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Commercial Foundations - Design Tips

Not a detailed geological or geotechnical presentation

I probably won’t even mention AS2870/.


More a discussion about common foundation issues and
some quick assessment tips for scheme design

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Commercial Foundation Design Tips
Introduction to IStructE Exam

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Commercial Foundation Design Tips
Introduction to IStructE Exam
• Alternate route to Chartered Status and RPEQ
• Part 3 – Technical Exam – 7 hours
• 1 question, 2 parts
• 2 distinct and viable structural solutions – concept design
skills
• Client problem – often has foundation element
• All questions involve foundation design based on ground
conditions stated.
• Use of any recognised code for design
• Stable, Robust, Buildable, Economical

Slide 4
Commercial Foundation Design Tips
Soil-Structure Interaction – The real behaviour of structures
“The actual behaviour of structures relates to the inherent
spatial variations in the ground, and it should be
appreciated that these variations are not always readily
identifiable by occasional and local boring, sampling and
testing”
Thomlinson – Foundation Design and Construction
Craig – Soil Mechanics
John Burland (2007) - 90% of failures arising from
geotechnical design decisions are due to “a lack of
knowledge about the ground profile – often the
groundwater conditions”

Slide 5
Introduction to IStructE Exam
• Alternate route to Chartered Status and RPEQ
• Part 3 – Technical Exam – 7 hours
• 1 question, 2 parts
• 2 distinct and viable structural solutions – concept design
skills
• Client problem – often has foundation element
• All questions involve foundation design based on ground
conditions stated.
• Use of any recognised code for design
• 4 Golden Rules: Stable, Robust, Buildable, Economical

Slide 6
IStructE Exam – Example Question

Slide 7
IStructE Exam – Example Question

Slide 8
IStructE Exam – Example Question

Slide 9
IStructE Exam – Example Question
Key Considerations:
There is a prize for anyone who gets most of the ones I
have come up with///..

Slide 10
IStructE Exam – Example Question

Slide 11
IStructE Exam – Example Question

Slide 12
IStructE Exam – Example Question

Capping beam size, pile diameter?

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Basements
• Waterproofing is a key consideration – doesn’t just sit
with the architect/.!
• Guidance to clients sometimes required in relation to
agreed design brief – CIRIA 139 – Water-resisting
Basements.
• 3 generic types of construction:
– Type A-’Tanking’, Membrane or liquid applied
– Type B –’Structural integral protection’, crack control
key – Xypex/.?
– Type C – ‘Drained cavity protection’ sump and pump
– Others – drained CFA wall with shotcrete//

Slide 14
Basements

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Basements

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Foundations – Key Considerations
• CONTENT

Slide 17
Foundations – Know your Soil

Slide 18
Foundations – Considerations&Rules of Thumb

Work with the information provided:


• Description of soils
• Allowable bearing pressure
• Undrained shear strength – Cu
• SPT ‘N’ blows
• DCP values
• Modulus of subgrade reaction, Ks

Slide 19
Shallow Foundations
• Settlement often controls the design
• Founding depth – what issues?
• Groundwater level is crucial in design – high water table
reduces bearing capacity and potential for floating
structure. Beware flood zones and tidal/river zones.
• Allowable bearing
pressure:
• Qsafe, cohesive = 2xCu
• Qsafe, cohesionless = 10N
• GWL – 50% capacity

Slide 20
Piled Foundations

Slide 21
Piled Foundations – Pile Caps

Slide 22
Piled Foundations – Pile Caps

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Piled Foundations – Rules of Thumb
Quick and Dirty – Ultimate Capacity and General:
• Cohesionless Driven - Qs = 2N, Qb = 400N
• Cohesionless Bored - Qs = N, Qb = 100N
• Cohesive (driven and bored) – Qs = 0.5Cu, Qb = 9Cu
• Hard rock – capacity of pile < fcu/4 x Ab
• Soft layers, soft clay/fill: negative skin friction = 25kN/m2
• In groups use 70-80% total capacity, spacing at 3d
• Tolerance 75mm out of position, 1:75 out of plumb
• Reo – 0.4%, over 1m dia = 0.2% reo

Slide 24
Piled Foundations – More detailed
Use Thomlinson equations:

Slide 25
Piled Foundations – More detailed
Use Thomlinson equations:

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Other Foundation items to be familiar with
• Ground Bearing slabs – TR34, joint spacing, Ks, fibres/mesh

• Retaining walls – types, cantilever, propped, Ka v Ko v Kp

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Other Foundation items to be familiar with
Ground Anchors
Anchor strand, grouted zone, limit stress to 2N/mm2

Ground Improvement
• Soil mixing – lime or cement as binders – also can be used
as part of contamination remediation.
• Compaction – vibro columns, heavy rollers, dyn compaction
• Grouting – resin or cementitious injection

Protection of Culverts//bridging details and protection.


IStructE Technical Notes

Slide 28
Thank You

Slide 29