Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 192

# HCMC UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION

## FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

Automatic Control Department

## Hệ thống Điều khiển tự động

(Automatic control systems)

## TS. Trương Đình Nhơn

Bộ môn Tự động Điều khiển
Email: nhontd@hcmute.edu.vn
0903 675 119

1
Controllers

2
Controllers_______________________

## The controller is the element in the closed-loop control system

which has an input of the error signal and produces an output
which become the input to the corrective elements.

## The relationship between the output and the input to the

controller is often called the Control law. There are three
forms of such law: Proportional, Integral and Derivative

3
________________________________________________Controllers

Proportional control

4
________________________________________________Controllers

Proportional control:

Output  K p .e
where : K p is a con st ant is called proportion al gain
e is error signal
The control system with proportional control being of the form:

R(s) E(s)
+ Kp G(s)
- C(s)

5
____________________________________________ Proportional control

K p .G(s)
TF 
1  K p .G(s)

## The characteristic equation has the value of roots affected by

the value of Kp .
Fs  1  K p .G(s)  0

## The controller is an amplifier with a constant gain, so that

it doesn’t introduce any poles and zeros to the system

6
____________________________________________ Proportional control

## Example 1, page 226

10
𝐺(𝑠) =
(𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 10)

R(s) E(s)
+ Kp G(s)
- C(s)

7
________________________________________________Controllers

Integral control

8
________________________________________________Controllers
Integral control:

t
Output  K I . e.dt
0

## where : K I is a con st ant is called int egral gain

e is error signal

## Taking the Laplace transform, we have:

Output(s) K I
Gc ( s)  
e(s) s

9
_____________________________________________Integral control:

R(s) E(s)
+ KI /s G(s)
- C(s)

## The Open-loop transfer function is:

KI
GO ( s)  .Gs
s

10
_____________________________________________Integral control:
KI
GO ( s)  .Gs
s
An advantage of integral control is that the introduction of an s
term in the denominator increases the type number of the
system by 1. Thus if the has been type 0 the steady state error
that would have occurred with the step input disappears when
integral control is present.

## But, a disadvantages of integral control is that a (s – 0) term in

the denominator means a pole has been introduce at the origin.
So the number of poles has been increased by 1. A
consequence of this is that asymptotes angle of root loci are
decreased.
(2k  1)
Asymtotesangles  
nm

11
_____________________________________________Integral control:

## Example 2, page 228

1
G s  
s ( s  1)

R(s) E(s)
+ KI /s G(s)
- C(s)

12
________________________________________________Controllers

## Proportional plus Integral control

13
________________________________________________Controllers
Proportional plus Integral control:
t
Output  K p .e  K I . e.dt
0

## Taking the Laplace transform, we have:

K I K p [s  K I / K p ]
Gc ( s)  K p  
s s

K p [ s  1 /  I ]
G c (s) 
s
where I  Kp / KI is called the in tegral time con st ant

14
__________________________________ Proportional plus Integral control

R(s)
E(s) C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KI /s

## The Open-loop transfer function is:

KI
GO ( s)  .Gs
s

15
__________________________________ Proportional plus Integral control
K p [s  1 / I ]
Gc ( s) 
s
Thus, a zero of  1 / I  and a pole at 0 have been added to the
system by using PI control.

The 1/s factor increases the system type number by 1 and thus
removes the possibility of the steady state error for a step input.
The asymptotes angles for the root loci are unchanged.

## However, the point of intersection of the asymptotes with the real

axis is moved nearer to the origin and consequently there is
some reduction in relative stability.

## The position of the introduced zero is determined by the value of

the integral gain KI

16
__________________________________ Proportional plus Integral control

## The position of the introduced zero is determined by the

value of the integral gain KI

positions.

## Example 3, page 231

R(s)
E(s) C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KI /s

17
________________________________________________Controllers

Derivative control

18
________________________________________________Controllers
Derivative control:

de
Output  K D .
dt
where : K D is a con st ant is called Derivative gain
e is error signal

## Taking the Laplace transform, we have:

Output(s)
G c ( s)   K D .s
e(s)

19
_____________________________________________Derivative control:

R(s) E(s)
+ KD .s G(s)
- C(s)

## The Open-loop transfer function is:

GO (s)  K D .s.Gs

20
_____________________________________________Derivative control:

GO (s)  K D .s.Gs

## - Derivative control is insensitive to constant or slowly varying

error signals and consequently not used alone but combined
with other forms of controller

21
________________________________________________Controllers

## Proportional plus Derivative control

22
________________________________________________Controllers
Proportional plus Derivative control:

de
Output  K p .e  K D .
dt
Taking the Laplace transform, we have:

Gc (s)  Kp  KD .s  KD [1 / D  s]

Gc (s)  KD [1 / D   s]

## where D  KD / KP is call the derivative time con st ant

23
__________________________________ Proportional plus Derivative
control

## The control system with Proportional plus Derivative control:

being of the form:
R(s)
E(s) C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KDs

## GO (s)  Kp  KD .s.Gs

24
__________________________________ Proportional plus Derivative
control
Example 4, page 233

1
G s  
s ( s  1)

R(s)
E(s) C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KDs

25
________________________________________________Controllers

PID control

26
________________________________________________Controllers
PID control:

## The control system with PID control being of the form:

KI/s
R(s) E(s) + C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KDs

27
________________________________________________ PID control

## The output with an input and error is:

t
de
Output  K p .e  K I  e.dt K D .
0
dt

## Taking the Laplace transform, we have:

 K D .s  K p [1  K I / K p .s  K D .s / K p ]
KI
Gc ( s)  K p 
s

## Transfer function is:

Gc (s)  Kp [1  1 / I .s  s.D ]

28
________________________________________________ PID control

## The open-loop transfer function for the system is:

K p I .s  1  I Ds2 
G0 ( s)  G p (s)
I .s

## Thus, the PID controller has increased the number of zeros

by 2 and the number of poles by 1.

29
________________________________________________ PID control

## Example 5, page 235

1
G s  
s ( s  1)

KI/s
R(s) E(s) + C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KDs

30
________________________________________________Controllers

## Adjustment of controller gains

31
________________________________________________Controllers
Adjustment of controller gains

## The variation of KP, KI and KD enables the locations of the

poles and zeros introduced by the controller to be determined
and hence affect the stability of the control system.

## There are two methods used to describe the process of

selecting the best controller settings. Both by Ziegler and
Nichols.

32
________________________________ Adjustment of controller gains

correction unit.

## The measured variable is expressed as the percentage of the

full-scale range.

## A tangent is drawn to give the maximum gradient of the graph.

33
________________________________ Process reaction curve method

0 time

0 L T time
Process reaction curve
The maximum gradient R is M/T
L is the time between when the test signal started and when the
tangent intersects the graph time axis

34
________________________________ Process reaction curve method

## Ziegler and Nichols process reaction curve criteria.

Control mode Kp KI KD

## Proportional + Integral + Derivative 1.2P/RL 1/2L 0.5L

35
________________________________ Process reaction curve method

G s  
10
s 2  10s  5

36
________________________________ Adjustment of controller gains

## The critical value of the proportional constant Kpc at which this

occurs is noted and the periodic time of the oscillations Tc
measured . ( S e t T   a n d T  0 )
I D

c(t)
Tc

0
t

## Sustained oscillation with period Tc

37
________________________________ Process reaction curve method

## Ziegler and Nichols ultimate cycle criteria.

Control mode Kp KI KD

## The critical proportional band is 100/Kpc

38
________________________________ Process reaction curve method

## Example 7, page 239.

Determine the settings of KP, KI, KD, when the proportional band
is decreased to 30%, the oscillations have a periodic time of
500s.

39
________________________________ Process reaction curve method
Example:
Determine the settings of KP, KI, KD, to reduce the amount of
maximum overshoot to approximately 25% or less.

KDs
R(s) E(s) + C(s)
+ Kp + G(s)
+
-
KDs

G s  
10
s( s  1)( s  5)

40
________________________________ Process reaction curve method
Example:
T h e t r a n s fe r fu n c t io n P I D c o n t r o lle r is t h u s :
0,71
Gc (s)  18   0,35.s
s
Closed-loop transfer function is:

0 .3 5s 2  1 8 s  0 .7 1
TF s   4
s  6 s 3  5 .3 5s 2  1 8 s  0 .7 1

41
Example 9, page 243
Open-loop transfer function

K
G0 (s) 
ss  1
s2
GC ( s) 
s8

42
Example 9, page 243

Uncompensated

K
G0 (s) 
ss  1

43
Example 9, page 243

Compensated

Ks  2
G0 (s) 
ss  1s  8

The intercept of the asymptotes with the real axis has been moved -
0,5 to -3,5, so there is an improvement in the relative stability

44
Compensation design

45
__________________________ Compensation design

## Compensation is the term used to describe the adjustment

of the performance of the controller in order that it gives a
better performance.

## Compensation can be defined as components inserted

into a control system to enhance the performance of the
controller.

## Bode plots can be used to see the effects of changes in

compensator design on the performance.

46
Compensation______________________

## When the compensator is included in the forward path of the

closed loop then it is said to be a Cascade Compensator .

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
C(s)
-

## Two forms of commonly used cascade compensator have the

transfer function:
K s  z 
GC ( s) 
s  p 
 If z > p the compensator being called a Cascade lag
 If z <p the compensator being called a Cascade lead

47

## A cascade lead compensator introduces a zero closer to the

orgin than a pole.
K s  z 
GC ( s)  where z  p
s  p 

48
Giaûn ñoà Bode bieân ñoä vaø pha cuûa khaâu boå chính sôùm pha.

dB G C (s) =
K s+z( ) = K (aTs +1)
20lgα ( s + p) C
(Ts +1)
10lgα

m

m 

## Ñoä dòch pha lôùn nhaát m xaûy ra taïi taàn soá:

1
wm =
T a
m ñöôïc xaùc ñònh: a -1
SinFm =
a +1
10/12/2018 3:43 PM
49
The procedure for designing a lead compensator by
frequency response approach may be stated as follows:
R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

## 1. Assume the following lead compensator:

K C (s + z ) ( aTs +1)
G C (s) = = KC (a >1)
( s + p) (Ts +1)
G C (s)G(s) = K C
(aTs +1) G(s)
The open-loop is: (Ts +1)

50

G C (s)G(s) = K C
(aTs +1) G(s) = (aTs +1) G (s)
(Ts +1) (Ts +1) 1

## Determine gain Kc to satisfy the requirement on

the given static error constant

51

## 3. Determine the necessary phase lead angle to be added to the

system   m . ( A d d a n a d d itio n a l 5 0 to 1 2 0 )

4. Determine  :
a -1
sin f m =
a +1

## Determine the frequency where: 20lg G

1 ( jw) = -10lg(a) = 20lg (1/ a )
 m  1 / T  
52

## 5. Determine pole and zero of compensator:

1 /  T and 1 / T

## 6. Check the gain margin to be sure it is satisfactory

53

Example 1: p.624
R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

4
G s  
s s  2 
Design a compensator for the system so that the static velocity
error constant Kv = 20 (1/s), phase margin is at least 500, gain
margin is at least 10dB

54
GC (s)  41.
s  4,4
s  18

55
56
57
58
Example 2: p.660

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

10
G s  
s s  1 
Design a compensator for the system so that the static velocity
error constant Kv = 20 (1/s), phase margin is at least 500, gain
margin is at least 10dB G (s)  9,5.
s  2,9
C
s  14,2

59
10
G s  
Example 2: p.660
s s  1 

K = K Ca = 2
PM = 140
j m = 410
a = 0,2077 Þ 1/ a = 6.7778dB

( )
G1 jw = -6.7778 Þ w = 6,5rad / s
1/ T = wC a = 2,9
1/ aT = 14.2 GC (s)  9,5.
s  2,9
K C = K / a = 9,5
s  14,2

60
Example 2: p.660
20
G 1 s  
s s  1 

61
Example 2: p.660

GC (s)  9,5.
s  2,9
s  14,2

62
Example 2: p.660
GC (s)  9,5.
s  2,9 10
.
s  14,2 ss  1

63
Example 2: p.660
GC (s)  9,5.
s  2,9 10
.
s  14,2 ss  1

64
Lag compensator

65

## A cascade lag compensator introduces an open-loop pole

closer to the orgin then the zero.

K s  z 
GC ( s)  where p  z
s  p 

66
 Giaûn ñoà Bode bieân ñoä vaø pha cuûa khaâu boå chính treã pha.
GdB K s  z  Ts  1
GC ( s )   KC (  1)
s  p  Ts  1
1/T 1/aT

10 log a
-1 20 log a

m

m
1
Ñoä dòch pha lôùn nhaát m xaûy ra taïi taàn soá: m 
T 
 1
Vaø m ñöôïc xaùc ñònh: Sinm 
 1
67
The procedure for designing a lag compensator by frequency
response approach may be stated as follows:
1. Assume the following lag compensator:

G C (s) =
(
KC s + z ) = K (aTs +1) (0 < a < 1)
( s + p) C
(Ts +1)
The open-loop is:
G C (s)G(s) = K C
(aTs +1) G(s) = (aTs +1) G (s)
(Ts +1) (Ts +1) 1

G1 (s) = K CG(s)
Determine gain Kc to satisfy the requirement on
the given static velocity error constant

68

## 2. Draw Bode diagram of G 1 ( s ) to evaluate the phase and gain

margins. Find the frequency point where the phase angle of the
open-loop transfer function is equal to -1800 plus the required
phase margin. Choose this frequency as the new gain crossover
frequency   C .
( ) (
f1 w C = PM ref -180 + 5 ¸12
0 0
)0

## 3. To prevent detrimental effects of phase lag due to the lag

compensator, the pole and the zero of the lag compensator must
be located substantially lower than the new gain crossover
frequency.
Therefore, choose the corner frequency w = 1/ aT (corner
responding to the zero of the lag compensator) 1 octave to 1
decade below the new gain crossover frequency.

69

## 4. Determine the attenuation necessary to bring the magnitude

curve down to 0dB at the new gain crossover frequency. Using
G 1 ( jw C ) = -20lg a to determine the value of a
.
dB

w = 1/ aT

70

## Example: consider the system: p.633

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

1
w here : G s  
s s  1 0 ,5 s  1 
Design a lag compensator for the system so that the static
velocity error constant Kv = 5 (1/s), phase margin is at least 400,
gain margin is at least 10dB

71
Assume the following lag compensator:

G C (s) = K C
(aTs +1) where : 0 < a <1
( Ts +1)

1
G1 (s) = K C
Therefore: ( )(
s s +1 0,5s +1 )

## Determine gain Kc to satisfy the requirement on the given

static velocity error constant => Kc=5

5
G 1 s  
s s  1 0 ,5 s  1 

72
PM   13 0
  m  40 0  (  13 0 )  53 0

73
The phase angle of the uncompensated open-loop
transfer function is -127 at w C = 0,445 ( rad / s) . So we choose
0

## To avoid overly large time constant for the lag

compensator, we shall choose the corner frequency
( )
choose 1/ aT = 0,1 rad / s << w C {zero}
To bring the magnitude curve down 0dB at this
frequency, the lag compensator must give the
necessary attenuation. Which in this case is -20dB
G 1 ( jw C ) = -20lg a Þ a = 0.115
dB
The other corner frequency ( )
w = 1 / T = 0.0115 rad / s {pole}

74
The open-loop transfer function of the compensated
system is:
5(10s +1)
() ()
GC s G s =
1
( ) ( )( )
87s +1 s s +1 0,5s +1

75
Bode plot:
5(10 s  1)
GC s G s  
s 100 s  1s  10,5s  1

76
Compare
Uncompensated Compensated

77
Compare

78
Solution 1

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

Gs 
1
s1  0,5s1  0,2s

## Design a lead compensator and lag compensator for the

system so that the static velocity error constant Kv = 10 (1/s),
phase margin is at least 300

79

1  0,4657s
Gc (s)  10
1  0,0617s

80
Solution 2

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

Gs 
80
1  0,05s1  0,02s
Design a lead compensator and lag compensator for the
system so that, phase margin is at least 200 and gain margin is
at least 10dB

81
82
Solution 2

## Lead Compensator Lag Compensator

1  0,04s 1  0,143s
Gc (s)  Gc s 
1  0,005s 1 s

83
Control systems design by the Root Locus method

84
In fact, in some cases, the system may not be stable for all
the values of gain. Then it is necessary to reshape the root
loci to meet the performance specifications.

## In designing a control system, we must modify the

original root luci by inserting a suitable compensator

## Effect of the additional of poles: The addition of a pole

to the open-loop transfer function has the effect of pulling
the root-locus to the right, tending to lower the system’s
relative stability and to slow down the settling of the
response.

85
Effect of the additional of Zeros: The addition of a zero
to the open-loop transfer function has the effect of pulling
the root-locus to the left, tending to make the system more
stable and to speed up the settling of the response.

86

87
Lead compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

## 1. Determine the desired location for the dominant

closed-loop poles *
p1,2 = -zwn ± jwn 1- z
2

4

 ts 
POT %  e 1 2
100%  n

88
Lead compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

## 2. Calculate the angle deficiency 

  1800   a rg( s  p i )   a rg( s  z j )

89
Lead compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

## 3. Assum the lead compensator to be:

GC ( s )  K C
Ts  1
(a >1)
Ts  1

90
Lead compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

## 4. Determine the location of the pole and zero of the

lead compensator so that the lead compensator will
contribute the necessary angle j

 OPA  
sin   
 OC   OP 
1 2 2
T  OPA  
sin   
 2 2
 OPA  
sin   
 OP 
1 2 2
 OD 
T  OPA  
sin   
 2 2

91
Lead compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

## 4. Determine the location of the pole and zero of the

lead compensator so that the lead compensator will

contribute the necessary angle

## 5. Determine the open-loop gain of the compensated

system from the magnitude condition.

92
Example 7-1, p.424

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

4
G( s) 
ss  2
C ( s) 4
 2
R( s ) s  2s  4
 Damping ratio :   0,5
 Natural frequency : n  2
 Velocity error cons tan t Kv  2

93
Example 7-1, p.424

94
Example 7-1, p.424

## If the natural frequency : n  4

and without changing the damping ratio :   0,5
So, we have the desired locations of the closed  loop poles are :
s1, 2  2  j 2 3

95
Example 7-1, p.424

## 2. Calculate the angle deficiency 

  1800   a rg( s  p i )   a rg( s  z j )

##    1 8 0 0  [a rg(  2  j 2 3  0 )  a rg(  2  j 2 3  (  2 ))]

   180  [ 60  90 ]   150  30
0 0 0 0 0

96
Example 7-1, p.424

where :   30 0

OPC  ODP

 OPA  
sin  
 OC   OP 
1 2 2
 5,4
T  OPA    pole  5,4
sin  
 2 2
 OPA    zero  2,9
sin  
 OP 
1 2 2
 OD   2,9
T  OPA  
sin  
 2 2

97
Example 7-1, p.424

K C s  2,9 K C s  2,9 4
GC ( s)   M ( s) 
s  5,4 s  5,4 ss  2
Determine the open-loop gain of the compensated
system from the magnitude condition.

K C s  2,9 4
1
s  5,4 ss  2 2 j 2 3

 K C  4,68

GC ( s)  4.68
s  2,9
s  5,4

98
Example 7-1, p.424

R esult :

99
100
Lag Compensation

101
Lag compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

## 1. Draw the root-locus plot for the uncompensated

system. Based on the transient response specifications,
locate the dominant closed-loop poles on the root-locus.

## 2. Assume the transfer function of the lag compensator

to be:
GC ( s )  K C
Ts  1 (  1)
Ts  1
3. Evaluate the particular static error constant.

102
Lag compensation techniques based on the
root locus approach

## 4. Determine the amount of increase in the static error

constant necessary to satisfy the specifications.

## 5. Determine the pole and zero of the lag compensator.

6. Adjust gain Kc

103
Example 7-2, p.432

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

1.06
G( s) 
ss  1s  2
C ( s) 1.06

R( s) ss  1s  2  1.06
 Damping ratio :   0,491
 Natural frequency : n  0.673
 Velocity error cons tan t Kv  0.53

104
Example 7-2, p.432

## The dom inant closed  loop poles are :

s1, 2  0.3307  j 0,5864
If : K v  5
So, the static velocity error is increase about 10

1 1
Si nce << 0.3307, we choose : = 0.05
aT aT
1
Þa = 0.005
aT
s  0.05
Thus, Gc s   K c
s  0.005

105
Example 7-2, p.432

## The dom inant closed  loop poles are :

s1, 2  0.3307  j 0,5864
If : K v  5
So, the static velocity error is increase about 10

1 1
Si nce << 0.3307, we choose : = 0.05
aT aT
1
Þa = 0.005
aT
s  0.05
Thus, Gc s   K c
s  0.005

106
Example 7-2, p.432

## Because of the lag portion of the compensator to be

small, this implies that the gain Kc is set equal to 1

s  0.05
Thus, Gc s  
s  0.005

107
108
109
110
SISO Tool

111
SISO Design__________________________________________

## The SISO Design Task Node in the Control and

Estimation Tools Manager, a user interface (UI)
that facilitates the design of compensators for
Single-Input, Single-Output feedback loops
through a series of interactive panes.

112
SISO Design__________________________________________

113
SISO Design__________________________________________

114
SISO Design__________________________________________

115
SISO Design__________________________________________

116
SISO Design__________________________________________

117
SISO Design__________________________________________

118
SISO Design__________________________________________

119
Example 1: Lead compensation

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

20
G( s) 
ss  1s  2

## POT < 20%, Ts < 8s.

120
Example 1: Lead compensation

20
G( s) 
ss  1s  2

## Import transfer function

to system

121
Import transfer function to system

Unstable

122
Plot Step response

Check

123
SISO Design__________________________________________

124
SISO Design__________________________________________
POT < 20%, Ts < 8s.

125
SISO Design__________________________________________
POT < 20%, Ts < 8s.

126
SISO Design__________________________________________
POT < 20%, Ts < 8s.

127
SISO Design__________________________________________

128
SISO Design__________________________________________

129
SISO Design__________________________________________

130
SISO Design__________________________________________

131
Example 2: Lag compensation

R(s)
+ Gc(s) G(s)
- C(s)

20
G( s) 
ss  1s  2

## Design GC (s) where : K *V  10

Since : KV  10
K *V
 KC  1
KV

132
SISO Design__________________________________________

133
SISO Design__________________________________________

134
SISO Design__________________________________________

135
136
SISO Design__________________________________________

137
SISO Design__________________________________________

138
SISO Design__________________________________________

139
Velocity feedback

140
Velocity feedback ______________________________

## The term velocity feedback is used to describle a feedback

loop where the signal fed back is not the value of the output
but the rate of change of the output with time.

## The output of the feedback path is related to its input by:

d 0
Output  K v where Kv is cons tan t
dt
 Transfer function : H s   Kv s

## For example: Tachometer

The term position feedback is used for the output value
feedback.

141
Velocity feedback ______________________________

## System with velocity and position feedback

R(s) + C(s)
GC(s) + Gp (s)
-
-
KVs

Velocity feedback
Position feedback

Gc s G p s 
Open  loop Transfer function is : G0 s  
1  G p s K v s
Gc s G p s 
Closed  loop Transfer function is : Gs  
1  G p s K v s  Gc s G p s 

142
Velocity feedback ______________________________

## System with velocity and position feedback

R(s) + C(s)
GC(s) + Gp (s)
-
-
KVs

Velocity feedback
Position feedback

## With a DC motor, the transfer function:

GC s   K p G p s  
K
s( s  a)
Kp
Open  loop Transfer function is : G0 s  
s(s  a  K v )

143
Velocity feedback ______________________________

Kp
Open  loop Transfer function is : G0 s  
s(s  a  K v )

## Since, the damping increased, so the percentage overshoot is

decreased.
OS %  exp(  / 1   2 ).100%

144
________________________________________________

## Example 8, page 241: Consider the control system

1
G p ( s) 
ss  1

a. n  2, K p  ?
b.   ?
c.  '  2  K v  ?

145
________________________________________________

Compare:

146
________________________________________________

## Problem 10, page 251

147
State Space Representation

148
State Space Representation

##  State space representation.

 State transition equation.
 State transition equation determined by state diagram.
 Eigenvalues of the matrix A in state space form and poles of
transfer function.
 Similarity transformation.

