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UT PROCEDURE - UT-4 Rev.

6
Owner: ONEOK Hydrocarbon, LP

Project: MB4 Fractionation Project, Mont Belvieu, TX

Purchaser: Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc

Purchase order: 133697

Package: 103044-VSL-01A

Vessel Tag Number:

V-40103- DWC Reflux Drum

V-40107- DIB Compressor Suction Scrubber

V-40116- Deisobutanizer Reflux Drum

V-40202- Raw Feed Amine Coalescer

V-40305- Raw Feed Dryer Regenerant Scrubber

V-41100A/B- Refrigerant Compressor Suction Scrubber

APPROVED | Action Code: A | 9/14/2018 | BMCD# 103044-VSL-01A-24806


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ASME SECTION VIII

Approval NDT Technical Services, Inc. AGD Inspection

Hugh K. Howerton
Name Antonio Dilay
ASNT Level III - 5921

Signature

Date August 4, 2018 August 4, 2018

Revision History

Revision No.: 0
Initial issue

Revision No.: 1 Revised para 1.4, 3.1, 4.0 and removed all references and requirements for pipe.

Revision No.: 2 Revised 1.1, 2.1, 2.3, 4.0, 5.1, 13.0 per customer comments

Revision No.: 3 Revised 3.1 and 3.2, removed reference to Level I.

Revision No.: 4 Code Update 2.1 and 2.2

Revision No.: 5 Corrected Table 1

Revision No.: 6
2.1 and 2.1 Updated to 2017 and added reference to Appendix 12
2.3 Updated to 2016
Page 41. Added Sample Ultrasonic Report
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ASME SECTION VIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

1.0 Scope 4

2.0 References 4

3.0 Personnel 4

4.0 Material Type, Thickness Range and Type of Weldment 4

5.0 Equipment 5

6.0 Calibration Blocks 6

7.0 Identification of Examination Areas 14

8.0 Techniques 15

9.0 Calibration of Equipment 15

9.1 Instrument Linearity Checks 15


9.2 General Calibration Requirements 15
9.3 Calibration 19
9.5 Calibration for Cladding 25
9.6 Calibration Confirmation 25

10.0 Examination 27

10.2 Base Metal Examination 28


10.3 Angle Beam Examination Welds and Base Metal 29

11.0 Evaluation and Indication Discrimination 33


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ASME SECTION VIII

12.0 Acceptance Criteria 37

13.0 Documentation 38

14.0 Report 40

Sample Ultrasonic Report 41


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ASME SECTION VIII

1.0 SCOPE

1.1 This procedure covers the general procedure and requirements for ultrasonic
examination of plate weldments, using the contact method, as required by ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sections V and VIII.

1.2 Material types and thicknesses are shown in 4.0.

1.3 This procedure is certified to meet the minimum requirements of paragraph T-150 of
the ASME Section V Code.

1.4 This procedure is does not apply to welds for which UT is to be substituted for RT.
This procedure is for manual UT and does not meet CC 2235-9.

2.0 REFERENCES

2.1 2017 ASME Section V – Nondestructive Examination, Article 4 – Ultrasonic

Examination for Weld

2.2 2017 ASME Section VIII – Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1
Mandatory Appendix 12 – Ultrasonic Examination of Welds (UT)

2.3 2016 ASNT Recommend Practice No. SNT-TC-1A – Personnel Qualification and
Certification in Nondestructive Testing

3.0 PERSONNEL

3.1 Personnel performing and evaluating this examination shall be qualified in


accordance with AGD Inspection Services’ Procedure WP-1, Written Practice for

NDT Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. This

Written Practice is in accordance with ASNT-SNT-TC-1A.

3.2 NDT Level II or III personnel may perform the examination and evaluate the results.

4.0 MATERIAL TYPE, THICKNESS RANGE AND TYPE OF WELDMENT

The procedure applies to carbon steel and low alloy steel plate weldments, with a
thickness between ¼ inch (6.35 mm) and 8 inch (203mm). The welds are full fusion butt
welds, welded from one or both sides.
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ASME SECTION VIII

5.0 EQUIPMENT

A pulse-echo-type of ultrasonic instrument shall be used. The instrument shall be capable

of operation at frequencies over the range of at least 1 MHz to 5 MHz and shall be
equipped with a stepped gain control, it may be used if it does not reduce the sensitivity of
the examination. The reject control shall be in the “off” position for all examinations,

unless it can be demonstrated that it does not affect the linearity of the examination.

Typical ultrasonic instruments which may be used are: Epoch 2, Epoch 3, Epoch 4, USM-
2, USK-7, USIP-11, USN-25, USN-50, USN-52, USN-58, USN-60 or equal.

The instrument, when required because of the technique being used, shall have both send
and receive jacks for operation of dual search units or a single search unit with send and
receive transducers.

5.1 Search Units: The sizes below are in US units. Equivalent sizes in metric units may

be used. Angle beam search units may be in one piece or affixed to Lucite or

bakelite wedges.

5.1.1 The frequency shall be from 1 MHz to 5 MHz unless variables, such as

production material grain structure, require the use of other frequencies to


assure adequate penetration or better resolution. Search units with contoured
contact wedges may be used to aid ultrasonic coupling. The nominal

frequency to be used is 2.25 MHz.

5.1.2 The size of the probe to be used shall be determined by the ability to calibrate
on the reference block and the shape of the area to be scanned i.e. joint

configuration, item diameter, limited access, etc.


5.1.2.1 The size of the straight beam search units shall be from ¼ inch to
1.125 inch diameter.
5.1.2.2 The size of the angle beam probes may be ¼ inch to 1 inch diameter
and square or rectangular from 3/8 inch to 1 inch.

