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2018/11/28

TEST YOURSELVES.

Do you know what happened on ANSWER:


APRIL 14, 1912? The Sinking of the RMS Titanic
• This event was made into a top-
grossing movie in 1997.
• “I’d like you to draw me like one
of your French girls.”
THE EVOLUTION
OF TRADITIONAL MEDIA AND INFORMATION

TO NEW MEDIA LITERACY

The sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 14, 1912,


was one of deadliest maritime disasters in history,
which claimed about 1,500 lives. WOODGROVE 2
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TEST YOURSELVES. TEST YOURSELVES:

If the RMS Titanic sank in the ANSWER: What possible things could happen if the Titanic sank today?
Atlantic Ocean, how did the news Messages/Distress Signal from
reached the people in England the sinking ship were sent using a
and in New York at that time? telegraph, which is the fastest
means of communication that
• A device which is tapped using a time.
finger and generates codes.

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2018/11/28

MEDIA IN THE PREHISTORIC AGE


Imagine that you lived in the pre-historic age. What image is formed in your mind?

PRE-HISTORIC
HISTORY OF MEDIA refers to the time before
The History of Media can be the existence of written
divided into four parts: or recorded history.
➢The period occurred some
➢Prehistoric/Pre-industrial Age 4.5 million years ago or
approximately 30,000 years
➢Industrial Age ago.
➢Electronic Age ➢This era is divided into two
➢Digital/Information Age periods: Stone Age and
WOODGROVE
Metal Age. WOODGROVE
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MEDIA IN THE PREHISTORIC AGE PREHISTORIC/PRE-INDUSTRIAL AGE


Cave paintings Woodblock Printing
(Chauvet, Southern With the discovery of
(from the
the papyrus by
Oral Tradition France)
ancient Egyptians, and
Chinese/Korean)
shows that as humans,
➢It is considered as the ancestor of information we have this basic
other forms of writing Considered as the
tools, this eventually Precursor of the
and communication flow. tendency to record what led to the advent of Movable Type Printing
goes on around us. paper. Press
➢There is no concrete system of writing during
this age so people communicate by their way (35000 BC) (2500 BC) (220 AD)
of life, beliefs, and other practices.
➢A system of writing had not yet existed. As (130 BC)
(2400 BC)
prehistoric men learned how to sharpen their
tools and use them for hunting, they also Clay Tablets Acta Diurna (Rome)
acquired the knowledge on how to use these (Mesopotamia) (trans. “Daily Acts)
materials in carving stones. Most famous Example: Sometimes called as
Code of Hammurabi, Acta Popidi or Acta
➢This paved the way for them to create a which proved the Publica, these are
system of writing. existence of an early thought to be the first
WOODGROVE 7 legal system daily gazettes. WOODGROVE
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MEDIA IN THE INDUSTRIAL AGE INDUSTRIAL AGE


Movable Type Printing William Coke and and
Press The first partially Charles Wheatstone - the
successful photograph of first commercial electric
Johannes Gutenberg took a camera image was telegraph.
inspiration from the made by Joseph Electric telegraph by
woodblock printing from Nicéphore Niépce by the Samuel Morse - allowed
the Chinese and Korean, use of the device called the rapid transfer of
and this made books as camera obscura. messages via wires and
easier to produce. cables.
1453 1816 1844

1590s 1835
First Newspaper Daguerreotype
• Also called as the Industrial Revolution, this era began in 18th Century
Scholars disagree as Louis-Jaques-Mandé
in Great Britain when the country made drastic reforms to improve their Daguerre captured
to which was the first
economy. newspaper. The images in flat copper
plate sheets, and this was
• During this period, technology shifted from hand tools to operating London Gazette was considered the precursor
first published in of the modern-day
power-driven machines. WOODGROVE 9 1640. Polaroid.
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INDUSTRIAL AGE MEDIA IN THE ELECTRONIC AGE


Telephone Motion Picture
The Gramophone by Auguste and Louis
Alexander Graham Emile Berliner Lumiere were credited for
Bell won the patent for
the first telephone, Played back music the first commercial • Electronic refers to an object
recorded on flat discs or screening of a film. The
which included both a records. The modern following year, they that has electronic
transmitter and a turntable was invented by opened the first theater components, such as sensors
receiver. dedicated to screening
Elridge Johnson. films called the cinema. and microchips, which
1876 1887 1895 functions once it is connected
to an electrical outlet.
• The Industrial Age and the
1877 1888 Electronic Age are quite
The phonograph First Kodak Camera similar in the sense that they
An experiment of George Eastman thrived in the manufacturing
recording sound and invented the use of the industries in a faster and more
music by Thomas first easy-to-use
handheld camera, which efficient way with the help of
Edison
made photography equipment that are operated
accessible to the masses.
WOODGROVE by machines. WOODGROVE 12
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ELECTRONIC AGE MEDIA IN THE DIGITAL AGE