149
149
State Space Models

LTI systems

## If initial condition and input are defined, then x(t), y(t) ?

150 x(t0 )  x0

150
State transition matrix

x  Ax x(t0  0)  x(0)
x(t )   (t ) x(0)
 (t ) : is state transition matrix
If t0 is not zero

x(t )   (t  t0 ) x(t0 )

151
Determination of state transition matrix

Method I x  Ax x(t0 )  x0

sX ( s )  X 0  AX ( s ) X ( s )  ( sI  A) 1 X 0

x (t )  L ( sI  A)
1 1
X 0 x (t )   (t ) x0

 (t )  L1 (sI  A) 1 

152
152
Determination of state transition matrix

Method II

x  Ax x(t0 )  x0

x(t )  e x0
At
x(t )   (t ) x0

 (t )  e At

1 22 1
e  I  At 
At
At  A3t 3  ...
1.2 1.2.3
153
Determination of state transition matrix

Method III

##  x1 (t )  11(t ) 12 (t )   x1 (0) 

 x (t )   (t )  22 (t )  x2 (0)
 2   21
 0
 x1 (t )  11(t ) 12 (t )  1  11(t )   0
 x (t )   (t )  (t ) 0   (t )  
. 
ith
 2   21 22     21  position
 
. 
 x1 (t )  11(t ) 12 (t )  0 12 (t )  1 
 x (t )   (t )  (t ) 1    (t )  
 2   21 22     22  . 
. 
 
So i column of Φ is the response of system to 0
th

154
Example 1: State transition matrix and x(t)

  2 1  2
x(0)   
x    x
 0  3 1 

x(t )  L1 (sI  A) 1 x0 
 1 1  
 
 ( s  2)( s  3) 
  1  s  2 
1
1   s  2 1 
 (t )  L ( sI  A)
1 1
 L    L   
 0 s  3  
 0 1  
 
  s  3  
 
e 2t e 2t  e 3t   x1 (t )  e
2 t
e 2t  e 3t  2 3e 2t  e 3t 
 (t )    3t   x (t )    3t     3t 
 0 e   2   0 e  1   e 

155
Property of state transition matrix for LTI systems

1- Φ(0) = I

2- Φ-1(t)= Φ(-t)

3- Φ(t2-t1)Φ(t1-t0) = Φ(t2-t0)

4- Φk(t) = Φ(kt)

156
State transition matrix for time varying systems

0 0  x1 (t )  0
x    x
t 0  x2 (t )  tx1 (t )

 x1 (0)  1  1 
x(0)     x(t )   2
 0.5t 
 x2 (0) 0

 x1 (0)  0 0 
x(0)      x(t )   
 x2 (0) 1  1 

 1 0
 (t )   2 
 0.5t 1 157

157
State transition equation

x  Ax  Bu x(t0 )  x0

sX ( s )  X 0  AX ( s )  BU ( s )

X ( s )  ( sI  A) 1 X 0  ( sI  A) 1 BU ( s )
t
x(t )   (t ) x0    (t   )Bu ( )d Convolution
integral
0

## State transition equation

158

158
Example 2 Find state transition equation for unit step

 2 1  0  x1 (0) 
x    x   u x(0)  
 0  3 1  
 x2 (0)

x(t )  L1 (sI  A) 1 x0 
 1 1  
 
 1
  ( s  2)( s  3) 
1  s  2 
1   s  2 1 
 (t )  L ( sI  A)
1 1
 L    L   
s  3   0 1 
 0   

   s  3  

## e 2t e 2t  e 3t 

 (t )    3t 
 0 e 

159
Example 2 Find state transition equation for unit step

##  2 1  0  x1 (0)  e 2t e 2t  e 3t 

x    x   u x(0)     (t )   
 0  3 1 
 3t
 2 
x ( 0)  0 e 
t
x(t )   (t ) x0    (t   )bu( )d
0
2 ( t  )
e 2t e 2t  e 3t   x1 (0)  t e e 2(t  )  e 3(t  )  0
x(t )   3t         u ( )d
0   x2 (0) 0 0  1 
3 ( t )
e e

2 ( t  )
e 2t e 2t  e 3t   x1 (0)  t e  e 3(t  )  .....
x(t )   3t     3( t  ) d  
0 e   x2 (0) 0
 e  .....
160

160
Example 3 Find x1(s) and x2(s)

 2 1  0  x1 (0) 
x    x   u x(0)   
 0  3 1   2 
x ( 0)

## x(s)  (sI  A) 1 x(0)  (sI  A) 1 Bu (s)

1 1
s  2 1  s  2 1  0
x( s )    x(0)      u ( s)
 0 s3   0 s  3  1 

 1 1   1   1 1 1 
 x ( 0)  x ( 0)  u ( s ) 
 x1 ( s)   s  2 ( s  2)( s  3)   x1 (0)   ( s  2)( s  3)  s2 ( s  2)( s  3) ( s  2)( s  3)
1 2

 x ( s)     u ( s )   
 2   0 1  2  
x ( 0) 1   1 1 
 x ( 0)  u ( s ) 
 s  3   s3  s3
2
s3

161
Example 4: Derive x1(s) by using state diagram.
 2 1  0
x    x   u
 0  3 1 
x2 (0) x1 (0)

s -1 s -1
1 x 2 s -1 x2 1 x1 s -1 x1
u(s)

-3 x2 -2 x1

1 1 1
x1 ( s)  x1 (0)  x2 (0)  u (s)
s2 ( s  2)(s  3) ( s  2)(s  3)

162
162
Relation between SS model and TF
model.

adj ( sI  A)
G( s)  C BD
sI  A
Poles of G(s) ? Eigenvalues of A (modes) ?
Poles of G(s)  Eigenvalues of A

163
Example 5: Find the poles of transfer function
and the eigenvalues of A

 0 1 0  0 
x   0 0 1  x  0u
 6  11  6 1 
y  [1 1 0]x

s 1 0
SI  A  0 s  1  s 3  6s 2  11s  6  ( s  1)( s  2)( s  3)
6 11 s  6

s 1 s 1 1
1
g ( s)  d  c( sI  A) b  3  
s  6s  11s  6
2
( s  1)( s  2)(s  3) ( s  2)(s  3)

[num,den]=ss2tf(A,b,c,0 g=tf(num,de
164
, g=minreal(g) 164
), n) 164
Example5: Continue

 0 1 0  0 
x   0 0 1  x  0u
1
 6  11  6 1  G( s) 
( s  2)(s  3)
y  [1 1 0]x

1  3 p1  3
2  2
p2  2
3  1

## What happened to -1 ??!!?? 165 165

165
Change of variables (Similarity transformation)

x  Ax  bu A is 3  3 b is 3 1
Let
y  cx  du c is 1 3 d is 11
1
w1  x1  x3 1 0  1 1 0  1
w2  x1  2 x2  w  1 2 0  x  Px  x  P 1w  1 2 0  w
w3  x2  x3 0 1 1  0 1 1 

x  Ax  bu 1
P 1w  AP w  bu w P A P 1w  Pbu
y  cx  du  
y  cP 1w  du y  cP 1w  du

w Aˆ w  bˆu Â b̂ ĉ d̂
y  cˆw  dˆu 166 166
166
Example 6: A similarity transformation
example
  3  6  4  6 
Eigenvalues of
1  2
x   1 2 2  x   3u A
2  4
 1  6  6   4 
3  1
y  [2 2  1]x
 2 -1 2   2 0 0  4.9 cˆ  cP 1  [  0.4 0.6 0]
P 1   1 1 - 1 Aˆ  PAP 1   0  1 0 bˆ  Pb   0 
 
 - 1 - 1 2   0 0  4  3  dˆ  d  0
Eigenvector corresponding to
-2
 2 0 0  4.9
1  2
w   0  1 0  w   0 u Eigenvalues of Â
2  4
 0 0  4  3 
3  1
y  [ 0.4 0.6 0]w
167 167
New system is very simpler than older 167
Similarity transformation and eigenvalues

Eigenvalues of
x Ax  bu A
 sI  A  0
y  cx  du

y  cˆz  dˆu

## sI  Aˆ  sI  PAP 1  PsP  PAP  P sI  A P 1 

1 1
sI  A

 sI  Aˆ  sI  A Similarity transformation
does not affect the 168 168
eigenvalues of the system 168
Exercise
1- Find the state diagram of the following system
 2 1 3 0
x   0  3 2 x  1 u
2- Find the transfer function of the following system.  1 4  1  0
a) By use of the formula between the two
representation.
b) By use of state diagram  2 1 3 0 
 
x   0  3 2 x  1 u
 1 4  1  0
y  [1 2 0]x

3- Find y(t) for initial condition [1 3 -1]T and the unit step
 2 1 3 0
as input. x   0  3 2 x  1 u
   
 1 1694  1  0
y  [1 2 0]x 169
Exercise (cont.)

## 4- The state transition matrix and state transition

equation of following
 1 3 
system.
1 
X (t )    X (t )  2 r (t )
 0  4   
 1 3 
Answer is:  1
  
  L1  s  1 s  5s  4   e e t  e  4 t 
t
   
 (t )  L1 ( sI  A) 1 
s 1 3 2
 L1   
  0 s  4   0 1  0 e 4t 
 
 s  4 
 ( t  )
e t e t  e 4t  t e e  (t  )  e 4(t  )  1 
X (t )  
0 e 4t 
 X ( 0)  0 0    R( )dt
e 4(t  )  2

5- Suppose x1(0)=1, x2(0)=3 and x3(0)=2 and r(t)=u(t) . Find x(t) and c(t) for t≥0
 1 4 0  1 
X (t )   2  2 1  X (t )  1  r (t ) c(t )  [1 0 0] X (t )
 0 0  3 0 170
170
171
Electromechanical systems
(p.81)

172
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
DC motor:

## A motor is an electromechanical component that yields a

displacement output for a voltage input, that is, a mechanical
output generated by an electrical input.

## Schematic of DC motor (a) and Block diagram (b) 173

Electromechanical
systems__________________________
Force turns the rotor: F  B .l .i a ( t )

## B : magnetic field strength

l : length of the conductor
ia (t ) : armature current

## Voltage at the terminals of the conductor: e  B .l.v

v : v e lo c it y o f t h e c o n d u c t o r n o r m a l t o t h e m a g n e t ic fie ld

174
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
dm ( t)
Its voltage is proportional to speed: v b  t   K b
dt
v b ( t ) : back electrom otiv e force back em f 
Kb : back em f cons tan t
d  m t  / dt : angular v elocity of the m otor

## Taking the Laplace transform, we get:

V b  s   K b .s . m ( s )

So, we have:

R a I a s   L a s I a s   V b s   E a ( s )
175
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
The torque developed by motor is proportional to the
armature current:

T m  s   K t .I a  s 

w h ere : T m : to rq u e d ev elo p ed b y m o to r
K t : m o to r to rq u e co n s tan t
 I a s   T m ( s ) / K t

## Therefore, the transfer function of the motor is:

 R a  L a s T m  s   K .s . m  s   E a ( s )
b
Kt
176
Electromechanical
W e must find T s  in term of  s , and
systems__________________________
m m

## obtain transfer function  m ( s ) / E a ( s )

A typical equivalent mechanical loading on motor

T m : eq u iv a len t in ertia l a t th e a rm a tu re
D m : eq u iv a len t v isco u s d a m p in g a t th e a rm a tu re
T m  s   ( J m .s 2  D m .s )  m ( s )
Therefore, the transfer function of the motor is:

 R a  L a s ( J m .s 2  D m .s )  m ( s )  K .s . m s   E a ( s )
b
Kt 177
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
B e c a u s e o f L a   R a , th u s :

 R a ( J m .s  D m ) 
  K b  .s. m s   E a ( s )
 Kt 

## Therefore, the transfer function of the motor is:

 m s  K t /( R a J m )

E a (s)  1  K t K b 
s s   D m   
 Jm  R a 

 m s  K
 
E a ( s ) s( s   ) 178
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
Let discuss a DC motor driving a rotational mechanical load

## J a , D a : inertial and v iscous dam ping of arm ature

J L , D L : inertial and v iscous dam ping of load

Where: 2 2
 N1   N1 
J m  J a  J L   D m  D a  D L  
 N2   N2  179
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

So, we have:

T m  s   K b . s . m  s   E a ( s )
Ra
Kt

## Taking inverse Laplace transform:

Ra
T m  t   K b . m  t   e a ( t )
Kt

 Tm  t   
K tK b
 m t  
Kt
ea (t)
Ra Ra 180
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

T m t     m t  
KtKb Kt
e a (t )
Ra Ra

w h en  m t   0 , w e h a v e sta ll to rq u e T s t a l l
Kt
 e a (t )
Ra

w h en T m t   0 , w e h a v e n o  lo a d sp eed :  n o  l o a d
ea

Kb

181
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

## So, we have the electrical constants of the motor are:

K t Ts t al l ea
 and Kb 
Ra ea  n o  l o ad
182
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

Example 1: (p.86)

## Find the transfer function

 L s 
E a (s )

183
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
2 2
 N1   N1 
J m  J a  J L    12 D m  D a  D L    10
 N2   N2 

s t a ll t o r q u e T s t a l l  5 0 0

n o  lo a d s p e e d :  n o  lo a d  50
ea  100

184
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

So, we have:

T m  s   K b . s . m  s   E a ( s )
Ra
Kt

## Taking inverse Laplace transform:

Ra
T m  t   K b . m  t   e a ( t )
Kt

 Tm  t   
K tK b
 m t  
Kt
ea (t)
Ra Ra 185
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
K t Tstall
 5
Ra ea
ea
Kb  2

 m s  K t /( Ra J m )

Ea ( s)  1  K t K b 
s s   Dm   
 Jm  Ra  
5 / 12 0.417
 
  ss  1.667 
s  s  10  (5).( 2) 
1
 12 
186
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
2 2
 N1   N1 
J m  J a  J L   D m  D a  D L  
 N2   N2 

## Because of the gear ratio N 1 / N 2  1 / 10

 L s  0 . 0417
 
E a ( s ) s ( s  1 . 667 )

187
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

188
Electromechanical
systems__________________________
Example 2: p.293

F in d th e v a lu e o f v isco u s d a m p in g D L in o rd er to m a k e
a clo sed  lo o p tra n sien t resp o n se h a v in g a 2 0 % o v ersh o o t .

189
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

  / 1  2
OS %  e x1 0 0 %

 m s  K t /( R a J m )

Ea (s)  1  KtKb 
s s   D m   
 Jm  Ra 

190
Electromechanical
systems__________________________

## Because of the gear ratio N 1 / N 2  10

 L s  0 . 0417
 
E a ( s ) s s  1 . 667 

191
Bài tập nhóm báo cáo
 Nhóm 1: Example 9.1 page 461
 Nhóm 2: Skill-Assessment Exercise 9.1 page 468
 Nhóm 3: Example 9.2 page 466
 Nhóm 4: Example 9.3 page 472
 Nhóm 5: Example 9.4 page 478
 Nhóm 6: Skill-Assessment Exercise 9.1 page 481
 Nhóm 7: Example 9.5 page 483
 Nhóm 8: Example 9.2 page 466
 Nhóm 9: Skill-Assessment Exercise 9.1 page 481
 Nhóm 10: Example 9.5 page 483
 Nhóm 11: Example 9.6 page 487
 Nhóm 12: Skill-Assessment Exercise 9.3 page 493
 Nhóm 13: Example 9.7 page 497
 Nhóm 14: Example 9.8 page 500
 Nhóm 15: Antenna Control: Lag-Lead Compensation
page 508
 Nhóm 16: UFSS Vehicle: Lead and Feedback Compensation
page 511
 Nhóm 17: DESIGN PROBLEMS 34 page 521 192