed that a

few actions taken were not in accordance with the TTD Act of 1979. The study

recommended TTD to operate buses instead of APSRTC, laying down ropeway from

Tirumala to Chandragiri to promote tourism, to organize training classes to TTD

employees strengthens of the departments; preventing political interference in the

affairs of TTD.
6
Subramanyam (1987) : Analyzed the personal management practices of the TTD.

The study they found the absence department to look after the employees and their

affairs and grievances; there are no proper principles and procedure for selection of

employees and promotion are based on seniority but not in merit cum seniority basis.

The author suggested creation of a separate department of personal management;

undertaking extensive orientation or induction of programmers evolving suitable

placement and promotional policies; introduction of job evaluation system; setting up

of a joint consultative; periodical survey of job satisfaction among employees should

be conducted; and management by objective and critical indent method should be

introduced.

7
Selvam (1989) : made an extensive study on tourism industry in India, in which, he

emphasized on the performance appraisal and evaluating the existing conditions. He

made his observations after considering the opinions of various group and segments

of foreign and domestic tourists, experts, tour operators, tourism officials and other

connected to tourism. Finally, he suggested that the most important deciding factor in

tourism is the purpose of travel by the tourists.

23
8
Negi.J. (1990) :- Highlighted the impact of tourism on socio economic conditions of

people by increase in employment opportunities, rising the income levels and

standard of living, and improvement in the infrastructural facilities. The study mainly

gives a detailed account of the financial and cost control techniques applied in hotel

and catering industry.


9
Bhargava(1991) :-In his article pointed out that the economic growth of

economically back ward regions can be made through tourism which provides

employment opportunities directly and indirectly to the rural unemployed youth and

business opportunities to traders and service providers by developing the tourist

products.
10
Vivek Sharma(1991) : Made a critical , quantitative and qualitative study of tourism

in India , which helps in evolving the appropriate strategies for the long-term planning

for tourism development and integrated approach to this vital sector of economy.
11
The study conducted by Leela Shelly (1991) : made critical appraisal of the

contemporary scene in the hospitality and tourism industry.


12
Bhasker Naidu (1991) : studied the employer- employee relation in the TTD. He

dealt with the social relations between employees and management; settlement of

disputes between employees and management; collective bargaining agreements; and

employee welfare programs. For a smooth and cordial relationship between employer

and employee the following suggestions were made: The employee should be

motivated to participate actively in the organizational, educational, cultural,

recreational and other activities; orientation and refresher course should be conducted

for employees. A separate welfare department should be set up. Employees‟

representatives should be nominated to the board of trustees. Employees should

24
participate in management schemes and funds should be allocated for employee

welfare measures.
13
Chopra, S. (1991) : in her research, work made an analytical study in the impact of

tourism on economic, cultural and social aspects. The study was focused in Khajuraho

in Madhya Pradesh. She opined that Khajuraho being an international tourist‟s

attraction, more infra-structural facilities should be developed to attract more tourists,

which boost employment opportunities and economy.


14
Sharma, K.K (1991) : in his analytical study made a few suggestions for the

development of tourism in Rajasthan. His suggestions include staff to be well

educated and trained; better transport facilities; proper maintenance of tourist places

and hotels as per international standards; subsidized capital for promoting tourism I

private sector and cleanliness and sanitation to be maintained to attract more foreign

tourists.
15
A.K.Bhatia (1991) : has analyzed promotion and Marketing of Tourism. He

analyzed the economic and social benefits of tourism. He also discussed about history

of travel, accommodation, accessibility and facilities, motivation of tourists and their

classifications in details. He also gave details about organizations in promoting

tourism like traveling agents, agencies, State and Central Governments and others.

Finally, he discussed about the Government plans and their impact on the

development of tourism.
16
Vasanthakaalam (1992) : in her article, mentioned that tourism and environment

are mutually dependent on each other Tourism can be developed with clean and

attractive environment and vice - versa.


17
Mathur and Lohiya (1992) : discussed various reasons for the problems faced in

tourism and suggested remedies to overcome them.

25
18
Bagri and Kaintura (1992) : in their article, gave a vivid description of the

potential tourist‟s areas along with a few features of tourism in India.


19
V.Sharan (1994) :in his article ' India's Invisible Trade: Tourism' highlights some of

the important dimensions of tourism as a foreign exchange earner and suggested

measures that could augment foreign exchange earnings on this account.


20
Joseph Raj (1994) :suggested various measures to boost tourism by attracting

foreign tourism and to earn foreign exchange by providing of infrastructure facilities

i.e., roads, accommodation, hotels, banking communications ,transportation, proper

security and health facilities etc. appointment activities to promote tourism at abroad

and conducting of hassle free tours.


21
Dr.S.M.Jha (1995) : discussed various strategies for the Marketing of tourism,

which includes user‟s behavior profile, marketing information system and research,

market segmentation and different „P‟s. Stating the importance of satisfaction of the

tourists and author considered that marketing a customer satisfaction engineering help

in identifying the levels of expectations and make sincere efforts to fulfill them.

