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Fluid Mechanic

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1

Question 1

Some unknown fluid is occupying a space of 4 m3 and weighs 6500 kg. Determine the

fluids:

• Specific weight

• Density

• Specific volume

• Specific gravity

mass 6500

ρ= = = 1625 kg/m3

volume 4

Then the specific weight is

1 1

v= = = 6.15 ∗ 10−4 m3 /kg

ρ 1625

The specific gravity is relative to the density of water

ρf luid 1625

SG = = = 1.625

ρwater 1000

2

Question 2

An SAE 30 oil has a relative density of 0.897 and a dynamic viscosity of 380 centiPoise

at 16◦ C. At this temperature determine:

10−3 Pa s.

The kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity divided by the density, in SI units this is

measured in m2 /s but is often given in terms of the unit Stoke (St)

µ 0.38

ν= = = 4.24 ∗ 10−4 m2 /s = 424 cSt

ρ 0.897 ∗ 1000

3

Question 3

Gas of specific volume 0.6 m3 /kg is in a cylindrical vessel of diameter 400 mm and length

1600 mm.

• If a further 0.5 kg of the same gas is added to the vessel what will now be the specific

volume and density?

d 400 ∗ 10−3

V = 2πr ∗ h = 2π ∗ h = 2π ∗ 1600 ∗ 10−3 = 0.20 m3

2 2

Then the mass of the gas can be find by dividing the volume by the specific volume,

V 0.20

m= = = 0.33 kg

v 0.6

Adding 0.5 kg, m = 0.33 + 0.5 = 0.83 kg. The volume has not changed; hence,

V 0.20

v= = = 0.24 m3 /kg

m 0.83

The density is therefore,

1 1

ρ= = = 4.15 kg/m3

v 0.24

4

Question 4

Glycerin has a surface tension, σs , of 0.063 N/m and a density of 1261 kg/m3 . In order

to have a meniscus of less than 0.1 mm in a perfectly round tube, what should the diameter

of the tube be? (assuming that φ = 0)

Force balance, the weight of the liquid is opposed by the surface tension force.

W = FST

2

ρg(πr h) = 2πrσs cos φ

2πrσs cos φ

r2 =

ρgπh

2σs cos φ

r =

ρgh

2 ∗ 0.063

r =

1261 ∗ 9.8 ∗ 0.0001

r = 0.1 m

5

Question 5

Impure water at 20◦ C has a meniscus of height 4.5 mm in a 5 mm diameter tube. If the

surface tension is 0.073 N/m, what is the contact angle?

Force balance, the weight of the liquid is opposed by the surface tension force.

W = FST

2

ρg(πr h) = 2πrσs cos φ

ρg(πrh)

cos φ =

2πσs

!

−1 ρg(πrh)

φ = cos

2πσs

1000 ∗ 9.8 ∗ 0.0025 ∗ 0.0045

φ = cos−1

2 ∗ 0.073

◦

φ = 41

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