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‫ﻫﻞ ﻓﻀﺤﺖ اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ُﻛﺘﺎب اﻟﻌﻬﺪ‬

‫اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ؟‬
‫ﻛﻢ ﻋﺪد اﻷﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻲ دﺧﻠﺖ أرض ﻣﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺮاءة ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﺪاد‬

‫) ﺧﺮ ‪ \ ١:٥‬اع ‪( ٧:١٤‬‬

‫‪۱‬‬
‫ُﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ وﻗﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺟ ًﺪا ﻇﻬﺮ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﻄﺮح ﺑﻌﺾ اﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻜﺘـﺎﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜـﻦ ﻣـﺎ ﻳُﻤﻴـﺰ ﻃﺮﺣـﻪ إﻧـﻪ ُﻣﺤﺘـﺮف وﺑـﺎرع ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻏﻴــﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌــﻲ ﻓﻴﻤــﺎ ﻳُﻌــﺮف ﺑﺎﻹﻗﻨــﺎع اﻟﺼــﻮﺗﻲ ‪ ،‬أرﻳــﺪك ان ﺗﺘﺨﻴــﻞ إن ﺷــﺨﺺ ﻣــﺎ ﻳُﻘــﺪم ﻟــﻚ إﺷــﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎت ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴــﺔ وﻳُﺤــﺎول ان ﻳُﺼــﻮر ﻟــﻚ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐﺎﻟﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻴـﺔ اﻟﺸـﻬﻴﺮة واﻟﻤﻌﺮوﻓـﺔ ﺑﺈﺳـﻢ " اﻹﻧﺤﻴـﺎز اﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴـﺪي " ! ‪،‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺔ واﺣﺪة وﻫﻮ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﺪ اﻷﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻹﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻌﻮن ﻓﻲ ُ‬
‫أي إﻧﺤﻴﺎز ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ واﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﻟﻄﺮح اﺣـﺎدي إﻟـﻰ أﻗﺼـﻰ اﻟـﺪرﺟﺎت ! ﻫـﻞ ﺗﺴـﺘﻄﻴﻊ ان ﺗُﺴـﻤﻲ ذﻟـﻚ أﻛﺎدﻳﻤﻴـﺔ وﺣﻴﺎدﻳـﺔ !؟ ﺿـﻊ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺰﻳﺰي اﻟﻘﺎريء أرﻳﺪك ان ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ان اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ُﻣﻘﻴﺪ ﺑـﻞ ان اﻟﺒﺤـﺚ ﻫـﻮ ﻏﺮﻓـﺔ ﻟـﻴﺲ ﻟﻬـﺎ ﺳـﻘﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻛـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗُﺮﻳﺪ ان ﺗﺮاﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ان ﺗﺮاﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺮاﻩ إن ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗُﺮﻳﺪ ان ﺗﻘﻨﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ اﻧﻚ ﺗﺮاﻩ ﺣﺘﻰ دون ان ﺗﺮاﻩ! ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪي أي إﺷـﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣـﻊ أي‬
‫ﻃﺮح ﻳُﺴﺎﻋﺪ اﻟﻌﺮب ﻓﻲ أن ﻳﺨﺮﺟﻮا ﻣﻦ ﺑﻮﺗﻘﺔ اﻟﻼ ﺑﺤﺚ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮون ﻓﻴﻬﺎ إﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ﻛـﺎن ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻹﺷـﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎت اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻨﻌﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪس ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻳﻘﻮل ذﻟﻚ ‪ ، ! ١‬إذن ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ وﺟﻪ اﻹﻋﺘـﺮاض ﻟـﺪي ؟‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪس ﺑﻪ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎت ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ان اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ُ‬
‫اﻧﺎ أﻋﺘﺮف ان اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ُ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ أﻋﺘﺮض ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺑﺸﺪة ﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺻﻮرة ُﻣﺼـﻐﺮة وﻣﺸـﻮﻫﻪ ﻋـﻦ ﺻـﻮرة أﻛﺒـﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻧﻬـﺎ ﺑـﺬاﺗﻬﺎ اﻟﺼـﻮرة اﻷﻛﺒـﺮ ! ﻣـﻦ اﻟﻮاﺿـﺢ إﻧـﻪ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜـﻦ ان ﺷـﺨﺺ ﻳﺨـﺪع ﻧﻔﺴـﻪ‬
‫ﻳﺤﻖ ﻟﻲ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻨـﻰ أن اُﺳـﻤﻲ ذﻟـﻚ ﺗﻀـﻠﻴﻞ وﺧـﺪاع ‪ ،‬وﻫﻨـﺎ ﻟـﺪي وﻗﻔـﺔ ﻫـﻞ ﻣـﻦ ُ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ان ﻳﺨﺪع اﻷﺧﺮﻳﻦ !؟ ﺗﺨﻴﻞ اﻧﻨﻲ أﻗﻮل ﻟﻚ اﻧﻨﻲ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺈﺣﺘﻴﺎﻟﻲ !‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﺳﺘﻌﻘﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﺒﺎرة ؟ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻻ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬا ﻻ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ‬
‫ان ﻫﻨﺎك ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻞ وﺧﺪاع أﻳﻀﺎً ‪ ،‬وﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﻌـﻮد ﻟـﻨﻔﺲ اﻹﺷـﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ وﻫـﻲ " اﻹﻧﺤﻴـﺎز اﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴـﺪي " ﻓﻠـﻴﺲ ﻟﻨـﺎ ان ﻧﻌﺘﺒـﺮ ﺳـﻮاﻩ ﻣﺨـﺮج ﻟﻬـﺬا‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻳﺨﺪع ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻧـﻪ ﻳﺨـﺪع ﻣـﻦ ﻳﺴـﺘﻤﻊ إﻟﻴـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴـﺪ ُﻣﻘﺘﻨـﻊ ان ﻣـﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟـﻪ ﻫـﻮ اﻷرﺟـﺢ‬
‫ً‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳُﻤﻜﻦ ان‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻞ ﻧﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺤﺚ ودراﺳﺔ أم إﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺘﺠـﺖ ﻋـﻦ ﻣﺠـﺮد إرادة ُﻣﺴـﺒﻘﺔ ؟ ﻛـﻼ ﻧﺤـﻦ ﻻ ﻧﻔﺤـﺺ ﻣـﺎ ﺗﺨﻔﻴـﻪ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻠﻮب ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﺎدة ﻧﻤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺘﺤﺪث ﺑﺬاﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ إرادة ﻫﺬا اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻓﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻧُﺮﻳـﺪ ان ﻧﻌـﺮف ﻫـﻞ اﺗﺒـﻊ ﺑﺤـﺚ ﺣﻘﻴﻘـﻲ‬
‫ودراﺳﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪة ام اﺗﺒﻊ ارادﺗﻪ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺼﻮرة اﺣﺎدﻳﺔ اﻟﻮﺟـﻪ ﻓﻠـﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻣـﺎ ﻳﻜﻔـﻲ وﻳﺰﻳـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤـﺎ ﻧﻤﺘﻠﻜـﻪ ﻫـﻮ ﻋﺼـﺎرة ﻛـﻞ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺎﻫﺮا ﺑﺼــﻮرة واﺿـﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳـﺔ ﺗﺘﺤـﺪث ﻋــﻦ ﻛـﻞ ﺷـﻲء ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻜــﻲ ﻟﻨـﺎ ﺗﻔﺎﺻـﻴﻞ ﻟﻮﺣــﺔ‬
‫ﻛـﺎن ﻓـﻲ ﻓﻜـﺮ ﻫــﺬا اﻟﺸـﺨﺺ ﻗﺒـﻞ ان ﻳﺒــﻮح ﺑـﻪ‪ ،‬ﻇـ ً‬
‫واﻗﻌـﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻔﻘﻮدة ‪ .‬وﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜﻮن ﺻﺎﺋﺐ ﻓﻲ ُﺣﻜﻤﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ان ﺗﻜﻮن اﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﺮف اﻟﺤﻴﺎدﻳﺔ ! ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎﻟﻬـﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﻣﻬﺰﻟـﺔ ان ﺷـﺨﺺ ً‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻐﺎﻟﻄﺔ اﻹﻧﺤﻴﺎز اﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪي ﻳﻘﻮم ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻏﺎرق ﻓﻲ اﻹﻧﺤﻴﺎز اﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪي ! ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ان ﻧﺘﺒﻊ اﻟﺤﻴﺎدﻳﺔ واﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ان ﻧُﻘﺪم أﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻨﺎ إﻟﻴـﻪ إﻟـﻰ اﻟﺠﻤﻴـﻊ وﻳﺤـﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴـﻊ ان ﻳُﻘـﺪم ﺗﺴـﺎؤﻻﺗﻪ‬
‫وﻧﻘﺪﻩ وﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ان ﻧﻘﺒـﻞ ﻫـﺬا اﻟﻨﻘـﺪ ﻣـﺎ دام ﻓـﻲ اﻃـﺎر اﻟﺒﺤـﺚ اﻟﺠـﺎد وﻟـﻴﺲ ﻣﺠـﺮد ﺟـﺪال ﺳﻔﺴـﻄﺎﺋﻲ وﻧﺘﺤﻠـﻰ ﺑـﺮوح اﻟﺒﺤـﺚ اﻟﻤﺘـﺄﻧﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫واﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮف اﻹﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻔﻜﺮة ُ‬