Expectations and satisfactions move together.


22
G.VidyaSagar Reddy (1996) : in his study, „Tourism in Andhra Pradesh‟ identified the

potentialities of tourism in Andhra Pradesh. He studied the administrative set-up of

tourism in Andhra Pradesh and analyzed the perception of tourists about tourist facilities

and tourist services and suggested measures to improve and promote tourism industry. In

his study, he found that there is no increase in the strength of staff in the Tourism

department in the state; the guest houses of the Tourism department and APTDC are not

able to meet the requirements of the tourist because of their shortage and there is need to

extend the package tour facilities with all facilities and amenities for the comfort of the

tourists to all the places in addition to the existing ones. He felt

26
that plan and non-plan expenditure for the development of tourism is not quite

satisfactory and the expenditure in the development of tourism is comparatively lesser

than the income earned from it. He also observed that poor sanitation conditions,

inadequate facilities regarding accommodation, food, transport, communications,

shortage of skilled workers and trained tourist guides etc., are major hurdles in the

development of tourism in the state.

23
Mira Seth(1996) :- In his article, expressed the need for the participation of private

sector along with public sector and joint ventures for the development of tourism.

24
Pushpindar S. Gill (1997) : in her book Tourism planning and management narrates

that tourism today has acquired the status of modern industry. Both government and

private sectors have planned tourism as an essential component of their economies. Due

to fast and instant communication, the world has turned into a global village. The

developed countries have been able to provide better use of leisure to their citizens and as

such, they are moving around the world to see and enjoy history and culture of various

nations in the world. Tourism today has been acknowledged as an industry and both

government and the private sector have planned tourism as an essential component of

their economies. For further development, tourism needs planning, investment and

scientific study of the subject. PushPindar S. Gill has presented valuable information

regarding tourism in India, planning for tourism, tourism management, growth and

development of tourism, Travel agencies and Tourism facilitation infrastructure in

tourism, publicity and promotion in tourism, Tourism marketing etc. But she has narrated

the western concept especially from the United States of America. The focus on Indian

tourism and state wise benefits through international tourism is not present in her book.

Also the statistics of tourists with special reference to India and its state are not present in

his book.

27
25
Cooper C. (1999) : A book entitled “Tourism Principles and Practices” was

elaborating theoretical framework of tourism. He underlined concept and indicators of

demands. He also emphasized on economic, environmental and socio-cultural impact

on tourism development. He highlights issues pertinent to the future of tourism

development.
26
Buckley R(1999) : Sheds light on the reasons why industry sectors make alliances

with conservation groups, and queries why the tourism industry has been slow in this

regard; in the wake of joint lobbying of the Australian government by tour operators

and conservationists against logging of old-growth forests in Queensland, reflects on

the benefits of biodiversity to tourism, especially nature, eco- and adventure tourism

(NEAT), with the best-known 'biodiversity icon', the koala, estimated to be worth

around $1 billion annually to the Australian economy. Reviews the strategic position

of biodiversity-based tourism and the impacts of tourism on biodiversity (many and

varied), and scrutinizes the importance of best practice environmental management

and appropriate land-use planning if tourism development is not to remain in conflict

with biodiversity.

27
C. Sumathi (2000) :- In her article, „planning tourism marketing „insisted for a

strategic tourism planning for successful marketing of tourism in India to complete

internationally.

28
J.K.Shama (2000) : Wrote his famous book “Tourism Planning and Development: A

New Perspective”. He attempts the foundations of tourism planning and development

caters to tourism designers, planners and developers of varied experience and

knowledge for planning of tourism industry in near future. He describes the concept of

tourism planning, approaches, techniques and principles applied at various levels. He

emphasizes on integrated approach and incremental

28
increase in quality of tourism services and effective management of tourism. He gives

transportation, services, information and promotion, physical environment and

tourism organizations as the basic components for tourism planning and development

in a particular region. He not only attempts to present an alternative tourism planning

and development process which is sustainable but also recommends for

conceptualizing sustainable development.

29
Samirah Al-Salesh, Kevin Hannam(2010) : This chapter examines the

consumption experiences of Saudi Arabian female domestic tourists visiting the

shopping malls of Jeddah and contextualizes this in terms of Islamic consumption

more generally. First, the wider academic literature on the relations between shopping

and tourism is discussed, and then aspects of Islamic consumption in terms of both

shopping and tourism. Next, a review of the context of tourism development in Saudi

Arabia and specifically Jeddah is provided. After a brief note on the methodology

used for this study, the results from the focus groups conducted with female domestic

tourists about their shopping experiences in Jeddah are discussed.

