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Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

CONTENT

 ABSTRACT
 INTRODUCTION
 DEVELOPMENT
 BATTERY CHEMISTRY
 CHEMISTRY OF THE DANIL CELLS
 PRIMARY CELLS
 ZINC-CARBON
 ALKAIN-MANGANESE
 CAPACITY
 VOLTAGE
 CURRENT
 MERCURY CELLS
 ZINC-AIR
 LITHIUM CELLS
 SECONDRY CELLS
 LEAD-ACID
 NICKEL-CADMIUM
 NICKEL-METAL HYDRID
 LITHIUM ION
 MOLTEN SODIUM CELLS
 RECHARGE-ABILITY & THE “MEMORY EFFECT”
 ELECTRICITY IS THE FLOW OF ELECTRICAL POWER OR ELECTRONS
 DURABILITY
 PAPER BATTERY OFFERS FUTURE POWER
 HOW A PAPER BATTERY WORKES?

 ADVANTAGES OF PAPER BATTERY


 DISADVANTAGES OF PAPER BATTERY
 USES
 ENVEROMENTEL IMPACT OF PAPER BATTERIES

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 Battery Comparison
 ENERGY USE FOR PRODUCTION AND RECYCLING
 PROCESS EMISSIONS
 COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN PERSPECTIVE
 REFERENCES

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

ABSTRACT
A paper battery for connection to terminals protruding in same direction has positive and
negative electrode plates joined together by a sealing agent there between formed with an
insulating sheet. A hole penetrating one of the electrode plates and the insulating sheet to reach
the other electrode plate and another hole penetrating the other of the electrode plates to reach
the insulating sheet are provided such that not only is the battery connected properly to the
terminals when it is inserted correctly but also a short circuit will be avoided even if the paper
battery is inserted in upside-down direction.

Performance parameters of lithium - titanium disulfide (I-i- Ti S2) make it a likely candidate to
replace NiCd batteries on satellites and spacecraft. Li-TiS2 batteries are 3-4 times lighter than
the equivalent NiCd counterparts. Many planners of future space missions that will use batteries
are interested in the lithium technology which means that lithium battery manufacturers will
have a new market to pursue. JPL is proceeding on a course that should facilitate opening this
market. A ground based program is developing AA and 3 Ah cells using the Teguchi method. At
the same time a feasibility study was started to validate the performance of different types of
lithium batteries in space. An inexpensive Get-Away-Special based experiment will test Li-TiS2,
lithium-ion and lithium polymer batteries for performance in microgravity. The effects
influencing charge/discharge and cycle life properties will be investigated. This project is
sponsored by NASA Code CF under the In-Space Technology Experiments Program (In- STEP).
Lithium has the highest oxidation potential (E0=4 V) and lowest equivalent weight (6.94
g/equivalent) of all atoms (other than hydrogen). Accordingly, electrochemical cells comprising
lithium anodes have high specific energies. Until recently, cycling of lithium electrodes was
limited to a few cycles. Also, selection of a cathode that would cycle in the presence of lithium
was also considered difficult. Recently, however, at JPL the Li-Ti S2 cells achieved 1000
charge/discharge cycles at 20°C. These cells operate at 2V and have demonstrated 130 Wh/kg at
the C/4 rate when operated to 50% depth of discharge. The 130 Wh/kg specific energy and 1000
cycles demonstrated is the highest reported for a lithium rechargeable system.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

INTRODUCTION

A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by
combining carbons nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper
battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor, combining two components that
are separate in traditional electronics. This combination allows the battery to provide both long-
term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the
potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles,
allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.

Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss
of integrity or efficiency. Cutting one in half halves its energy production. Stacking them
multiplies power output. Early prototypes of the device are able to produce 2.5 volts of
electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp.

The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes
that are each approximately one millionth of a centimeter thick. The carbon is what gives the
batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrodes found in a traditional
battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution.
Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in
extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 150
degrees Celsius.

One method of manufacture, developed by scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and


MIT, begins with growing the nanotubes on a silicon substrate and then impregnating the gaps in
the matrix with cellulose. Once the matrix has dried, the material can be peeled off of the
substrate, exposing one end of the carbon nanotubes to act as an electrode. When two sheets are
combined, with the cellulose sides facing inwards, a super capacitor is formed that can be
activated by the addition of the ionic liquid. This liquid acts as and electrolyte and may include
salt-laden solutions like human blood, sweat or urine. The high cellulose content (over 90%) and
lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries makes the device both biocompatible and

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

environmentally friendly, especially when compared to the traditional lithium ions battery used
in many present-day electronic devices and laptops.

Widespread commercial deployment of paper batteries will rely on the development of more
inexpensive manufacturing techniques for carbon nanotubes. As a result of the potentially
transformative applications in electronics, aerospace, hybrid vehicles and medical science,
however, numerous companies and organizations are pursuing the development of paper
batteries. In addition to the developments announced in 2007 at RPI and MIT, researchers in
Singapore announced that they had developed a paper battery powered by ionic solutions in
2005. NEC has also invested in R & D into paper batteries for potential applications in its
electronic devices.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

DEVELOPMENT

The creation of this unique Nano composite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines,
requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage, and chemistry. In August 2007, a
research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, the Ann and John
H. Broadbent Senior Constellation Professor of Biocatalysts and Metabolic Engineering at
Rensselaer; Pulickel M. Ajayan, professor of materials science and engineering; and Omkaram
Nalamasu, professor of chemistry with a joint appointment in materials science and engineering)
developed the paper battery. Senior research specialist Victor Pushparaj, along with postdoctoral
research associates Shaijumon M. Manikoth, Ashavani Kumar, and Saravanababu Murugesan,
were co-authors and lead researchers of the project. Other co-authors include research associate
Lijie Ci and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center Laboratory Manager Robert Vajtai.

The researchers used ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as the battery’s electrolyte. The use of
ionic liquid, which contains no water, means there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or
evaporate. “This lack of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme
temperatures,” Kumar said. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300
degrees Fahrenheit and down to 100 below zero. The use of ionic liquid also makes the battery
extremely biocompatible; the team printed paper batteries without adding any electrolytes, and
demonstrated that naturally occurring electrolytes in human sweat, blood, and urine can be used
to activate the battery device. According to Pushparaj “It’s a way to power a small device such as
a pacemaker without introducing any harsh chemicals – such as the kind that are typically found
in batteries — into the body.”

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

The creation of this unique Nano composite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines,
requiring Expertise in materials science, energy storage, and chemistry. In August 2007, a
research team atRensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Drs. Robert Leonhard, the Ann and John

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

H. Broadbent Senior Constellation Professor of Biocatalysts and Metabolic Engineering at


Rensselaer; Pickle M. Ajayan,professor of materials science and engineering; and Omkaram
Kalamazoo, professor of chemistry with anoint appointment in materials science and
engineering) developed the paper battery. Senior research specialist Victor Pushparaj, along with
postdoctoral research associates Shaijumon M. Manikoth,Ashavani Kumar, and Saravanababu
Murugesan, were co-authors and lead researchers of the project. Other co-authors include
research associate Lijie Ci and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center Laboratory The researchers
used ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as the battery’s electrolyte. The use of ionic Liquid,
which contains no water, means there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate. “This lack
of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme temperatures,” Kumar
said. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and
down to 100.

