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CONFIDENTIAL 4531/2
4531/2 Angka Giliran …..................................................................
PHYSICS
Paper 2 Identity Card No.: ……………………………………..….
August Name : ………………………………………………….…
2007
2 ½ hours College No. : ………………. Class : …………….

MAKTAB RENDAH SAINS MARA

SPM TRIAL EXAMINATION 2007

PHYSICS
Examiner’s Code
Paper 2
Section Question Marks Score
Two hours and thirty minutes
1 4
2 5
A
3 6
DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL
YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. 4 7
5 8
6 8

1. Write down your name, college no. and 7 10


class in the space provided. 8 12
2. The questions are written in English and 1 20
bahasa Malaysia. B
2 20
3. Candidates are required to read the 3 20
information on page 2 and 3. C
4 20
Total

This booklet consists of 28 printed pages


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4531/2 ©2007 Copyright Bahagian Pendidikan dan Latihan (Menengah) MARA CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL 2 4531/2

INFORMATION TO CANDIDATES
(MAKLUMAT UNTUK CALON)

1 This question paper consists of three sections: Section A, Section B and Section C.
(Kertas soalan ini mengandungi tiga bahagian: Bahagian A, Bahagian B dan Bahagian C.)

2 Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers for Section A in the spaces
provided in the question paper.
(Jawab semua soalan daripada Bahagian A. Jawapan kepada Bahagian A hendaklah ditulis dalam
ruang yang disediakan dalam kertas soalan.)

3 Answer one question from Section B and one question from Section C. Write your
answers for Section B and Section C on the paper provided by the invigilators. Answer
questions in Section B and Section C in detail. Answers should be clear and logical.
Equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and other suitable methods can be used to explain
your answer.
(Jawab satu soalan daripada Bahagian B dan satu soalan daripada Bahagian C. Jawapan kepada
Bahagian B dan Bahagian C hendaklah ditulis dalam kertas yang disediakan oleh pengawas
peperiksaani. Anda diminta menjawab dengan lebih terperinci untuk Bahagian B dan Bahagian C.
Jawapan mestilah jelas dan logik. Persamaan, gambar rajah, jadual, graf dan cara lain yang sesuai
untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda boleh digunakan.)

4 The diagrams in the questions provided are not drawn to scale unless stated.
(Rajah yang mengiringi soalan tidak dilukiskan mengikut skala kecuali dinyatakan.)

5 The marks allocated for each question or sub-section of a question are shown in
brackets.
(Markah yang diperuntukkan bagi setiap soalan atau ceraian soalan ditunjukkan dalam kurungan di
hujung setiap soalan atau ceraian soalan.)

6 If you wish to cancel any answer, neatly cross out the answer.
(Sekiranya anda hendak membatalkan sesuatu jawapan, buat garisan di atas jawapan itu.)

7 A list of formulae is provided on page 4 and page 5.


(Satu senarai rumus disediakan di halaman 4 dan halaman 5.)

8 You may use non-programmable scientific calculator. However, steps in calculation


must be shown.
(Anda dibenarkan menggunakan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogram. Walau bagaimanapun,
langkah mengira perlu ditunjukkan. )

9 The time suggested to complete Section A is 90 minutes, Section B is 30 minutes and


Section C is 30 minutes.
(Masa yang dicadangkan untuk menjawab Bahagian A ialah 90 minit, Bahagian B ialah 30 minit dan
Bahagian C ialah 30 minit.)

10 Attach all your answers together and hand them in at the end of the examination.
(Lekatkan semua kertas jawapan dan serahkan di akhir peperiksaan.)

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The following information may be useful. The symbols have their usual meaning.
(Maklumat berikut mungkin berfaedah. Simbol-simbol mempunyai makna yang biasa.)
s
1. v=
t
v−u
2. a=
t
3. v 2 = u 2 + 2as
1
4. s = ut + at 2
2
5. Momentum = mv
6. F = ma
1 2
7. Kinetic energy (Tenaga kinetik ) = mv
2
8. Potential energy (Tenaga keupayaan) = mgh
m
9. ρ=
V
F
10. Pressure (Tekanan ), P =
A
11. Presxsure (Tekanan), P = hρg
12. Heat (Haba), Q = mcθ
pV
13. = constant (pemalar )
T
14. v = fλ
15. Power (Kuasa), P = Energy (tenaga)
Time (masa)
1 1 1
16. = +
f u v
v
17. m=
u
sin i
18. n=
sin r
19. Q = It
20. V = IR
21. Power (Kuasa), P = IV
22. g = 10 m s -1
23. Atmospheric pressure at sea level (Tekanan atmosfera pada aras laut) = 1 x 10 5 Pa

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Section A
Bahagian A

[ 60 marks /60 markah]


Answer all questions
Jawab semua soalan
You are advised to spend 90 minutes on this section
Anda dinasihatkan memperuntukkan 90 minit untuk bahagian ini

For 1 Figure 1.1 shows a measuring cylinder.