30
S.K Kuthiala (Apr-Sep2001) : examined about the „Value Tourism‟ in which he

clearly stresses about up keeping the values, natural and cultural heritage in

reorganization of fact this sustains tourism. Village and tribal tourism of presented, as

an interactive experience will be successful. He stated that the tourism industry must

discourage all forms of destructive tourism. He also gave strategies to attract tourism.
31
Kumidini (2002) : studied on the financials of TTD, Tirupati. In her study, she

examined about the various financial aspects of TTD. A deep study was made

regarding funds flow, income and expenditure. She also highlighted TTD‟s

continuous efforts round the clock in maintaining improving amenities to the

pilgrims. She discussed a few problems regarding accommodation, darshan, and non-

29
availability of required number of prasadam laddu.
32
Vasanti Venugopal and V.N. Raghu (2002) : highlighted the vital role played by

the service sector in the economics of the World. The authors discussed in general the

basic concepts of marketing and the need for strategic planning, explained the „seven

Ps‟ of service marketing with reference to strategic marketing in tourism business in

particular and also discussed the dimensions of quality and the to bridge the gaps in

service quality in order to exceed expectations of the customers.


33
M.B.Potdar(2003) : in her research work (Unpublished doctoral thesis) entitled

“Tourism Development in South Konkan” reveals at treasure of tourism, beaches,

horticulture, scenic beauty, historical monuments, temples and Churches, local folk

arts, handicrafts, food and festivals, biotic life are the resources available for ideal

tourism in South Konkan. Therefore, there is tremendous scope for tourism

development in South Konkan. She studied economic and socio-cultural impact on

local people by considering case studies in study region. In her research work, she

lighted on some problems and suggested remedial measures for better development of

tourism in south Konkan.

34
Manoj Khatri and Reeta Gupta (2003) : in their article „Thomas Cook – Towards

better Governance‟ studied about the need and importance of social values of

business. They felt that when it comes to Travel, people remember either the best

service or the cheapest deal. We cannot be the customer over.


35 st
RomilaChawla (2003) : wrote an important book entitled “Tourism in the 21

Century”. She emphasized on important features of the tourism industry, its contribution

to the national integration and creation of harmonious social and cultural environment

and also suggests the promotion of arts, crafts and bridge about prosperity and sustainable

development. Twenty first century is the age of information

30
technology and tourism. She gives aspects and challenges of tourism in the Twenty

first century.
36
Subhash N. Nikam (2003) : has presented in his research work (unpublished doctor

thesis) entitled, Potential and Prospects for Tourism Development in Nasik District”.

His attempt has been made to understand for the tourism development by considering

four case studies and find out the potential and prospects for the planning at different

destinations in the district. His also gave valuable suggestions for tourism

development in the Nasik district.

These studies have been beneficial to the researcher for identification of

potentials and prospects for tourism for tourism development in the context of Raigad

district.

37
Chinmaya Kumar Dash (2003) : studied on the „Evolving a Strategic Management

Model for Tourism in Orissa.‟ In his study, he examined the views and attitudes of

tourists about the facilities provided by the Orissa Tourism Development Corporation and

others; he undertook the SWOT analysis of the present marketing strategy followed by

various agencies in promotion of the tourism sector. He suggested for having a strategic

planning for tourism related to planning, product, pricing and accommodation and

miscellaneous. He formulated an effective marketing strategy and promotion efforts for

development of tourism in Orissa „AIMS‟ – „A-for Tourism Awareness; „I‟- for creating

Infrastructure; „M‟-for Marketing and „S‟-for system.

38
Jim Butcher (2003) : in his book, the moralization of tourism lays today‟s critique

of tourism in historical context and outline a distinctly moral conception of modern

tourism, identifying a new moral tourist by drawing on arrange of contemporary

examples. Jim Butcher has provided a wide range critique looking at both the effect

the new moral tourism has on the holiday marker and the effect it has on the host

31
societies in terms of development opportunities. Travel that is non-intrusive and low

impact is seen as the way of reconnecting with nature and rediscovering lost truth.

However not only does this deference to the destination create new barrier between

people- people who are defined by their difference rather than what they have

common- but it also has a negative impact in the field of development. He argues that

the package tourism boom has been destructive and that nature based tourism is

somehow ethical. He opined that eco-friendly and culturally concerned tourism is

based on the false premises of environmental and cultural fragility and of a surfeit of

individual freedom for tourists. Using a host of international examples from the

industry, the media and nongovernmental organizations, Jim Butcher examines what

the advocated of new tourism see, as being wrong with mass tourism, looks critically

at the claims made for the new alternatives and makes a case for guilt free holidays.

Jim botcher has evaluated the concepts and applications in the context of advanced

and developed countries, which may not be worthwhile to the developing countries

like India. In addition, he has not touched the areas such as pilgrimage and heritage

tourism through which we can get maximum tourists.