BATTERY CHEMISTRY

 Electrochemical reaction-A chemical reaction is between elements which creates


electrons.
 Oxidation occurs on the metals (“electrodes”), which creates the electrons.
 Electrons are transferred down the pile via the saltwater paper (the “electrolyte”).
 A charge is introduced at one pole, which builds as it moves down the pile.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 An excursion through the cell chemistries of primary and secondary batteries, from
Daniel’s 1836 design to today's micro batteries
 The lithium-based rechargeable cell is the size of a grain of rice and has a 10-year
life span.
 Cell chemistries of batteries have developed as their applications have grown, from flash
lamps and radios CA 70 years ago to a host of consumer products today - watches,
mobile phones and laptop PCs - and bigger standby batteries for emergency use in
hospitals, department stores, telephone exchanges etc. Within each of these areas there
are the demands for longer lasting, cheaper and environmentally benign batteries and
cells. Tony Hargreaves.
 Count Alessandro Volta of Italy described the first battery in a paper to the Royal Society
in 1799. His battery, which became known as Volta's pile, comprised alternating discs of
zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard soaked in brine between the metals. From then
on several other cell chemistries were introduced and manufactured batteries soon

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

followed. Notably, the Daniel cell was invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic
Daniel (see Box 1). In the early days the chemistry was confined to aqueous reactions but
as electrochemistry developed interest turned to non-aqueous reactions as an alternative.
In this article we take a look at the range of cell chemistries exploited in primary and
secondary batteries on offer, from the tiny batteries for medical implants to the
100,000,000 watt-hour molten-sodium batteries which are used in power stations for load
leveling.

CHEMISTRY OF THE DANIL CELLS

When the circuit is complete, electrons flow from the zinc to the copper, owing to the electrical
potential. Conventional current flows from the positive (anode) to the negative (cathode): this is
the opposite to the direction of electron flow.

 The porous separator prevents bulk mixing of the electrolytes but allows aqueous ions to
pass through to maintain the ionic balance.

Anode: Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e-

Cathode: Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s)

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 For a copper-zinc cell under standard conditions (25ºC, 1 mol dm-3, 1 atmosphere) the
cell voltage may be calculated from the oxidation and reduction half reactions.

Zn(s) ½ Zn2+ | Cu2+ (aq) ½ Cu(s)

E Zn2++ 2e- Zn E = -0.76V

E Cu2+ + 2e- Cu E = +0.34V

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

PRIMARY CELLS

These are the disposable cells - they are discharged once and discarded - that for over a century
powered small and portable equipment. Nowadays as we become more waste conscious we find
that many of these cells are giving way to rechargeable (secondary) cells and batteries. The most
common primary cells are based on the zinc-manganese dioxide couple: either zinc-carbon cells
or alkaline manganese cells. For a short period some manufacturers offered mercury cells, which
were replaced by zinc-air batteries, and some companies now produce 3V lithium-MnO2 cells.

Primary cells are cells taken directly from living tissue (e.g. biopsy material) and established for
growth in vitro. These cells have undergone very few population doublings and are therefore
more representative of the main functional component of the tissue from which they are derived

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

in comparison to continuous (tumor or artificially immortalized) cell lines thus representing a


more representative model to the in vivo state.

Primary cells from different species may be used, allowing you to highlight potential differences
between humans and preclinical test species. Before in vivo studies mouse or rat cells can be
used to refine doses and reduce the number of animals required for preclinical toxicology.
Human cells can be used to determine accuracy of extrapolating human data from an animal
model

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

ZINC-CARBON

This cell became commercially available in the late 1800s and was a dry cell version of the
original wet Leclanché cell. (The latter was made up of a conducting solution (electrolyte) of
ammonium chloride with a negative terminal of zinc and a positive terminal of manganese
dioxide.) Replacing the liquid electrolyte with a gel and then sealing the whole cell made it
suitable for domestic applications where portability was a key feature. These cells were

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

developed and marketed by Ever Ready for use in radios and torches and are still popular today,
though Ever Ready has now changed to Energizer and many other makes have become available.

The dry cell zinc-carbon chemistry performs well in applications where there is intermittent use
such as flashlights but performance is not so good in devices that put a heavy drain upon the cell.
In such applications polarization and loss of output results. However, the cell chemistry recovers
when left idle for a while - the well-known case of the dead battery that comes back to life.
Polarization is caused by the products of the electrode reactions building up on the electrode
surface and preventing new reactants arriving. On standing, diffusion occurs and new reactants
reach the electrode as the products disperse.

 Anode: Zn metal
 Cathode: MnO2 powder with graphite powder for electrical conduction
 Electrolyte: NH4Cl (aq) and/or ZnCl2 (aq)
 Reaction: Zn + 2MnO2 + 2NH4Cl 2MnOOH + Zn(NH4)2Cl2 E = 1.5V
 In earlier cells the zinc doubled as the outer can which tended to leak as the cell ran down
and the zinc passed into solution.

A rechargeable alkaline battery (also known as alkaline rechargeable or rechargeable alkaline


manganese (RAM)) is a type of alkaline battery that is rechargeable. The first-generation
rechargeable alkaline technology was developed by Battery Technologies Inc. in Canada and
licensed to Pure Energy, EnviroCell, Radovan, and Grand cell. Subsequent patent and
advancements in technology have been introduced. The shapes include AAA, AA, C, D, and
Snap-On 9-volt batteries. Rechargeable alkaline batteries are manufactured fully charged and
have the ability to carry their charge for years, longer than most NiCad and NiMH batteries,
which self-discharge. Rechargeable alkaline batteries can have a high recharging efficiency and
have less environmental impact than disposable cells.

ALKAIN-MANGANESE

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

These batteries developed from the zinc-carbon cell and became available for domestic use in the
1960s and quickly gained in popularity because they were less prone to polarisation, had greater
capacity and were less likely to leak.

Here the anode is powdered zinc, which provides a greater reactive surface area and thus more
power. The electrolyte is an alkali in contrast to the previous cell which was acidic.

Anode: Zn metal powder

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Cathode: MnO2 powder with graphite powder for electrical conduction

Electrolyte: KOH (aq)

Reaction: Zn + 2MnO2 ZnO + 2Mn2O3 E = 1.5V

Development of these batteries continues and recently Panasonic introduced a vacuum forming
process to compact manganese dioxide and graphite powders, which the company claims gives
improved capacity.

CAPACITY

There are several sizes of button and coin cells. Some are alkaline and others are silver oxide.
Two 9v batteries were added as a size comparison. Enlarge to see the size code markings.

