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weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 11 GeomagnetismGeomagnetism
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 11
GeomagnetismGeomagnetism
BasicsBasics PhysicsPhysics ofof MagnetismMagnetism
•• MagneticMagnetic PolesPoles andand DipoleDipole
•• MagneticMagnetic PotentialPotential andand MagneticMagnetic FieldField
Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
•• IntensityIntensity ((FF),), InclinationInclination ((II)) andand
DeclinationDeclination ((DD))
•• ExternalExternal andand InternalInternal
•• TheThe dipoledipole fieldfield andand magneticmagnetic PolePole
•• SecularSecular variationvariation
•• GeodynamoGeodynamo
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 33 TheThe MagneticMagnetic
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 33
TheThe MagneticMagnetic DipoleDipole
1
µ 0
W
=
p ( 1
)
4
π r
r
+
d
r
− r =
(cos
θ '
+
cos
θ
)
= d
cos
ϑ
+
2
2
r r
= r
+−
(
dp ) cos
θ µ
m cos
θ
µ 0
0
W =
=
2
2
4
π
r 4
π r
m
= dp
magnetic moment of the dipole
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 55 Earth’sEarth’s
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 55
Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
B
equator
S
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 22 BasicsBasics ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 22
BasicsBasics ofof MagneticMagnetic FieldField
Coulomb’s Law for Magnetic Poles
µ
0 pr
B =
3 µ 0 is called permeability, is equal to 4πx10 -7 NA -2
4
π r
Magnetic Potential
B =−∇W
Poisson’s Equation
2
∇ W =−
µρ 0
Solution of Poisson’s equation in a spherical coordinate
n
n + 1
l
W
=
R
∑∑
(
R )
(
g
cos
l
ϕ
+
h
l sin
l
ϕ
)
l (cos
θ
)
P n
n
n
r
n =
1
l =
0
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 44 QuantifyQuantify
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 44
QuantifyQuantify Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
X F
=
cos
I
cos D
Y cos
=
F
I
sin
D
Z sin
=
F
I
2
2
2
1/ 2
F
=
(
X
+
Y
+
Z
)
Y
D = arctan(
);
X
Z
I = arctan(
)
2
2
X
+
Y
cgs: Gauss; SI: Tesla (T), Nanotesla (nT)
1Gauss = 10 -4 Tesla; 1 gamma (γ) = 10 -5 Tesla = 10 -9 Tesla=1 nT
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 66 IntensityIntensity
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 66
IntensityIntensity
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 77 InclinationInclination
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 77
InclinationInclination
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 99 ExternalExternal
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 99
ExternalExternal MagneticMagnetic FieldField
MeasuredMeasured byby
SatelliteSatellite andand
SpacecraftSpacecraft
SolarSolar WindWind
•• 11 AGU,AGU, 6nT6nT
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1111 TheThe InternalInternal
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1111
TheThe InternalInternal MagneticMagnetic FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 88 DeclinationDeclination
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 88
DeclinationDeclination
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1010 VanVan AllenAllen
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1010
VanVan AllenAllen RadiationRadiation BeltsBelts
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1212 MagneticMagnetic FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1212
MagneticMagnetic FieldField ≈≈ BarBar MagneticMagnetic FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1313 DipoleDipole FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1313
DipoleDipole FieldField (1)(1)
RepresentsRepresents
~90%~90% ofof thethe totaltotal
fieldfield
PolePole axisaxis isis
~10.9~10.9°° fromfrom thethe
rotationrotation axisaxis
MagneticMagnetic polespoles
(N:(N: 79.179.1°° N,N,
71.171.1°° WW;; S:S:
79.179.1°° S,S, 108.9108.9°°
EE))
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1515 QuantifyQuantify
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1515
QuantifyQuantify Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
n
R
n + 1
l
l
l
W
= R
∑∑
(
)
(
g
cos
l
ϕ
+
h
sin
l
ϕ
)
P
(cos
θ
)
n
n
n
r
n =
1
l =
0
X F
=
cos
I
cos D
3
0
R g
cos
θ
1
W
=
2
r
Y cos
=
F
I
sin
D
µ
m
cos
θ
0
W
=
2
Z
=
F
sin
I
4
π
r
4
π
3
0
m
=
R g
2
2
2
1/2
1
F
=
(
X
+
Y
+
Z
)
µ
0
B = −∇ W
Y
W
µ
2
m
cos
θ
D = arctan(
);
0
B
=−
=
r
3
X
r
4
π
r
1
∂ W
µ
m sin
θ
0
Z
B
=−
=
θ
3
r
θ
4
π
r
I = arctan(
)
B
2
2
X
+
Y
r
tan
I =
=
2 cot
θ
=
2 tan
λ
,
B
θ
where λ is the magnetic latitude
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1717
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1717
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1414 Earth’sEarth’s
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1414
Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic PolesPoles
Actual magnetic poles: locations where the magnetic field is
vertical, or the inclination is 90°, they are not 180° apart
(North magnetic pole, 75°N, 101°W on Bathhurst Island,
Canada, South magnetic pole: 67°S, 143°E, in northern
Antarctica)
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1616
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1616
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1818 Historical Changes in
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1818
Historical Changes in Declination and Inclination in London
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 1919 The North Magnetic Pole Over
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1919
The North Magnetic Pole
Over the Past 2000 Years
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2121 ReversalReversal ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2121
ReversalReversal ofof Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2323
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2323
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2020 SecularSecular