Examiner’s Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan sebuah silinder penyuka.
Use
7 cm3

Measuring cylinder
3 Silinder penyukat
6 cm
Water
Air

FIGURE 1.1 / RAJAH 1.1

1(a) (a) What is the physical quantity measured by the measuring cylinder?
Apakah kuantiti fizik yang disukat oleh silinder penyukat?

….…………………………………………………………………………....
[1 mark ]
1(b) (b) Mark ( ) the correct position for the eyes when taking the reading
on Figure 1.1.
Tandakan ( ) kedudukan mata yang betul ketika mengambil bacaan pada Rajah
1.1
[1 mark ]
1(c) (c) State the smallest division on the scale.
Nyatakan nilai senggatan terkecil skala itu.

….………………………………………………………………………......…
[ 1 mark ]
1(d) (d) What is the reading of the measuring cylinder ?
Apakah bacaan pada silinder penyukat?

Total ...........................................................................................................................
[ 1 mark ]

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2 Figure 2.1 shows an experimental set-up where a ticker timer is used to study the
For
type of motion for a trolley moving down a friction-compensated runway. The Examiner’s
frequency of the ticker timer is 50 Hz. Use
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan sususan radas di mana satu jangka masa detik digunakan untuk mengkaji
jenis gerakan sebuah troli yang bergerak menuruni landasan terpampas geseran. Frekuensi
jangkamasa detik ialah 50 Hz.

Ticker timer
Jangka masa detik
Trolley
Ticker tape Ttroli
Pita detik
Friction-compensated runway
Landasan terpampas geseran

Wooden block
Bungkah kayu

Power supply
Pembekal kuasa FIGURE 2.1 /RAJAH 2.1

(a) State the type of current used by the ticker timer. 2(a)
Nyatakan jenis arus yng digunakan oleh jangka masa detik.

………………………………………..………………………………………
[1 mark ]

(b) Figure 2.2 shows a strip of ticker tape obtained from the motion of the
trolley.
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan satu keratan pita detik yang dihasilkan oleh gerakan troli tersebut.

direction of motion
arah gerakan

5 cm

FIGURE 2.2 /RAJAH 2.2

(i) What is the time interval between two consecutive dots? 2(b)(i)
Apakah sela masa di antara 2 titik berturutan ?

…………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark ]

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Examiner’s
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(ii) State the type of motion of the trolley.


Nyatakan jenis gerakan troli.

……………………………………………………………..………....
2(b)(ii) [1 mark ]

(iii) Calculate the velocity of the trolley.


Kirakan halaju troli itu.
2(b)(iii)

Total

[2 marks ]

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3 Figure 3 shows a student pulling a bag with a force F of 120 N.


For
Rajah 3 menunjukkan seorang pelajar sedang menarik sebuah beg dengan daya F , 120 N.
Examiner’s
Use

30º

FIGURE 3 /RAJAH 3

(a) What is meant by force?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan daya ?
3(a)
............….……………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark ]

(b) On Figure 3 , mark and label the horizontal component Fx and the vertical
component Fy . of the force F.
Pada Rajah 3, tanda dan labelkan komponen daya mengufuk, Fx dan komponen daya
3(b)
menegak, Fy. untuk daya F.

[ 1 mark ]

(c) Calculate the magnitude of Fx and Fy.


Hitungkan magnitud Fx dan Fy .
3(c)(i)
(i) Fx

(ii) Fy.

3(c)(ii)

Total

[ 4 marks ]
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For 4 Figure 4 shows a circuit which consists of several logic gates .


Examiner’s Rajah 4 menunjukkan sebuah litar yang mengandungi beberapa get logik
Use

A
P

Q C

X
B

FIGURE 4 /RAJAH 4

(a) (i) Name the logic gates labeled P and Q.