5.1.3 Cladding – Search Units for Cladding Technique


Dual element search units using an angled pitch-catch technique shall be
used. The included angle between the beam paths shall be such that the
effective focal spot of the search unit is centered in the area of interest. The
size of the search units shall be ¼ inch to ½ inch diameter and square or

rectangular from ½ inch to 1 inch. Dual element FAST1, FAST2 or FAST3


search units, as dictated by the usable depth, may also be used.
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ASME SECTION VIII

5.2 Couplant

5.2.1 The couplant, including additives, shall not be detrimental to the material being

examined. The couplants used on nickel based alloys shall not contain more

than 250 ppm sulfur and couplants used on austenitic stainless steels or

titanium shall not contain more than 250 ppm of halides (chlorine plus

fluorides).

5.2.2 Typical couplants to be used are: cellulose gum mixed with water, Exosen,

Ultragel, Echogel, Sonogel, Sonosafe or equal.

5.2.3 The same couplant used for calibration shall be used for the actual
examination.

5.3 Calibration Blocks as detailed in Section 6.0.

6.0 CALIBRATION BLOCKS

6.1 General

6.1.1 Reflectors

Known reflectors (i.e., side drilled holes, flat bottom holes, notches, etc.) shall

be used to establish primary reference responses of the equipment.

6.1.2 Material

The material from which the block is fabricated shall be of the same product

form, and material specification or equivalent P-number grouping as one of the


materials being examined. For the purposes of this section, P-Nos. 1, 3, 4,

and 5 materials are considered equivalent.

6.1.3 Quality

Prior to fabrication, the block material shall be completely examined with a


straight beam search unit. Areas that contain an indication exceeding the
remaining back-wall reflection shall be excluded from the beam paths required
to reach the various calibration reflectors.

6.1.4 Cladding

When the component material is clad, the block shall be clad by the same
welding procedure as the production part. It is desirable to have component

materials which have been clad before the drop outs or prolongations are

removed. When the cladding is deposited using an automatic welding

process, and, if due to block size, the automatic welding process is

impractical, deposition of clad may be by the manual method.


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ASME SECTION VIII

6.1.5 Heat Treatment

The calibration block shall receive at least the minimum tempering treatment

required by the material specification for the type and grade. If the calibration
block contains weld other than cladding, and the component weld at the time
of the examination has been heat treated, the block shall receive the same
heat treatment.

6.1.6 Surface Finish

The finish on the scanning surfaces of the block shall be representative of the
scanning surface finishes on the component to be examined.

6.1.7 Block Curvature (Except for Piping)

6.1.7.1 Materials With Diameters Greater Than 20 Inches (500 mm).

For examinations in materials where the examination surface in


materials where the examination surface diameter is greater than 20
inches (500 mm), a block of essentially the same curvature, or

alternatively, a flat basic calibration block, may be used.

6.1.7.2 Materials With Diameters 20 Inches (500 mm) and Less

For examinations in materials where the examination surface is equal

to or less that 20 inches (500 mm), a curved block shall be used.


Except where otherwise stated in this procedure, a single curved
basic calibration block may be used for examinations in the range of
curvature from 0.9 to 1.5 times the basic calibration block diameter.
For example, an 8 inch (200 mm) diameter block may be used to
calibrate for examinations on surfaces in the range of curvature from
7.2 inches to 12 inches (180 mm to 300 mm) in diameter. The
curvature range from 0.94 inch to 20 inches (25 mm to 500 mm) in
diameter requires 6 curved blocks as shown in Figure 1 for any

thickness range.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 1 – Ratio Limits for Curved Surfaces


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ASME SECTION VIII

6.1.7.3 Flat Calibration Block Used for Convex Surface Greater Than 20 Inch
Diameter

When examining diameters greater than 20 inches from the convex

surface by the straight beam contact technique:

a. Search units with a frequency of 2.25 MHz are acceptable for all

sizes less than or equal to 1 inch diameter for surfaces greater

than 20 inches.

b. Search units with a frequency of 2.25 MHz greater than 1 inch


diameter, refer to Appendix G of ASME Section V, Article 4 for

determination of gain correction.

c. Search units with frequency of 5MHz or greater and greater than


½ inch diameter, refer to Appendix G of ASME Section V, Article 4
for determination of gain correction.

6.1.8 Calibration Blocks

6.1.8.1 Basic Calibration Blocks

The basic calibration block configuration and reflectors shall be as

shown in Figure 2. The block size and reflector location shall be


adequate to perform calibrations for the beam angles used.

6.1.8.2 Block Thickness

When two or more base material thicknesses are involved, the


calibration block thickness shall be determined by the average
thickness of the weld. Alternatively, a calibration block having the
greater base material thickness may be used provided the reference
reflector size is based upon the average or smaller weld thickness.

6.1.8.3 Block Range of Use

When the block thickness ± 1 inch (25 mm) spans two welds

thickness ranges as shown in Figure 1, the block’s use shall be

acceptable in those portions of each thickness range covered by 1 in


(25 mm) of the calibration block’s thickness. As an example, a

calibration block with a thickness of 1½ inch (38 mm) could be used


for weld thicknesses of ½ inch (13 mm) to 2.5 inch (64 mm).
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 2 – Calibration Blocks


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ASME SECTION VIII

6.1.9 Cladding Calibration Blocks

6.1.9.1 Calibration Block for Technique One

The basic calibration block configuration and reflectors shall be as

shown in Figure 4. Either a side-drilled hole or a flat bottom hole

may be used. The thickness of the weld overlay shall be at least as

thick as that to be examined. The thickness of the base material

shall be at least twice the thickness of the cladding.

Figure 4 – Calibration Block For Technique One

6.1.9.2 Alternate Calibration Blocks for Technique One

Alternately, calibration blocks as shown in Figure 5 or Figure 6 may

be used. The thickness of the weld overlay shall be at least as thick

as that to be examined. The thickness of the base material shall be


at least twice the thickness of the cladding.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 5 – Alternate Calibration Block for Technique One

Figure 6 – Alternate Calibration Block for Technique One


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ASME SECTION VIII

6.1.9.3 Calibration Block for Technique Two

The basic calibration block configuration and reflectors shall be as

shown in Figure 7. A flat bottom hole drilled to the weld metal

overlay interface shall be used. This hole may be drilled from the
base material or weld overlay side. The thickness of the weld

overlay shall be at least as thick as that to be examined. The


thickness of the base material shall be within 1 inch (25 mm) of the
calibration block thickness when the examination is performed from
the base material surface. The thickness of base material on the
calibration block shall be at least twice the thickness of the cladding

when the examination is performed from the clad surface.

