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Microwave

Millimetric Antennas

⊡The antenna that is operated at microwave frequency


⊡1 GHz to 100 GHz in frequency
⊡ Range of wavelengths from 10 millimeters (0.4 inches) to 1
millimeter (0.04 inches)
⊡ easily focused into narrower beams than radio waves
⊡Broader Bandwidth
⊡High Transmission Rate
⊡Smaller Antenna
Microwave
Millimetric Antennas
Applications
Cellular Radar Satellite Operation
Applications
Horn Antenna

Aperture Antenna
Travelling Wave Antenna
Microwave Slot Antenna
Antenna Array antenna Reflector Antenna
Paraboloid Antenna
Cassegrain Antenna
Gregorian Antenna
REFLECTORS
device that reflects electromagnetic waves
Reflector Antenna

⊡Very high gain (e.g. satellite transmission or reception)

⊡Very narrow main beam (e.g. secure communication) is required

⊡Gain is improved and the main beam narrowed with increase in


the reflector size.

⊡Large reflectors are however difficult to simulate as they become


very large in terms of wavelengths.
REFLECTORS

MESH SOLID DEPLOYABLE


REFLECTOR
Reflector Antenna
Mesh Solid
Deployable Reflector

⊡Space-Bourne Antennas for Planetary


Exploration
⊡Requires larger aperture sizes and operating
below 30 GHz
⊡For aperture exceeding 4.6m
⊡Above 30 GHz (manufacturing
issues)
REFLECTORS

PARABOLOID ANTENNA
PARABOLOID
ANTENNA
PARABOLOID
ANTENNA

⊡ A high-gain reflector antenna

⊡ Uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface


with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to
direct the radio waves.

⊡ Parabolic reflector antennas are frequently


used in radar systems.
Parts of Paraboloid Antenna
Paraboloid Antenna

Power Gain and –3 dB Beamwidth:

Beamwidth is the angular


separation in which the magnitude
of the radiation pattern decrease by
50% (or -3 dB) from the peak of
the main beam.
Paraboloid Antenna

Parabolic Gain Theory

• Ideal for high gain


application

Factors affecting gain


• Diameter of reflecting
surface G = gain over an isotropic source
• Antenna efficiency K = efficiency (0.55 typical)
• Operational Wavelength D = diameter of parabolic reflector
Λ = wavelength of signal
Paraboloid Antenna

Parabolic Reflector Radiation


REFLECTORS

CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA
CASSEGRAIN
ANTENNA
CASSEGRAIN
ANTENNA
Cassegrain Feed Antenna
The feed is located on or behind the dish, and
radiates forward, illuminating a convex
hyperboloidal secondary reflector at the focus of
the dish

Typical efficiency levels of 65 to 70% can be


achieved using this form of parabolic reflector feed
system
REFLECTORS

GREGORIAN ANTENNA
GREGORIAN
ANTENNA
Similar to the Cassegrain design except that the
secondary reflector is concave, (ellipsoidal) in
shape. Aperture efficiency over 70% can be
achieved.
REFLECTORS

AXIAL FEED ANTENNA


AXIAL FEED ANTENNA
AXIAL FEED ANTENNA

A feed/receiving horn, built around this focus, gathers signals reflected to it


A disadvantage of this type is that the feed supports and block some of the
beam, which limits the aperture efficiency to only 55–60%
REFLECTORS

OFFSET FEED ANTENNA


OFFSET FEED
ANTENNA
REFRACTORS
refractors

DIRECTING RADIATION
SPHERICAL PLANAR

LENS
LENS

feeding
lens
antenna

PARTS
LENS

BASIC ZONED & STEPPED

STRUCTURE
LENS
CONVERGING LENS

DIVERGING LENS

COLLIMATING LENS
refractors

PLANAR SPHERICAL

FZPL
FZPL

FZPL
Where
F = focal length
λ0 = free-space wavelength
p is an integer (zone)
RADIATORS
Radiator

HORN ANTENNA
Horn Antenna

⊡ Horn radiators can be used to obtain directive


radiation at microwave frequencies.
⊡ Horn radiators are used with waveguides
because they serve both as an impedance-
matching device and as a directional radiator.
⊡Horn radiators may be fed by coaxial and
other types of lines.
Horn Antenna

⊡Horn Radiators are constructed in a variety of


shapes.
⊡The shape of the horn determines the shape of
the field pattern.
⊡The ratio of the horn length to the size of its
mouth determines the beam angle
and directivity.
Types of Horn Antenna