39
Anil Kumar (2004) : examined negative factors of tourism in Kerala In his study he

identified the various negative factors of tourism covering from pollution to

prostitution and drugs to difficulties in customs clearance at tourist centers. He

recommended for a mechanism to monitor for identifying negative factors of tourism

and to prevent the negative impacts inflicted by the factors on the industry. The

government to prevent the exploitation by the shopkeepers and other service providers

should approve prices and service charges. Regulations should be made to prevent the

over exploitation of natural resources causing ecological imbalance. Steps should be

taken for pollution control, and to keep the environment clean and green. Vigilance

32
should be stepped up to check drug trafficking, prostitution, illegal and unscientific

massage parlors, robberies and assault on tourists including rapes and murders.

Simplified procedure at customs clearance from arrival to departure; getting and

converting the foreign exchange with ease.

40
Fillipe Rodrigues e Melo and Dr. S.S Hugar (2004) : in their article Factors

influencing performance of Goa Tourism Development Corporation (GTDC): A

Multiple Regression Analysis‟ made an attempt to studied to identify the factors that

determine the level of satisfaction of the tourists in regard to the services offered by

GTDC viz. Accommodation, River Cruise, Tours and package tours.


41
Dr.G.Ganaesan and Dr.K. Chandra shaker Rao (2004) : in their article

'Incredible India's Tourist Share Growing' states that according to the World Travel &

Tourism Council .India has the second highest global travel and tourism demand

growth pegged at 10 percent. This observation is a testimony to India's growing

stature as a 'must -see destination' among the travelers of the world .Eco-tourism,

Farm-tourism, Cultural and Heritage tourism, and Medical tourism are the promising

sectors of India tourism.

42
K.Sasikumar and R.Bindu (2004) : in their article 'Performance of Tourism

Industry in Kerala „critically analyzed the growth on tourism industry in Kerala and

compared it with that of in other states and also analyzed developmental activities of

tourism industry in Kerala, the role of different agencies involved in tourism

development, infrastructure, tourism vision of the state and comparison is made with

that of other states.


43
R. Renganathan (2004) :-in his article „positioning a tourism destination to gain a

competitive advantage „status the importance of affective positioning in the tourism


marketing, positioning process and types of positioning.

33
44
Dr.P.BPatil (2004) : in his article 'Marketing of tourism in western Maharashtra and

Goa: The Seven A' S Strategy' studied to understand the existing status to tourist

services in the study area, with a view to chalk out essential elements of Marketing of

tourism strategies in the study area and relevance of seven 'A' Attraction,

Accessibility, Accommodation, Attendance, Alertness and Accord.


45
Dr.O.P.Kandari and Ashish Chandra (2004) : wrote a book entitled, Tourism

Development Principles and Practices”. He noted that planning and assessment are

important parts of sustainable development of tourism. He focused on issues of

tourism development, particularly from economic, ethnic and environmental

perspectives and also explained the Goals and strategies for effective tourism

practices, I identified and key issues of carrying capacity and community

participation. He also stated that role of tourism in rural development is

fundamentally an economic one and can help to sustain and improve the quality of

life in rural areas.

46
M.A Khan (2005) : wrote a book on, Principles of Tourism Development” which

deals with hotel industry and tourism, these are the two significant sectors of modern

day economy, tourism is honored guest and the hotels affect them the demanded

hospitality. He also focused on the role of information technology in tourism industry.

47
K. Srinivasa Rao (2005) : studied on Religious Tourism in Andhra Pradesh, in

which he covered in detail all the important religious places of entire A.P, which will

be very helpful to the pilgrims, tourists as well as others to know and understand

about religious places of A.P. In his study, he found that information about pilgrim

centers is inadequate. Transportation, food and accommodation facilities are not

satisfactory to the expectation of the pilgrims and tourists. He suggested holding

special festivals; Utsavs on special occasions and arrange package tours to the pilgrim

34
center. The shrines and its surroundings should be peaceful, serene, and clean and

hygiene surrounded by well-maintained gardens and trees. Security, information,

guidance and public relations should be improved. Better transport facilities, good

food and safe drinking water should be provided. Light and show programmers

should be conducted to entertainment and attract tourists and pilgrims.

48
Jay raj (2005) : studied about the managerial and commercial aspects of eco-

tourism. In his study, he deeply explored the importance and potential of eco-tourism

in India. He discussed the principles of eco-tourism. He also made an overview of

tourism in Tamilnadu and Kerala. In defining eco- tourism he explained about

adventure tourism, sustainable tourism, responsible tourism, nature based tourism,

green tourism, multi-sport adventure and cultural tourism, the eco-tourists are

classified into hard core eco tourists; dedicated eco tourists; mainstream nature

tourists and casual nature tourists. The study stressed on „code of ethics‟, which 10

Articles released by World Tourism Organization (WTO). These articles deals with

tourism‟s contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and

societies: it is the task of the public authorities to provide protection for tourists and

visitors and their belongings; sustainable development; cultural heritage of mankind

and contributions to its enhancement; Tourism activity should be planned in such a

way as to allow traditional cultural products, crafts and folklore to survive and

flourish, rather than causing than to degenerate and become standardized.