Figure 7 – Calibration Block for Technique Two


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ASME SECTION VIII

7.0 IDENTIFICATION OF WELD EXAMINATION AREAS

7.1 Weld Location

Weld location and their identification shall be recorded on a weld map or in an


identification plan.

7.2 Marking

If welds are to be permanently marked, low stress stamps and/or vibra-tooling may

be used. Marking applied after final stress relief of the component shall not be any

deeper than 3/64 in. (1.2 mm).

7.2.1 Reference System

7.2.1.1 For layout of vessel and nozzles: Unless specified by the customer,

the layout of reference points shall be as follows:

a) For Circumferential (Girth) Welds, Longitudinal Welds and Nozzle

to Vessel Welds, the reference points shall be laid out at 12 inches

(300mm) apart. For nozzle to Vessel Welds less than 8 inches

(200mm) in diameter the reference points shall be at the quarter

points, 0, 90, 180 and 270.

b) For Circumferential (Girth) Welds, the reference point shall be the


0 axis of the vessel. The reference points shall be numbered in a
clockwise (CW) direction, as viewed from the top of the vessel or

for horizontal vessels, from the inlet end of the vessel. The
examination surfaces shall be identified as above, below, north,

south, east or west of the weld.

c) For Longitudinal Welds, the reference points shall be laid out from
starting from the bottom of the longitudinal weld for vertical vessels

or at the inlet side on a horizontal vessel. The examination


surface shall be identified as clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise

(CCW) as viewed from the top of the vessel or for horizontal

vessels, from the inlet end of the vessel.

d) For Nozzle to Vessel Welds, the 0 shall be at the top of the nozzle

and the reference points shall be clockwise (CW) as viewed from


the outside of the vessel.
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ASME SECTION VIII

8.0 TECHNIQUES

8.1 The techniques described in this procedure are intended for applications where either

single or dual element search units are used to produce:

8.1.1 Normal incident longitudinal wave beams for what are generally termed
straight beam examinations or

8.1.2 Angle beam longitudinal waves, where both refracted longitudinal and shear

waves are present in the material under examination. When used for

thickness measurement or clad examination, these examinations are generally

considered to be straight beam examinations. When used for weld

examinations, they are generally termed angle beam examinations. For this

angle beam examination, the shear wave component is used.

8.2 The contact technique shall be used.

8.3 Longitudinal angle beams will not be used in lieu of shear waves.

9.0 CALIBRATION OF EQUIPMENT

9.1 Instrument Linearity Checks

The requirements of Section 9.1.1 and 9.1.2 shall be met at intervals not to exceed
three (3) months or prior to first use thereafter.

9.1.1 Screen Height Linearity Check: The ultrasonic instrument shall provide linear
vertical presentation within +
_ 5% of the full screen height for 20% to 80% of
the full screen height.

9.1.1.1 Position an angle beam search unit as shown in Figure 8 so that

indication can be observed from both the 1/2 and 3/4T holes in a
basic calibration block.

or

Alternately, position a straight beam search unit as shown in Figure 9


so that indications can be observed from two back surfaces in an IIW2
block.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 8 - Linearity Check Using Figure 9 - Linearity Check Using


Angle Beam Search Unit and Straight Beam Search Unit and
1/2 And 3/4t Holes. Two Back Reflections.

9.1.1.2 Adjust the search unit (either angle or straight) position to give a 2:1
ratio of amplitudes between the two indications, with the larger set at

80% of full screen height.

9.1.1.3 Next, without moving the search unit, adjust sensitivity (gain) to
successively set the larger indication from 100% to 20% of full screen
height, in 10% increments or 2dB steps if a fine control is not

available, while noting the smaller indication at each setting.

9.1.1.4 The smaller reading must be 50% of the larger amplitude, within 5%

of full screen height. See Figure 10. (Settings and readings must be
estimated to the nearest 1% of full screen height.)
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 10 - Screen Height Linearity Check Acceptance Values

9.1.2. Amplitude Control Linearity Check - The ultrasonic instrument amplitude


control shall be accurate over its useful range to 20% of the nominal amplitude
ratio, to allow measurement of indications beyond the linear range of the
vertical display on the screen.

9.1.2.1 Position an angle beam search unit, as shown in Figure 8, so that the
indication from the 1/2T hole in a basic calibration block is peaked on
the screen.

or

Alternately position a straight beam search unit as shown in Figure 9,


so that an indication from one back surface in an IIW2 block, or any

convenient reflector in any calibration block, is peaked at 80% on the


screen.

9.1.2.2 Using the increases and decreases in attenuation shown in Table 1,

the indication must fall within the specified limits. (The settings and
readings must be estimated to the nearest 1% of full screen height.)
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ASME SECTION VIII

INDICATION SET AT dB CONTROL INDICATIONS LIMITS,


% OF FULL SCREEN CHANGE % OF FULL SCREEN
80% -6 dB 35% to 45%
80% -12 dB 15% to 25%
40% +6 dB 65% to 95%
20% +12 dB 65% to 95%

Table 1 - Amplitude Control Linearity Check Values

9.2 General Calibration Requirements

9.2.1 Ultrasonic System

Calibration shall include the complete ultrasonic system and shall be


performed prior to use of the system in the thickness range under

examination.

9.2.2 Calibration Surface

Calibration shall be performed from the surface (clad or unclad; convex or

concave) corresponding to the surface of the component from which the


examination will be performed.

9.2.3 Couplant

The same couplant to be used during the examination shall be used for

calibration.

