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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

The problem of bullying has become a topic of national conversation over the past

decades. To address this problem, numerous anti-bullying interventions have been developed and

implemented, and advocates have worked to pass state and local laws and policies on bullying. A

critical accompaniment to these efforts has been the growing field of research on bullying, which

strives to understand the causes of bullying, its predictors, its effects, and ways of effectively

intervening and preventing it. What is bullying? While multiple definitions of bullying are used

(Smith et al. 2002; Polanin 2012), bullying at root is one form of youth violence and aggressive

behavior. The following three aspects are often used to distinguish bullying from other types of

aggression or violence:

 The behavior stems from an intent to cause fear, distress, or harm

 The behavior is repeated over time

 There is a real or perceived imbalance of power between the bully and victim (Ferguson et al.

2007; Merrell et al. 2008; Nansel 2001)

 Bullying can be physical (e.g., hitting, punching), verbal (e.g., name-calling, teasing), or

psychological/relational (e.g., rumors, social exclusion). Typically, individuals involved with

bullying are classified as bullies, bully-victims, victims, or bystanders.


A. FOREIGN STUDY

*According to a study by The Youth Ambassadors For Kids Club, 77 percent of students are

bullied mentally, verbally and physically. The Philippines is not an exemption.

*with the study in 2016, bullying actually increased about 71 percent already, and that’s a

remarkable number considering that those that are bullied are the youth and in the school setup,”

Cheyenne dela Fuente, expert in Child Behavior and Psychology told The Manila Times during

the launch of an anti-bullying campaign.

*Moreover, dela Fuente noted that bullying is prevalent among teenagers mainly because of peer
pressure.

*Still according to dela Fuente, bullying can take part in many forms with the most common

ones including: cyber bullying, which has become very rampant due to the prevalence of social

media and the Internet; social bullying which is excluding people from any event; physical

bullying, which involves hitting other people; and verbal abuse.


B. LOCAL STUDY

Bullying in school is a worldwide problem that can have negative consequences for the

general school climate and for a safe environment without fear. Bullying can also have negative

lifelong consequences-both for students who bully, for their victims and to the persons who have

witnessed bullying situations.

*The Department of Education in the Philippines reported more than 1,700 cases of child abuse

or bullying in schools for the years of 2013 and 2014, although the DepEd lately saidthat this

number is decreasing, and that comes after they issued an order in 2012 known asDepEd Child

Protection Policy which states the policy and guidelines for the child protectionin schools against

abuse, exploitation, violence, discrimination, bullying and other differentforms that might be a

threat for the child.

*The House of Representatives in Philippine has approved a bill that requires all the elementary

and the secondary schools to adopt policies that prevent bullying or any other kindof violence in

the schools. This bill requires the schools to include the anti-bullying policies in

the school student’s and employee handbook, it should be apparent on the wall of the schools,

the classrooms and websites. The schools should then submit to the DepEd after six monthsupon
the effect of the law, and any incidents should be reported immediately, and in case ofabsence of
the policies in any school, there is a sanction that falls on the school’s administrators.

*Bullying is comprised of direct behaviors such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting and

stealing that are initiated by one or more students against a victim. In addition to direct attacks,

bullying may also be more indirect by causing a student to be socially isolated through

intentional exclusion. While boys typically engage in direct bullying methods, girls who bully

are more apt to utilize these more subtle indirect strategies, such as spreading rumors

andenforcing social isolation (Ahmad and Smith, 1994; Smith & Sharp, 1994). Whether

the bullying is direct or indirect, the key component of bullying is that the physical or

psycholoycal intimidation occurs repeatedly over time to create an ongoing pattern of harassment

and abuse (Batsche & Knoff, 1994; Olweus, 1993).