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# Ejercicios de Válvulas

Figure 5-2.4 shows a process for transferring an oil from a storage tank to a separation
tower. The tank is at atmospheric pressure, and the tower works at 25.9 in. Hg absolute
(12.7 psia). Nominal oil flow is 700 gpm, its specific gravity is 0.94, and its vapor
pressure at the flowing temperature of 90°F is 13.85 psia. The pipe is S-in. Schedule
40 commercial steel pipe, and the efficiency of the pump is 75%. Size a valve to control
the flow of oil. From fluid flow correlations, the frictional pressure drop in the line is
found to be 6 psi.
Formula de la Válvula para fluidos gaseosos

and y has a maximum value of 1.5.. At low ratios of the pressure drop to the inlet
pressure, the gas flow is approximately incompressible and proportional to the square
root of the pressure drop across the valve. The formulas reflect this fact, because at low
values of y, the function y - 0.148~~ = y. As the ratio of the pressure drop to the inlet
pressure increases, the flow through the valve becomes choked, because the velocity of
the gas approaches the velocity of sound, which is the maximum it can reach.

this condition, known as criticaljow, the flow becomes independent of the exit pressure
and of the pressure drop across the valve. The formulas also reflect this fact because,
as y approaches its maximum value of 1.5, the function y - 0.148~~ approaches 1.0.
When this happens, the flow becomes proportional to the upstream pressure, pr .

The critical flow factor C, is an empirical factor that accounts for the pressure profile
in the valve when the flow becomes critical. Note that it cancels out at low ratios of
the pressure drop to the inlet pressure when the term 0.148~~ becomes negligible. As
shown in Fig. C-10.4, the C, factor depends on the type of valve and even on the
direction of flow. This is because the flow patterns in the valve affect the pressure
profile and consequently the density of the gas.
These controllers have a series of buttons/windows that make it possible
to adjust the set point, read the value of the controlled variable, transfer between
the automatic and manual modes, read the output signal from the controller, and adjust
the output signal when in the manual mode. Most loop controllers have these options
on the front panel for ease of operation. Fig. 5-3.1~ shows what is known as a distributed
control system (DCS).

The selection of the controller action is critical. If the action is not correctly selected,
the controller will not control.

## Direct action. increase/increase

Reverse action increase/decrease

## What should be the action of the level

controller if a fail-open (FO) valve is used? And what should it be if the level is
controlled with the inlet flow instead of the outlet flow?