Namakan get logik yang berlabel P dan Q.
4(a)(i)
P : .......................................................................................................

Q : ......................................................................................................
[ 2 marks]
(ii) State the function of logic gate X.
4(a)(ii) Nyatakan fungsi get logik X.

………………………………………………………………………
1 mark ].

(b) (i) Based on Figure 4 , complete the Truth Table below.


Berdasarkan pada Rajah 4, lengkapkan Jadual Kebenaran di bawah.

Input Output
4(b)(i) A B C
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

Truth Table /Jadual Kebenaran

[ 3 marks ]

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(ii) Draw the symbol of the logic gate which is equivalent to output C. For
Lukis symbol get logik yang setara dengan output C. Examiner’s
Use

4(b)(ii)

Total

[ 1 mark ]

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For 5 Figures 5.1 and 5.2 represent the radioactive decay of radium-226 and carbon-14
Examiner’s respectively.
Use Rajah 5.1 dan 5.2 masing-masing mewakili pereputan radioaktif bagi unsur radium-226 dan
karbon-14.

Ra Rn + He + Energy

226.025406 a.m.u 222.017574 a.m.u 4.002603 a.m.u 7.81 x 10 -13 J


u.j.a. u.j.a. u.j.a.

FIGURE 5.1 /RAJAH 5.1

C N + Beta particle + Energy


zarah Beta Tenaga

14.003242 a.m.u 14.003074 a.m.u Negligible mass 2.51 x 10 -14 J


u.j.a. u.j.a. Jisim amat kecil

FIGURE 5.2 /RAJAH 5.2

5(a)(i) (a) (i) Why does the parent nuclide decay?


Mengapakah nukleus unsur asal mereput?

…………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark ]

5(a)(ii) (ii) Compare the total mass in a. m. u. before and after the decay process.
Bandingkan jumlah jisim dalam u. j. a. sebelum dan selepas proses reputan berlaku.

.................................................................................................................
[1 mark ]

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(iii) Explain the reason for the observation in 5 (a) (ii). For
Nyatakan sebab untuk pemerhatian 5 (a)(ii). Examiner’s
Use
.................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
5(a)(iii)

(iv) Write an equation to show the relationship between mass defect, m,


speed of light, c and energy, E.
Tuliskan satu persamaan untuk menunjukkan hubungan antara cacat jisim, m,
halaju cahaya, c dan tenaga, E. 5(a)(iv)
.................................................................................................................
[1mark ]

(v) State the relationship between the mass defect and the energy
released.
Nyatakan hubungan di antara cacat jisim dengan tenaga yang dibebaskan.
5(a)(v)
.................................................................................................................
[1mark ]

(b) The half-lifes of radium-226 and carbon-14 are 1 600 years and 5 600 years
respectively.
Setengah hayat bagi radium-226 dan karbon-14 ialah masing-masing 1600 tahun dan 5 600
tahun.

(i) What is meant by half-life?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan separuh hayat?
5(b)(i)
.................................................................................................................
[1mark]

(ii) Which radioactive material will decay at a faster rate? Explain your
answer.
Unsur radioaktif yang manakah yang mereput pada kadar yang lebih
tinggi ? Terangkan jawapan anda.

…………………………………………………………………….....… 5(b)(ii)

…………………………………………………………………….....…
[2 marks ]

Total

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For 6 In Figure 6.1(a), a boy kicks an inflated ball and the ball stops at A.
Examiner’s In Figure 6.1(b), the boy kicks a deflated ball with the same impulse and the ball
Use stops at B.
Rajah 6.1(a) menunjukkan seorang budak menendang sebuah bola yang keras dan bola itu berhenti
di A..
Rajah 6.1(b) menunjukkan budak itu menendang bola yang lembik dengan mengenakan impuls yang
sama dan bola itu berhenti di B.

O A
FIGURE 6.1(a) /RAJAH 6.1(a)

O B
FIGURE 6.1(b) /RAJAH 6.1(b)

What is meant by impulse?


6(a) (a) Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan impuls?

…………………………………………………………………………….........
[1 mark ]

6(b) (b) State one observation about the distances travelled by the ball OA and OB.
Nyatakan satu pemerhatian tentang jarak gerakan bola OA dan OB.

……………………………………………………………………………........