‫‪٢ ١‬ﺑﻂ ‪٣:١٦‬‬

‫‪۲‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻨﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺨـﺘﺺ ﺑﻤـﺎ ورد ﻓـﻲ ﺳـﻔﺮ أﻋﻤـﺎل اﻟﺮﺳـﻞ ‪ ، ٧:١٤‬ﺧـﺮوج ‪ ،١:٥‬ﺗﻜـﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ، ٤٦:٢٧‬ﺣﻴـﺚ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ان اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري ﻳﻘـﻮل ان ﻋـﺪد اﻟﻨﻔـﻮس اﻟﺨـﺎرﺟﻴﻦ ﻣـﻦ ﺻـﻠﺐ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮب ‪ ٧٠‬ﻫـﺬا ﻫـﻮ ﻋـﺪد اﻷﻧﻔـﺲ اﻟﺘـﻲ أﺗـﺖ إﻟـﻰ ﻣﺼـﺮ ﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺳــﻔﺮ اﻋﻤــﺎل اﻟﺮﺳــﻞ ‪ ٧:١٤‬ﻳﻘــﻮل إﻧﻬــﻢ ﻛــﺎﻧﻮا ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔــﺲ ‪ ،‬وﻧﺠــﺪ ان اﻷﻋــﺪاد ) ﺗــﻚ ‪،٤٦:٢٧‬ﺧــﺮ‪ (١:٥‬ﻓــﻲ اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤــﺔ اﻟﺴــﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮل ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔﺲ ‪ ، ٢‬وﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ اﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎذا ان ﻛﺎن اﻟﻌﺪد اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬او اﻟﻘﺮاءة اﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﻫـﻲ ‪ ٧٠‬ﻧﻔـﺲ‬
‫وﻟﻴﺲ ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔﺲ ؟ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ذﻟﻚ ان اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮاءة ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﺑﻞ وﻣﻌﻨﻰ ذﻟﻚ أﻳﻀﺎً ان ﻟﻮﻗﺎ اﺧﻄﺄ ﺣﻴﺚ إﻧﻪ ﻧﻘﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻘــﺮاءة اﻟﻐﻴــﺮ أﺻــﻠﻴﺔ واﻋﺘﻤــﺪﻫﺎ ﻓــﻲ ﺳــﻔﺮ أﻋﻤــﺎل ﻟﺮﺳــﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓــﺄﻳﻦ اﻟﻌﺼــﻤﺔ إذن !؟ ‪ ،‬وﻫﻨــﺎ ﻳــﺄﺗﻲ ﻋﻨــﻮان " اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤــﺔ اﻟﺴــﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﻀــﺢ‬
‫ُﻛﺘﺎب اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ " ‪ ،‬واﻋﺘﺮاﺿﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﻄﺮح ﺑﺼﻮرة ﺳﺨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻗﺎم ﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤـﺔ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ) أﻇﻦ اﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﻨﺘﻮن ( ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ٤٦:٢٧‬واﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻦ اﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﺮﺳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﺪث ﻋـﻦ ﺑـﺎﻗﻲ اﻟﺸـﻮاﻫﺪ اﻟﻨﺼـﻴﺔ‬
‫! وﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﻮم ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ أي ﺷﻲء ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ان ﻳﻘﻮل اﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ ُﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺤﻞ ﻣﺠﺮد اﻧﺤﻴﺎز ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪي ! وﻋﺠﺒﻲ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٢‬اﻟﺰﻣﻴﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮف ان اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮوج ‪ ١:٥‬ﺗﻘﺮأ ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ، !٤٦:٢٧‬ﻳﻈﻦ ان ﺧﺮوج ‪ ١:٥‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺮاءات ﻧﺼﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮف ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺎل اﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎت‬
‫ﻗﻤﺮان وﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ أﻫﻢ اﻟﺸﻮاﻫﺪ اﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ وﻣﻦ أﻋﻈﻢ اﻹﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﻴﺔ ! وإن ﻛﺎن ﻳﻌﺮف وﻟﻢ ﻳﻄﺮح ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻛﺎرﺛﺔ أﻛﺒﺮ ‪ ،‬أﻇﻦ ان ﻫﺬا ﻣﺎ ﻳُﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﻌﻨﺎء اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻳﺎ اﻋﺰاﺋﻲ ! –‬
‫اﺑﺘﺴﺎﻣﺔ ‪. -‬‬

‫‪۳‬‬
. ‫• اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﻨﺼﻲ‬

.(‫ﺼ َﺮ‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫ﺻﻠ‬ ِ ‫ﻮس اﻟْ َﺨﺎ ِرِﺟ‬


ِ ‫ﻴﻊ ﻧـُ ُﻔ‬ ِ ْ َ‫ وَﻛﺎﻧ‬: ١:٥ ‫ﺧﺮوج‬
ْ ‫ﻒ َﻛﺎ َن ﻓﻲ ﻣ‬
ُ ‫ﻮﺳ‬
ُ ُ‫ ) َوﻟَﻜ ْﻦ ﻳ‬.‫ﻴﻦ ﻧَـ ْﻔﺴﺎ‬
َ ‫ﻮب َﺳ ْﺒﻌ‬
َ ‫ْﺐ ﻳَـ ْﻌ ُﻘ‬ ُ ‫ﻴﻦ ﻣ ْﻦ‬
َ ُ ‫ﺖ َﺟﻤ‬ َ
‫اﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ ان ﺗﻜﻮن ﻫﻲ اﻟﻘـﺮاءة اﻷﺻـﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻨـﺎ ان ﻧﻌـﺮف ﻣـﺎ ﻫـﻲ ﻗـﺮاءات‬
ُ ‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻧُﺮﻳﺪ ان ﻧﻌﺮف ﻫﻞ ﻗﺮاءة ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻫﻲ اﻟﻘﺮاءة‬
‫ ﻧﻔﺲ חמש ושבעים נפש‬٧٥ .٢ ، ‫ﻧﻔﺲ שׁבעים נפשׁ‬٧٠ .١ ، ‫ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﺮاﺋﺘﻴﻦ‬. ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨﺺ وﻋﺮض اﻟﺸﻮاﻫﺪ اﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ‬

-: ‫ﺷﻮاﻫﺪ ﻗﺮاءة ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ‬

: ‫اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري‬

‫יוֹסף ָהיָ ה ְב ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם׃‬


ֵ ְ‫וַ יְ ִהי ָכּל־נֶ ֶפשׁ י ְֹצ ֵאי יֶ ֶר�־יַ ֲﬠקֹב ִשׁ ְב ִﬠים נָ ֶפשׁ ו‬ 3

: ‫اﻟﺘﻮراة اﻟﺴﺎﻣﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ נפש ויוסף היה במצרים‬. ‫ויהיו כל נפש יצאי ירך יעקב שבעים‬4
: ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮم اوﻧﻜﻴﻠﻮس‬

‫פש ָתא כֹל וַ הוַ ָאה‬


ָ ַ‫רכא נָ ְפ ֵקי נ‬
ָ ִ‫בﬠין ְדיַ ְﬠקֹב י‬
ִ ‫ִש‬
‫והוה‬3
5

: ‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﺠﺎﺗﺎ‬
erant igitur omnes animae eorum qui egressi sunt de femore Iacob septuaginta Ioseph autem in Aegypto erat 6

: ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬
And all the souls that came out of Jacob’s thigh, were seventy: but Joseph was in Egypt. 7

3
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia . 1996, c1925 (Ex 1:5). Stuttgart: German Bible Society; Westminster Seminary.

4
Samaritan Pentateuch,EXO 1:5
5
Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon. (2005; 2005). Targum Onqelos to the Pentateuch; Targum Onkelos (Ex 1:5).
Hebrew Union College.