First Radio ARPANET
The first computers
Guglielmo Marconi built The Advanced Research
the first complete, The first large electronic Projects Agency
commercially successful computers were EDSAC introduced ARPANET
wireless telegraphy (1949) and UNIVAC 1 and considered as the
system based on airborne (1951). predecessor of the
Hertzian waves (radio internet.
transmission).
1894 1949 1969

1926 1953
Television IBM 701
One of the first IBM has already
Traditional media had to keep up with the changing times.
experimental wireless shipped its first Thus, the once analog system of data capturing, recording,
television transmissions electronic computers
was by John Logie called 701.
storage, and playback soon adapted into the digital technology
Baird in London. system, seeing the demise of the few analog-based media.
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DIGITAL AGE (INFORMATION AGE) LET’S DO THIS!


WEB BROWSERS SMARTPHONES
Blogs PORTABLE
The first version of Form groups of six. Using yellow paper, provide answers for the
Internet Explorer was Blogspot, now Blogger, COMPUTERS
introduced in 1995. was launched in 1999. WEARABLE table below.
Prior to this, MOSAIC TECHNOLOGY
was the first web VIDEO CHAT
browser released in
1993. AGE What devices did What devices did What devices did
1995 1999 2008-Present people use to people use to people used to
communicate store share or
with each other? information? broadcast
1995 2002 information?

Social Networks
Pre-historic/
Search Engines
Pre-industrial age
Google (1996), Yahoo Friendster (2002),
(1995) Multiply (2003), Industrial age
Facebook (2004),
Twitter (2006), Tumblr Electronic age
(2007), Instagram
(2010) WOODGROVE
New (Digital) age WOODGROVE
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF


MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC
SOCIETY

Democracy comes from the Greek words


demo (people) and kratos (rule) = rule
of the people.
In a democratic society, the welfare of
the public is important and their rights
are protected by the government.
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY


History of Philip[pine Media

Pre-Colonial Times
HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE MEDIA • Oral systems of handing down
information such as folk tales
and epics were also
• Pre-colonial Period predominant in various areas.
• Spanish Period • Perhaps closest to having a
• American Period broadcast system of information
dissemination is the existence of
• Japanese Occupation the umalohokan or town crier,
A language system was already existent in
• Post-war Years whose major role is to go
the Philippines during the pre-colonial
around the barangay to
• Martial Law announce important information
times, an evidence of which is the alibata
or baybayin whose form was similar to
• EDSA I & II that concerns the citizenry. image-based characters of our Asian
WOODGROVE 19 neighbors. WOODGROVE 20
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
History of Philippine Media History of Philippine Media

Spanish Era Spanish Era


• Books, magazines, and newspapers • The rise of Nationalism among
were brought to the Philippines by the Filipino revolutionaries led to
ancient colonizers, mostly printed in a
language that not everybody in the the publication of nationalistic
archipelago could understand. newspapers, the most popular
• The first Philippine newsletter was of which was La Solidaridad
Successos Felices, put out by the first (1889).
Filipino printer, Tomas Pinpin.
• Jose Rizal proved that the pen is
• The first regularly published newsletter mightier than the sword through
was Del Superior Govierno, which The first book printed in the
ran from 1811 to 1812, although this Philippines, the Doctrina his novels, Noli me Tangere and
was intended only for the Spaniards. Christiana was printed in 1593.
WOODGROVE 21
El Filibusterismo. WOODGROVE 22
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PHILIPPINE MEDIA DURING THE AMERICAN PERIOD ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
History of Philippine Media
The Manila Documentary film The oldest
Times came into the existing Radio Japanese Occupation
Philippines in Station was
established by 1897, and feature KZRH, now • Filipinos got their first taste of media
Thomas Gowan films came in DZRH. censorship during the Japanese
1912. Occupation.
1898 1912 - 1919 1939
• Selected newspapers and radio
stations such as DZRH (which was
renamed as PIAM) were allowed to
1902 1922 run under tight control. Books and
Manila Bulletin The first Philippine publications were heavily censored
established by radio station was put by the Hodobu.
up in June 1922 by
Carson Taylor, Henry Hermann • Underground media operated until
started as a under the call letters
shipping journal
the country was liberated from
KZKZ
WOODGROVE Japanese rule. WOODGROVE 24
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY


History of Philippine Media

Post-war Period PHILIPPINE MEDIA BEFORE


• After the War, Philippines enjoyed a MARTIAL LAW
healthy and free press practice. This was
when the watchdog function of the
media went into full swing, meaning the • Privately owned and independent of
press kept a close eye on the happenings government control
of the government. • Multilingual, but leadership was
• It was not until the 1950s when the exercised by the English language press.
Television arrived in the Philippines. • Manila-centered and underdeveloped in
Commercial TV was introduced in 1953. the provinces
• The 1950s has been described by writers • Politically-free but controlled by big
as the “Golden Age of the Filipino Film” The first Filipino Film to join an business
International film festival was
Genghis Khan, by Manuel Conde, • Lacked ethics and professionalism
in 1952. WOODGROVE 25
WOODGROVE 26
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
History of Philippine Media History of Philippine Media

Martial Law Martial Law


• September 21, 1972 – President Marcos • In the 1980’s, Marcos allowed small,
declared Martial Law. aboveground publications with critical bent, in
• The dictatorial government took control of the order to tell his critics that he tolerated a free
Media. press.
• Editors and journalists were arrested and • After the assassination of Senator Benigno
detained to control the dissemination of Aquino Jr., the media underwent
negative news against the government. transformation, citizens called for a boycott of
• Newspapers and Media outlets were put under the crony press.
strict government supervision and was own by • Dozens of opposition newspapers were
Marcos’ relatives and friends. (Cronies)
printed, and the anti-Marcos articles they
• Mental or Physical violence was the most lethal carried which expresses dissatisfaction with
weapon against Media men, death was the the government, helped to mobilize support
ultimate form of censorship. for Corazon Aquino, who became president
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
History of Philippine Media History of Philippine Media

EDSA People Power I EDSA People Power II


• The coverage of the massive cheating during • Joseph Estrada (Joseph Marcelo Ejercito),
the February 1986 elections stoked the a former movie action star, was elected
public’s ire, paving the way for the famed president in June 1998. He was very
uprising. conscious of his media image and was
• Radio Veritas, whose transmitter were intolerant of media criticism.
destroyed by Loyalist troops and eventually
returned to normal broadcast, was the
• He tried to control media by intimidation
mouthpiece of the revolution. Known figures and corruption. Thus, he was the first
like Jaime Cardinal Sin, called the people Philippine president to systematically
through the station to unite and start a employ non-state mechanisms to clamp
peaceful revolution. down a critical press. He recognized that
• The media explosion that followed the fall of the use of state power to control the media
Marcos was a response to the public’s hunger is not acceptable and resorted instead to
for news. WOODGROVE 29
other forms of press control. WOODGROVE 30
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
History of Philippine Media History of Philippine Media

EDSA People Power II EDSA People Power II


➢Estrada employed two notable moves: first is the “envelopmental • The situation showed that while constitutional
journalism” or the bribing of journalists to ensure favorable and legal guarantees protect press freedom,
coverage. It was reported that he had a monthly budget of Php 2 the media can be bullied in many novel ways
without violating such guarantees.
million to pay off media people. The payoffs came from illegal
gambling operators, known as the jueteng payola. • Initially denied a voice in the mainstream
media, people resorted to e-mail groups,
➢Second, he made his displeasure known to Media proprietors by: websites, and passing information and jokes
➢ He bawled out the owner of the Manila Standard on the telephone for a news through SMS.
report. One of the owners of the paper offered to fire his editors.
• November 13, 2000 – the impeachment trial
➢ He forced the closure of the Manila Times by threatening tax audits on the against President Estrada began. Thus, he
other businesses of the owners. became the 1st Philippine President to be
➢ He encouraged producers in July 1999 not to place ads in the Inquirer. impeached by Congress, and this was covered
Companies sympathetic to the President also withdrew their ads to the paper. extensively by the media.
That year, Inquirer lost about Php 80 million in advertising. WOODGROVE 31
WOODGROVE 32
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ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY


History of Philippine Media

EDSA People Power II


• When the eleven senator-judges voted to
block the opening of the second envelope
containing Equitable PCI bank records of the
Jose Velarde account, moral outrage have WRAPPING UP
erupted. People believed that the truth have
been compromised.
• These events proved that in a democratic
• That time, the Philippines was already
considered as the ‘text capital of the world’. society, the Media’s role is very crucial as
Text messaging called people to EDSA once it becomes a reliable source of
more, mobilized with the power of the internet information.
forums. • People in a democratic society also used
• With that, the EDSA People Power II different media platforms to express their
commenced on January 16-20, 2001. Estrada opinion on social issues.
eventually stepped down in office. WOODGROVE
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LET’S DO THIS!

Using yellow paper, provide answers for the table below.

Before Martial During Martial


EDSA I EDSA II
Law Law
Key Personalities
Key Events in History
State of the Media
during this period

Roles that Media


performed
Developments/
Changes that
occurred through
Media WOODGROVE
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