49
R.K. Malhotra (2005) :-in his article „marketing of tourism' discussed elaborately

the various factors influence the successful marketing of tourism he also highlighted

the pitfalls in existing methods and gave suggestions for improving the present

situation .
50
Anchal.A (2005) : he studied on problems of destination marketing, its special

35
features, tourism marketing segmentation, and gave solution to the problems of

destination marketing. She studied about the promotion of eco-tourism and adventure

tourism at Coorg. She suggested improvement of roads, transportation and to provide

vegetarian food.

51
Dr.G.Ganesan and Dr.K.ChandrasekharaRao (2005) : in their article „Rural

Marketing of tourism – A Strategy for Global-Local linkage‟, it was discussed about

rural tourism, Nature-based tourism and Heritage tourism. Rural tourism means the

activities that are associated closely with rural people on tourist‟s trade, which

includes local community, involvement and promoting natural beauty. Rural tourism

includes in its fold the Nature-based and heritage tourism.


52
T.Suchitra Rani and Dhanya Menon (2005) :- In their article stressed the need to

be innovation to ensure profitability for the companies. With increasing competition,

organizations have started focusing on the customer in order to get the cutting edge.

Customer-centric orientation has created a revolution and has led to a paradigm shift.

The extended version of the marketing mix has been transformed into 8Cs.as

mentioned below:

8Ps 8Cs

Product Customer Solution

Price Customer Cost

Place Convenience

Promotion Communications

Personnel Competence

Physical Facilities Comfort

Process Configuration

Productivity Contraction

36
53
P.C Sinha (2005) : in this work, Tourism Research policy and regulation says

tourism has seen rapid and continuous growth. The desirability of tourism has seldom

been questioned by government mostly due to profit motives. However local

communities, due to some negative social and environmental impact of tourism have

voiced their concern against it. Therefore tourism development strategy must get

defined in different regional contexts. Policy initiatives towards undertakings

corrective actions must be applied. P.C. Sinha has focused on all aspects of tourism

development viz, social, economic, cultural, physical, political, spatial, environmental

and over all recreational. P.C Sinha has aimed at to provide in detail the possible ways

and means for sustainable development of tourism and address to a much wider

audience, particularly those involved in the planning and management of the tourism

industry at different levels. He has shown his emphasis on the integrated approach and

the techniques that need to be applied in implementing tourism approaches and plants.

He has made an attempt to cultivate global interest towards an integrated development

of tourism. He completely focused on the potentials and problems involved in the

development of tourism at global level. Based on different situations and development

plagiarism attempts have been made towards evolving other forms of alternative

tourism and their feasibility in present day context. His work was not sufficient to

provide in detail the possible ways and means for sustainable development of tourism

in the context of various avenues available and the different geographical features

prevailing in India.

54
K.Kistaiah (2005) :- In his study „Tourism Industry in Andhra Pradesh: Problems

and Prospects‟ he took note of the state‟s economic profile and the place of tourism

therein, and its development or under-developed nature; he examined the tourists

37
heritage and endowments of the nation in general and the state of Andhra Pradesh in

particular and the potential of the sector. He took stock of the performance, problems

and prospects of the sector. In his major finding he found that old historical and

heritage tourist places are being neglected by the state; bad management in respect of

holy paces; insufficient investments, no right tourism planning, lack of imagination;

state monopoly or semi-monopoly, market disorientation, over planning and fanciful

projects etc., are major causes for the state‟s backwardness in the tourism. In his

suggestions he suggested that with care and concern for nature, human friendly

overall development and attention to tourism particulars of preservation, promotion,

market orientation and private capital participation, Andhra Pradesh could be

developed into a premier tourist state.

55
Dr.V.Kubendran (2006) :-in his article, “Medical Tourism advantage India made

cost comparison between India, USA and U.K. hospitals of procedure charges and

observed that an increasing number of patients unwilling to accept long queues in

Europe or high costs in U.S.A., are traveling to India for surgery and treatment.

56
Mr. PranNath Seth (2006) : in his book maintains that tourism is one the world‟s

most rapidly growing industries. The growing ranks of international leisure travelers

are being spelled by business travelers who are flooding into India because of

economic liberalization. It is thus imperative that our professional tourism corps be

trained to meet these existing requirements. Both in the public and in private sectors

the increasing understanding of these needs is leading to the development of

institutes, training centers and academic programmes in tourism management. Hence,

in his book he has divided the chapters in three parts namely understanding the nature

of tourism, tourism planning and geography of tourism. In part, one he has provided

the details and fundamentals of tourism, travel and tourism through centuries,

38
dimensions – one international and domestic tourism and social economic and

environmental impact of tourism. In part two he has narrated the planning and

development of tourism and tourism developmental corporations. In part three he has

specified the impact of geography on tourism and quoted India a land of all seasons

and for all reasons.

