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How to increase the efficiency of the plant?

1- we have to control the quantity of product we use for an hour so

that the waste is reduced
2- we can create a special storage for a dehydrated waste and then
reuse back
3- frequent check machine because old machine have low efficiency so

we can reduce fixing cost.

4- Less efficiency is because of less concentration of HNO3 so that we need to increase the concentration by
adding catalyst such as platinum, nickel or copper

How does the factors can increase the yield of HNO3?

1- In reference to Le Chatelier's principle , the change in pressure, temperature or concentration will push the
position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change. So if we manipulate the the condition to focus on
product side , we can increase the yield of acid nitric.
2- Since this reaction is exothermic. The conditions would favor the forward reaction and shift the equilibrium to
the right decreasing the temperature, increasing the concentration, and increasing the pressure and volume.
3- By decreasing the temperature, because this reaction is exothermic, the equilibrium will shift to the right away
from the added energy. So for favorable conditions, we would want to decrease the temperature.
4- By increasing the concentration, the equilibrium will shift away from the added product or reactant to product
side ,,. Since we are constantly adding water and oxygen for this process as reactants, than increasing the
concentration would create favorable conditions for the equilibrium.
5- As for pressure and volume, the equilibrium would shift towards the side of the reaction with the last number of
moles to help ease the pressure. So, taking step one's balanced equation as an example...the right side has less
moles, so with increasing the pressure it would shift to the right, which is favorable for the forward reaction.
6- Catalyst: platinum with 10% rhodium.
7- The presence of this catalyst is to minimize the reaction time by increasing the rate of reaction.

HNO3 are produce through Ostwald’s method.

Materials used :

Ammonia gas


Oxygen gas

Catalyst : Platinum

First step:Primary Oxidation(formation of nitric acid)

Primary Oxidation

Oxidation of ammonia is carried out in a catalytic chamber in which one part of ammonia and eight parts by volume of
oxygen are reacted. The temperature of chamber is about 600oC. This chamber contains platinum gauze which serves as

4NH3+5O2⇌4NO+6H2O4NH3+5O2⇌4NO+6H2O ; ΔHΔH - 24.8 Kcal/mole

Oxidization of ammonia is a reversible and exothermic reaction. Therefore according to Le- chatelier's principle,a
decrease in temperature favours the reaction in forward direction. In primary oxidization 95% of ammonia is converted
into nitric oxide (NO).

second step: Secondary Oxidation (formation of nitrogen dioxide)

Nitric oxide gas obtained by the oxidation of ammonia is very hot. In order to reduce its temperature, it is passed
through a heat exchanger where the temperature of nitric oxide is reduced to 150oC. Nitric oxide after cooling is
transferred to another oxidizing tower where at about 50oC it is oxidizing to NO2.


Third step: Absorption of NO2(formation of HNO3)

Nitrogen dioxide from secondary oxidation chamber is introduced into a special absorption tower. NO2 gas passed
through the tower and water is showered over it. By the absorption, nitric acid is obtained.


Nitric acid so obtained is very dilute. It is recycled in an absorption tower so that more and more NO2 get absorbed.
HNO3 after recycle becomes about 68% concentrated.

Fourth step: Concentration

In order to increase the concentration of HNO3 , vapour of HNO3 are passed over concentrated H2SO4. Being a
dehydrating agent H2SO4, absorbs water from HNO3 and concentrated HNO3 is obtained.

3 NO2 + H2O 2HNO3 + NO