[1 mark ]

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(c) (i) Name the type of force that acts on the ball while it is being kicked. For
Namakan daya yang bertindak ke atas bola ketika ianya ditendang.. Examiner’s
Use
…………………………………………………………………..…… 6(c)(i)
[1 mark ]

(ii) Compare the time of impact between the foot and the ball in Figures
6.1(a) and 6.1(b).
Bandingkan masa tindakbalas di antara kaki dan bola bagi Rajah 6.1(a) dan
Rajah 6.1(b). 6(c)(ii)
………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark ]
(iii) State the relationship between the time of impact and the force stated
in 6(c)(i).
Nyatakan hubungan di antara masa tindakbalas dan daya yang dinyatakan dalam
6(c)(i). 6(c)(iii)
..............................................................................................................
[1 mark ]

(iv) Suggest one way to increase the distance OB in Figure 6.1 (b).
Cadangkan satu cara untuk menambah jarak OB dalam Rajah 6.1(b).

6(c)(iv)
………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark ]

(d) Why is a soft mattress placed on the landing area in the high jump event?
Explain your answer.
Mengapakah sebuah tilam yang lembut diletakkan di tempat mendarat dalam acara lompat
tinggi? Jelaskan jawapan anda. 6(d)

……………………………………………………………………………......

……………………………………………………………………………......
[2 marks ]
Total

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For 7 Figure 7.1 shows water waves approaching a barrier in a ripple tank. The
Examiner’s frequency of the vibrator is 25 Hz.
Use Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan gelombang air menuju satu penghadang dalam sebuah tangki riak.
Frekuensi penggetar ialah 25Hz.

Barrier
Penghadang
FIGURE 7.1 /RAJAH 7.1

(a) (i) In Figure 7.1, draw the waves and its direction of propagation after it
7(a)(i) hits the barrier.
Dalam Rajah 7.1, lukiskan gelombang serta arah perambatannya setelah terkena
penghadang..
[ 2 marks ]
(ii) Compare the wavelength and speed of the waves before and after it
7(a)(ii) hits the barrier.
Bandingkan panjang gelombang dan laju gelombang selepas terkena
penghadang.

................................................................................................................
[ 1 mark ]
(b) Traditional fishermen often have difficulties to detect shoals of fish. To
overcome this problem, they use a modern technology to locate the shoals of
fish.
Nelayan tradisi menghadapi kesukaran untuk mengesan kumpulan ikan. Untuk mengatasi
masalah ini, mereka menggunakan satu kaedah moden untuk mengesan kumpulan ikan.

(i) Name one modern technology which fishermen use to detect shoals
7(b)(i) of fish.
Namakan satu teknologi moden yang nelayan gunakan mengatasi masalah ini.

................................................................................................................
[1 mark ]
(ii) State two reasons why this technology is used instead of conventional
sound waves.
Nyatakan dua sebab mengapa technologi ini digunakan dan bukannya gelombang
bunyi biasa.

……………………………………………………………………………………….…

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[ 2 marks ]

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(iii) Explain the technique used by this technology to detect a shoal of fish. For
Terangkan kaedah yang digunakan oleh teknologi ini untuk mengesan kumpulan ikan. Examiner’s
Use
......................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................... 7(b)(iii)

......................................................................................................................
[ 2 marks ]

Figure 7.2 shows the trace displayed on the screen of a cathode ray
oscilloscope. A pulse is transmitted from a boat into the water to detect
the presence of fish shoals.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan surihan pada skrin sebuah osiloskop sinar katod. Satu denyutan
dihantar dari sebuah bot untuk mengesan kumpulan ikan.

Transmitted pulse Reflected pulse


Denyutan yang Denyutan pantulan
dipancarkan

6 cm

FIGURE 7.2 /RAJAH 7.2

(iv) The time base of the oscilloscope in Figure 7.2 is set at 0.4 s cm-1 and the
speed of sound in water is 1 200 m s-1.
Calculate the distance between the boat and the shoal of fish.
Dasar masa bagi osiloskop dalam Rajah 7.2 disetkan pada 0.4 s cm-1 dan laju
bunyi dalam air ialah 1 200 m s-1.
Hitungkan jarak di antara bot dengan kumpulan ikan.

7(b)(iv)

Total

[ 2 marks ]

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8 Figure 8.1 shows a liquid column XY supporting an object of mass 1 kg on a light


For piston.
Examiner’s
Use Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan satu turus cecair XY menyokong satu objek berjisim 1 kg di atas sebuah
omboh yang ringan.