Capacity of an alkaline battery is greater than an equal size Leclanché cell or zinc-chloride cell
because the manganese dioxide is purer and denser, and space taken up by internal components
such as electrodes is less. An alkaline cell can provide between three and five times capacity.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

The capacity of an alkaline battery is strongly dependent on the load. An AA-sized alkaline
battery might have an effective capacity of 3000 mAh at low drain, but at a load of 1 ampere,
which is common for digital cameras, the capacity could be as little as 700 mAh. The voltage of
the battery declines steadily during use, so the total usable capacity depends on the cut-off
voltage of the application. Unlike Leclanche cells, the alkaline cell delivers about as much
capacity on intermittent or continuous light loads. On a heavy load, capacity is reduced on
continuous discharge compared with intermittent discharge, but the reduction is less than for
Leclanche cells.

VOLTAGE

The nominal voltage of a fresh alkaline cell is 1.5 V. Multiple voltages may be achieved with
series of cells. The effective zero-load voltage of a non-discharged alkaline battery varies from
1.50 to 1.65 V, depending on the purity of the manganese dioxide used and the contents of zinc
oxide in the electrolyte. The average voltage under load depends on discharge and varies from
1.1 to 1.3 V. The fully discharged cell has a remaining voltage in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 V.

CURRENT

The amount of current an alkaline battery can deliver is roughly proportional to its physical size.
This is a result of decreasing internal resistance as the internal surface area of the cell increases.
A general rule of thumb is that an AA alkaline battery can deliver 700 mA without any
significant heating. Larger cells, such as C and D cells, can deliver more current. Applications
requiring currents of several amperes, such as powerful flashlights and portable stereos, will
require D-sized cells to handle the increased load.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

MERCURY CELLS

These were not on the domestic market for long, being phased out in 1990s by most governments
for environmental reasons. This is not surprising if we consider that a mercury cell could contain
as much as 45 per cent mercury (II) oxide and, being a disposable domestic item, was destined to
end up in landfill or be incinerated. Either way, it represented a worrying input of a neurotoxin

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

into the environment. (It will be some years before mercury from remaining batteries has
completely worked its way down the path from use to disposal and into the environment.)

In their short stay the mercury cells did an excellent job because they offered good capacity, long
storage life and a stable voltage of 1.35V. This stability is in contrast to other cells where the
voltage depends on the state of discharge. These properties made them ideal for cameras with a
flash and watches with a backlight. They were also used for small electrical devices, including
toys. In fact, only a couple of years ago a free Spider-Man toy containing a mercury battery was
put into special packs of Rice Kris pies in the US, much to the concern of health authorities.

The most common chloralkali process involves the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (a
brine) in a membrane cell.

Saturated brine is passed into the first chamber of the cell where the chloride ions are oxidized at
the anode to chlorine (A in figure):

2Cl– → Cl2 + 2e–

At the cathode, hydrogen in the water is reduced to hydrogen gas, releasing hydroxide ions into
the solution (C in figure):

2H2O + 2e– → H2 + 2OH–

The non-permeable ion exchange membrane at the center of the cell allows the sodium ions
(Na+) to pass to the second chamber where they react with the hydroxide ions to produce caustic
soda (Noah) (B in figure). The overall reaction for the electrolysis of brine is thus:

2NaCl + 2H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH

A membrane cell is used to prevent the reaction between the chlorine and hydroxide ions. If this
reaction were to occur the chlorine would be disproportionate to form chloride and hypochlorite
ions:

Cl2 + 2OH– → Cl– + ClO– + H2O

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Above about 60°C, chlorate can be formed:

3Cl2 + 6OH– → 5Cl– + ClO3– + 3H2O

Because of the corrosive nature of chlorine production, the anode has to be made from a non-
reactive metal such as titanium, whereas the cathode can be made from Nickel.

In the membrane cell, the anode and cathode are separated by an ion-permeable membrane.
Saturated brine is fed to the compartment with the anode (the acolyte). A DC current is passed
through the cell and the NaCl splits into its constituent components. The membrane passes Na+
ions to the cathode compartment (catholyte), where it forms sodium hydroxide in solution. The
membrane allows only positive ions to pass through to prevent the chlorine from mixing with the
sodium hydroxide. The chloride ions are oxidized to chlorine gas at the anode, which is
collected, purified and stored. Hydrogen gas and Hydroxide ions are formed at the cathode.

Anode: Zn metal

Cathode: HgO

Reaction: Zn + HgO ZnO + Hg E = 1.35V

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

ZINC-AIR

A potential replacement to mercury cells came with another alkaline cell, the zinc-air cell, which
uses air as its cathode. The air enters through a hole in the cell and oxygen is adsorbed onto a
graphite surface where it undergoes reduction to give oxide ions.

Anode: Zn metal powder

Cathode: O2

Electrolyte: KOH (aq)

Reaction: 2Zn + O2 + 2H2O 2Zn (OH)2 E = 1.65 V

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Simultaneously, as the oxygen is being reduced, oxidation takes place at the zinc electrode,
providing electrons. This cell has the advantage of being lighter than cells with other types of
cathode chemistry. A disadvantage, however, is that carbon dioxide from the air reacts with the
potassium hydroxide electrolyte, converting it to the carbonate, and so an absorbing system
needs to be used, adding to the weight and taking away some of the advantage of an air
electrode. Similar to the zinc-air cell is the aluminum-air cell.

Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable) and zinc–air fuel cells, (mechanically-rechargeable) are


electro-chemical batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air. These batteries
have high energy densities and are relatively inexpensive to produce. Sizes range from very
small button cells for hearing aids, larger batteries used in film cameras that previously used
mercury batteries, to very large batteries used for electric vehicle propulsion.

In operation, a mass of zinc particles forms a porous anode, which is saturated with an
electrolyte. Oxygen from the air reacts at the cathode and forms hydroxyl ions which migrate
into the zinc paste and form zincate (Zn(OH)2−
4), releasing electrons to travel to the cathode. The zincate decays into zinc oxide and water
returns to the electrolyte. The water and hydroxyls from the anode are recycled at the cathode, so
the water is not consumed. The reactions produce a theoretical 1.65 volts, but this is reduced to
1.4–1.35 V in available cells.

Zinc–air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel, the
reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow, and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be
replaced with fresh paste.

Zinc-air batteries can be used to replace the discontinued 1.35V mercury batteries (although with
a significantly shorter operating life), which in the 70'-80' were commonly used in photo
cameras.

Possible future applications of this battery include its deployment as an electric vehicle battery
and as a utility-scale energy storage system.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

LITHIUM CELLS

Lithium is the lightest metal, has an electrochemical potential of over 3V, and low toxicity.
These factors make it an attractive prospect for batteries. However, being a Group I metal,
lithium is highly reactive and therefore it is necessary to use a non-aqueous electrolyte. Lithium
batteries generally have lithium metal (or alloy) as the anode but show an extensive range of
chemistries for the cathode and the electrolyte.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Electrolytes can be either an organic liquid or a solid polymer - each with a dissolved lithium salt
to make it conducting - or a fused lithium salt. A commonly used cathode is solid carbon
monofluoride (a fluorine-graphite matrix). Some also have solid electrolytes, such as the lithium-
iodine cell which has a very long life at low rates of discharge and is used in pacemakers. In this
cell the cathode is a polymer into which iodine is absorbed.