The discussions were in general and specific reference to India is not sufficient even

the case studies and the geography were more on western countries and other

development countries of the world. Tourism planning with reference to India and the

Indian states were not laid. More focus and reference are there with regard to

developed countries. In addition, the New Thrust areas that are on demand by the

tourists are not focused. Coastal tourism, adventure tourism, Jungle activities and eco-

tourism were not discussed at all. Tourism promotional steps in the context of India

are not covered in his work.

57
A.K. Bhatia (2006) : has opined the travel and tourism industry in its various

manifestations in a global perspective. He has attempted to cover the nature, structure,

organizations, marketing and promotion of global tourist industry and its impact on

various economic social and various national tourism organizations, transport and

carrier firms, travel agencies and all others engaged in the business of tourism. He has

traced the history of travel in the early times to what is recognized today as one of the

leading industries. He has attempted to present the early history and development of

tourism through the years. He has analyzed tourism as an economic activity largely

and focused on cultural and international understanding through tourism. He attempts

tourism to form to view of his present world and a global concept of his historic past.

Further, he has elaborated techniques such as planning, market research, statistics, sale

support etc. in promoting tourism activity. The focus on India tourism and the

39
state wise benefits through international tourism is not present in his book. Also the

statistics of tourists with special reference to India and its state are not present in his

book.

58:
Manish Ratti (2007) in his,, Tourism Planning and Development” book which

deals with the tourism industry also provides a number of job opportunities to the

local people, adverse effect on the destinations; it contains vital information on

tourism planning and management, crucial issues are given an elaborate treatment.
59
Bhatia, A.K (2007) : A.K Bhatia approaches the subject of tourism from the

perspectives of a social science. He has discussed the subject in different dimension

such as historical, economic organizational and international perspectives. He stresses

that, as tourism is being recognized as a source of employment, it is highly labour

intensive industry offering employment to both semi-skilled and the unskilled. Being

the service industry it creates employment opportunities for the local population, it is

a major source of income and employment for individuals in many places which are

deficient in natural resources that cannot readily contribute to the economic prosperity

of the area except through the medium of tourism. He has narrated the basic concepts

of tourism in his work he has divided the book in two parts the first part covers

dimensions such as historic, economic, organizational and international. The second

part covers and examines the service dimensions to assists professionals in

understanding and managing the tourism activity. In this part he deals with planning

and development, marketing and communication, and key product elements like

accommodation and travel organization sector.

60
Dr. Aman deep kaur and Dr. Punam Agarwal (2007) : have stressed that there is

hardly any other economic sector which generates as much added value, employment

40
and foreign exchange and that also at such a low cost of tourism. The economic

significance of tourism can be judged through the figures given by the World Tourism

and Travel Council that explains tourism contributes 10.2% to word GDP, 10.7% of

capital investment, employs 10.6% of global work force, accounts for 10.9% of all

consumer spending and 6.9% of all government spending. Thus, there is all reason to

study tourism and design the practical agenda of the world. Tourism is therefore a

basic and most desirable human activity deserving the price and encouragement of all

peoples and all governments. They have given details on the concepts of tourism,

ingredients for tourism development significance and impact of tourism, the main cost

of tourism, evolution of tourism. They have also furnished details on tourism

marketing mix. They have narrated details on hotel industry, hospitality industry to

some extent. They have also mentioned the role of travel agencies and travel

organizations. A little discussion on road and rail transport was also made. They have

not discussed on the promotion and development strategies of tourism, which is very

important for our progress in the state.

He has also discussed the service dimensions that will help in

understanding and managing the tourism activity. He has dealt with planning and

development, marketing and communication and key product elements like

accommodation, and travel organization sector. He has not presented the preferences

of a tourists and types of tourists. Further considering the potential India has, the

tourist attractions towards such potentiality is not analyzed.

61
Dr.Kulwant Singh Pathania and Dr. Arun Kumar (2008) : “Tourism in India”

focused on all aspects related to the tourism and outdoor recreations as resources

based have useful for the development of any tourist destination in India.

41
62
Dr.M.M.Khan (2009) : Wrote an important book series on “Encyclopedia of

Tourism”. He emphasized on theoretical framework of tourism development such as

fundamental aspects, salient features and various organization. He gives the role of

tourism organization at the international and National level for the development and

promotion of tourism industry, all phenomenon has been explained in Vol-I. In Vol-II,

he stated the origin of tourism, types of tour operators, system of social organizations,

different theories of criminality, relation between tourism and hotel industry. Vol-IV

deals with the basic aspects of ticketing and booking, global ticketing, complete

history of ticketing and booking of air, rail and Water and road transportation for

travelling.

63
Sandeep Das (2011) : in his article explains that tourism provides opportunities of

job creation directly. So this sector should provide with incentives for sustainable and

overall economic growth along with creation of jobs.