9.2.4 Contact Wedges

The same contact wedges to be used during the examination shall be used for

calibration.

9.2.5 Instrument Controls

Any control which affects instrument linearity (e.g., filters, reject, or clipping)

shall be in the same position for calibration, calibration checks, instrument

linearity checks, and examination.


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ASME SECTION VIII

9.2.6 Auto-DAC:

When electronic distance-amplitude correction is used, the reference hole or

notch responses shall be equalized between 40 and 80% of full screen height

over the distance range to be used in the examination

9.2.6 Temperature

For contact examination, the temperature differential between the calibration


block and examination surfaces shall be within 25°F (14°C) of the couplant

temperature for calibration shall be within 25°F (14°C) of the couplant

temperature for examination.

9.3 Calibration

9.3.1 System Calibration for Distance Amplitude Techniques

9.3.1.1 Calibration shall be performed utilizing the calibration block shown in


Figure 2.

9.3.1.2 Perform each calibration from the surface (clad or unclad)

corresponding to the surface of the component from which the


examination will be performed.

9.3.1.3 It must be demonstrated that the entire examination volume and the
required metal path is covered by the DAC and that all points on the
DAC have amplitudes of at least 20% FSH. A double DAC or

secondary DAC may be required to properly cover the entire

examination volume.

9.3.2 Angle Beam Sweep Range Calibration

Calibrate the sweep range to cover the area of interest required for the
examination. The following is an example using the basic calibration block

side drilled holes. A full node examination is required for welds in the
unwelded condition. A half node examination may be used if the weld is

ground smooth and flush.

9.3.2.1 Position the search unit for the maximum first indication from the 1/4T
side drilled hole. Adjust the left edge of this indication to line 2 (or

other for convenient measurement) on the screen with the delay

control. See Figure 11. For an example of a full node examination,

see Figure 12.

9.3.2.2 Position the search unit for the maximum indication from 3/4T hole.
Adjust the left edge of this indication to line 6 (or other for convenient

measurement) on the screen with the range control.


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ASME SECTION VIII

9.3.2.3 Repeat delay and range control adjustments until the 1/4T and 3/4T
hole reflections start at sweep lines as indicated above.

Figure 11 - Sweep Range Calibration for Non-Piping

Figure 12 - Sweep Range Calibration for a Full Node Examination

9.3.3 Angle Beam DAC for Unclad Material or from the Clad Side of Clad Material

NOTE: A DAC is not required where the examination is limited to one-half vee
path in a material less than 1 inch (25mm) thick, in which case the
amplitude level from a single calibration reflector (1/2T hole) can be
used.

9.3.3.1 Position the search unit for maximum response from the hole which

gives the highest amplitude. See Figure 13. For an example of a full

node examination, see Figure 14


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ASME SECTION VIII

9.3.3.2 Adjust the sensitivity control to provide an 80% ( 5% of full screen
height) of full screen indication from the hole. Mark the peak of the
indication on the screen.

9.3.3.3 Position the search unit for maximum response from another hole

indication.

9.3.3.4 Mark the peak of the indication on the screen.

9.3.3.5 Position the search unit for maximum amplitude from the third hole

indication and mark the peak on the screen.

9.3.3.6 Position the search unit for maximum amplitude from the 3/4T hole

indication after the beam has bounced from the opposite surface.
Mark the peak on the screen for the 5/4T position.

9.3.3.7 Connect the screen marks for the side drilled holes to provide the
distance-amplitude correction curve.

Figure 13 - Sensitivity and Distance Figure 14 - Sensitivity and


Amplitude Correction for a Half-Node Distance Amplitude Correction
Examination for a Full-Node Examination
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ASME SECTION VIII

9.3.4 Angle Beam DAC from the Unclad Side of Clad Material

NOTE: A DAC is not required where the examination is limited to one-half vee
path in a material less than 1 inch (25mm) thick, in which case the
amplitude level from a single calibration reflector (1/2T hole) can be
used.

9.3.4.1 From the clad side of the block, determine the dB change in amplitude
between the 3/4T and the 5/4T positions.

9.3.4.2 From the unclad side, perform systems calibrations as noted in 9.3.3.1
through 9.3.3.7.

9.3.4.3 To determine the amplitude for the 5/4T hole, position the search unit

for maximum amplitude from the 3/4T hole. Decrease the signal

amplitude by the number of dB determined in 13.3.1. Mark the height

of this signal amplitude at the 5/4T position.

9.3.4.4 Connect the screen marks to provide the distance-amplitude


correction curve. This will permit evaluation of indications down to the
clad surface.

9.3.5 Straight Beam Sweep Range Calibration

Calibrate the sweep range to cover the area of interest required for the
examination. The following is an example using the basic calibration block

side drilled holes.

9.3.5.1 Position the search unit for the maximum first indication from the 1/4T
side drilled hole. Adjust the left edge of this indication to line 2 (or

other for convenient measurement) on the screen with the delay

control. See Figure 15.

9.3.5.2 Position the search unit for the maximum indication from 3/4T hole.
Adjust the left edge of this indication to line 6 (or other for convenient

measurement) on the screen with the range control.

9.3.5.3 Repeat delay and range control adjustments until the 1/4T and 3/4T
hole reflections start at sweep lines as indicated above.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 15 – Straight Beam Sweep Range Calibration

9.3.6 Straight Beam Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)

9.3.6.1 Position for maximum response from the hole which gives the highest

amplitude. See Figure 16.

9.3.6.2 Adjust the sensitivity control to provide an 80% ( 5% of full screen
height) of full screen indication from the hole. Mark the peak of the
indication on the screen with a grease pencil or other suitable marker.

9.3.6.3 Position the search unit for maximum response from another hole

indication.

9.3.6.4 Mark the peak of the indication on the screen.

9.3.6.5 Position the search unit for maximum amplitude from the third hole

indication and mark the peak on the screen.

