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weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 11
GeomagnetismGeomagnetism
BasicsBasics PhysicsPhysics ofof MagnetismMagnetism
•• MagneticMagnetic PolesPoles andand DipoleDipole
•• MagneticMagnetic PotentialPotential andand MagneticMagnetic FieldField
Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
•• IntensityIntensity ((FF),), InclinationInclination ((II)) andand
DeclinationDeclination ((DD))
•• ExternalExternal andand InternalInternal
•• TheThe dipoledipole fieldfield andand magneticmagnetic PolePole
•• SecularSecular variationvariation
•• GeodynamoGeodynamo
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 33
TheThe MagneticMagnetic DipoleDipole
1
µ 0
W
=
p ( 1
)
4
π r
r
+
d
r
− r =
(cos
θ '
+
cos
θ
)
= d
cos
ϑ
+
2
2
r r
= r
+−
(
dp ) cos
θ µ
m cos
θ
µ 0
0
W =
=
2
2
4
π
r 4
π r
m
= dp
magnetic moment of the dipole
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 55
Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
B
equator
S
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 22
BasicsBasics ofof MagneticMagnetic FieldField
Coulomb’s Law for Magnetic Poles
µ
0 pr
B =
3 µ 0 is called permeability, is equal to 4πx10 -7 NA -2
4
π r
Magnetic Potential
B =−∇W
Poisson’s Equation
2
∇ W =−
µρ 0
Solution of Poisson’s equation in a spherical coordinate
n
n + 1
l
W
=
R
∑∑
(
R )
(
g
cos
l
ϕ
+
h
l sin
l
ϕ
)
l (cos
θ
)
P n
n
n
r
n =
1
l =
0
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 44
QuantifyQuantify Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
X F
=
cos
I
cos D
Y cos
=
F
I
sin
D
Z sin
=
F
I
2
2
2
1/ 2
F
=
(
X
+
Y
+
Z
)
Y
D = arctan(
);
X
Z
I = arctan(
)
2
2
X
+
Y
cgs: Gauss; SI: Tesla (T), Nanotesla (nT)
1Gauss = 10 -4 Tesla; 1 gamma (γ) = 10 -5 Tesla = 10 -9 Tesla=1 nT
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 66
IntensityIntensity
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 77
InclinationInclination
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 99
ExternalExternal MagneticMagnetic FieldField
MeasuredMeasured byby
SatelliteSatellite andand
SpacecraftSpacecraft
SolarSolar WindWind
•• 11 AGU,AGU, 6nT6nT
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1111
TheThe InternalInternal MagneticMagnetic FieldField
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 88
DeclinationDeclination
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1010
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1212
MagneticMagnetic FieldField ≈≈ BarBar MagneticMagnetic FieldField
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1313
DipoleDipole FieldField (1)(1)
RepresentsRepresents
~90%~90% ofof thethe totaltotal
fieldfield
PolePole axisaxis isis
~10.9~10.9°° fromfrom thethe
rotationrotation axisaxis
MagneticMagnetic polespoles
(N:(N: 79.179.1°° N,N,
71.171.1°° WW;; S:S:
79.179.1°° S,S, 108.9108.9°°
EE))
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1515
QuantifyQuantify Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
n
R
n + 1
l
l
l
W
= R
∑∑
(
)
(
g
cos
l
ϕ
+
h
sin
l
ϕ
)
P
(cos
θ
)
n
n
n
r
n =
1
l =
0
X F
=
cos
I
cos D
3
0
R g
cos
θ
1
W
=
2
r
Y cos
=
F
I
sin
D
µ
m
cos
θ
0
W
=
2
Z
=
F
sin
I
4
π
r
4
π
3
0
m
=
R g
2
2
2
1/2
1
F
=
(
X
+
Y
+
Z
)
µ
0
B = −∇ W
Y
W
µ
2
m
cos
θ
D = arctan(
);
0
B
=−
=
r
3
X
r
4
π
r
1
∂ W
µ
m sin
θ
0
Z
B
=−
=
θ
3
r
θ
4
π
r
I = arctan(
)
B
2
2
X
+
Y
r
tan
I =
=
2 cot
θ
=
2 tan
λ
,
B
θ
where λ is the magnetic latitude
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1717
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1414
Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic PolesPoles
Actual magnetic poles: locations where the magnetic field is
vertical, or the inclination is 90°, they are not 180° apart
(North magnetic pole, 75°N, 101°W on Bathhurst Island,
Canada, South magnetic pole: 67°S, 143°E, in northern
Antarctica)
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1616
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1818
Historical Changes in Declination and Inclination in London
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 1919
The North Magnetic Pole
Over the Past 2000 Years
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2121
