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APUSH Unit 7 Vocabulary

Chapter 23 #1-13
Chapter 24 #14-26
Chapter 25 #27-42
Chapter 26 #43-55
1. Consumer Culture: A society in which mass production and consumption of nationally
advertised products comes to dictate much of social life and status.
2. Charles Lindbergh: an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was
famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational
development. 1927. In military
3. Henry Ford: American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the
Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line
technique of mass production.
4. "Jazz Age": Term coined by writer F. Scott Fitzgerald to characterize the spirit of
rebellion and spontaneity among young Americans in the 1920s, a spirit epitomized by
the hugely popular jazz music of the era.
5. Louis Armstrong: Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem
Renaissance, talented trumpeter who influenced the future of jazz
6. Margaret Sanger: American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the
early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the
suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S.
and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
7. Flappers: Young women of the 1920s whose rebellion against prewar standards of
femininity included wearing shorter dresses, bobbing their hair, dancing to jazz music,
driving cars, smoking cigarettes, and indulging in illegal drinking and gambling.
8. Great Migration: Mass exodus of African Americans from the rural South to the
Northeast and Midwest during and after the First World War.
9. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP):
Organization founded in 1910 by black activists and white progressives that promoted
education as a means of combating social problems and focused on legal action to
secure the civil rights supposedly guaranteed by the 14th and 15th amendments. W.E.B.
Du Bois
10. Harlem Renaissance: The nation's first self-conscious black literary and artistic
movement; it was centered in New York City's Harlem district, which had a largely black
population in the wake of the Great Migration from the South
11. Langston Hughes: African American poet who described the rich culture of African
American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American
hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the
Harlem Renaissance.
12. Marcus Garvey: He was the leading spokesman for Negro Nationalism, which exalted
blackness, black cultural expression, and black exclusiveness. He called upon African
Americans to liberate themselves from the surrounding white culture and create their
own businesses, cultural centers, and newspapers. He was also the founder of the
Universal Negro Improvement Association.
13. "Lost Generation": Label given to modernist writers and authors, such as F. Scott
Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway, who had lost faith in the values and institutions of
Western civilization in the aftermath of the Great War
14. Nativism: favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people. Anti-
15. Immigration Act of 1924: Federal legislation intended to favor northern and western
European immigrants over those from southern and eastern Europe by restricting the
number of immigrants from any one European country to 2 percent of the total number of
immigrants per year, with an overall limit of slightly over 150,000 new arrivals per year.
16. Sacco and Vanzetti: Italian immigrants who were arrested for stealing $16,000 and
killing a paymaster and his guard. Their trial took place during a time of numerous
bombings and anarchists and their judge was openly prejudicial; many liberals and
radicals believe that their conviction was based on their political ideas and ethnic origin
rather than evidence against them. Despite lack of evidence, they were convicted of
murder in 1927
17. Ku Klux Klan: White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly
found liberties
18. Scopes Trial: Highly publicized 1925 trial of a high school teacher in Tennessee for
violating a state law that prohibited the teaching of evolution; the trial was seen as the
climax of the fundamentalist war on Darwinism.
19. Prohibition: A nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation,
transportation and sale of alcoholic beverages that remained in place from 1920 to 1933.
20. Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic
21. Andrew Mellon: Secretary of Treasury, had the theory that high taxes forced rich to
invest in tax-exempt securities rather than factories that provided high pay. Engineered
tax reductions and reduced National debt by $10 billion.
22. Five-Power Treaty: Put limitations on weapons and military in US, Britain, Japan,
France, and Italy. Prevented arms race
23. Kellogg-Briand Pact: Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose
the threat of war against one another
24. McNary-Haugen Bill: Aimed to help farmers- subsidize American agriculture by raising
the domestic prices of farm products. The plan was for the government to buy the wheat
and then store it or export it at a loss. Never became a law
25. Al Smith: Governor of New York four times, and was the Democratic U.S. presidential
candidate in 1928. He was the first Roman Catholic and Irish-American to run for
President as a major party nominee. He lost the election to Herbert Hoover.