9.3.6.6 Connect the screen marks and extend through the thickness to
provide the distance-amplitude correction curve for the side drilled
holes.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 16 - Straight Beam Sensitivity and Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)


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ASME SECTION VIII

9.4 Calibration for Cladding

9.4.1 Calibration for Technique One

Calibration shall be performed utilizing the calibration block shown in Figure 4.


The search unit shall be positioned for the maximum response from the
calibration reflector. The gain control shall be set so that this response is

Angle Beam Calibration. The angle beam shall be directed toward the
calibration reflector that yields the maximum response. The gain control shall

be set so that this response is 80% ± 5% of full screen height. This shall be
the primary reference level.

9.4.2 Calibration for Technique Two

Calibration shall be performed utilizing the calibration block shown in Figure 7.


The search unit shall be positioned for the maximum response of the first

resolvable indication from the bottom of the calibration reflector. The gain

shall be set so that this response is 80% ± 5% of full screen height. This shall

be the primary reference level.

9.4.3 Alternate Calibration for Technique One

Calibrations shall be performed utilizing the calibration blocks shown in Figure

5 or Figure 6. The calibration shall be performed as follows:

9.4.3.1 The search unit shall be positioned for maximum response from the
reflector, which gives the highest amplitude.

9.4.3.2 The gain shall be set so that this response is 80% ±5% of full screen
height. This shall be the primary reference level. Mark the peak of
the indication on the screen.

9.4.3.3 Without changing the instrument settings, position the search unit

for maximum response from each of the other reflectors and mark

their peaks on the screen.

9.4.3.4 Connect the screen marks for each reflector to provide a DAC

curve.

9.5 Calibration Confirmation

9.5.1 System Changes

When any part of the examination system is changed, a calibration check

shall be made on the basic calibration block to verify that distance range
points and sensitivity setting(s) satisfy the requirements of Section 9.5.3.
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ASME SECTION VIII

9.5.2 Periodic Examination Checks

9.5.2.1 A calibration check on at least one of the basic reflectors in the


basic calibration block or a check using a simulator shall be made
at the finish of each examination or series of similar examinations,

every four (4) hours during the examination, and when


examination personnel (except for automated equipment) are

changed. The distance range points and sensitivity setting(s)

recorded shall satisfy the requirements Section 9.5.3.

9.5.2.2 Simulator Checks

Any simulator checks that are used shall be correlated with the
original calibration on the basic calibration block during the original

calibration. The simulator checks may use different types of


calibration reflectors or blocks (such as IIW) and/or electronic

simulation. However, the simulation used shall be identifiable on


the calibration sheet(s). The simulator check shall be made on the
entire examination system. The entire system does not have to be
checked in one operation; however, for its check, the search unit

shall be connected to the ultrasonic instrument and checked


against a calibration reflector. Accuracy of the simulator checks

shall be confirmed, using the basic calibration block, at the


conclusion of each period of extended use, or every three months,

whichever is less.

9.5.3 Confirmation Acceptance Values

9.5.3.1 Distance Range Points

If any distance range point has moved on the sweep line by more

than 10% of the distance reading or 5% of full sweep, whichever is

greater, correct the distance range calibration and note the


correction in the examination record. All recorded indications

since the last valid calibration or calibration check shall be


reexamined and their values shall be changed on the data sheets

or re-recorded.

9.5.3.2 Sensitivity Settings

If any sensitivity setting has changed by more than 20% or 2 dB of


its amplitude, correct the sensitivity calibration and note the
correction in the examination record. If the sensitivity setting has

decreased, all data sheets since the last valid calibration check

shall be marked void and the area covered by the voided data
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ASME SECTION VIII

shall be reexamined. If the sensitivity setting has increased, all

recorded indications since the last valid calibration or calibration


check shall be reexamined and their values shall be changed on
the data sheets or re-recorded.

10.0 EXAMINATION

10.1 Clean contact surfaces of weld spatter, dirt, rust, grease and any roughness that will

interfere with the free movement of the search unit or would prevent the transmission
of ultrasonic vibrations.

10.1.1 Smooth weld surfaces adequately to prevent interference with the


interpretation of the examination. Weld surfaces shall merge smoothly into
the surfaces of the adjacent base metal.

10.1.2 Utilizing either an angle or straight beam search unit, perform an instrument

calibration check as outlined in 9.1.1 and 9.1.2.

10.1.3 The signature of the operator and/or evaluator on the report documents

satisfactory compliance with 9.1.


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ASME SECTION VIII

10.2 Base Metal Examination

10.2.1 Select a straight beam search unit with a nominal frequency of 2.25 MHz*.

*NOTE: The nominal frequency shall be 2.25 MHz unless variables such as

production material grain structure require the use of other frequencies to


assure adequate resolution.

10.2.2 Calibrate the system (ultrasonic instrument, co-axial cable and search unit) so
that a back reflection from the opposite side of a sound indication free area of
the plate will produce a minimum of 75% of full screen height indication.

10.2.3 When any part of the examination system is changed, perform a calibration
check on a sound indication free area of the plate to verify that amplitude
values have not varied from that specified in 9.3 through 9.5.

10.2.4 Perform a system calibration check on a back reflection at the completion of


each examination or series of similar examinations, every four (4) hours

during the examination and when examination personnel (except for

mechanized equipment) are changed. The amplitude values recorded shall

satisfy the requirements of 9.6.3.

10.2.5 Increase the gain a minimum of two times (+6dB) calibration sensitivity for

straight beam scanning.

10.2.6 Scan manually at a speed not to exceed 6 inches (152mm) per second.

10.2.7 With the straight beam search unit examine the adjacent base metal through
which the angle beam sound path will travel during the weld examination in
order to detect reflectors that might affect interpretation of the angle beam
results.

10.2.8 Manually scan the base metal by moving the transducer progressively along

and across the contact area overlapping search unit passes a minimum of
10% so the entire area is covered. See Figure 21.