Currently, the most popular lithium primary cell is the solid cathode type, comprising powdered
manganese dioxide and graphite - not unlike the one used in the previous aqueous cells, along
with a liquid electrolyte.

A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a family of rechargeable battery types
in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during
discharge, and back when charging. Chemistry, performance, cost, and safety characteristics vary
across LIB types. Unlike lithium primary batteries (which are disposable), lithium-ion
electrochemical cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material instead of
metallic lithium.

Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular
types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy densities, no
memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics,
LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications.
Research is yielding a stream of improvements to traditional LIB technology, focusing on energy
density, durability, cost, and intrinsic

Anode: Li metal (or alloy) foil

Cathode: MnO2 powder with graphite powder for electrical conduction

Electrolyte: Li salt dissolved in aprotic solvent

Reaction: Li + MN (IV) MN (III) + Li+ E = 3V

These lithium cells are available as cylindrical cells, or as button cells. They have the added
advantage of operating over a wide temperature range, from -40ºC to +60ºC.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

There are numerous other examples of primary cell chemistry, including magnesium-manganese
dioxide, a magnesium version of the alkaline-manganese type; and silver-silver oxide.

SECONDRY CELLS

For a rechargeable cell, or more commonly a battery of cells, to be successful the cell must be
capable of much discharge and recharge cycles. For example an electric vehicle relying upon a
secondary battery as its power source must be capable of being recharged a thousand times or so,
before the battery is worn out. To achieve this, the chemistry must be reversible; otherwise there

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

would be loss of capacity on each recharge cycle which would eventually render the cell useless.
And so a rechargeable battery must have a long cycle life.

Traditionally rechargeable cells were used for high power applications such as engine cranking,
electric vehicles and emergency lighting but are now making a big contribution in the domestic
market and small rechargeable are a part of everyday life. Furthermore, this is an area which will
grow as more portable electronic devices become available and as people want to move away
from the throwaway batteries. The secondary cell wall is a structure found in many plant cells,
located between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cell starts producing the
secondary cell wall after the primary cell wall is complete and the cell has stopped expanding.

The secondary cell wall consists mainly of cellulose, but also other polysaccharides, lignin, and
glycoproteins. It sometimes consists of three distinct layers - S1, S2 and S3 - where the direction
of the Cellulose micro fibrils differs between the layers. Apparently there are no Structural
proteins or enzymes in the secondary wall.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

The secondary cell wall has different ratios of wall constituents compared to the primary wall. An
example of this is that wood secondary walls contain xylenes, whereas the primary wall contains
xyloglucans and the cellulose fraction is higher in the secondary wall. Pectin’s may also be absent from
the secondary wall and apparently it contain no Structural proteins or enzymes.

The Cellulose micro fibrils give tensile strength, whereas lignification in addition to making the
secondary wall impermeable to water also gives a "brittle" texture. Conceptually this give lignified
secondary wall properties resembling armored concrete, where the cellulose micro fibrils act as the
armoring and the lignin as concrete.

Lignification of the secondary wall confers resistance to pathogens by two mechanisms. As


lignin repels water, hydrolytic enzymes are less likely to attack and successfully penetrate the
wall and it lowers the nutritional value of the wall, providing less energy to pathogens. The
secondary wall usually is absent under the regions of the primary wall, which contain pit pairs,
giving rise to a pit cavity. (this is somewhat simplified and someone who know more about it
than the author of this sentence should expand the section, e.g. describing simple and bordered
pit cavities).Wood consists mostly of secondary cell wall, and holds the plant up against gravity.

Secondary batteries are the rechargeable batteries. They have the advantage of being more cost-
efficient over the long term, although individual batteries are more expensive. Generally,
secondary batteries have a lower capacity and initial voltage, a flat discharge curve, higher self-
discharge rates and varying recharge life ratings. Secondary batteries usually have more active
(less stable) chemistries which need special handling, containment and disposal. Ni-Cd and
small-size lead acid batteries require special disposal and should not be simply thrown away.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

LEAD-ACID

The lead-acid battery, invented by Gaston Planet in 1859, is the most widely used rechargeable
battery. Over the years improvements have been made as new materials have become available.
But though the electrode structure and container materials have changed, the basic electrode
chemistry used is the same as it was over a century ago.

Lead–acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planet, are the oldest type of
rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-
volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively
large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for
use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Lead–acid batteries (under 5 kg) account for 1.5% of all portable secondary battery sales in
Japan by number of units sold (25% by price). Sealed lead–acid batteries accounted for 10% by
weight of all portable battery sales in the EU in 2000

Anode: Pb metal as spongy powder

Cathode: PbO2

Electrolyte: H2SO4 (aq)

Discharge reaction:

Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO 2PbSO4 + 2H2O E = 2V

The spongy lead is packed into cadmium-lead alloy grids and the lead dioxide pasted onto alloy
plates. Recharging simply reverses the discharge reaction but is accompanied by the production
of hydrogen and oxygen, owing to the electrolysis of water. Early batteries had therefore to be
ventilated to allow the gas to escape and avoid pressure build up and the risk of explosion. The
battery's electrolyte level had to be periodically topped up with demineralized water.

In the 1970s sealed batteries with pressure release valves became available. These systems
contained a catalyst to convert the hydrogen and oxygen back to water. Later improvements
included the use of a calcium-lead alloy as the electrode grid material in place of cadmium-lead
alloys. Although these batteries are known as calcium batteries this is misleading because
calcium plays no part in the cell chemistry.

Calcium-lead alloy batteries are less prone to self-discharge and are highly effective in providing
a short burst of high current, which makes them suitable for use in cars for engine cranking.
They are, however, unsuitable for prolonged discharge as required in electric vehicles or in
emergency lighting facilities.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

The traditional cadmium-lead alloy batteries do not tolerate deep discharge if they are not
recharged soon after reaching this state. If left, the lead sulfate discharge product becomes stable
and resists all efforts at recharging; the battery is said to be sulfated and is dead.

NICKEL-CADMIUM

Despite the success of the lead-acid batteries, one major disadvantage is their weight and the aim
of much research in this area has been to produce lighter versions. Of the different chemistries
considered, nickel-iron (NIFE) and nickel-cadmium (NICAD) alkaline batteries had some
commercial success at the end of the 19th century. Later, the NICAD battery enjoyed more
success because it was less prone to corrosion, even challenging the lead-acid battery in

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

applications such as emergency lighting despite its higher price. NICAD chemistry is now used
for small rechargeable batteries for domestic use as well as heavier applications such as electric
vehicles.

Nickel-cadmium cells have an anode (negative) in cadmium hydroxide and a cathode (positive)
in nickel hydroxide, immersed in alkaline solution (electrolyte) comprising potassium, sodium
and lithium hydroxides. The cells are rechargeable and deliver a voltage of 1.2 V during
discharge.