6
Weber, R., & Gryson, R. (1969, 2007). Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem (5th revised edition) (Ex 1:5).
Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

7
The Holy Bible, Translated from the Latin Vulgate . 2009 (Ex 1:5).

٤
‫وﻧﺠﺪ ان اﻟﻴﻮﺑﻴﻞ ﻳﻘﻮل " وﻛﺎن ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻷﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ دﺧﻠﻮا ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب ‪ ٧٠‬ﻧﻔﺴـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫـﺆﻻء ﻫـﻢ اوﻻدﻩ وأوﻻد أوﻻدﻩ‬
‫‪٨‬‬
‫‪ ،‬اﻟﻜﻞ ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺎﺗﻮا ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ وﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻬﻢ أوﻻد "‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ اﻟﻴﻮﺑﻴﻞ ﻳﻀﻊ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺗﺼﻮر وﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻟﻬﺬا اﻹﺧﺘﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻷرﻗـﺎم ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜـﻦ ﻣـﻦ اﻟﻬـﺎم إﻧـﻪ ﻳُﻮﺿـﺢ ﻟﻨـﺎ ان اﻟﺨـﻼف ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻟـﺮﻗﻢ اﻟـﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻛﺎن ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺧﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮرة ُﻣﺒﻜﺮة ‪.‬‬

‫وﻳﻘــﻮل ﻳﻮﺳــﻴﻔﻮس اﻟﻤــﺆرخ اﻟﻴﻬــﻮدي " أﻣــﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﻟﻴﻌﻘــﻮب ﻓﻘــﺪ أﺻــﺒﺢ ﺷــﺨﺺ ﻣﻌــﺮوف ﻟﻠﻐﺮﺑــﺎء أﻳﻀ ـﺎً ‪ ،‬وذﻟــﻚ ﺑﺴــﺒﺐ ﻋﻈﻤــﺔ‬
‫اﻹزدﻫﺎر اﻟﺬي ﻋﺎش ﻓﻴﻪ وﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻷﺑﻨﺎءﻩ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺟﺎءوا إﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔـﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤـﺎ اﺻـﺒﺤﻮا اﻷن ﻓـﻮق ﺳـﺘﻤﺎﺋﺔ‬
‫‪٩‬‬
‫أﻟﻒ ﺷﺨﺺ "‬

‫وﻧﺠــﺪ ﻓــﻲ اﻟﺮواﻳــﺔ اﻟﻤﺴــﺮﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺗــﺐ اﻟﻤﺴــﺮﺣﻲ واﻟﺸــﺎﻋﺮ اﻟﻴﻬــﻮدي اﻟﻤﻌــﺮوف ﺑﺄﺳــﻢ ‪ Ezekiel the Tragedian‬ﻓــﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠـﻪ اﻟـﺪراﻣﻲ اﻟﻜﻼﺳـﻴﻜﻲ اﻟﻤﻌـﺮوف ﺑﺄﺳـﻢ ‪ (exodus) Exagōgē‬ان ﻋــﺪد اﻟـﺪاﺧﻠﻴﻦ ﻫـﻢ ﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔـﺲ ‪ ، ١٠‬وﺑﺴـﺒﺐ اﻧﻨــﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺠﺪ ان أﻟﻜﺴﻨﺪر ﺑﻮﻟﻴﻬﺴﺘﺮ ﻳﻘﺘﺒﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺮن اﻷول ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﻳُﺮﺟﺤﻮن ان ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻷدﺑﻲ واﻟﻤﺴـﺮﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻴﻬﻮدﻳﺔ اﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺠﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻮد إﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻮاﻫﺪ ﻗﺮاءة ‪:٧٥‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺸـﻔﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻗﻤـﺮان ﺗﺸـﻬﺪ ﻟﻬـﺬﻩ اﻟﻘـﺮاءة ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ‬


‫أﻣﺎ ﻋـﻦ ﺷـﻮاﻫﺪ ﻗـﺮاءة ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔـﺲ ﻧﺠـﺪ ان اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃـﺎت اﻟﻌﺒﺮﻳـﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻬـﺪ اﻟﻘـﺪﻳﻢ ُ‬
‫ﻗﻮي ﻳﺘﻮاﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻲ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺟــﺪ ﻣﺨﻄــﻮﻃﺘﻴﻦ ﻣــﻦ اﻟﻬــﺎم ان ﻧﺘﺤــﺪث ﻋــﻨﻬﻢ ﻫﻨــﺎ ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃــﺔ اﻷوﻟــﻰ ﺗﻔﻘــﺪ اﻟــﺮﻗﻢ ﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ وﻟﻜــﻦ رﻗــﻢ ﺧﻤﺴــﺔ واﺿــﺢ ﺑﻬــﺎ‬
‫)וחמש‪ -‬وﺧﻤﺲ ( أﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺔ اﻷﺧﺮى ﻓﺒﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﺮاءة ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ )חמש ושבעים נפש‪ -‬ﺧﻤـﺲ وﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔـﺲ ( وﻫﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﻀـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻫـﺬﻩ اﻟﻘـﺮاءة ‪ ،‬إن ﻛـﺎن ﻻ ﻳﻌـﺮف‬
‫اﺗﺴﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻤﺎذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﻞ اﻟﺰﻣﻴﻞ ان ﻫﺬا اﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ اﻟﻬﺎم ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃـﺎت ﻗﻤـﺮان ﻳﺤﺘـﻮي أﻳ ً‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒــﺮر ﻣــﻦ اﻷﺳــﺎس ﻻ أرﻳــﺪ ان‬
‫إن ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃــﺎت ﻗﻤــﺮان ﺗﺤﺘــﻮي ﻋﻠــﻰ ﻫــﺬﻩ اﻟﻘـﺮاءة ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨــﺪ ﻫــﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﻘﻄــﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟــﺪ داﻋــﻲ ﻟــﺬﻛﺮ ﻫــﺬا ُ‬

‫‪8‬‬
‫‪Jub 44:33, Charles,POT,Vol.2,P.76, And all the souls of Jacob which went into Egypt were seventy souls. These‬‬
‫‪are his children and his children’s children, in all seventy; but five died in Egypt before Joseph, and had no‬‬
‫‪children.‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪Josephus, Ant 2.214, That by my assistance, said he, he did great exploits in war, which, unless you be yourselves‬‬
‫‪impious, you must still remember. As for Jacob, he became well known to strangers also, by the greatness of that‬‬
‫‪prosperity in which he lived, and left to his sons, who came into Egypt with no more than seventy souls, while you‬‬
‫‪are now become above six hundred thousand.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪Ezekiel the Tragedian 1.1.2‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮر‪ ،‬وإن ﻛﺎن ﻳﻌـﺮف ﻓﺒـﺄي ﻋﻘـﻞ وﻣﻨﻄـﻖ ﻳﻘـﻮل ان اﺳـﻄﻔﺎﻧﻮس اﺧﻄـﺄ ﺣﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﻧﻘـﻞ ﻣـﻦ اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴـﻒ ﻋﺮﻓـﺖ إﻧـﻪ‬
‫اﺳﻤﻊ ﻫﺬا ُ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ؟ ﻓـﻲ ﺣـﻴﻦ وﺟـﻮد ﺷـﺎﻫﺪ ﻧﺼـﻲ ﻋﺒـﺮي أﻗـﺪم ﻣـﻦ اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ وﺑـﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺗـﻢ ﻧﺴـﺨﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺷـﺎﻫﺪ ﻧﺼـﻲ أﻗـﺪم ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴـﻒ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻓﺖ إﻧﻪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳ ًﺪا !؟ ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮل ﺑﺮوس ﺑﺎرﺗﻮن " اﺳﻄﻔﺎﻧﻮس ﻳﻘـﻮل ان ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔـﺲ ذﻫﺒـﻮا إﻟـﻰ ﻣﺼـﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑـﺪ إﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﻛﺎن ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺪم ﻫﺬا اﻹﻗﺘﺒﺎس ‪ ،‬أو أﺳﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻨﺺ ﻋﺒﺮي ُﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري ‪ ) ...‬ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃـﺔ‬
‫ﻣ ــﻦ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃ ــﺎت اﻟﺒﺤ ــﺮ اﻟﻤﻴ ــﺖ ﺗﻘ ــﺮأ " ﺧﻤ ــﺲ وﺳ ــﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﺷ ــﺨﺺ " ﻓ ــﻲ ﺧ ــﺮوج ‪ ،١١ ( ١:٥‬أﻧ ــﺎ أﻋ ــﺮف ﺟﻴـ ـ ًﺪا ان اﻟﻜﺜﻴ ــﺮ ﻣ ــﻦ‬
‫اﻹﺳﺘﺸــﻬﺎدات ﻣــﻦ اﻟﻌﻬــﺪ اﻟﻘــﺪﻳﻢ ﻓــﻲ اﻟﻌﻬــﺪ اﻟﺠﺪﻳــﺪ ﺗﻌﺘﻤــﺪ ﻋﻠــﻰ اﻟﺴــﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜــﻦ ﻣــﺎ أﺗﺤــﺪث ﻓﻴــﻪ ﻫــﻮ ﺷــﻲء أﺧــﺮ ‪ ،‬وﻫــﻮ اﻧﻨــﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺒﺮي ﺳﺤﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺪم ﻳﻘﺮأ ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻘﻮم اﻟﺰﻣﻴﻞ ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺻﻮرة ُﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻳُﻘﺪم اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﻬـﺎ اﻟﺸـﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺘﻤــﺎ ان اﺳــﻄﻔﺎﻧﻮس أو ﻟﻮﻗــﺎ اﻋﺘﻤــﺪ ﻋﻠــﻰ ﻫــﺬﻩ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘــﻲ إﻧــﻪ ً‬
‫اﻟﻨﺼــﻲ اﻟﻮﺣﻴــﺪ ﻟﻬــﺬﻩ اﻟﻘــﺮاءة‪ ،‬ﻟﻜــﻲ ﻓــﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳــﺔ اﻟﻤﻄــﺎف ﻳﺼــﻞ إﻟــﻰ ُ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ ! ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ان ﻧﻘﻮل ان اﺳﻄﻔﺎﻧﻮس اﺳﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﻘﺮاءة اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻴﺲ إﻧﻪ اﺳـﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻻ‬
‫إﺷﻜﺎل ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳﺎس ان ﻳﻜﻮن اﺳﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺘﻪ وﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪Ιωσηφ δὲ ἠ̂ν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ. ἠ̂σαν δὲ πα̂σαι ψυχαὶ ἐξ Ιακωβ πέντε καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα. 12‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪But Joseph was in Egypt. And all the souls born of Jacob were seventy-five. 13‬‬

