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EGB323 Tutorial 1 Solutions

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Question 1

Some unknown fluid is occupying a space of 4 m3 and weighs 6500 kg. Determine the
fluids:

• Specific weight

• Density

• Specific volume

• Specific gravity

First find the density

mass 6500
ρ= = = 1625 kg/m3
volume 4
Then the specific weight is

γ = ρg = 1625 ∗ 9.8 = 15925 N/m3

The specific volume is the inverse of density

1 1
v= = = 6.15 ∗ 10−4 m3 /kg
ρ 1625
The specific gravity is relative to the density of water

ρf luid 1625
SG = = = 1.625
ρwater 1000

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Question 2

An SAE 30 oil has a relative density of 0.897 and a dynamic viscosity of 380 centiPoise
at 16◦ C. At this temperature determine:

• the dynamic viscosity in SI units

• the kinematic viscosity in SI units

The SI units for dynamic viscosity are Pa s — 10 P = 1 Pa s. Therefore, 1 cP = 10−2 P =


10−3 Pa s.

µ = 380 cP = 380 ∗ 10−3 = 0.38 P a s

The kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity divided by the density, in SI units this is
measured in m2 /s but is often given in terms of the unit Stoke (St)

µ 0.38
ν= = = 4.24 ∗ 10−4 m2 /s = 424 cSt
ρ 0.897 ∗ 1000

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Question 3

Gas of specific volume 0.6 m3 /kg is in a cylindrical vessel of diameter 400 mm and length
1600 mm.

• Determine the mass of gas in the vessel.

• If a further 0.5 kg of the same gas is added to the vessel what will now be the specific
volume and density?

First we need to find the volume of the cylinder,

d 400 ∗ 10−3
V = 2πr ∗ h = 2π ∗ h = 2π ∗ 1600 ∗ 10−3 = 0.20 m3
2 2
Then the mass of the gas can be find by dividing the volume by the specific volume,
V 0.20
m= = = 0.33 kg
v 0.6
Adding 0.5 kg, m = 0.33 + 0.5 = 0.83 kg. The volume has not changed; hence,
V 0.20
v= = = 0.24 m3 /kg
m 0.83
The density is therefore,
1 1
ρ= = = 4.15 kg/m3
v 0.24

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Question 4

Glycerin has a surface tension, σs , of 0.063 N/m and a density of 1261 kg/m3 . In order
to have a meniscus of less than 0.1 mm in a perfectly round tube, what should the diameter
of the tube be? (assuming that φ = 0)

Force balance, the weight of the liquid is opposed by the surface tension force.

W = FST
2
ρg(πr h) = 2πrσs cos φ
2πrσs cos φ
r2 =
ρgπh
2σs cos φ
r =
ρgh
2 ∗ 0.063
r =
1261 ∗ 9.8 ∗ 0.0001
r = 0.1 m

Therefore, the diameter of the tube must be at least 0.2 m, 20 cm.

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Question 5

Impure water at 20◦ C has a meniscus of height 4.5 mm in a 5 mm diameter tube. If the
surface tension is 0.073 N/m, what is the contact angle?

Force balance, the weight of the liquid is opposed by the surface tension force.

W = FST
2
ρg(πr h) = 2πrσs cos φ
ρg(πrh)
cos φ =
2πσs
!
−1 ρg(πrh)
φ = cos
2πσs
1000 ∗ 9.8 ∗ 0.0025 ∗ 0.0045
 
φ = cos−1
2 ∗ 0.073

φ = 41