10.2.9 Mark on the material or part the location and areas of all reflectors exceeding

50% of the first back reflection. This initial base metal straight beam
examination is not to be used as an acceptance/ rejection examination.
Evaluation of indications shall be at the amplitude (gain) setting per 9.3.6.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 21 - Example of Straight Beam Scanning of the Base Metal Adjacent to a


Double Butt Weld to Detect Reflectors that Might Affect
Interpretation of the Angle Beam Examination

10.3 Angle Beam Examination of Welds and Base Metal

10.3.1 Select a search unit with a nominal frequency of 2.25 MHz*, and a lucite
wedge so that the beam angle in the production material shall be in the range
of 40o to 75o inclusive with respect to the perpendicular to the contact surface.

The 45o, 60o or 70o angle selected shall be the one that produces a sound
path that is closest to being perpendicular to the weld prep beveled surfaces.

*NOTE: The nominal frequency shall be 2.25 MHz unless variables such as

production material grain structure require the use of other frequencies to


assure adequate resolution.

10.3.2 Select a basic calibration block as outlined 6.1.8.

10.3.3 Calibrate the system (ultrasonic instrument, co-axial cable and search unit) as

outlined in 9.3. When any part of the examination system is changed, perform
a calibration check on the basic calibration block to verify that calibration
points on the sweep and distance amplitude correction values recorded satisfy

the requirements of 9.6.3.

10.3.4 Perform a calibration check on at least one of the basic reflectors in the basic

calibration block or perform a check using a simulator at the completion of


each examination or series of similar examinations, every four (4) hours,

during the examination and when examination personnel (except for

mechanized equipment) are changed. The sweep and distance amplitude


correction values recorded shall satisfy the requirements of 9.6.3.

10.3.5 Increase the gain a minimum of two times (+6dB) calibration sensitivity for

angle beam scanning.


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ASME SECTION VIII

10.3.6 Scan manually at a speed not to exceed 6 inches (152mm) per second. In
addition to the weld volume, scan an adjacent amount of base material, the
greater of ½ inch or ½ T.

10.3.7 For the detection of reflectors oriented parallel to the weld axis progress in a
general direction parallel to the weld axis, with the angle search unit beam
path directed approximately 90 o to the weld axis. Move the search unit closer

to, and over the weld if ground flush, and further away from the weld while
continuously rotating the transducer wedge approximately 15 o alternately to
each side. Overlap search unit passes a minimum of 10% to ensure complete
coverage of the examination zone. See Figure 22.

10.3.8 Repeat step 10.3.7 from the opposite side of the weld (180o) if possible. See
Figure 22.

Figure 22 - Example of Angle Beam Scanning of a Double Butt Weld at Right Angles to

the Weld Axis, Repeated from Two Directions (180o)

10.3.8 For the detection of reflectors oriented transverse to the weld axis perform
another angle beam examination, with the same angle used in 10.3.6 and
10.3.7 with the beam path directed essentially parallel to the weld axis. See
Figure 23. If the weld surface is sufficiently smooth, scan on the weld.

10.3.9 Repeat step 10.3.8 from the same side of the weld axis but with the search

unit beam path directed in the opposite direction (180 o). See Figure 23.

10.3.10 If the weld reinforcement is not sufficiently smooth for scanning on the weld

and the weld reinforcement is wider than 3/4 inch (19mm), repeat 10.3.8 and
10.3.9 on the plate surface on the opposite side of the weld axis.
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ASME SECTION VIII

Figure 23 - Example of Angle Beam Scanning of a Double Butt Weld Essentially Parallel

to the Weld Axis, Repeated from Two Directions (180o)

10.4 Exceptions to Angle Beam Examination of Weldments and Base Metal

For geometric conditions that prevent angle beam examination from two directions to
the weld as specified in 10.3.7, examine the weld with a combination of angle beam
and straight beam. See Figure 24. If conditions still prevent examination from two
directions, coverage of the weld from one direction shall be acceptable.

Figure 24 - Example of a Butt Weld Requiring a Combination


Angle/ Straight Beam Examination from Two Directions
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ASME SECTION VIII

10.5 For Geometric Conditions Requiring a Straight Beam Examination of a Weldment,


Follow the Following Steps for Search Unit Selection, System Calibration, etc.

10.5.1 Select a straight beam search unit with a nominal frequency of 2.25 MHz.
The nominal frequency shall be 2.25 MHz unless variables such as production
material grain structure require the use of other frequencies to assure

adequate resolution.

10.5.2 Select a basic calibration block as outlined in 2.0

10.5.3 Calibrate the system (ultrasonic instrument, co-axial cable and search unit) as

outlined in 9.3. When any part of the examination system is changed, perform
a calibration check on the basic calibration block to verify that calibration
points on the sweep and distance amplitude correction values recorded satisfy

the requirements of 9.6.3.

10.5.4 Perform a system calibration check on at least one of the basic reflectors in
the basic calibration block or perform a check using a simulator at the
completion of each examination or series of similar examinations, every four

(4) hours during the examination and when examination personnel (except for

mechanized equipment) are changed. The sweep and distance amplitude


correction values recorded shall satisfy the requirements of 9.6.3.

10.5.5 Increase the gain a minimum of two times (+6dB) calibration sensitivity for

straight beam scanning.

10.5.6 Scan manually at a speed not to exceed 6 inches (152mm) per second. In
addition to the weld volume, scan an adjacent amount of base material, the
greater of ½ inch or ½ T.

10.5.7 Conduct this part of the examination by progressing in a general direction


parallel to the weld axis. With the straight beam search unit beam path
directed into the examination zone, move the search unit into and out of the
examination zone while overlapping search unit passes a minimum of 10% to
ensure complete coverage of the examination zone. See Figure 25.

Figure 25 - Example of Straight Beam Scanning of a Butt Welded Corner Joint


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ASME SECTION VIII

11.0 EVALUATION AND INDICATION DISCRIMINATION

11.1 General Information

11.1.1 Any reflector which causes an indication in excess of 20% DAC, at reference
sensitivity, shall be investigated to the extent necessary to provide accurate
characterization, identity and location. All such indications shall be evaluated
in terms of the acceptance criteria of the referencing Code Section.