‫ﻧﺠﺪ ان اﻟـﺮﻗﻢ " ‪ " ٧٠‬ﻗـﺪ ورد ﺛـﻼث ﻣـﺮات ﻓـﻲ اﻟﺘـﻮراﻩ ) ﺗﻜـﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ،٤٦:٢٧‬ﺧـﺮوج ‪ ،١:٥‬ﺗﺜﻨﻴـﺔ ‪ ، (١٠:٢٢‬ﻟﻜـﻦ ﻣـﻊ ﺧﻼﻓـﺎت‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸـﻮاﻫﺪ اﻟﻨﺼـﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ اﻧﻨـﺎ ﻧﺠـﺪ ان اﻟـﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳـﻮري ﻟـﺜﻼث ﻓﻘـﺮات ﻓـﻲ اﻟﺘـﻮراة ﻳﻘـﺮأ " ﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔـﺲ " وﻫـﺬا ﻧـﺎﺗﺞ ﻋـﻦ ان‬
‫اﻟﻤــﺬﻛﻮرﻳﻦ ﻓــﻲ ﺗﻜــﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ٤٦: ٢٤-١‬ﻋــﺪدﻫﻢ واﺣــﺪ وﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔــﺲ وﻳﺠــﺐ ان ﻧﻄــﺮح ﻣــﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻴــﺮ وأوﻧــﺎن ﻷﻧﻬــﻢ ﻣــﺎﺗﻮا ‪ ،‬وﻳﻮﺳــﻒ‬
‫واﺑﻨﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ) أﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﺪد ‪ ، ( ٢٠‬وﻫﻜﺬا ﻳﻮﺳﻒ واﺑﻨﻴﻪ ﺛﻼث أﺷﺨﺎص ‪ +‬ﻋﻴﺮ واوﻧﺎن اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﻴﺎن ‪ ٥ .‬أﺷـﺨﺎص ﻧﻄـﺮﺣﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻣــﻦ ‪ ٧١‬ﻧﻔــﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻄﻴﻨــﺎ ‪ ٦٦‬ﻧﻔــﺲ أﺑﻨــﺎء ﻳﻌﻘــﻮب ﻛــﺎﻧﻮا ﻓــﻲ رﻓﻘﺘــﻪ ‪ ،‬وﻳُﻀــﻴﻒ ﻳﻌﻘــﻮب وﻳﻮﺳــﻒ واﺑﻨﻴــﻪ ﻳﻜــﻮن ﻟــﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔــﺲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮرﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ،٤٦:٢٧‬وﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ اﻟﻔﻘﺮﺗﻴﻦ اﻷﺧﺮﺗﻴﻦ ) ﺧﺮ‪،١:٥‬ﺗﺚ ‪(١٠:٢٢‬‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫‪Barton, B. B., & Osborne, G. R. Acts. Life application Bible commentary ,P.111, Stephen said that there were‬‬
‫‪seventy-five persons who made the trek to Egypt. He must have been using the Septuagint when he made this‬‬
‫‪quote or citing a Hebrew text different than the Masoretic Text, which reads “seventy” (see Genesis 46:27; Exodus‬‬
‫)‪1:5). (One Dead Sea Scroll manuscript of Exodus 1:5 says “seventy-five” persons.‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪Septuaginta . 1979; (electronic ed.) (Ex 1:5)..‬‬

‫‪13‬‬
‫‪Brenton, L. C. L. (1870). The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament: English Translation (Ex 1:5). London:‬‬
‫‪Samuel Bagster and Sons.‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬
‫ﺧﺮوج ‪ ١:٥‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎت ﻗﻤﺮان ﺗﻘﺮأ " ﺧﻤﺲ وﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔـﺲ " ‪ ،‬أﻳﻀـﺎً ﺗﻜـﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ٤٦:٢٧‬ﻓـﻲ اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻘـﺮأ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔـﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ‪ ٥‬أوﻻد ﻟﻤﻨﺴﻰ وأﻓﺮاﻳﻢ أوﻻد ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺢ اﻟﻌﺪد ‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔﺲ ‪.‬‬

‫وﻣﺤﺘﻤـﻞ‬
‫رﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر دور ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻧﺸﻮء ﻗﺮاءة ‪ ، ٧٥‬رﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪ ٧٠‬إﻟﻰ ‪ ٧٥‬ﻹﻧﻪ ﺷﻲء ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ُ‬
‫‪ ،‬وﻫﺬا ﻧﺠﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺎت ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ اﻟﺨـﺎرﺟﻴﻦ ﻣـﻦ اﺳـﺮاﺋﻴﻞ ﻋـﺪد ‪ ) ٦٠٠٠٠٠‬ﺧـﺮوج ‪١٤ ( ١٢:٣٧‬ﻟﻜـﻦ ﻓـﻲ ‪ ٣٨:٢٦‬ﻳﺼـﺒﺢ‬
‫‪ ،١٥ ٦٢٥،٥٥٠‬او ﻣ ــﺪة اﻹﺳ ــﺘﻌﺒﺎد ‪ ٤٠٠‬ﺳ ــﻨﺔ ) ﺗﻜ ــﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ١٦ (١٥:١٣‬ﻟﻜ ــﻦ ﻓ ــﻲ ﺧ ــﺮوج ‪ ١٢١٧ : ٤١-٤٠‬ﻳﺼ ــﺒﺢ ‪، ٤٣٠‬‬
‫وﺑــﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣــﻦ ذﻟــﻚ ﻓــﺈن ﻏﺮاﺑــﺔ رﻗــﻢ ‪ ٧٥‬ﻳُﻤﻜــﻦ ان ﻳﻜــﻮن ﻫــﻮ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺻــﺤﺘﻪ وﻳﻜــﻮن ﺗﻀــﻤﻦ اوﻻد ﻣﻨﺴــﻰ واﻓــﺮاﻳﻢ وﻧﺎﺳــﺦ ﻣﺎﺳــﻮري‬
‫ﻻﺣﻖ وﺿﻊ ﻗﺮاءة ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ وﻟﻜـﻦ ﻣـﻦ أﻛﺜـﺮ اﻟﺨﺼـﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺘـﻲ ﺗُﻤﻴـﺰ اﻟﻨﺴـﺎخ ﻋﻨـﺪ اﺟـﺮاء اﻟﺘﻌـﺪﻳﻼت ﻫـﻲ أن ﻳُﻀـﻴﻔﻮا ﻻ أن ﻳﺤـﺬﻓﻮا ‪،‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ أي ﺣﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻗﺮاءة " ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ " ﻫﻲ ُ‬
‫‪١٨‬‬
‫وﻟﻌﺪم ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎت اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ، ١٠:٢٢‬ﻓﻴﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮان ‪ ،‬إﻣﺎ ان ﻳﻜﻮن ُ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻲ اﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻛﺘﺐ "‬
‫ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ " واﻟﻨﺴﺎخ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﻦ أزاﻟﻮﻫﺎ وﻗﺎﻣﻮا ﺑﺘﻮاﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻣـﻊ اﻟﻔﻘـﺮات اﻟﻤﻮازﻳـﺔ ) ﺧـﺮ ‪،١:٥‬ﺗـﻚ ‪ (٤٦:٢٧‬ﻓـﻲ ﺑﻌـﺾ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃـﺎت ‪،‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ اﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﺘﺐ " ﺧﻤﺴﺔ وﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ " ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﻤﺮات اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ وﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴـﺔ ‪ ١٠:٢٢‬ﻓﻘـﻂ ‪،‬‬
‫أو ان ُ‬
‫وﻫــﺬا اﻟﺨــﻼف ﻓــﻲ اﻟﻘــﺮاءات اﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴــﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺜﻨﻴــﺔ ‪ ١٠:٢٢‬ﻳُﺜﻴــﺮ أﺣﺘﻤــﺎل ان ﺳــﺒﺐ وﺟــﻮد اﻟﺨﻠــﻂ ﺑــﻴﻦ ‪ ٧٠‬ﻧﻔــﺲ و‪ ٧٥‬ﻧﻔــﺲ ﻓــﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺎت ﻫﻮ ﻧﺺ ﻏﻴﺮ ُﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻟـﻨﺺ اﻷﺻـﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﻌﻨـﻰ ان اﻟﺘـﻮراة ﻓـﻲ اﻟـﻨﺺ اﻷﺻـﻠﻲ ﻗـﺪ اﺣﺘـﻮت ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻟﻘـﺮاءاﺗﻴﻦ واﻟﻘـﺮاﺋﺘﻴﻦ‬
‫‪١٩‬‬
‫وﺻﻠﻮا ﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ اﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎت ﻧﺼﻴﺔ ُﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫وﻣﻦ اﻟﻬﺎم اﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳـﺮ اﻷول واﻟﻤﺆﻗـﺖ ﻟـ ـ ‪ ٢٠HOTTP‬ان ﻗـﺮاءة اﻟـﻨﺺ اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﻳﺠـﺐ ان ﺗُﺘﺒـﻊ ﻫﻨـﺎ ) ﺧـﺮ ‪(١:٥‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘــﺪس ‪ ٢١‬وﻳُﻀــﻴﻒ دوﺟــﻼس‬
‫ﺑــﺪﻻً ﻣــﻦ اﺗﺒــﺎع اﻟــﻨﺺ اﻟﻌﺒــﺮي ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜــﻦ أﺳــﺒﺎب ﻫــﺬا ﻟــﻢ ﺗُﻘﺒــﻞ ﻋﻠــﻰ ﻧﻄــﺎق واﺳــﻊ ﻟﻌﻠﻤــﺎء اﻟﻜﺘــﺎب ُ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻴﻮارت ﻗﺎﺋﻼً " ان اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ) ﻓﻲ ﺧﺮ ‪ ، ١:٥‬ﺗﻚ ‪ ٤٦:٢٧‬راﺟﻊ أﻳﻀﺎ ‪ (Qexa٤‬ﺗﻘﺮأ "ﺧﻤﺴـﺔ وﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ " ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜـﺎد‬