0.5 m
1 kg
Piston Y
Omboh

Liquid
Cecair

FIGURE 8.1 /RAJAH 8.1

8(a)(i) (a) (i) Why is liquid used in this system instead of gas?
Mengapakah cecair bukan gas yang digunakan dalam sistem ini?

………………………………………………………………....………
[1 mark ]
8(a)(ii) (ii) If the density of the liquid is 800 kg m-3, calculate the liquid pressure
at Y.
Jika ketumpatan cecair adalah 800 kg m-3, hitungkan tekanan cecair di Y.

[ 2 marks ]
8(a)(iii) (iii) What is the magnitude of pressure acting on the piston?
Berapakah magnitud tekanan yang bertindak ke atas omboh?

..........................................................................................................................
[1 mark ]

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(iv) State the change in pressure, if any, when a wider XY tube is used. For
Explain your answer. Examiner’s
Nyatakan perubahan pada tekanan , jika ada, apabila tiub XY yang lebih lebar Use
digunakan.Terangkan jawapan anda.

…………………………………………………………………………………………. 8(a)(iv)
................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................
[2 marks ]

The system in Figures 8.2 and 8.3 can be used to lift vehicles.
When valve A is opened, valve B is closed and highly compressed air from the
compressor exerts a force on the input piston.
Sistem pada rajah 8.2 dan 8.3 boleh digunakan untuk mengangkat kenderaan.
Apabila injap A dibuka, injap B ditutup dan udara yang termampat dari pemampat mengenakan
daya terhadap omboh input.
Output piston /Omboh output
Compressor Area/Luas = 2 x 10 3 cm2
Pemampat
valve A valve B
injap A injap B

Compressed air
Udara termampat
Liquid
Cecair

Input piston /Omboh input


Area/Luas = 1 x 10 2 cm2
FIGURE 8.2 /RAJAH 8.2

Output piston
Area = 4 x 10 3 cm2
Compressor

valve A valve B

Compressed air

Liquid

Input piston
Area = 1 x 10 2 cm2

FIGURE 8.3 /RAJAH 8.3

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For (b) The compressed air exerts a maximum force of 500 N on the input piston
Examiner’s of both hydraulic lifts in Figure 8.2 and 8.3.
Use Udara yang termampat mengenakan daya maksimum 500 N terhadap omboh input untuk
kedua-dua pengangkat hidraulik pada Rajah 8.2 dan 8.3.

(i) Calculate the pressure acting on the input piston in Figure 8.2.
Hitungkan tekanan yang bertindak pada omboh input pada Rajah 8.2.

8(b)(i)

[2 marks ]

(ii) Calculate the forces acting at the output piston for both hydraulic
lifts.
Hitungkan daya yang bertindak pada omboh output pada kedua-dua pengangkat
hidraulik.

8(b)(ii)

[ 2 marks ]
(iii) Based on your answers in 8(b)(ii), which is the more suitable
hydraulic lift to raise a van of mass 1800 kg ?
Berdasarkan jawapan anda pada 8(b)(ii), pengangkat hidraulik yang
8(b)(iii) manakah yang lebih sesuai untuk mengangkat sebuah van berjisim1800
kg?

…………………………………………………………..………....
[1 mark ]

(c) Explain how the vehicle can be lowered down, after the repair work is
done.
8(c)
Terangkan bagaimana kenderaan tersebut dapat diturunkan setelah kerja
membaiki siap dijalankan.
Total ……………………………………………………………………….........…
[1 mark ]

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Section B
Bahagian B

[20 marks /20 markah]

Answer any one question


Jawab mana-mana satu soalan

9 (a) Figures 9.1 and 9.2 show two types of metal block of the same mass
being heated using similar heaters for 10 minutes. Both metal blocks have
the same initial temperatures of 30 oC. The specific heat capacity of copper
is 387 J kg-1 oC -1 and 900 J kg-1 oC -1 for aluminium.
Rajah 9.1 dan 9.2 menunjukkan dua jenis logam yang sama jisim dipanaskan selama 10
minit menggunakan pemanas yang serupa. Kedua- dua bungkah logam tersebut
mempunyai suhu awal 30 oC. Muatan haba tentu bagi kuprum ialah 387 J kg-1 o C -1 dan
900 J kg-1 oC -1 bagi aluminium .