11.1.2 During examination, the sweep range may be adjusted for indication
discrimination and characterization. Final recording of indications shall be
done utilizing the sweep and DAC settings established during calibration.

11.2 Indication Classification

11.2.1 Flaw Indications – All indications produced by reflectors within the volume to
be examined, regardless of amplitude, that cannot be clearly attributed to the
geometry of the weld configuration (counterbore, root, metallurgical

responses, etc.) shall be considered to be a relevant indication.

11.2.2 Geometric or Metallurgical Indications – All indications produced by reflectors

within the volume to be examined that can be attributed to the geometry of


the weld configuration (counterbore, root, acoustic interface, weld noise, etc.)

shall be considered as geometric or metallurgical indications.

a. The identity, maximum amplitude, location and extent of reflector causing

a geometric indication shall be recorded.

b. The following steps shall be taken to classify an indication as geometric

i. Interpret the areas containing the reflector in accordance with the Flaw
Indications (11.3.1) or the Geometric or Metallurgical Indications

criteria (11.3.2) below.

ii. Plot and verify the reflector coordinates. Prepare a cross section
sketch showing the reflector position and surface discontinuities such
as root condition, weld reinforcement.

iii. Review radiographs, fabrication or weld preparation drawings or any

other means available to accurately identify the reflector.


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ASME SECTION VIII

11.3 Indication Discrimination

11.3.1 Flaw indications – All suspected flaw indications shall be investigated and
evaluated taking into account the following indication characteristics. These
characteristics should not be considered as mandatory criteria for classifying

indications as defects, but are listed as significant points of interest for the
examiner to consider during evaluation of suspect areas.

a. The indication had a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 2:1 with defined
start and end points. This characteristic can be supported by observing

the signal-to-noise ratio variation along the length of the component

b. The indication plots to a location susceptible to cracking. This

characteristic can be supported by obtaining localized thickness and


surface contour recordings at the location of the indication(s).

c. The indication can be detected with multiple search unit angles and a
higher angle providing comparable or greater signal responses. This

characteristic can be supported with an adequate reference reflector

(inside surface notch or equivalent).

d. The indication provides substantial and unique echo-dynamic travel

(walk). This characteristic can be supported by observing other areas

along the length of the weld and by scanning with an adequate reference
reflector (inside surface notch or equivalent).

e. Several areas of unique of multiple amplitude peaks are observed


throughout the indication length. This characteristic can be supported by

observing other areas along the length of the part and by scanning along
the length of the indication laterally.

f. The indication maintains or provides an increase in signal amplitude when


the beam is skewed away from the normal. This characteristic can be
supported by observing other areas along the length of the weld.

g. Inconsistent time base positions are observed throughout the indication


length as the search unit is moved parallel along the reflector. This

characteristic can be supported by scanning along the length of the


indication laterally.

h. The indication shows evidence of flaw tip signals

i. Circumferential indications provide axial components while performing

tangential scans.
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j. For circumferential indications, the indication(s) can be confirmed from the


opposite side of the weld. This characteristic may require a reduced
search unit frequency.

k. For axial indications, the indications(s) can be confirmed from the opposite
direction. This characteristic is dependent upon indication orientation and
may not always be available.

l. The indication is in close proximity to, or initiated from a geometric

reflector and distinct signal separation and amplitude fluctuation can be


observed. The characteristic may require an increase on signal resolution
capability in order to make the evaluation. Examples include reducing

screen size and slower scan speeds.

m. For components where access is limited to a single side of the weld, the
following additional information shall be considered:

i. Because of the uncertainties associated with the indication orientation


and the actual thickness of the component on the inaccessible side of
the weld, an accurate inside surface connection on the far side of the
weld may be unobtainable.

ii. For suspect far side indications, several search unit angles should be
evaluated to optimize the response.

11.3.2 Geometric or Metallurgical Indications – All suspected geometrical or

metallurgical indications shall be investigated and evaluated taking into


account the following indication characteristics. These characteristics should

not be considered as mandatory criteria for classifying indications as defects,


but are listed as significant points of interest for the examiner to consider

during evaluation of suspect areas.

a. The indication appears at or near the centerline of the weld or other

documented geometrical conditions (i.e., counterbore) and can be seen


continuously or intermittently along the length of the weld at consistent

amplitude and sweep conditions. These characteristics can be supported


by obtaining localized thickness and surface contour readings at the
location of the indication(s).
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b. The indication provides additional responses, which occur from the same
scan position, but at different sweep positions (multiples) along the length
of the weld. This may be a sign of mode-converted shear wave signals

from the counterbore or similar geometric reflectors. This characteristic

may require an increase in the time base size (increased range) in order

to observe these responses.

c. The indication can be seen across the entire length of the scan, either

continuously or intermittently, at consistent amplitude and sweep


positions. This characteristic can be supported by scanning along the
indication length laterally.

d. When examining with a higher angle search unit, the amplitude response
is lower or not detected. This characteristic should consider localized
thickness and contour information to ensure that he search unit angles

provide comparable examination volume coverage and sound penetration.

This characteristic can additionally be supported with an adequate


reference reflector (inside surface notch or equivalent).

e. The indication provides minimal echo-dynamic travel (walk). This

characteristic can be supported by observing other areas along the length


of the weld and by scanning with an adequate reference reflector (inside
surface notch or equivalent).

f. The indication provides a rapid and consistent drop in signal amplitude


when the beam is skewed away from normal in either direction.

g. The indication provides a clean, single signal response with minimal to


signal faceting. No discernable tip signals are observable. This

characteristic can be supported by optimizing the signal presentation on


an adequate reference reflector (inside surface notch or equivalent).

h. The signal responses are consistent from each side of the weld for axial

scans, or from each direction, clockwise (CW) or counter-clock-wise

(CCW) for circumferential scans.