‫‪ ١٤‬اﳌﺼﺪر اﻹﻟﻮﻫﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫‪ ١٥‬اﳌﺼﺪر اﻟﻜﻬﻨﻮﰐ‬
‫‪ ١٦‬اﳌﺼﺪر اﻟﻴﻬﻮي‬
‫‪ ١٧‬اﳌﺼﺪر اﻟﻜﻬﻨﻮﰐ‬
‫‪ ۱۸‬ﻣن اﻟﻐرﯾب ان اﻟزﻣﯾل ﯾﺗﺳﺎﺋل وﯾﻘول " ﻟﻣﺎذا ﻧﺟد اﻟﺳﺑﻌﯾﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻛوﯾن ‪ ٤٦:۲۷‬ﻓﻘط ُﺗﻐﯾر رﻗم ‪ ۷۰‬إﻟﻰ ‪ ۷٥‬وﻻ ﺗﻔﻌل ذﻟك ﻣﻊ ﺧروج ‪ ۱:٥‬وﺗﺛﻧﯾﺔ ‪، ! " ۱۰:۲۲‬‬
‫ھو ﻻ ﯾﻌرف ان اﻟﻣﺧطوطﺎت اﻟﺳﺑﻌﯾﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﯾﺳت ﻣُﺗﻔﻘﺔ ﺣول اﻟﺗﺛﻧﯾﺔ ‪ ! ۱۰:۲۲‬ھذه اﻟﻣرة ﻓﺑﺎﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ھذا ﻣﺎ ﯾُﺳﻣﻰ ﺑﻌﻧﺎء اﻟﺑﺣث ‪ - ،‬اﺑﺗﺳﺎﻣﺔ ‪-‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪Propp, W. H. (2008). Exodus 1-18: A new translation with introduction and commentary ,P. 121‬‬
‫‪ ٢٠‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺸﺮوع ﻧﺺ اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻘﺪﱘ‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪Osborn, N. D., & Hatton, H. A handbook on Exodus. UBS handbook series; Helps for translators ,P.16, The‬‬
‫‪Preliminary and Interim Report on the Hebrew Old Testament Text Project (hottp) recommends that this‬‬
‫‪ancient Greek translation, the Septuagint, be followed rather than the Hebrew. The reasons for this are not yet‬‬
‫‪widely accepted by biblical scholars‬‬

‫‪۷‬‬
‫ﻳﻜــﻮن ﺷــﻲء ﻣﺆﻛــﺪ ان ﻫــﺬﻩ اﻟﻘــﺮاءة ﻟﻴﺴــﺖ أﺻــﻠﻴﺔ وﻟﻜﻨﻬــﺎ دﺧﻠــﺖ إﻟــﻰ اﻟــﻨﺺ ﻓــﻲ وﻗــﺖ ﻻﺣــﻖ ﺑﺴــﺒﺐ اﻟﺮﻏﺒــﺔ ﻓــﻲ ﺗﻀــﻤﻴﻦ اﻟﻌــﺪد‬
‫‪٢٢‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﻻﻓﺮاﻳﻢ وﻣﻨﺴﻰ "‬
‫اﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ اﺣﻔﺎد ﻳﻌﻘﻮب ُ‬

‫ﻳﻘـﻮل ﺟـﻮن دورﻫـﺎم ﻧﻘـﻼ ﻋـﻦ ‪ Klein‬ان اﻟﻌـﺪد " ‪ "٧٥‬ﻧﻔـﺲ‪ ،‬ﻫـﻮ " ﺣﺴـﺎب ﺛـﺎﻧﻮي " )‪(secondary calculation‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻔﻀـﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﺎس إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ أﺣﻔﺎد أﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻻﻓﺮاﻳﻢ وﻣﻨﺴﻰ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﺪد اﻷﺻﻠﻲ " ‪ ، "٧٠‬ﻓﺈن ﻗﺮاءة اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري ﻫﻲ ُ‬
‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬‬
‫• ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ " ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ "‬

‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮا ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ اﻟـﺪﻻﺋﻞ‬


‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪس )‪ (Biblical Numerology‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ واﺳﻊ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ وﻳُﺴﺎﻋﺪﻧﺎ ً‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻷرﻗﺎم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ُ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘــﺪس وﻷن اﻟﻨﻘــﺪ اﻟﻨﺼــﻲ ﻋﻠــﻢ واﺳــﻊ اﻷدوات ﻳــﺘﻢ أﺳــﺘﺨﺪام ﻛــﻞ ﺷــﻲء ﻳﺨــﺺ اﻟــﻨﺺ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ ـﺎً ﻛــﺄدوات‬
‫اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴــﺔ ﻓــﻲ اﻟﻜﺘــﺎب ُ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻬﻢ اﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮر ُﻣﺘﻌﺪدة ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼً ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﺮاﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺷﺎول ﺣـﻴﻦ ﻣﻠـﻚ "ﺳـﻨﺔ " ) أﻧﻈـﺮ ﺻـﻢ ‪ (١:١٣‬وﺑـﻴﻦ ان‬
‫اﻟﺸــﺎﻩ ﺗﻜــﻮن ﺻــﺤﻴﺤﺔ وأﻳﻀــﺎ اﺑــﻦ " ﺳــﻨﺔ " ) أﻧﻈــﺮ ﺧــﺮوج ‪ ، ( ١٢:٥‬وﻫﻜــﺬا ﻓﻴﻮﺟــﺪ ﻣﻐــﺰى ﻣــﻦ رﻗــﻢ ﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬــﻮ ﻟــﻴﺲ ُﻣﺠــﺮد‬
‫ﻋﺪد وﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎك ﺻـﻮرة أدﺑﻴـﺔ وراء اﺳـﺘﺨﺪام ﻫـﺬا اﻟـﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﻮ ﻳُﻌﺒـﺮ ﻋـﻦ ﻋـﺪد ُﻣﻘـﺪس )‪ ٢٥ (sacred number‬وﻛﻤـﺎ ﻳﻘـﻮل‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘ ــﺪس ﻟﻠﻤ ــﺆﻣﻦ " ﻛ ــﺎن ﻟﻠﻌ ــﺪد ‪ ٧٠‬أﻫﻤﻴ ــﺔ ﺧﺎﺻ ــﺔ ‪ ،‬إﻧ ــﻪ ﻳﺮﻣ ــﺰ إﻟ ــﻰ أن اﷲ ﻗ ــﺪ ﻗ ــﺎم ﺑﻌﻤ ــﻞ ﻛﺎﻣ ــﻞ ﻓ ــﻲ إﻋ ــﺪاد‬
‫ﺗﻔﺴ ــﻴﺮ اﻟﻜﺘ ــﺎب ُ‬
‫إﺳﺮاﺋﻴﻞ" ‪ ٢٦‬ﻓﻬﺬا اﻟﻌﺪد ﻳَﺮﻣﺰ إﻟﻰ اﻹﻛﺘﻤﺎل واﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ وﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﺪد ﺣﺮﻓﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪد ‪ ٧‬ﻫﻮ رﻗﻢ رﻣﺰي أﻳﻀﺎً ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮن دﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺮب وﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب ورﻗﻢ ‪ ١٠‬رﻣﺰ ﻳُﺸﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﻜﻤﺎل ‪ ،‬وﺑﺎﻟﺘـﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﻜـﻮن رﻗـﻢ ‪ ٧٠‬ﻳُﻌﺒـﺮ ﻋـﻦ ان ﻋﻬـﺪ اﷲ ﻣـﻊ ﻋﺎﺋﻠـﺔ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮب‬