FIGURE 9.1 /RAJAH 9.1

FIGURE 9.2 /RAJAH 9.2


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(i) “The specific heat capacity of copper is 387 J kg-1 oC-1”?


What is meant by the statement above?
“Muatan haba tentu bagi kuprum ialah 387 J kg-1 oC –1”
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pernyataan diatas?
[1 mark ]

(ii) Using Figures 9.1 and 9.2, compare the increase in temperature and
the specific heat capacity of the metals used.
Relating the heat supplied, the heat absorbed and the specific heat
capacity of the metals, deduce a relevant physics concept.
Menggunakan Rajah 9.1 and 9.2, bandingkan kenaikan suhu kedua dua bahan itu
dengan muatan haba tentu bahan tersebut .
Hubungkaitkan antara haba dibekalkan, haba diserap oleh bahan dan muatan
haba tentu bahan itu untuk menyimpulkan satu konsep fizik yang sesuai
[5 marks ]

(iii) Name the physics principle that explains the above situation.
Namakan prinsip fizik yang menerangkan situasi di atas.
[1 mark ]

(b) A student standing near the beach could feel the cool breeze from the sea
on a hot day.
Explain how the cool breeze from the sea occurs.
Seorang pelajar yang berdiri di tepi pantai dapat merasai tiupan bayu sejuk dari laut
walau pun hari sangat panas.
Terangkan bagaimana tiupan bayu sejuk dari laut itu berlaku.
[3 marks ]

(c) A parachutist intends to jump in the Artic region where the temperature
ranges from – 72oC to 0oC. He needs to measure the daily temperature of
the region where he will be doing his jump by using a liquid-in-glass
thermometer.
Seorang ahli payung terjun akan membuat terjunan di kawasan Artik di mana julat
suhunya ialah dari – 72oC hingga 0oC. Dia perlu mengukur suhu harian di kawasan
terjunan dengan menggunakan sebuah termometer cecair dalam kaca.

(i) State two suitable characteristics for the liquid used in the
thermometer and explain your answer.
Nyatakan dua ciri – ciri cecair yang sesuai digunakan dalam termometer
tersebut dan jelaskan jawapan anda.
[4 marks ]

(ii) Explain three other important characteristics in building the


thermometer.
Terangkan tiga ciri-ciri penting yang lain untuk membina termometer tersebut)
[6 marks ]

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10 Figure 10.1 shows a magnet placed on a stationary trolley. Figure 10.1(a) is


the situation when the trolley is stationary while Figure 10.1(b) is the situation
when the trolley is moving into the solenoid.
Figure 10.2(a) shows a conductor which is stationary in the magnetic field
while Figure 10.2(b) shows the conductor being moved downwards in the
magnetic field.
Rajah 10.1 (a) menunjukkan sebatang magnet diletakkan di atas troliyang pegun. manakala
Rajah 10.1(b) adalah keadaan ketika troli bergerak ke arah solenoid.
Rajah 10.2(a) menunjukkan sebatang konduktor berada dalam keadaan pegun dalam medan
magnet manakala Rajah 10.2(b) menunjukkan konduktor sedang ditolak ke bawah dalam
medan magnet.

Centre-zero galvanometer Centre-zero galvanometer


Galvanometer sifar tengah Galvanometer sifar tengah

(a) (b)
FIGURE 10.1/RAJAH 10.1

N N
S S

Centre-zero galvanometer Centre-zero galvanometer


Galvanometer sifar tengah Galvanometer sifar tengah

(a) (b)
FIGURE 10.2 /RAJAH 10.2

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(a) (i) What is meant by magnetic field?


Apakah yang di maksudkan dengan medan magnet?
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) Observe Figures 10.1 and 10.2, compare the galvanometer


readings when there is no relative motion between the magnet and
the conductor and when there is relative motion between them.
Hence relate the current and the relative motion between the
conductor and the magnetic field to deduce a physics concept.
Name the physics concept that explains the above situation.
Perhatikan Rajah 10.1 dan 10.2, bandingkan bacaan galvanometer bila tiada
gerakan relatif di antara magnet dan konduktor dan bila ada gerakan relatif di
antaranya.
Seterusnya hubungkaitkan antara arus dengan gerakan relatif antara konduktor
dan medan magnet untuk membuat satu kesimpulan tentang satu konsep fizik.)
(Namakan konsep fizik yang berkaitan dengan pemerhatian di atas.
[ 5 marks ]

(b) Compare the structures, direction of current and changes in energy forms
between a direct current generator and an alternating current generator.
Bandingkan struktur binaan, arah arus dan pertukaran bentuk tenaga di antara penjana
arus terus dan penjana arus ulangalik.
[ 4 marks ]

(c) You are given two coils R and S, with 50 and 100 turns respectively, an
iron core and a 240V a.c. power supply. All the materials are used to build
a simple transformer.
Anda dibekalkan dua gegelung R dan S, masing-masing dengan bilangan lilitan 50 dan
100, satu teras besi dan bekalan kuasa arus ulangalik 240V. Semua bahan adalah untuk
digunakan dalam membina sebuah transformer ringkas.