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ASME SECTION VIII

11.3.3 Indication Positioning

a. Due to geometric configuration (tapers, radius, etc) indication positioning

may require detailed evaluation. The following information is provided to


assist in proper indication positioning.

b. Perform detailed thickness and surface contour readings at the location of


the indication(s). Attempt to identify any position offset of the weld root in

relationship to the weld centerline.

c. Evaluate the indication signal amplitude response from each side of the
weld, if possible. Observe if the signal response appears due to weld

volume sound attenuation from one side or the other.

d. Evaluate the ultrasonic responses from each side of the weld in both
flawed and unflawed regions. Attempt to identify standard benchmark

responses (i.e. weld root, weld noise, weld counterbore, etc.) and flaw

indication response. Take notice of the ultrasonic and surface distance


dimensions from these responses.

e. Coordinate and plot this information on a cross sectional drawing of the


weld.

12.0 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

12.1 Evaluation Level

All indications greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the
extent that they can be evaluated in terms of the acceptance criteria of the
referencing Code Section. See Section 11.0.

12.2 Evaluation of Laminar Reflectors

Reflectors evaluated as laminar reflectors in base material which interfere with the
scanning of examination volumes shall require the angle beam examination
technique to be modified such that the maximum feasible volume is examined, and
shall be noted in the record of examination of Section 13.0.

12.3 Length of Imperfection

The length of the imperfection shall be the transducer travel from 50% of maximum
amplitude, through maximum, to 50% of maximum, measuring from the centerline
of transducer to the centerline of transducer.
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ASME SECTION VIII

12.4 Alternate Evaluations

Reflector dimensions exceeding the referencing Code Section requirements may

be evaluated to any alternative standards provided by the referencing Code


Section.

12.5 Evaluate all indications in accordance with the applicable acceptance criteria of
ASME Sections VIII. Portions of the weld that are interpreted by ultrasonic

examination to have the following types of imperfections are unacceptable:

12.5.1 Cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration.

12.5.2 Other linear type imperfections if the amplitude exceeds the DAC Curve
and the imperfection length exceeds the following:

1/4 inch (6.3mm) for t up to 3/4 inch inclusive;

1/3 t for t from 3/4 inch to 2-1/4 inch inclusive;

3/4 inch for t over 2-1/4 inches

Where t is the thickness of the weld being examined excluding any allowable

reinforcement. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the
weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a
fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t.

12.5.3 The length of the imperfection shall be the transducer travel from 50% of
maximum amplitude, through maximum, to 50% of maximum, measuring

from the centerline of transducer to the centerline of transducer.

13.0 POST EXAMINATION CLEANING

All visible sign of couplant shall be removed from the examination surfaces.

14.0 DOCUMENTION

14.1 Recoding Indications

14.1.1 Non-Rejectable Indications


a. Non-rejectable indications shall be recorded as specified by the
referencing Code Section.
b. Non-rejectable indications which produce as response greater that 50%

of the reference level shall be recorded regardless of their origin.


c. The location, response level, dimensions, depth below the surface and
the classification of the non-rejectable indications shall be recorded.
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14.1.2 Rejectable Indications

Rejectable indications shall be recorded. As a minimum, the type of


indication (i.e., crack, non-fusion, slag, etc.), location, and extent (i.e., length)

shall be recorded.

14.2 Examination Records

For each ultrasonic examination, the following information shall be recorded:


(a) procedure identification and revision;
(b) ultrasonic instrument identification (including manufacturer’s serial number);
(c) search unit’s identification (including manufacturer’s serial number,

frequency, and size);


(d) beam angle(s) used:
(e) couplant used, brand name or type;
(f) search unit cable(s) used, type and length;
(g) special equipment when used (search units, wedges, shoes, automatic

scanning equipment, recording equipment, etc.);


(h) computerized program identification and revision when used:
(i) calibration block identification;
(j) simulation block(s) and electronic simulator(s) identification when used;
(k) instrument reference level gain and, if used, damping and reject setting(s);
(l) calibration data [including reference reflector(s), indication amplitude (s), and
distance reading(s)];
(m) data correlating simulation block(s) and electronic simulator(s), when used,

with initial calibration;


(n) identification and location of weld or volume scanned;
(o) surface(s) from which examination was conducted, including surface
condition;
(p) map or record of rejectable indications detected or areas cleared;
(q) areas of restricted access or inaccessible welds;
(r) examination personnel identity and, when required by the referencing Code
Section, qualification level;
(s) date and time examinations were performed.
Items (b) through (m) may be included in a separate calibration record provided
the calibration record identification is included in the examination record.
DOC. ID: UT-4
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DATE: 8/4/2018

ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE FOR

TITLE: CARBON STEEL AND LOW ALLOY WELDMENTS – PAGE NO.: 40 OF 41


ASME SECTION VIII

14.0 REPORT
14.1 General

A report of the ultrasonic examination shall be made. The report shall include
those records indicated in Sections 12.0 and 13.0. The report shall be filed and
maintained in accordance with the referencing Code Section.

14.2 Report of Examination Required by Referencing ASME Section VIII, Division 1,

Appendix 12, refer to Page 41 for the SAMPLE report.

The Manufacturer shall prepare a report of the ultrasonic examination and a copy

of this report shall be retained by the Manufacturer until the Manufacturer’s Data

Report has been signed by the Inspector. The report shall contain the information
required by ASME Section V. In addition, a record of repaired areas shall be
noted as well as the results of the reexamination of the repaired areas. The
Manufacturer shall also maintain a record of all reflections from uncorrected areas

having responses that exceed 50% of the reference level. This record shall locate
each area, the response level, the dimensions, the depth below the surface, and
the classification.
DOC. ID: UT-4
AGD Inspection Services REV. NO.: 6
8/4/2018
DATE:
ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE FOR

TITLE: CARBON STEEL AND LOW ALLOY WELDMENTS – PAGE NO.: 41 OF 41


ASME SECTION VIII

SAMPLE ULTRASONIC REPORT