Saft and its subsidiaries have been making nickel-cadmium batteries for over 100 years,
addressing a huge variety of professional and industrial applications, with capacities from 0.1 to
1500 Ah. Several different electrode technologies can be used, with pocket-type, sintered plate,
foam and Saft’s recent proprietary PNE (for the VNT range) anodes, and pocket-type, sintered
plate or PBE cathodes (Plastic Bonded Electrodes). Nickel-cadmium cells can be sealed or open,
and are available in low-maintenance and zero-maintenance versions.

Sealed cells are cylindrical in shape, in nickel-steel cans. Open cells are prismatic in shape, with
casing in plastic (possibly flame retardant) or stainless steel or nickel steel. Nickel-cadmium
batteries have a legendary reputation for robustness, reliability and service life. This is the
benchmark technology for difficult and demanding applications: operating temperatures from –
40 °C to +60 °C (because the electrolyte has a very low freezing point), excellent cycling
capability (up to 3,000 cycles), long storage life, and low or zero maintenance.

Because of the structural materials they use, nickel-cadmium batteries are exceptionally robust,
and exempt from risk of sudden failure. And they can be made with very thin electrodes, for
high-power units.

Saft makes an increasing proportion of its nickel-cadmium batteries using cadmium from
recycled batteries.

Anode: Cd metal

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Cathode: Ni (OH)2

Electrolyte: KOH (aq)

Discharge reaction:

Cd + 2NiOOH + 4H2O Cd (OH)2 + 2Ni(OH)2.H2O E = 1.3V

NICKEL-METAL HYDRID

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

The NICAD chemistry provided the basis upon which the nickel-metal hydride cell was
developed. Again, nickel chemistry finds use in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable. As
with the NICAD, these batteries are for small domestic use and for heavier applications such as
electric vehicles. The NiMH cell stores almost twice the energy as the NICAD, a factor that has
made them very popular.

A nickel–metal hydride cell, abbreviated NiMH or Ni-MH, is a type of rechargeable battery. It is


very similar to the nickel–cadmium cell (NiCd). NiMH use positive electrodes of nickel ox
hydroxide (NiOOH), like the NiCd, but the negative electrode uses a hydrogen-absorbing alloy
instead of cadmium. A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an equivalent
size NiCad, and their energy density approaches that of a lithium-ion cell.

The typical specific energy for small NiMH cells is about 100 W·h/kg, and for larger NiMH cells
about 75 W·h/kg (270 kJ/kg). This is significantly better than the typical 40–60 W·h/kg for Ni–
Cd, and similar to the 100-160 W·h/kg for Li-ion. NiMH has a volumetric energy density of
about 300 W·h/L (1080 MJ/m³), significantly better than nickel–cadmium at 50–150 W·h/L, and
about the same as li-ion at 250-360 W·h/L.

NiMH batteries have replaced NiCd for many roles, notably small rechargeable batteries. NiMH
batteries are very common for AA (penlight-size) batteries, which have nominal charge
capacities (C) ranging from 1100 mA·h to 3100 mA·h at 1.2 V, measured at the rate that
discharges the cell in five hours. Useful discharge capacity is a decreasing function of the
discharge rate, but up to a rate of around 1×C (full discharge in one hour), it does not differ
significantly from the nominal capacity. NiMH batteries normally operate at 1.2 V per cell,
somewhat lower than conventional 1.5 V cells, but will operate most devices designed for that
voltage.

Anode: MH where M = Alloy such as LaNi5

Cathode: NiOOH

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Electrolyte: KOH (aq)

Discharge reaction: NiOOH + MH Ni (OH)2 + M E = 1.35V

This cell came about when the hydrogen absorptive properties of certain metal alloys were
discovered. In these alloys some of the component metals absorb hydrogen exothermically
whereas others do so endothermic ally. By having the correct balance of each type in the alloy,
hydrogen absorption and release may proceed with no net change in temperature which is
desirable for cells. One of these alloys, LaNi5 can store six hydrogen atoms, LaNi5H6.

LITHIUM ION

Metallic lithium, which is used in lithium primary cells, is unsuitable for rechargeable cells
owing to dendritic crystal growth of the metal in the recharge phase which can damage the cell.
Instead lighthearted graphite is used as the anode.

Anode: Lightheaded graphite (LiC6)

Cathode: LiCoO2

Electrolyte: LiPF6 in aprotic solvent

Overall reaction: Li 1-x CoO2 + CLix LiCoO2 + C E = 3.7V

Lithium atoms in the lightheaded graphite are intercalated between the hexagonal layer
molecular structures of the graphite and are free to move around. On discharge these atoms
migrate from the graphite to the lithium cobalt oxide. This technology was developed by the
British company AEA Technology and commercialized by Sony under license from AEA.
Currently Quall ion in the US uses this technology in micro batteries (the size of a grain of rice)
in medical implants for neurological disorders. The batteries have a 10-year life.

Lithium-ion batteries are incredibly popular these days. You can find them in laptops, PDAs, cell
phones and iPods. They're so common because, pound for pound, they're some of the most
energetic rechargeable batteries available.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Lithium-ion batteries have also been in the news lately. That’s because these batteries have the
ability to burst into flames occasionally. It's not very common -- just two or three battery packs
per million have a problem -- but when it happens, it's extreme. In some situations, the failure
rate can rise, and when that happens you end up with a worldwide battery recall that can cost
manufacturers millions of dollars.

So the question is, what makes these batteries so energetic and so popular? How do they burst
into flame? And is there anything you can do to prevent the problem or help your batteries last
longer? In this article, we'll answer these questions and more.

Lithium-ion batteries are popular because they have a number of important advantages over
competing technologies:

 They're generally much lighter than other types of rechargeable batteries of the same size.
The electrodes of a lithium-ion battery are made of lightweight lithium and carbon.
Lithium is also a highly reactive element, meaning that a lot of energy can be stored in its
atomic bonds. This translates into a very high energy density for lithium-ion batteries.
Here is a way to get a perspective on the energy density. A typical lithium-ion battery can
store 150 watt-hours of electricity in 1 kilogram of battery. A NiMH (nickel-metal
hydride) battery pack can store perhaps 100 watt-hours per kilogram, although 60 to 70
watt-hours might be more typical. A lead-acid battery can store only 25 watt-hours per
kilogram. Using lead-acid technology, it takes 6 kilograms to store the same amount of
energy that a 1 kilogram lithium-ion battery can handle. That's a huge difference .
 They hold their charge. A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its
charge per month, compared to a 20 percent loss per month for NiMH batteries.
 They have no memory effect, which means that you do not have to completely discharge
them before recharging, as with some other battery chemistries.
 Lithium-ion batteries can handle hundreds of charge/discharge cycles.