(i) Using all the materials supplied and with the aid of a labeled
diagram(s), explain how you are going to build a simple step-up
transformer.
Menggunakan semua bahan yang dibekalkan dan dengan bantuan rajah berlabel,
terangkan bagaimana anda akan membina sebuah transformer injak naik yang
ringkas
[ 4 marks ]

(ii) Suggest modifications that need to be done to the transformer to


increase its efficiency.
Cadangkan modifikasi yang perlu dibuat pada transformer untuk meningkatkan
kecekapannya.
[ 6 marks ]

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Section C
Bahagian C

[20 marks /20 markah]


Answer any one question
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan

11 (a) Figure 11.1 shows the top view position of a car driver, the car’s side
mirror and the front of a lorry which is overtaking the car.
Rajah 11.1 menunjukkan pandangan atas kedudukan seorang pemandu kereta, cermin
sisi dan bahagian depan lori yang sedang memotong kereta tersebut.

Side mirror
Cermin sisi

Car driver
Pemandu kereta

Front of the lorry


Bahagian depan lori

FIGURE 11.1 (RAJAH 11.1)

(i) Name the type of mirror used for the side mirror in Figure 11.1.
Namakan jenis cermin yang digunakan sebagai cermin sisi dalam Rajah 11.1.
[ 1 marks ]
(ii) Explain why the mirror in Figure 11.1 is used instead of other
types of mirror.
Terangkan mengapakah cermin ini digunakan dalam Rajah 11.1 dan bukannya
dari jenis cermin lain.
[ 3 marks ]
(iii) The focal length of the side mirror in Figure 11.1 is 5 cm. An
object with a height of 3 cm is placed 6 cm in front of the mirror.
Using a scale of 1:1, draw a ray diagram to show how the image
of the object is formed.
Panjang fokus cermin sisi dalam Rajah 11.1 ialah 5 cm. Satu objek yang
tingginya 3 cm diletakkan 6 cm di hadapan cermin tersebut.
Dengan menggunakan skala 1: 1, lukiskan gambarajah sinar untuk
menunjukkan bagaimana imej objek terbentuk.
[ 2 marks ]
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(b) You are asked to investigate the features of optical fibers for the design of an
endoscope for medical imaging. Figure 11.2 below shows the parts of an
optical fibre.
Anda dikehendaki menyiasat ciri-ciri serabut optik dalam rekabentuk satu endoskop untuk
‘imaging’ atau penyurihan dalam perubatan.. Rajah 11.2 di bawah menunjukkan bahagian-
bahagian gentian optik.

Outer cladding
Lapisan luar

Inner core of optical fibre


Teras gentian optik

FIGURE 11.2 (RAJAH 11/2)

Optical Refractive Index Diameter of fibre (mm)


Fibre of Outer Refractive Index Flexibility Diamater gentian (mm)
Cladding of Inner Core Kelenturan
Indeks biasan Indeks biasan teras
lapaisan luar

P 1.5 1.6 High 1.00

Q 1.6 1.5 Low 1.00

R 1.5 1.6 High 0.01

S 1.6 1.5 Low 0.01

(i) Based on the Table above, explain the suitable features of the
optical fibres and then determine the most suitable optical fibre
that can be used to design the endoscope. Give reasons for your
choice.
Berdasarkan Jadual di atas, terangkan ciri- ciri serabut optik dan tentukan
serabut optik yang paling sesuai digunakan untuk mereka cipta sebuah
endoskop. Berikan sebab bagi pilihan anda.
[ 8 marks ]

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(ii) Figure 11.3 shows an endoscope. At the two ends of the


endoscope are two lenses. One is the objective lens, the other is
the eye piece.
Rajah 11.3 menunjukkan satu endoskop. Di hujung endoskop tersebut terdapat
dua kanta. Satu kanta objek dan satu lagi kanta mata.