‫‪22‬‬
‫‪Stuart, D. K. (2007, c2006). Vol. 2: Exodus. " An exegetical and theological exposition of Holy Scripture"The‬‬
‫‪New American Commentary ,P.59, In the lxx here and Gen 46:27 (cf. 4QExa) the number given is seventy-five,‬‬
‫‪almost surely not original but a later insertion based on the desire to include in the total all the immediate‬‬
‫‪descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪Durham, J. I. (2002)WBC,Vol.3, P.2,. As Klein (15) correctly notes, this alternate number is a “secondary‬‬
‫‪calculation” based on the addition of five more descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh to the original count. MT’s‬‬
‫‪“seventy” is the preferred reading.‬‬
‫ﻣن اﻷﺷﯾﺎء اﻟﻐرﯾﺑﺔ ﻧوﻋًﺎ ﻣﺎ ھو ان اﻟزﻣﯾل ﻗﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﺗرﻛﯾز ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺑﺎرة " َﺟﻣِﯾ ُﻊ ُﻧﻔُ ِ‬
‫‪۲٤‬‬
‫وس" ﻓﻘﺎل " ﺟﺎ ﺟﺎ ﺟﺎ ﺟﺎ ﺟﺎ ﺟﺎ ﺟﻣﯾــــــــﻊ " !! ‪ ،‬وﻟذﻟك أردت أن أوﺿﺢ ﻣﺎھﯾﺔ‬
‫ھذا اﻟرﻗم‬
‫‪ ٢٥‬أﻧﻈﺮ‪..Ryle, H. E. (1921). The Book of Genesis with Introduction and Notes ,P.411 .‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪Believer's Study Bible. 1997, c1995. C1991 Criswell Center for Biblical Studies. (electronic ed.) (Ge 46:4).‬‬
‫‪Nashville: Thomas Nelson. The number 70 had special significance, symbolizing that God had done a complete‬‬
‫‪work in preparing Israel.‬‬

‫‪۸‬‬
‫ ﻳﺮﻣـﺰ‬١٠ ‫ واﻟﻌـﺪد‬، ‫ ﻫﻮ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﺮﻣﺰي ﻟﻠﻌﻬﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺮب وﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب‬٧ ‫ "إذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬. ‫ ﻳﻘﻮل ﺟﻮن ﺟﻴﺴﻜﻲ‬. ‫اﻷن ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ ﺳﺒﻊ ﻣﺮات ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻣﺰ إﻟﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ أن ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب اﻟﺘﻲ أﻳﺪت ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ ﻋﻬـﺪ ﻣـﻊ‬١٠ ‫( ﻓﺈن ﺗﻜﺮار اﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬٣١:٧،٤١ ) ‫إﻟﻰ اﻹﻛﺘﻤﺎل‬
٢٧
" ‫ اﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ اﻷن‬، ‫اﷲ‬

‫ ﻋﻠـﻰ اﻷرﺟـﺢ ان اﺣﻔـﺎد ﻳﻌﻘـﻮب‬. ‫وﻟﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻫﺬا ﺑﺼﻮرة أوﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻔﺮ اﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ اﻹﺻـﺤﺎح اﻟﻌﺎﺷـﺮ ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻳَﻘـﻮل ﺑـﻮل ﻛﻴﺴـﻠﻴﻨﺞ‬
‫ ( اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ أﻣﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ وﻟﻚ رﻗﻢ‬١٠ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﻌﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻘﻮن ﻣﻊ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻦ ) أﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
٢٨
" ‫ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ رﻗﻢ رﻣﺰي ﻳُﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ " اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬

) " ‫ ﻳﺒﺪو أن ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻷﺳـﻤﺎء ﻓـﻲ ﻫـﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺼـﻮص ﻗـﺪ ﺗـﻢ أﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻫـﺎ ﺑﺤﻴـﺚ ﻳﻜـﻮن اﻟﻌـﺪد اﻹﺟﻤـﺎﻟﻲ " ﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬. ‫ ﻛﻴﻨﻴﺚ ﺑﺎرﻛﺮ‬. ‫وﻳﻘﻮل‬
! " ‫ ﻫﻮ أﻳﻀـﺎً " ﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬١٠ ‫ وﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺠﺪ ان ﻋﺪد اﻷﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬، ‫ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ان ﻳﻜﻮن ذﻟﻚ ُﻣﺠﺮد ﺻﺪﻓﺔ‬، (٢٧ ‫ﻋﺪد‬
٢٩
‫ ﻓﺈن " اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻦ " ﻫﻢ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﺑﻨﺎء اﺑﺮاﻫﻴﻢ واﺳﺤﺎق وﻳﻌﻘﻮب ﺑﻨﻮ إﺳﺮاﺋﻴﻞ‬، ‫ وﻛﻤﺎ ان اﻟﺪول اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻳُﻤﺜﻠﻮا ﺟﻤﻴﻊ أﺣﻔﺎد أدم‬،

ً‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪس أن ﻳﻜﻮن ﺗﺎﻳﺒﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎً ) رﻣـﺰي ( وﻟـﻴﺲ ﺣﺮﻓﻴـﺎ‬


ُ ‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳُﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪد " ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ " ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺎب‬. ‫وﻳُﻀﻴﻒ ﻧﺎﺣﻮم ﺳﺎرﻧﺎ‬
‫ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓـﻲ ﺳـﻔﺮ اﻟﺘﻜـﻮﻳﻦ اﻹﺻـﺤﺎح‬، ‫ أي اﻧﻪ ﻳُﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ اﻟﺨﻄﺎﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ ﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ واﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎق واﺳﻊ‬،
٣٠
‫ ﻣﻦ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻧﺤﺪرت ﻣﻦ اﺑﻨﺎء ﻧﻮح اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ وﺗُﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬٧٠ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻳﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ‬

27
Jeske, J. C. (2001). Genesis (2nd ed.). The People's Bible ,P.374, If 7 is often the symbolic number for the
covenant between the Lord and Jacob’s family, and 10 symbolizes completeness (31:7, 41), then 7 times 10 might
symbolize the fact that the family of Jacob, which stood in covenant relationship with God, was now complete.
28
Kissling, P. (2009). Genesis, Volume 2. The College Press NIV Commentary ,P.553, Most likely the 70
descendants of Jacob correspond to the 70 nations mentioned as descending from Noah in Genesis 10. The 70
nations are not a comprehensive list of all the nations of the world, but the symbolic number for “all” the world
29
Barker, K. L. Expositorś Bible Commentary (Abridged Edition: Old Testament) ,P. 55,8–27 The list of names in
these verses appears to have been selected so that the total numbers “seventy” (v.27). It can hardly be coincidental
that the number of nations in Ge 10 is also “seventy.” Just as the “seventy nations” represent all the descendants of
Adam, so now the “seventy sons” represent all the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the sons of Israel.
30
Sarna, N. M. . Exodus. English and Hebrew; commentary in English. The JPS Torah commentary ,p. 4, The
number seventy in the Bible is usually meant to be taken as typological, not literal; that is, it is used for the
rhetorical effect of evoking the idea of totality, of comprehensiveness on a large scale. Thus, in Genesis 10
precisely seventy nations issue from the three sons of Noah, and these constitute the entire human family

۹
‫ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻔﻘﺮات‬، ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮاﺿﺢ ان ﻫﺬا أﻳﻀﺎً ﻣﺘﻮاﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎت اﻷوﻏﺎرﺗﻴﺔ‬
(‫–؟‬The Inaugural Banquet (vi 40