That is not to say that lithium-ion batteries are flawless. They have a few disadvantages as well:

 They start degrading as soon as they leave the factory. They will only last two or three
years from the date of manufacture whether you use them or not.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 They are extremely sensitive to high temperatures. Heat causes lithium-ion battery packs
to degrade much faster than they normally would.
 If you completely discharge a lithium-ion battery, it is ruined.
 A lithium-ion battery pack must have an on-board computer to manage the battery. This
makes them even more expensive than they already are.
 There is a small chance that, if a lithium-ion battery pack fails, it will burst into flame

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

MOLTEN SODIUM CELLS

Another Group I metal to have found use in batteries is sodium with the sodium-sulfur cell being
an example. This cell is unusual in that it has liquid electrodes, molten sodium and molten sulfur,
with a solid electrolyte. The system works at 350ºC. With sodium and sulfur separated by only a
couple of millimeters of ceramic, at this temperature the cell presented some tough design
problems to avoid explosive reactions.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Sodium-sulfur batteries are being used for load leveling (100,000,000 watt-hours) in the
electricity generating industry and to power electric buses, trains and tractors.

Anode: Na(l)

Cathode: S(l) with carbon fiber conducting matrix

Electrolyte: -Al2O3 ceramic

Overall reaction: 2Na + 3S Na2S3 and polysulfide E = 2.076V

-alumina comprises sodium ions in an aluminum oxide lattice. During discharge the sodium
anode releases sodium ions which migrate through the -alumina to the liquid sulfur. These
positive ions react with the sulfur to form sodium sulfide and polysulfide.

RECHARGE-ABILITY & THE “MEMORY EFFECT”

RECHARGE ABILITY

 When the direction of electron discharge (negative to positive) is reversed, restoring


power.

THE MEMORY EFFECT

 When a battery is repeatedly recharged before it has discharged more than half of its
power, it will “forget” its original power capacity.
 Cadmium crystals are the culprit!

ELECTRICITY IS THE FLOW OF ELECTRICAL POWER OR


ELECTRONS

 Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal in
the traditional battery.
 Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected wire
to the positive terminal.
 Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction
to continue.

DURABILITY

 The use of carbon nanotubes gives the paper battery extreme flexibility; the sheets can be
rolled
 Twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or
stacked,
 Printer paper (or a Voltaic pile), to boost total output. As well, they can be made in a
variety of sizes,From postage stamp to broadsheet. “It’s essentially a regular piece of

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

paper, but it’s made in a very intelligent way,” said Linhardt, “We’re not putting pieces
together — it’s a single, integrated device,”
 “The components are molecularly attached to each other: the carbon nanotube print is
embedded in the paper.
 Paper battery is extremely flexible as carbon nanotubes are used as the electrodes. The
sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded and cut into various shapes with no loss in quality
and efficiency. The components are attached to each other and the carbon nanotube print
is embedded in the paper and the electrolyte is soaked in the paper which looks the same
like a paper.

PAPER BATTERY OFFERS FUTURE POWER

Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation of gadgets, says a
team of researchers. They have produced a sample slightly larger than a postage stamp that can
store enough energy to illuminate a small light bulb. But the ambition is to produce reams of
paper that could one day power a car.

 Professor Robert Linhardt, of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, said the paper battery
was a glimpse into the future of power storage. The team behind the versatile paper,
which stores energy like a conventional battery, says it can also double as a capacitor
capable of releasing sudden energy bursts for high-power applications.

HOW A PAPER BATTERY WORKES?

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

While a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery
integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient.

INTIGRETED DEVICE

The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). "Think
of all the disadvantages of an old TV set with tubes," said Professor Leichardt, from the New
York-based institute, who co-authored a report into the technology. "The warm up time, power
loss, component malfunction; you don't get those problems with integrated devices. When you
transfer power from one component to another you lose energy. But you lose less energy in an
integrated device."

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

The battery contains carbon nanotubes, each about one millionth of a centimeter thick, which act
as an electrode. The nanotubes are embedded in a sheet of paper soaked in ionic liquid
electrolytes, which conduct the electricity.

 The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up, folded or cut.

Although the power output is currently modest, Professor Linhardt said that increasing the output
should be easy. "If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500 times the voltage. If we rip
the paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage issue." Because
the battery consists mainly of paper and carbon, it could be used to power pacemakers within the
body where conventional batteries pose a toxic threat. "I wouldn't want the ionic liquid
electrolytes in my body, but it works without them," said Professor Linhardt. "You can implant a
piece of paper in the body and blood would serve as an electrolyte." But Professor Daniel
Sparling at University of California, Davis, an expert on alternative power sources for transport,
is unconvinced.

MORE DEFFICULT

 "Batteries and capacitors are being steadily improved, but electricity storage is much
more difficult and expensive than liquid fuels and probably will be so forever," he said.
“The world is not going to change as a result of this new invention any time soon."
Professor Linhardt admitted that the new battery is still some way from the commercial
market.
 "The devices we're making are only a few inches across. We would have to scale up to
sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable," he said. But at that scale, the
voltage could be large enough to power a car, he said. However, carbon nanotubes are
very expensive, and batteries large enough to power a car are unlikely to be cost
effective. "I'm a strong enthusiast of electric vehicles, but it is going to take time to bring
the costs down," said Professor Sparling. But Professor Linhardt said integrated devices,
like the paper battery, were the direction the world was moving. "They are ultimately
easier to manufacture, more environmentally friendly and usable in a wide range of
devices," he said. The ambition is to produce the paper battery using a newspaper-type
roller printer.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

Stanford scientists create paper batteries that work when crumpled

Dip an ordinary piece of paper into ink infused with carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires, and
it turns into a battery or super capacitor. Crumple the piece of paper, and it still works. Stanford
researcher Yi Cui sees many uses for this new way of storing electricity.

BY JANELLE WEAVER

Stanford scientists are harnessing nanotechnology to quickly produce ultra-lightweight, bendable


batteries and super capacitors in the form of everyday paper. Simply coating a sheet of paper
with ink made of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires makes a highly conductive storage
device, said Yi Cui, assistant professor of materials science and engineering. “Society really
needs a low-cost, high-performance energy storage device, such as batteries and simple super
capacitors," he said. Like batteries, capacitors hold an electric charge, but for a shorter period of
time. However, capacitors can store and discharge electricity much more rapidly than a battery.
Cue’s work is reported in the paper "Highly Conductive Paper for Energy Storage Devices,"

"these nanomaterials are special," Cui said. "They're a one-dimensional structure with very small
diameters." The small diameter helps the nanomaterial ink stick strongly to the fibrous paper,
making the battery and super capacitor very durable. The paper super capacitor may last through
40,000 charge-discharge cycles – at least an order of magnitude more than lithium batteries. The
nanomaterial’s also make ideal conductors because they move electricity along much more
efficiently than ordinary conductors, Cui said.Cui had previously created nanomaterial energy
storage devices using plastics. His new research shows that a paper battery is more durable
because the ink adheres more strongly to paper (answering the question, "Paper or plastic?").
What's more, you can crumple or fold the paper battery, or even soak it in acidic or basic
solutions, and the performance does not degrade. "We just haven't tested what happens when you
burn it," he said. The flexibility of paper allows for many clever applications. "If I want to paint
my wall with a conducting energy storage device," Cui said, "I can use a brush." In his lab, he
demonstrated the battery to a visitor by connecting it to an LED (light-emitting diode), which
glowed brightly. A paper super capacitor may be especially useful for applications like electric

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

or hybrid cars, which depend on the quick transfer of electricity. The paper super capacitor’s
high surface-to-volume ratio gives it an advantage.