ReversalReversal ofof Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2323
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2020
SecularSecular VariationVariation (past(past 500500 yr)yr)
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2222
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2424
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2525
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2727
CoreCore dynamicsdynamics
Poloidal
CompositionalCompositional andand
thermalthermal convectionconvection
inin OCOC fluidfluid
OCOC convectionconvection
Magnetic
Field
drivesdrives geodynamogeodynamo
Toroidal
Magnetic
ICIC relevantrelevant toto
geodynamogeodynamo
Field
processesprocesses
•• TangentTangent Cylinder:Cylinder: ICIC
affectsaffects OCOC patternpattern ofof
convectionconvection
•• ICIC maymay actact asas bigbig
magneticmagnetic capacitorcapacitor
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2929
PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism
MagnetizationMagnetization
•• BasicBasic physicsphysics
•• TypesTypes ofof MagneticMagnetic BehaviorBehavior
DiamagnetismDiamagnetism
ParamagnetismParamagnetism
FerromagnetismFerromagnetism
•• TypesTypes ofof MagnetizationMagnetization
PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism
•• TypesTypes ofof RemanentRemanent magnetizationmagnetization
•• PaleomagneticPaleomagnetic InterpretationInterpretation
MagneticMagnetic stripesstripes acrossacross midmid--oceanocean ridgesridges
PaleolatitudePaleolatitude studiesstudies andand PolarPolar wanderwander
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2626
weekweek 11,11, 4/14/1
Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 2828
GeodynamoGeodynamo
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3030
PerturbationPerturbation ofof MagneticMagnetic FieldField
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3131
AA PhenomenalPhenomenal DescriptiDescriptionon ofof MagnetizationMagnetization
Orbital magnetic moment
Magnetization
m = IS
n ˆ
M
=
∑ m
i /v
i
e ev
I =
=
Magnetizing Field (H)
2
π
r
/
v
2
π r
1 Magnetic Susceptibility
ev
2
m
=
IS
=
π r
=
evr
2
π r
2
19
6
10
1
B
1.6
×
10
c ×
2.2
×
10
m
/
s
×
0.53
×
10
m
M = (1 −
)
=
µ µ
2
r
0
− 23
2
=
0.93
×
10
Am
B
H = − M
µ
Spin magnetic moment
0
− 23
2
M
= kH
m s =
0.927
×
10
A
m
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3333
TypicalTypical magneticmagnetic susceptibilitiessusceptibilities ofof
somesome commoncommon EarthEarth materialsmaterials
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3535
MagneticMagnetic AnomaliesAnomalies
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3232
TypesTypes ofof MagneticMagnetic BehaviorBehavior
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3434
TypesTypes ofof MagnetizationMagnetization
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3636
LatitudeLatitude DependenceDependence ofof MagneticMagnetic AnomaliesAnomalies
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3737
MappingMapping MagneticMagnetic SourcesSources
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3939
MagneticMagnetic BasementBasement
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4141
ReversalReversal ofof Earth’sEarth’s MagneticMagnetic FieldField
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 3838
MappingMapping igneousigneous IntrusionIntrusion withwith
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4040
CurieCurie DepthDepth
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4242
TypesTypes ofof RemanentRemanent MagnetizationMagnetization
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4343
PaleomagneticPaleomagnetic AlignmentAlignment atat aa MidMid--OceanOcean RidgeRidge
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4545
PaleolatitudePaleolatitude StudiesStudies
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4747
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4444
AnAn ExampleExample ofof AA MagneticMagnetic ProfileProfile
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Earth'sEarth's MagneticMagnetic FieldField
slideslide 4646
PolarPolar WanderWander PathPath && ContinentContinent DriftDrift