Eye piece
Kanta mata
Objective lens
Kanta objektif

Optical fibres
Gentian optik

Light from light source


Cahaya dari satu sumber cahaya

FIGURE 11.3 (RAJAH 11.3)

State the function of the two lenses.


Nyatakan fungsi kedua- dua kanta tersebut.
[ 2 marks ]

(c) An object is placed 30 cm from a convex lens of focal length 10 cm.


Satu objek diletakkan 30 cm dari satu kanta cembung yang mempunyai panjang fokus
10 cm.

(i) Calculate the image distance.


Hitungkan jarak ime.

(ii) Calculate the linear magnification for the image.


Hitungkan pembesaran linear imej.

[ 5 marks ]

[Turn over

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12 (a) Figure 12.1(a) shows a filament light bulb labelled “240 V, 100 W ”.
Figure 12.1 (b) shows a graph of potential difference against current for
two materials, P and Q. One of the materials will be chosen as filament in a
bulb.
Rajah 12.1(a) menunjukkan sebiji mentol berfilamen dilabelkan “240 V, 100 W ”.
Rajah 12.1(b) menunjukkan graf beza upaya melawan arus bagi dua bahan, P dan Q.
Satu bahan yang sesuai akan dipilih sebagai filamen sebiji mentol.

Potential difference
Filament Beza keupayaan
Filamen Material P
Bahan P
240 V 100 W
Material Q
Bahan Q

Current
Arus
(a)
(b)

FIGURE 12.1 /RAJAH 12.1

(i) What is meant by 240 V, 100W?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan “240 V, 100W”?
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) Based on the graph in Figure 12.1(b), compare the resistance of


materials P and Q. Choose the more suitable material to be used as
filament of the bulb. Explain your choice.
Berdasarkan graf, dalam Rajah 12.1(b), bandingkan rintangan bahan P dan Q.
Pilih bahan yang sesuai untuk dijadikan filament mentol tersebut. Terangkan
jawapan anda.
[ 4 marks ]

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(b) The National Grid Network is a network of overhead cables supported on


pylons as shown in Figure 12.2.
Jaringan Grid Nasional ialah satu rangkaian jaringan kabel penghantaran yang
disokong oleh pilon seperti yang ditunjuk dalam Rajah 12.2.

Cable
Kabel

Pylon Light industries


Pilon (Industri ringan)

FIGURE 12.2 (RAJAH 12.2)

Table 12.1 shows the properties of cables A, B, C and D which have the
same diameter and length to be used as overhead transmission cables.
Rajah 12.1 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi kabel A, B, C dan D yang mempunyai diameter dan
panjang yang sama dan akan digunakan sebagai kabel penghantaran.

Properties Voltage Melting


Ciri Density Across Cable Resistance
Cable Ketumpatan
Point Rintangan
Beza Keupayaan
Takat Lebur
Kabel ( g cm-3) Merentasi Kabel o ( Ω)
(kV) ( C)
A 7.86 132 735 Low
B 11.90 33 900 Low
C 15.40 132 327 High
D 3.74 33 650 High

TABLE 12.1 /JADUAL 12.)

(i) Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the cable to be used


as the overhead transmission cables.
Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri ciri kabel yang akan digunakan sebagai kabel
penghantaran.

(ii) Then determine the most suitable cable and justify your choice.
Seterusnya tentukan kabel yang paling sesuai dan berikan sebab bagi pilihan
anda.
[ 10 marks ]

[Turn over

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(c) Figure 12.3 shows a circuit which consists of dry cells, an ammeter and two
light bulbs connected in parallel.
Rajah 12.3 menunjukkan sebuah litar yang mengandungi sel kering, ammeter dan dua
mentol yang disambung secara selari.

6W, 6V 12W, 6V 6V

FIGURE 12.3 /RAJAH 12.3

When both bulbs light up with normal brightness, calculate:


Jika kedua dua mentol menyala dengan kecerahan normal, hitungkan:

(i) the current flowing through the ammeter.


arus yang melalui ammeter

(ii) the energy dissipated through the 6W, 6V bulb in 20 seconds.


tenaga dibebaskan melalui mentol 6W, 6V dalam masa 20 saat.
[ 5 marks ]

END OF QUESTION PAPER


(KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT)

4531/2 CONFIDENTIAL

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