"This technology has potential to be commercialized within a short time," said Priding Yang,
professor of chemistry at the University of California-Berkeley. "I don't think it will be limited to
just energy storage devices," he said. "This is potentially a very nice, low-cost, flexible electrode
for any electrical device."

Cui predicts the biggest impact may be in large-scale storage of electricity on the distribution
grid. Excess electricity generated at night, for example, could be saved for peak-use periods
during the day. Wind farms and solar energy systems also may require storage."The most
important part of this paper is how a simple thing in daily life – paper – can be used as a
substrate to make functional conductive electrodes by a simple process," Yang said. "It's
nanotechnology related to daily life, essentially. “Cue’s research team includes postdoctoral
scholars Liangbing Hu and JangWook Choi, and graduate student Yuan Yang.

ADVANTAGES OF PAPER BATTERY

POWER

 High energy density means greater power in a smaller package.


 160% greater than NiMH
 220% greater than NiCd

HIGHER VOLTAGE

 A strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices.

LONG SHELF-LIFE-only 5% discharge loss per month.

 This battery will have to avoid the traditional metal batteries, lithium and alkaline
compounds leakage, Apple M8511 Battery environmentally sound, can be used as
general household waste to be addressed. Development Corporation, said the price of this

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

battery is also very cheap, and when to achieve mass production, the price of just one
cent.
 Enfucell CTO, Dr. Zhang Xiachang Chinese scientists is that the main developers of
paper battery. Zhangxia Chang said that the battery can be used as smart cards, musical
greeting cards and e-newspapers, power, and can be used in RFID (radio frequency
identification) tag. With the rapid development of RFID technology, the potential market
for such paper battery is expected to reach billions of dollars in the future.
 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by the United States, several scientists has developed out
of a thin piece of paper can be cut, to fold the light "paper battery" has recently attracted
attention. The researchers believe that, as this paper has many of the performance of the
battery, it will be a new type of energy storage devices. So, the new paper battery Apple
M8244 Battery how our lives will be affected? Its development of space in the end how
much? These topics may also have to be scientists to explore further.
 The unique properties of the new paper battery
 The same with the traditional battery, an integral part of the new battery also includes
electrodes, electrolyte and separators. Specifically, the new paper battery is implanted
electrodes and electrolyte composition of cellulose paper, cellulose paper, which serves
as a partition role. Electrodes are added in the carbon nanotubes and cellulose in the
cellulose film covering the lithium; the electrolyte is lithium hexafluorophosphate
solution. Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute United States is through the three
parts of the battery integrated into a thin piece of paper, paper made of this new type of
battery. Apple A1079 Battery.
 Studies have shown that 2 volts, the new paper battery can produce 10 mA per gram of
current. According to reports, this new addition to the production method of battery
innovation, but also has many important characteristics, such as flexibility. The new
paper battery as the main component is cellulose, so keeping some of the characteristics
of paper, with good flexibility. According to the experiment show that the battery is very
strong adaptability to temperature, -70 ℃ to 150 ℃ in the temperature range can be used
normally.
 Not replace current lithium batteries

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 Some reports say the new battery is expected to replace paper now commonly used in
consumer electronics products in the field of lithium batteries, experts are to be
interpreted?
 Harbin Institute of Technology School of Applied Chemistry Department Professor Sun
Kenning that each cell are based on the special needs of different design and invention.
Since different batteries have different characteristics, so a certain kind of battery cannot
be omnipotent, the new paper battery Apple A1078 Battery is no exception.
 New paper battery cells as a new concept; the use of outlook is definitely yes. However,
the paper published the battery from the current methods of production point of view, the
production of such paper batteries need high cost of production of carbon nanotubes, is
not suitable for mass production, so its usefulness is limited. Currently the new paper
battery could only be defined as a kind of exploratory research inventions. Due process
and other reasons, it is not a substitute for extensive use of other types of batteries, and
cannot market share in a short time.
 For notebook computers, mobile phones, digital cameras and even cars are ideal drive.
Because of plasticity, such batteries can even be made into the shape of the door. Micro-
medical devices in the drive (such as a pacemaker) has a incomparable advantage of other
cells. Currently, researchers are working to reduce the cost of paper, batteries, expect the
future to print newspapers, Apple A1148 Battery as did the use of printing technology
mass production of batteries.

DISADVANTAGES OF PAPER BATTERY

EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

DELICATE -- battery temp must be monitored from within (which raises the price), and sealed
particularly well.

REGULATIONS - when shipping Li-Ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price).

USES

The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded
within gives them their light weight and low cost, making them attractive for portable
electronics, aircraft, automobiles, and toys (such as model aircraft), while their ability to use
electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. The
medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials and can
be biodegradable; a major drawback of chemical cells.However, Professor Sparling cautions that
commercial applications may be a long way away, because nanotubes are still relatively
expensive to fabricate. Currently they are making devices a few inches in size. In order to be
commercially viable, they would like to be able to make them newspaper size; a size which,
taken all together would be powerful enough to power a car.

Battery Comparison

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

ENVEROMENTEL IMPACT OF PAPER BATTERIES

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

 Rechargeable batteries are often recyclable.


 Oxidized Lithium is non-toxic, and can be extracted from the battery, neutralized, and
used as feedstock for new Li-Ion batteries.

ENERGY USE FOR PRODUCTION AND RECYCLING

Table lists several key characteristics for the four selected types, including rough production and
recycling energy estimates for a 25-kWh battery (reasonable size for a small car). The data are
incomplete because technologies for recycling all of the materials have not yet been developed.
Where material composition and production data for several battery types were not readily
available, we made rough approximations in order to identify important contributions to energy
use for material production. Materials present in very small quantities or having very low
production energies were assumed not to be recycled. In spite of these shortcomings, we can
make some interesting observations. The most complete data were available for advanced Pb-
acid batteries. If the battery were made from all virgin materials, 76% of the energy would go to
Pb production and most of the rest to the polypropylene case. The energy to produce the battery
for a mini-compact car from virgin materials is approximately 17% of that required to produce
the rest of the car. However, production from recycled materials reduces the required energy by
more than a factor of four, and battery Pb and cases are already recycled to a great extent. Energy
to produce an 80% recycled battery pack would then represent less than 7% of the vehicle's
production energy. Requiring one or more replacement batteries would multiply that
contribution, but even if replacements were needed, this might be the least energy-intensive
battery to produce. This does not take into account extra vehicle mass required to support a
heavier battery, or extra energy to transport it over the vehicle's lifetime.