64
Barnamaullick (2012) : in his article highlights about the tourism as strategy for

rural development. He has given more priority of tourism sector and its contribution

to earn foreign exchange and the accelerating trend of this sector towards attracting

the foreign tourist arrival in India from 2001 to 2010.

65
ParmarJausingh (2012) : in his article explains tourism as an engine for economic

growth. In his study he focused on the rural economy of Himachal Pradesh with the

findings that this state is emerging as a favorite destination for the tourists i.e., both

domestic and foreigners which helps for the growth of the state.

66
EleonoraPantano, Loredana Di Pietro (2013) : The aim of this paper is to advance

their knowledge on the extent to which tourists use social networks for both achieving

information on possible destinations and for expressing negative judgments, in order

42
to figure out the main consequences for tourism marketers and possible solutions, as

well as to describe and detail the current shifting from e-tourism to f-tourism (from

tourism based on e-channel to a new tourism based on Face book).

67
Adriana Budeanu (2013) : Sustainable development of tourism depends on the

fragile balance between its fast growth and the tendency to “consume” its own life

support systems: nature, culture, and communities. Finding equilibrium between the

two conflicting aspects requires a shared rule making, which is seldom encountered,

especially in tourism-centric approaches. The emergent new technologies, and

particularly the evolution of social media, seem to offer a neutral ground that favors

open participation and stakeholder dialogue. This chapter explores the employment of

social media by individual users of Trip Advisor and by institutional actors

(destination organizations) as platforms for initiating stakeholder dialogues that focus

on sustainable tourism. The findings show that individual and institutional actors are

slow in adopting social media as a means to discuss the sustainability of tourism

1.8 Research Gap/Need for the Study

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world today. According to

World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the tourist sector with about 500 million

customers each year generates an annual gross output of about U.S $ 3,400 billion and

about 10% of the world's total gross domestic products and presently the tourism

industry is worth $3.6 trillion

Many studies have been conducted on tourism industry in India and A.P. But none of

them has focused on Telangana tourism (Pilgrimage tourism, Eco-tourism,

Entertainment tourism, Tribal &Jungle tourism). In order to fill the research gap, an

43
attempt is made to study the regions for tourist arrivals, and to attract more number of

foreign tourists to this region.

1.9 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to be examine marketing strategies adopted by

APTDC in promotion of Pilgrimage, Eco, Entertainment &Tribal and Jungle tourism

in Telangana Region in A.P to achieve the following objectives have been set.

1) To review the tourism policy of Government of Andhra Pradesh & Present Role of

Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation.

2) An overview of tourism Sector in Telangana region.

3) To Study the Marketing of Tourism in Telangana Region.

4) To study the perceptions of tourists, related to tourism Packages introduced by

Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation.

5) To identify the problems involved in the marketing of tourism in Telangana

region, with reference to Pilgrimage, Eco, Entrainment &Tribal and Jungle tourism.

44
1.10 Hypotheses of the Study

Hypotheses on pilgrimage - Tourism

H0: There is no significant association between transport facilities and Pilgrim flow in

Yadagirigutta.

H0: There is no significant association between free accommodations and the number

of devotees arriving atYadagirigutta.

H0: There is no significant association between the performance Redress Grievance

center and Pilgrim satisfaction in Yadagirigutta.

Hypotheses on Eco -Tourism

H0: There is no significant association between tourist facilities reception and Tourists

inflow for Eco tourists in Hyderabad.

H0: There is no significant association between tour package offers and Tourists

inflow in Hyderabad

H0: There is no significant association between Price and tourists inflow to Eco

tourists in Hyderabad.

H0: There is no significant association between behavior of the staff and number of

tourists‟ visits for Eco- Tourists in Hyderabad.

45
Hypotheses on Entertainment Tourism

H0: There is no significant association between the price of entry ticket and attracting

tourists to the Ramoji film City.

H0: There is no significant association between Honeymoon packages and inflow

tourists to the Ramoji film City.

H0: There is no significant association between staff behavior and satisfaction of

visitor‟s at Ramojifilm City.

Hypotheses on Tribal Festival

H0: There is no significant association between facilities Food& Water Supply and

number of visitor‟s Sammakka&SarakkaJatara.

H0: There is no significant association between Staff behavior and number of

touristsvisiting at Sammakka&SarakaJatara.
:
H0 There is no significant association between Communication facilities and tourist

number of tourists visits at Sammakka&SarakaJatara.

1.11Research Methodology

a) Scope of the study.

The present study is confined to study the marketing strategies on Diversified

tourism in Telangana and it doesn‟t cover the other regions .However,

generalization is to be made for other regions.

b) Period of the study

The study period is from 2005 to2013, it covers 8 years.

46
c) Sources of the data

The study is based on both primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data

has been collected from the tourists, officials of Tourism Department and other

tourism operators.

Secondary data has been collected from published information, such as Journals,

Newspapers, plans, Books and Internet.

d) Selection of the Sample

Andhra Pradesh is a leading state to attract Domestic Tourists. It has three regions

namely Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana.

In Telangana region, there are four types of Tourism Prevailed, namely

1. Pilgrimage Tourism
2. Eco-Tourism
3. Entertainment Tourism
4. Tribal and Jungle Tourism
Accordingly, sample was selected and presented below.

For selection sample, Convenience sampling method is adopted, since out of four

major segments, in each segment 150 samples is interviewed on through a schedule.

The total number sample size is 600(150X4).

Since, Population is infinite, a reasonable sample size is chosen and is tested the

validity of Primary data and found the data is Sufficient. This is further strengthened

by the reliability tests and Conbach‟s Alpha values.

47
1.12 Sample Design

For the purpose of the study, the four types of tourism in Telangana, i.e.:

Religious tourism, Eco-Tourism, jungle and tribal tourism, and Entertainment

tourism. There are located at Laxmi Narsimha Swamy Temple (Pilgrimage),

Zoological Park, Hyderabad (Eco-Tourism), Ramoji film City (Entertainment

Tourism) and Sammakka & Sarakka Temple (Tribal Tourism). The sample design

covers Ranga Reddy, Nalgonda and Warangal Districts. Laxmi Narsimha Swamy

Temple is the biggest Pilgrimage attraction in the Telangana, Similarly Zoological

Park is more attracting the children, therefore, I have chosen the topic for my research

and Ramoji film City is world Tourist attracting Tourist center. The Sammakka &

Sarakka is the biggest tribal festival in Asian which is celebrated by only Tribals.

Therefore I have chosen these areas for study.

S.No Type of Tourism Place Organization Sample of


tourists

1 Pilgrimage LakshmiNarsimhaSwamy Endowment 150


Tourism Temple, Yadagirigutta
Department
,(Nalgonda)

2 Eco-Tourism Zoological Park, (Hyderabad) Govt. of A.P 150

3 Entertainment RamojifilmCity, Eenadu group 150


Tourism
(Hyderabad)

4 Tribal & Jungle Sammakka, &SarakkaJatara, Govt. of A.P 150


Tourism Medaram, (Warangal).

48
1.13 Analysis of the data

After collection of required data through questionnaire, IBM-SPSS 20.0 Statistics

package was used to get results. The data was coded in excel sheet format (i.e. 4 to 1:

4=Aware to 1=Not used) to decode the respondents perceptions.

The analysis starts with reliability analysis (Cronbach's alpha) of questionnaires to

check the survey reliability. Next researcher adopted factor analysis of highly

influenced factors for tourists and service providers in all four dimensions. After

factor analysis the chi-square technique was adopted to check the significance of

various factors impact on tourist behavior with the help of hypotheses format.

Later regression analysis was done to draw a regression equation, to know as which

factor is influencing negatively/ positively with what degree it is supporting.

Reliability Analysis

Reliability:

Analysis was done with the help of (Cronbach's alpha) of questionnaires to check the

survey reliability. If the score cross above 0.6, it is statistically considered that

questionnaire got reliability by data and responses.

Descriptive Statistics:

Descriptive statistics is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show

or summarize data in a meaningful way. In the present data by using demographics

life, Age, Sex, Education and Income mean median, mode and percentage of

respondents‟ form each sub category was calculated for better understanding of

respondents‟ data.

49
Chi square test:

The Squares of standard normal variation is known as chi-square variation with one

degree of freedom. χ² Test is used:

1) To test the goodness fit between theory and practice.

2) To test the independence of attributes.

1.14 Presentation of data

The data has been presented through tables and charts wherever necessary in

presenting the data.

1.15 Limitations of the Study

1. Sample has been selected from Heterogeneous groups and is not possible to

identify the common parameter / characteristics of the select sample. However, who

visits during the peak seasons, their opinions were collected and presented for

interpretation.

1.16 Chapter Scheme of the Study

The first chapter is introductory in nature. It attempts to explain the need and

importance of study, conceptual aspects related to marketing of tourism, review of

literature, objectives, scope of the study, period of the study, sample design, methods

of data collection, analysis and presentation and limitation of the study.

The second chapter deals with the study of tourism policy in A.P. It covers

aspects such as Tourism policies in A.P. tourists‟ places in A.P organizations involved

in the development of tourism in A.P.

50
The Third Chapter deals with an overview of Tourism sector in Telangana

Region. It covers Domestic & Foreign Tourists Arrivals Financial performance of

APTDC, Profits / Losses of the APTDC and tourist places in Telangana.

The Fourth, fifth, six & seventh Chapters form core part of the study. In these

chapters the Marketing strategies adopted for four types of tourisms i.e. pilgrimage,

Eco-Tourism, entertainment Tourism and Tribal and Jungle tourism are presented in

each chapter.

The last chapter presents conclusions emerged from the entire study. It also

offers a few suggestions for effective marketing of tourism in the selected tourism

places in Telangana.

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