⊡Sectoral Horn
⊡Pyramidal Horn
⊡Conical Horn
Types of Horn Antenna

Sectoral Horn
⊡Flares in one direction only
Types of Horn Antenna

Pyramidal Horn
⊡Flares in two dimension
⊡Has the shape of a truncated pyramid
Types of Horn Antenna

Conical Horn
⊡Flares uniformly in all directions
Radiator

SLOT ANTENNA
Slot Antenna

⊡Slotted antenna arrays used with waveguides


are a popular antenna in navigation, radar and
other high-frequency systems.
⊡They are simple to fabricate, have low-loss and
radiate linear polarization with low cross-
polarization.
Slot Antenna

⊡The slots on the waveguide will assumed to


have a narrow width.
⊡Increasing the width increases the
bandwidth (recall that a fatter antenna often has
an increased bandwidth); the expense of a larger
width is a higher degree of cross-polarization.
Slot Antenna
HYBRIDS
Hybrid

HOG-HORN ANTENNA
Hog-Horn Antenna

•A type of antenna that combines a horn with a


parabolic reflector is known as a Hogg-horn, or
horn-reflector antenna
•invented by Alfred C. Beck and Harald T. Friis
in 1941 and further developed by David C. Hogg
at Bell labs in 1961.
Hog-Horn Antenna
Hybrid

CASS-HORN
ANTENNA
Cass-Horn Antenna

•In Cass-horn antenna, radio waves are collected


by the large bottom surface, which is
parabolically curved and reflected upward at
45° angle.
•After hitting top surface, they are reflected to
the focal point.
•The gain and beam width of these are just like
parabolic reflectors.
Cass-Horn Antenna
Hybrid

DIELGUIDE ANTENNA
Dielguide Antenna

•Variation of Cassegrain Antenna


•A dielectric cone fills the space between the
feed and the subreflector.
Dielguide Antenna
Dielguide Antenna
OTHER TYPES OF
ANTENNA
Other
Antenna

PANEL ANTENNA
Panel Antenna

•A panel antenna is a type of directional


antenna, which means that it sends and receives
radio signals from only a single direction.
•Unlike a Yagi Antenna, which typically has a
very focused transmission beam, a panel
antenna has a wider beam, which causes the
signal to cover a larger area.
Panel Antenna
Other
Antenna

MICROSTRIP
ANTENNA
Microstrip Antenna

•A patch antenna is a narrowband, wide-beam


antenna.
•Fabricated by etching the antenna element
pattern in metal trace bonded to an insulating
dielectric substrate with a continuous metal
layer bonded to the opposite side of the
substrate which forms a ground plane.
Microstrip Antenna

•Some patch antennas do not use a dielectric substrate


and instead made of a metal patch mounted above a
ground plane using dielectric spacers; the resulting
structure is less rugged but has a wider bandwidth.
Microstrip Antenna
Other
Antenna

BEAM WAVEGUIDE
ANTENNA
Beam Waveguide Antenna

⊡The ultimate multiple reflector antenna is the


beam waveguide antenna.
⊡The feedline is replaced by a series of focusing
reflectors guiding the beam from the
underground source to the dish.
⊡Since each reflector must be large enough for
diffraction loss to be small, this is only feasible
for a very large dish.
Beam Waveguide Antenna
Beam Waveguide Antenna
MULTIPLE
ANTENNA
TECHNIQUES
MULTIPLE ANTENNA TECHNIQUES

⊡Multiple In Multiple Out


⊡link quality
⊡reliability

|MIMO
MULTIPLE ANTENNA TECHNIQUES

⊡Severalreplicas
⊡Independently fading channels
⊡Improve performance

|DIVERSITY
LET’S REVIEW
SOME CONCEPTS

time diversity frequency diversity

spatial diversity

receiver transmitter
4

⊡Remove unwanted noise and


jamming from the output
⊡Link quality
⊡System capacity

|BEAM FORMING
A PICTURE IS WORTH A
THOUSAND WORDS

Multipath propagation in mobile radio environment leads to inter-


symbol interference. Using transmit and receive beams that are
directed towards the mobile of interest reduces the amount of
multipath and inter-symbol interference
4

⊡ uses directional or smart antennas to


communicate on the same frequency
with users in different locations within
range of the same base station.

|SDMA