26. Black Tuesday: October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Great
27. Great Depression: (1929-1941) Worst economic downturn in american history, spurred
by Black Tuesday (Stock Market Crash October 29, 1929) 25% unemployment rate
28. Reconstruction Finance Corporation: under Hoover, congress set this up to make
emergency loans to banks, life insurance companies, and railroads to avoid bankruptcy
29. "Bonus Expeditionary Force": Protest march on Washington, D.C., by thousands of
World War I veterans and their families, calling for immediate payment of their service
bonuses certificates; violence ensued when President Herbert Hoover ordered their tent
villages cleared.
30. New Deal: Roosevelt's plan to get America out of the Great Depression, economic
programs (dealt with bankruptcy, union issues, gave money to farmers)
31. First Hundred Days: This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. First one hundred
days of Roosevelt being president. Congress passed New Deal, 15 major legislative
pieces overall proposed during this time
32. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: Guaranteed customer accounts in banks up
to $2,500 - reducing future panics
33. Securities and Exchange Commission: 1934, federal agency established to regulate
the issuance and trading of stocks and bonds in an effort to avoid financial panics and
stock market crashes
34. Federal Emergency Relief Act: under Hoover gave loans to states to operate relief
programs - expired after 2 years
35. Civilian Conservation Corps: men work on projects that benefited the public, for
unemployed and unmarried men
36. National Recovery Act: a US labor law and consumer law passed by the US Congress
to authorize the President to regulate industry for fair wages and prices that would
stimulate economic recovery - by roosevelt
37. Agricultural Adjustment Act: (1933) Legislation that paid farmers to produce less in
order to raise crop prices for all; the act was later declared unconstitutional
38. Dust Bowl: Vast area of the Midwest where windstorms blew away millions of tons of
topsoil from parched farmland after a long drought in the 1930s, causing great social
distress and a massive migration of farm families.
39. Tennessee Valley Authority: Constructed dams and power plants to improve social
and economic welfare in the region
40. Wagner Act: (1935) Legislation that guaranteed workers the right to organize unions,
granted them direct bargaining power, and barred employers from interfering with union
41. Social Security Act: 1935, Legislation enacted to provide federal assistance to retired
workers through tax-funded pension payments and benefit payments to the unemployed
and disabled
42. "Court-Packing" Scheme: President Franklin D. Roosevelt's failed 1937 attempt to
increase the number of U.S. Supreme Court justices from nine to fifteen in order to save
his Second New Deal programs from constitutional challenges.
43. "Neutrality Laws": Series of laws passed by Congress aimed at avoiding entering a
Second World War; these included the Neutrality Act of 1935, which banned loans to
warring nations.
44. Lend Lease Act: Legislation that allowed the president to lend or lease military
equipment to any country whose own defense was deemed vital to the defense of the
United States
45. Atlantic Charter: Joint statement crafted by Franklin D. Roosevelt and British prime
minister Winston Churchill that listed the war goals of the Allied powers
46. Pearl Harbor: Surprise Japanese attack on the US fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7,
1941, which prompted the immediate American entry to WWII
47. War Production Board: Federal agency created by Roosevelt in 1942 that converted
America's industrial output to war production.
48. Tuskegee Airmen: U.S. Army Air Corps unit of African American pilots whose combat
success spurred military and civilian leaders to desegregate the armed forces after the
49. Bracero Program: System created in 1942 that permitted seasonal farm workers from
Mexico to work in the United States on year-long contracts.
50. Executive Order 9066: Roosevelt orders for Japanese to be relocated due to
suspicions they were spies from Japan in the war. 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced
into camps causing loss of homes and businesses
51. Operation Overlord: The Allies' assault on Hitler's "Atlantic Wall," a seemingly
impregnable series of fortifications and minefields along the French coastline that
German forces had created using captive Europeans for laborers.
52. Yalta Conference: 1945 Meeting with the "big three" US president FDR, British Prime
Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for
post-war Europe, how to divide control
53. Battle of Midway: 1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a
turning point in the war in the Pacific. Japanese navy defeated
54. Potsdam Declaration: a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed
forces during World War II.
55. Hiroshima: Japanese port city that was the first target of the newly developed atomic
bomb on August 6, 1945. Most of the city was destroyed.