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2020
SecularSecular VariationVariation (past(past 500500 yr)yr)
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2222
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2222
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2424
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2424
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2525
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2525
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2727 CoreCore dynamicsdynamics
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2727
CoreCore dynamicsdynamics
Poloidal
CompositionalCompositional andand
thermalthermal convectionconvection
inin OCOC fluidfluid
OCOC convectionconvection
Magnetic
Field
drivesdrives geodynamogeodynamo
Toroidal
Magnetic
ICIC relevantrelevant toto
geodynamogeodynamo
Field
processesprocesses
•• TangentTangent Cylinder:Cylinder: ICIC
affectsaffects OCOC patternpattern ofof
convectionconvection
•• ICIC maymay actact asas bigbig
magneticmagnetic capacitorcapacitor
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2929 PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2929
PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism
MagnetizationMagnetization
•• BasicBasic physicsphysics
•• TypesTypes ofof MagneticMagnetic BehaviorBehavior
DiamagnetismDiamagnetism
ParamagnetismParamagnetism
FerromagnetismFerromagnetism
•• TypesTypes ofof MagnetizationMagnetization
PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism
•• TypesTypes ofof RemanentRemanent magnetizationmagnetization
•• PaleomagneticPaleomagnetic InterpretationInterpretation
MagneticMagnetic stripesstripes acrossacross midmid--oceanocean ridgesridges
PaleolatitudePaleolatitude studiesstudies andand PolarPolar wanderwander
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2626
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2626
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 2828 GeodynamoGeodynamo
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2828
GeodynamoGeodynamo
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3030 PerturbationPerturbation ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3030
PerturbationPerturbation ofof MagneticMagnetic FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3131 AA PhenomenalPhenomenal
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3131
AA PhenomenalPhenomenal DescriptiDescriptionon ofof MagnetizationMagnetization
Orbital magnetic moment
Magnetization
m = IS
n ˆ
M
=
∑ m
i /v
i
e ev
I =
=
Magnetizing Field (H)
2
π
r
/
v
2
π r
1 Magnetic Susceptibility
ev
2
m
=
IS
=
π r
=
evr
2
π r
2
19
6
10
1
B
1.6
×
10
c ×
2.2
×
10
m
/
s
×
0.53
×
10
m
M = (1 −
)
=
µ µ
2
r
0
− 23
2
=
0.93
×
10
Am
B
H = − M
µ
Spin magnetic moment
0
− 23
2
M
= kH
m s =
0.927
×
10
A
m
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3333 TypicalTypical
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3333
TypicalTypical magneticmagnetic susceptibilitiessusceptibilities ofof
somesome commoncommon EarthEarth materialsmaterials
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3535 MagneticMagnetic
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3535
MagneticMagnetic AnomaliesAnomalies
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3232 TypesTypes ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3232
TypesTypes ofof MagneticMagnetic BehaviorBehavior
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3434 TypesTypes ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3434
TypesTypes ofof MagnetizationMagnetization
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3636 LatitudeLatitude
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3636
LatitudeLatitude DependenceDependence ofof MagneticMagnetic AnomaliesAnomalies
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3737 MappingMapping
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3737
MappingMapping MagneticMagnetic SourcesSources
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3939 MagneticMagnetic
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3939
MagneticMagnetic BasementBasement
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4141 ReversalReversal ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4141
ReversalReversal ofof Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 3838 MappingMapping igneousigneous
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3838
MappingMapping igneousigneous IntrusionIntrusion withwith
Seismic,Seismic, GravityGravity andand MagneticMagnetic DataData
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4040 CurieCurie DepthDepth
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4040
CurieCurie DepthDepth
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4242 TypesTypes ofof
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4242
TypesTypes ofof RemanentRemanent MagnetizationMagnetization
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4343 PaleomagneticPaleomagnetic
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4343
PaleomagneticPaleomagnetic AlignmentAlignment atat aa MidMid--OceanOcean RidgeRidge
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4545 PaleolatitudePaleolatitude
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4545
PaleolatitudePaleolatitude StudiesStudies
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4747
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4747
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4444 AnAn ExampleExample ofof AA
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4444
AnAn ExampleExample ofof AA MagneticMagnetic ProfileProfile
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1 Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField slideslide 4646 PolarPolar WanderWander
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4646
PolarPolar WanderWander PathPath && ContinentContinent DriftDrift