١٧٧He slaughters bovids [and] caprovids,

،he fells bulls [and] fattened goats

،yearling calves

.lambs (and) great numbers of kids

،He invites his brothers into his house

،his kin into his palace

:He invites the seventy sons of ʾAṯiratu

١٧٨He provides the gods with rams (and) wine,

‫[؛‬he provides the goddesses with ewes (and) [wine

،He provides the gods with bulls (and) wine

‫[؛‬he provides the goddesses with cows (and) [wine

،He provides the gods with chairs (and) wine

‫[؛‬he provides the goddesses with seats (and) [wine

،He provides the gods with jars of wine

.[he provides the goddesses with barrels of [wine

،So the gods eat and drink

،they take sucklings

.[with a salted knife cutlets from [a fatling

،They drink wine from goblets

.red [wine from] golden cups ٣١

31
Hallo, W. W., & Younger, K. L. (1997). The context of Scripture ,P.261

۱۰
‫ ﻧﻔﺲ‬٧٥ ‫ ﻧﻔﺲ أم‬٧٠ •

‫ﻧﺠﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻔﻠﻴﺴﻮف اﻟﻴﻬﻮدي ﻓﻴﻠﻮ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮﻩ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻼف ﻫﻨﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ إﻧﻪ ﻳﺮى ان " اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻦ " ﻳُﺸﻴﺮ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﻞ و " ﺧﻤﺴﺔ " ﻳُﺸﻴﺮ‬
٣٢
‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ‬
ُ ‫إن‬ ‫أﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﻲ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرة‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ، ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻌﻘﺪ‬‫ﻣ‬ُ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫رأي‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪو‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬‫ر‬ ‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﻮاس اﻟﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬
‫ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻫﻨﺎك إﺗﺠﺎﻫﻴﻦ ﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻋﺪد اﻷﺷﺨﺎص ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻮا ﻟﻨﺎ رﻗﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻴﻦ‬، ‫ﺑﻘﺪر ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺎرق ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﻌﺪد‬
‫ وﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‬، ‫ ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻌﺪدﻳﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ وﻳُﻤﻜﻦ إﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ إﻧﻀﻤﺎم اﻷﺷﺨﺎص‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻬﺬا اﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬ ُ ‫ﺑﺤﺴﺐ‬
‫( ﻳُﻔﻴﺪ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ واﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ وﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻻ‬round number) "‫أﻋﻼﻩ إن اﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻩ ﺑﺈﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ "رﻗﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬
‫( وﻳُﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻬﻢ‬٢٦: ٤٦ ‫ ان ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺴﺎب ﺳﺘﺔ وﺳﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺟﺎءوا ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨﻌﺎن ) ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬. ‫ﻧﻴﻮﻣﺎن وﻳﻮﺟﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺪا‬
‫ وﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﻌﺒﺮي ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب وﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬، ‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ أﺑﻨﺎء ﻳﻮﺳﻒ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ وﻟﺪوا ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ واﻫﻤﺎل ﻳﻌﻘﻮب وﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬
‫ ان ﻋﺪد اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ اﻷﺗﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ‬٧:١٤ ‫ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓﻲ أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﺮﺳﻞ‬،٣٣ ‫وأﺑﻨﻴﻪ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺴﺘﺔ وﺳﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺟﺎءوا ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨﻌﺎن‬
‫ أو " ﺧﻤﺴﺔ وﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬، " ‫ " ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ‬١:٥ ‫ ﺧﺮوج‬،٤٦:٢٧ ‫ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬، ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ وﺳﺒﻌﻮن ﺷﺨﺺ‬
‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﺮح‬، ‫ﺷﺨﺺ " ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺸﻮاﻫﺪ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ وﺳﻔﺮ أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﺮﺳﻞ أﺗﺒﻊ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ أﻋﺘﻤﺎدا ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺤﺴﺐ أﺣﻔﺎد ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻛﺠﺰء ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺮاﻓﻘﻴﻦ‬، ‫آرﺗﺸﺮ ﻳُﻤﻜﻦ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻫﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‬
٣٤
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬

32
Philo of Alexandria, & Yonge, C. D. (1995). The works of Philo: Complete and unabridged ,P. 272, and he
leaves it when he is seventy-five years old; and this number is on the confines of the nature discernible by the
outward senses, and that intelligible by the intellect, and of the older and younger, and also of perishable and
imperishable nature; (199) for the elder, the imperishable ratio, that comprehensible by the intellect, exists in the
seventy; the younger ratio, discernible by the outward senses, is equal in number to the five outward senses. In
this latter also the practiser of virtue is seen exercising himself when he has not yet been able to carry off the
perfect prize of victory;—for it is said, that all the souls which came out of Jacob were seventy and five
33
Newman, B. M., & Nida, E. A. . A handbook on the Acts of the Apostles. Originally published: A translator's
handbook on the Acts of the Apostles, 1972. UBS handbook series; Helps for translators ,P. 149, Seventy–five
comes from the Septuagint (Genesis 46.27) and differs from the Hebrew text, which has seventy. The figure in the
Septuagint is arrived at by adding the sixty–six who came from Canaan (Genesis 46.26) to the nine descendants of
Joseph who were born in Egypt (Genesis 46.27) and omitting both Joseph and Jacob. The figure in the Hebrew
text is arrived at by adding the sixty–six who came from Canaan (Genesis 46.26) to the two sons of Joseph (Genesis
46.27) and Joseph and Jacob also.
34
Trites, A. A., & William J. Larkin. (2006)CBC, Vol 12: The Gospel of Luke and Acts. "With the entire text of the
New Living Translation." ,P. 434,7:14 seventy-five persons. Did seventy (MT tradition Gen 46:27; Exod 1:5) or
seventy-five (LXX tradition Gen 46:27; Exod 1:5, followed by Acts) go down to Egypt with Jacob (cf. Migration
199–201, which uses both numbers)? As Archer explains it, both numbers can be taken as correct, depending on
whether or not we count the descendants born to Joseph in Egypt as part of the family entourage (Archer and
Chirichigno 1983:378–379).

۱۱
‫وﻳﻘﻮل أﻳﻀﺎً ﺗﻮم ﻛﻮﻧﺴﺘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ أﺷﺎر اﺳﻄﻔﺎﻧﻮس ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪو إﻟﻰ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺬي ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﻘﺎً‬
‫‪٣٥‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ‪،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺣﺴﺎب ُﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل إدراج ‪ ٥‬أِﺷﺨﺎص ﻟﻢ ﻳُﺪرﺟﻬﻢ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري ) أﻧﻈﺮ ‪(.Kent, p. 69‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ان ﻧﺘﻔﻖ إن اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ‪ ٤٦:٢٦‬ﺳﻮاء ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري أو اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺮأ ‪ ٦٦‬ﻧﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬وإن اﻟﻨﺺ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﻦ ‪ ، ٧٠&٦٦‬ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺣﺴﺎب ُﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ أﺿﺎف أﺷﺨﺎص ﻓﻲ اﻹﺣﺼﺎء اﻟﺬي ﻛﺎن‬
‫ﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ رﻗﻢ ‪ ٦٦‬ﻧﻔﺲ وإﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺗﺠﻪ ‪ ٦٦‬ﻧﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ اﻟﻌﺠﻴﺐ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ان ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ أﻳ ً‬
‫أﺷﺨﺎص أﺧﺮﻳﻦ وﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ‪ ، ٧٥‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ُﻣﺠﺮد ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ُﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺴﺎب ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮل ﻫﻨﺪرﻳﻜﺴﻦ وﻛﻴﺴﺘﻴﻤﻴﻜﺮ‬
‫‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎك ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺮد اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺬي ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺟﻮد ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب وﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺬي‬
‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ أﻓﻀﻞ اﻟﺤﻠﻮل ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ وﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ؟ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪم اﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮن ﺣﻠﻮل ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ُ‬
‫اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ان اﻷﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﺬﻳﻦ دﺧﻠﻮا ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪدﻫﻢ ﺳﺘﺔ وﺳﺘﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬وﻳﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ اﻟﻨﺺ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب‬
‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪس وﺗﺮﺟﻤﺎﺗﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺘﺔ‬
‫وﻳﻮﺳﻒ وﻳُﻀﻴﻒ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ أﺑﻨﺎء ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ) ﻣﺎ ﻧﺎﺗﺠﻪ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ وﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ( ‪ ،‬إن اﻟﻌﺪد اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ُ‬
‫‪٣٦‬‬
‫وﺳﺘﻮن ﺷﺨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻳﻌﻘﻮب وﻳﻮﺳﻒ واﺑﻨﻲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ أي ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ‬

‫وﻳﻘﻮل اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺮ ف‪.‬ف ﺑﺮوس " اﻟﻌﺪد ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻫﻮ اﻟﻌﺪد اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓـﻲ ﻣﺼـﺮ ) اﻟﻌـﺪد ‪ (٢٧‬ﻟﻜـﻦ ﺳـﺘﺔ وﺳـﺘﻮن ﺷـﺨﺺ ﻓﻘـﻂ )‬
‫اﻟﻌﺪد ‪ ، (٢٦‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﻮا ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺪاد ُﻣﺤﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺸﻲء ‪ ،‬وﻳﺠﺐ ان ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼت ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻟـﻢ ﻳﻜـﻦ ﻳﻮﺳـﻒ‬
‫واﺑﻨــﺎﻩ ﺑﺤﺎﺟــﺔ ﺑــﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻟﻠﻘﻴــﺎم ﺑﻬــﺬﻩ اﻟﺮﺣﻠــﺔ ‪ ،‬أﻣــﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﻴــﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻧــﺖ ذرﻳﺘــﻪ ﻛﺒﻴــﺮة ) اﻟﻌــﺪد ‪ ( ٢١‬ﻣــﺎ زاﻟــﺖ ﺗﻜﻤــﻦ ﻓــﻲ ﺻــﻮرة‬
‫ُﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻜـﺲ ذﻟـﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ان اﺣﻔـﺎد ﻳﻌﻘـﻮب اﻷﺧـﺮﻳﻦ ﻟـﻢ ﻳﻜﻮﻧـﻮا ﺟـﺎءوا ﺑﻌـﺪ إﻟـﻰ اﻟﺤﻴـﺎة ‪ ،‬وﻟـﺬﻟﻚ ﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻜــﻮن ﻣــﻦ اﻷﻓﻀــﻞ رؤﻳــﺔ ﻋﻠــﻢ اﻷﻧﺴــﺎب واﻷرﻗــﺎم ُﻣﺘﺸــﺎﺑﻜﺔ وﻟﻴﺴــﺖ ﻣﺘﻄﺎﺑﻘــﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟــﺮﻗﻢ ﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠــﻰ وﺟــﻪ اﻟﺨﺼــﻮص ‪ ،‬ﻳُﻤﻜــﻦ ان‬
‫‪٣٧‬‬
‫وﻳُﻀــﻴﻒ أﻳﻀ ـﺎً ‪ .‬ﻓــﻲ ﺗﻜــﻮﻳﻦ ‪،٤٦:٢٧‬ﺧــﺮوج ‪ ، ١:٥‬ﺗﺜﻨﻴــﺔ ‪ ١٠:٢٢‬ﻳﻘــﺮأ اﻟــﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳــﻮري " ﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜــﻮن رﻗــﻢ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒــﻲ "‬

‫‪35‬‬
‫‪Tom Constable. (2003; 2003). Tom Constable's Expository Notes on the Bible (Ac 7:13)., “Stephen apparently‬‬
‫‪cited the LXX figure which really was not an error, but computed the total differently by including five people‬‬
‫”‪which the Masoretic text did not.‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪Kistemaker, S. J., & Hendriksen, W. Vol. 17:NTC, Exposition of the Acts of the Apostles. Accompanying‬‬
‫‪biblical text is author's translation. New Testament Commentary ,P. 248,Is there a discrepancy between the Old‬‬
‫‪Testament account, which states that there were seventy people in Jacob’s family, and the New Testament, which‬‬
‫‪mentions seventy-five persons?21 Scholars have offered solutions to this problem, but the one that is best comes‬‬
‫‪from the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, which states that the people who entered Egypt‬‬
‫‪with Jacob numbered sixty-six. The text excludes Jacob and Joseph and adds nine sons of Joseph (a total of‬‬
‫‪seventy-five). The tally given in the Hebrew Bible and its translations is sixty-six persons, plus Jacob, Joseph, and‬‬
‫‪Joseph’s two sons; that is, seventy people.‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪Bruce, F. F. NIBC, P.143,8–27. The full complement in Egypt numbered seventy (27); but only sixty-six persons‬‬
‫‪(26) made the journey. This enumeration is slightly puzzling, and it is to be remembered that certain adjustments‬‬
‫‪need to be made. Joseph and his two sons did not of course need to make the journey; as for Benjamin, his‬‬
‫‪youthfulness in recent chapters suggests that his large progeny (21) still lay in the future, and for all we know to the‬‬

‫‪۱۲‬‬
‫ ﻳﻘ ـﺮأ " ﺧﻤﺴــﺔ‬QExa٤ ‫ ﻓــﻲ اﻟــﻨﺺ اﻟﻘﻤﺮاﻧــﻲ اﻟﻌﺒــﺮي‬١:٥ ‫ ﻓــﻲ ﺧــﺮوج‬، ( ‫ﺷــﺨﺺ " ) ﺑﻤــﺎ ﻓــﻴﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﻘــﻮب وﻳﻮﺳــﻒ ﻣــﻊ أﺑﻨﻴــﻪ‬
‫ أﺑﻨﺎء‬٩ ‫ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺤﺬف ﻳﻌﻘﻮب وﻳﻮﺳﻒ وﻳﻀﻢ‬، ( ١:٧ ‫ ﺧﺮوج‬، ٤٦:٢٧ ‫ ﻫﻜﺬا أﻳﻀﺎً ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ) ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬، " ‫وﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ‬
٣٨
‫ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮري‬٤٦:٢٧ ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﺪل اﻹﺑﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻀﻤﻬﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬

‫اﻟﻤ ـﺮاﻓﻘﻴﻦ‬
ُ ‫ إﻧــﻪ ﻳﺘﻌــﺎرض ﻣــﻊ ﺳــﺮد اﻟﻌﻬــﺪ اﻟﻘــﺪﻳﻢ ﺣﻴﻨﻤــﺎ أﺷــﺎر إﻟــﻰ ﻋــﺪد‬٧٥ ‫ ﻳﺠــﺐ ان ﻻ ﻧﻨﻈــﺮ إﻟــﻰ اﻟــﺮﻗﻢ‬. KJV‫وﻳﻘــﻮل ﺗﻌﻠﻴــﻖ‬
‫( ﻳﻘـﻮل‬١:٥ ‫ وﻓـﻲ ) ﺧـﺮ‬، (٤٦:٢٦ ‫ ﻧﻔﺲ ) ﺗﻚ‬٦٦ ‫ ﻳﻘﻮم ﺳﻔﺮ اﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪدﻫﻢ وﻫﻢ‬، ‫ﻟﻴﻌﻘﻮب ﻓﻲ اﻟﺬﻫﺎب إﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ‬
‫ ﻫﻨـﺎ‬، ‫ ﺑﻤـﺎ ﻓـﻲ ذﻟـﻚ ﻳﻮﺳـﻒ وأﺑﻨﻴـﻪ وﻳﻌﻘـﻮب ﻧﻔﺴـﻪ‬، ‫ ﻟﻜﻨـﻪ ﻫﻨـﺎ ﻳُﺸـﻴﺮ إﻟـﻰ ﻛـﻞ اﻟـﺬﻳﻦ ﺧﺮﺟـﻮا ﻣـﻦ ﺻـﻠﺐ ﻳﻌﻘـﻮب‬، ‫ ﻧﻔـﺲ‬٧٠ ‫إﻧﻬﻢ‬
٣٩
‫ ﻧﻔﺲ‬٧٥ ‫اﺳﻄﻔﺎﻧﻮس ﻳﺴﺮد ﻋﺪد اﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﻮ‬

‫ وﻟﻜـﻦ ﻓـﻲ أول‬، ‫( ﻋـﺪد اﻷرواح ﻫـﻢ ﺳـﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬١٠:٢٢ ‫ ﺗﺚ‬،١:٥ ‫ﺧﺮ‬،٤٦:٢٧ ‫ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﺸﻮاﻫﺪ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ) ﺗﻚ‬. ‫ﻟﻴﻨﺴﻜﻲ‬
‫ ﻓــﺈن ﻧﺴــﻞ ﻳﻌﻘــﻮب‬، ‫ ﻫــﺬﻩ ُﻣﺠــﺮد ﻣﺴــﺄﻟﺔ ﻋـ ّﺪ‬، " ‫ﺷــﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﺘــﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﻣــﻦ ﻫــﺬﻩ اﻟﺸــﻮاﻫﺪ ﻓــﻲ اﻟﺴــﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻘــﻮل " ﺧﻤــﺲ وﺳــﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻔــﺲ‬
‫ وﻓـﻲ اﻟﺴـﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬، ٧٠ ‫( ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋ ّﺪ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ واﺑﻨﻴﻪ وﻳﻌﻘـﻮب ﻓﺄﺻـﺒﺢ اﻟﻌـﺪد‬٤٦:٢٧ ‫اﻟﺬي ذﻫﺐ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻛﺎن ﺳﺘﺔ وﺳﺘﻴﻦ ) ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
٤٠
‫ أﻧﻔﺲ وﻫﻢ اﺑﻨﺎء ﻟﻴﻮﺳﻒ ﻓﻲ اﻹﺣﺼﺎء ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ اﻟﻌﺪد ﻫﻤﺴﺔ وﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬٩ ‫ﺗﻢ وﺿﻊ‬

‫ وﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ ُﻣﺠﺮد ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻗﺪ ذﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻜﻢ وﻛـﻢ ﻳﻜـﻮن ﻋـﺪد‬، ‫ﻓﻔﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻧﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄن ﻛﺎن ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺰﻣﻴﻞ أن ﻳﻜﻮن أﻛﺜﺮ دﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﺮح‬
٤١
! ‫ﺳﻘﻄﺎﺗﻪ إذا ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮة زﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺤﺪث‬

contrary, other grandsons of Jacob were as yet unborn. It may therefore be best to see the genealogy and the
numerals as overlapping but not identical; the figure seventy, in particular, could well be a round number
38
Bruce, F. F. The Book of the Acts.NICNT,P.137, Gen. 46:27; Ex. 1:5; Deut. 10:22 MT say seventy persons
(including Jacob, and Joseph with his two sons). In Ex. 1:5 the fragmentary Hebrew MS 4QExa says seventy-five
persons; so also do Gen. 46:17; Ex. 1:5 LXX, omitting Jacob and Joseph, but giving Joseph nine sons instead of the
two of MT (Gen. 46:27).
39
King James Version study Bible . 1997, c1988 (electronic ed.) (Ac 7:14). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.7:14. The
number 75 should not be seen as in conflict with the Old Testament accounts. Genesis 46:26 identifies the number
as 66, in referring to those who accompanied Jacob to Egypt. Exodus 1:5 gives the number 70, but refers to all
those who came out of Jacob’s loins, including Joseph, his two sons, and Jacob himself. Stephen here includes
within that number all his kindred, totaling 75.
40
Lenski, R. C. H. . The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles P. 269,. In Gen. 46:27; Exod. 1:5; Deut. 10:22,
the number of “souls” (persons, as in 2:41, which certainly included every child) is only seventy, while in the first
two of these passages the LXX has seventy-five. This is a mere matter of counting. The descendants of Jacob that
went to Egypt were sixty-six in number (Gen. 46:26), but counting Joseph and his two sons and Jacob himself
(Gen. 46:27), the number is seventy. In the LXX all the sons of Joseph whom he got in Egypt were counted, “nine
souls,” which, with the sixty-six, made seventy-five. Various other ways of counting are suggested in order to
explain this number; the one indicated is correct.
. ‫ ھذا اﻟﻣﻘﺎل ﻗﺻﯾر ﻧوﻋًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟم أرﯾد ان اﺳﺗﻔﯾض ﻓﻲ ﺷرح ﻧﻘطﺔ ﻛﮭذه وﺑﺎﻟرﻏم ﻣن ذﻟك ﺣﺎوﻟت ان اﺣرص ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘدﯾم أھم اﻟﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗواﻓق اﻟطرح اﻟﻲ أﻋﻠق ﻋﻠﯾﮫ ﺑﺻورة ﻣﻘﺗﺿﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬٤۱

۱۳