Although few data were available for the Na-S battery, several conclusions are possible. The
quantities of electrode material in this battery are relatively small, and sulfur production uses
little energy. The energy used in producing this type of battery will be dominated by that for
production of the ceramic electrolyte, steel cell cases, and thermal enclosure. Recycling these
items would offer some energy savings, but reuse would save essentially all of the production
energy. No method has been identified for recycling the electrolyte, which would not be
reusable. The cell cases would probably not be reusable, because of corrosion and because

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

dismantling might not leave them intact, but recycling is possible. The thermal enclosure could
probably be reused. The energy density of this battery type is the highest of those included in this
study. Therefore, less battery weight is required per pound of vehicle, and the relative
contribution of battery production to total vehicle production energy is reduced.Because the Ni-
Cd battery uses energy-intensive material inputs, it has a high energy requirement (about four
times that of the advanced Pb-acid battery). More than 80% of the energy is used to produce the
electrode materials. But this is based on assigning the energy intensity of Zn to Cd, a Zn by-
product, which may be inappropriate. The next-largest contribution is from the stainless steel
battery case, replaced by lighter plastics in some designs. Because this type of battery has a
relatively low energy density, the mass of battery material per unit vehicle mass is high, so it is
important, from an energy standpoint, to recycle the materials. Nickel recycling is possible, but
no energy estimate is available. Cadmium recycling is currently feasible and not very energy-
intensive, because Cd volatilizes at relatively low temperatures. Recycling of Cd alone could
save over one-third of the battery production energy. The Ni-Cd battery would require more than
90% as much energy to produce as would the remainder of a compact vehicle; therefore,
recycling is essential on energy grounds. Potential health hazards from Cd release are another
powerful driver to maintain a closed cycle.

Data for Ni-MH battery materials are hard to obtain, but some conclusions are possible. The Ni
electrode is similar to that in the Ni-Cd battery, meaning it is energy-intensive but recyclable.
Recycling of the metal hydrides is still at the research stage; little can be said except that
progress is being made. The plastic separator material is recyclable, and this improves the overall
energy picture. While this type of battery is relatively energy-intensive (approximately 75% as
energy-intensive as the Ni-Cd on an equal-mass basis), the energy density is considerably higher
than that of the Ni-Cd. Therefore, the overall contribution of Ni-MH battery production energy to
total vehicle energy is only about 60% that of the Ni-Cd. For a compact car, Ni-MH battery
production energy is about 45% of that for the rest of the vehicle. A lighter case would use less
energy. Recycling of the electrode materials could also reduce energy requirements.

This preliminary analysis allows us to focus additional effort on collecting data on those
materials that contribute significantly to battery production energy requirements and for which
older or approximate data were used. Examples include electrode materials for Ni-Cd and Ni-

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

MH batteries. The analysis also points to these materials as important targets for recycling
research to reduce the energy required to supply the batteries and identifies those batteries for
which replacement would mean a large energy penalty. It also identifies places where recycling
will not significantly reduce energy use, so reuse or perhaps substitution of a lighter design or a
less energy-intensive material is indicated.

Finally, energy use for battery production must be put into the perspective of the car's entire life
cycle. Over a lifetime of 100,000 mi, a 0.25-kWh/mi EV would use electricity that required 260
million Btu to generate (assuming 10,500 Btu/kWh). A similar, small conventional vehicle (CV)
getting 35 mpg on reformulated gasoline would consume about 320 million Btu of fuel. Thus,
even if the most energy-intensive battery design were used and not recycled, production energy
use would be less than 15% of the vehicle's lifetime fuel consumption.

PROCESS EMISSIONS

Pb is produced from sulfide ores by sintering, blast-furnace reduction, and refining. The primary
effluent, SO2, is recovered and used to produce sulfuric acid. Missouri accounts for 75% of
primary Pb production in the United States. Cadmium, produced in Colorado, Illinois,
Oklahoma, and Tennessee, is smelted from zinc sulfide ores. It is unclear how much of the
emissions should be attributed to Cd. Nickel is also smelted from a sulfide ore. The U.S. Bureau
of Mines estimates 8 tons of sulfur produced for each ton of Ni (3). Note that SO2 emissions from
primary Ni for electrodes occur where the material is smelted, overseas. In Canada, Inco has
attained compliance with emissions regulations, at great expense.

Lead compounds, such as oxides, are released as particulates during both primary and secondary
(recycling) Pb smelting operations and during battery manufacture and recycling. Control
systems are required in the United States. Secondary smelting and battery recycling, more
geographically spread out than primary production, may occur near population centers.
Currently, >90% of the Pb and oxides from batteries are recycled or exported. If scrap is
exported to Asia, smelters operating with less stringent (or no) pollution-control regulations
could have an economic advantage but cause severe local health effects.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

About 63% of the elemental sulfur consumed domestically is recovered as a by-product from
processing crude oil or natural gas, concentrated on the U.S. Gulf Coast; the rest is mined or
imported. Sulfur recovery has a positive impact on air quality, since the material would
otherwise contribute to emissions.

Particulates, including iron oxides, sulfur oxides, carbonaceous compounds, and chlorides, are
emitted at several stages of primary and secondary iron and steel production. These materials can
be captured in hoods or other systems and sent to a bughouse or, in some operations, suppressed.
Primary production is concentrated in a band from Pennsylvania to Illinois, near several major
population centers. Secondary production is more widely distributed, with mini-mills around the
country.

COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN PERSPECTIVE

Although the fuel mix for material production differs from the utility mix, emissions from fuel
combustion during battery production are much less important than those from electricity
generation. The most touted environmental advantage of EVs is supposed to be their air pollution
benefit. Utility emissions replace CV gasoline emissions. The utility emissions can be lower in
terms of grand totals than those of gasoline vehicles, or in terms of population exposure because
the power plants operate outside major population centers. The effect on power plant emissions
of the use of EVs in four metropolitan areas was analyzed. The areas varied by utility fuel mix as
well as other variables (e.g., climate). Both low and high EV market penetration scenarios were
evaluated. The utility analysis examined several different scenarios for charging, EV market
penetration, and plant dispatch.

Use of EVs might be expected always to lead to increases in air pollutants from utilities over a
base with no EVs, but the effect of adding capacity because of EV demand may in some cases
reduce utility emissions relative to the no-EV base. This result deserves some explanation. In the
utility analysis, when capacity is added, the power plant is the most economical size, rather than
only providing for the additional capacity required by EVs. Added units are cheaper and cleaner
than some existing units; as a result, new units may displace "dirtier" and more expensive units

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

in the dispatch order, so total emissions decrease relative to the base. Thus, in some cases,
marginal emissions are negative.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki


Seminar Report 2018- 19 Report on Paper Battery

REFERENCES
1. Gaines, L., and M. Singh, "Energy and Environmental Impacts of Electric Vehicle Battery
Production and Recycling," SAE Paper 951865, presented at the Total Life Cycle Conference,
Vienna, Austria, Oct. 16-19, 1995.

2. Sullivan, J.L., and J. Hu, "Life Cycle Energy Analysis for Automobiles," SAE Paper 951829,
presented at the Total Life Cycle Conference, Vienna, Austria, Oct. 16-19, 1995.

3. Kuck, P., Annual Report, Nickel 1992, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines,
1993.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki