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EE525_2014F_FinalExam

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EE 525 Power System Applications of Power Electronics

Fall 2014

Final Exam

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

8:00 am to 10:00 am

Instructor: Ali Mehrizi-Sani

• You can have a calculator with you. No formula sheet is allowed as the required

formulae are provided on the last page.

• Some problems are easier than others. Allocate time accordingly. Read prob-

lems carefully. Do not overdo.

• Show your work; answers without justification will not receive full mark.

• This exam has 4 problems, 8 pages (including this cover page), and 105 points.

Name: SOLUTIONS

1 20

2 60

3 20

4 5

Total: 105

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 1 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 2 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

Problem 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 points

Short-Answer Questions. Answer the following questions concisely.

(a) 5 points What is the purpose of reactive power compensation? Give two.

Solution:

(1) Decreasing transmission losses due to excess current flow, (2) having a flat voltage

profile, and (3) increasing real power transmission capacity.

(b) 5 points In a TSC-TCR compensator, why is the rating of the TCR usually slightly

higher than the rating of the TSC?

Solution:

To avoid frequent switching of the TSC when the reactive power required from TCR is

close to zero.

(c) 5 points What is the V -I characteristic of a STATCOM, a TSC, and a TCR individually?

What is the combined characteristic when they are connected in parallel?

Solution:

V V V V

+ + =

I I I I

STATCOM TSC TCR STATCOM +TSC +TCR

(d) 5 points Briefly explain how a shunt compensator (e.g., a STATCOM at the middle of

a line) improves transient stability.

Solution:

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 3 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

Problem 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 points

Compensation. Consider the following system:

VS ]δ compensator XL VR ]0◦

(a) 5 points Calculate the MW transmission of the line without the compensator.

Solution:

Sbase is 600 MV A. Also, Ibase = √600 = 1 kA, Vbase,LN = 200 kV, and Zbase = 200 Ω.

3·345

1×1

P = sin(30◦ ) = 1 pu = 600 MW.

0.5

(b) 10 points Assume compensator shown above is an SSSC, which can be modeled as a

variable impedance. It is desired to transfer 1.3 pu of real power via the line. Calculate P

(MW), Q (MVAr), and S (MVA) supplied by the SSSC. The SSSC is connected through

a 10:1 wye-delta transformer rated at 150 MVA and 5 kV at the low-voltage (VSC) side.

Solution:

1·1

Pnew = 1.3 = sin(30◦ ) ⇒ Xnew = 0.385 pu

Xnew

XSSSC = 0.385 − 0.5 = −0.115 pu

1]30◦ − 1]0◦

I= = 1.345]15◦ pu

j0.385

VSSSC = jXSSSC I = 0.155] − 75◦ pu

PSSSC = 0

QSSSC = ={VSSSC I ∗ } = XSSSC I 2 = −0.208 pu consumed = 125 MVAr 3ph supplied

SSSSC = 0 + jQ.

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 4 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

(c) 10 points Replace the SSSC with an FC connected at the middle of the line that keeps

the midpoint voltage at 1 pu. What is the transmitted power in this case? Calculate the

required reactance if FCs are connected in delta.

Solution:

1×1

P = sin(15◦ ) = 1.03 pu.

0.25

The midpoint voltage is 1]15◦ . We have

1]30◦ − 1]15◦

ISM = = 1.044]22.5◦

j0.25

1]15◦ − 1]0◦

IM R = = 1.044]7.5◦

j0.25

IQ = ISM − IM R = 0.273]105◦ pu = 0.273 kA

1

|XC | = = 3.66 pu.

0.273

√

Equivalently, since the FC is connected in delta, the current in each arm is 0.273/ 3 kA.

Therefore,

345 kV

XC = − √ = −2190 Ω.

0.273 kA/ 3

(d) 10 points Assume that the FC is replaced with a TSC-TCR that at a particular operation

point provides 164 MVAr reactive power. Each TSC is rated at 50 MVAr and the TCR is

rated at 60 MVAr. How many TSCs are needed? What is the firing angle of the TCR if

it is connected in wye? (No need to solve for α; write the equation to be solved.)

Solution:

Total reactive power required is Q = 0.273 pu = 164 MVAr. Therefore, four TSC units

are required (which will provide 200 MVAr). The excess reactive power of 36 MVAr needs

to be cancelled out by the TCR. The required reactance in each phase of wye is

√

Vln2 (345/ 3)2

X(α) = = = 3306 Ω.

Q1Φ 36/3

√

(345/ 3)2

The total reactance of each phase is X0 = 60/3 = 1983 Ω. α is calculated from

X0

X(α) = ,

2 1

1 − α − sin(2α)

π π

which gives α = 18.65◦ .

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 5 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

(e) 15 points In the previous part, we assumed the compensator has infinite reactive power

injection capability. The reactive power supplied from a shunt compensator quickly in-

creases as the real power transfer through the line increases.

i. Draw the P δ curve of the line when the shunt compensator is assumed to be ideal

with infinite reactive power rating.

Solution:

P, Q

V2

√4 pu Pcomp = X/2 sin(δ/2)

2 3 pu

Pcomp with limited Q

2 pu

V2

Puncomp = X sin(δ)

δ

90◦ 120◦ 180◦

ii. Assume the maximum reactive that the compensator can provide is 4 pu. Draw the

new P δ curve.

Solution:

2

From Qcomp = 4VX (1 − cos( 2δ )), the compensator reaches the Qmax at δ = 120◦ . Be-

yond this angle, the compensator behaves as a constant impedance, i.e., all capacitors

are in. The impedance of the capacitors at this point can be calculated easily from

2

Qmax = XVmin , which gives Xmin = −0.25 pu. To calculate the power transmitted

via the line, note the new system as shown below. Using Thevenin equivalent seen

from the sending end is Zth = j0.25 + (j0.25)||(−j0.25) = ∞. However, this causes

a series resonance which causes the power to drop to zero. (Note that this is not

always the case.) The updated P δ is shown above.

+ j0.25 j0.25 +

1]δ − −j0.25 − 1]0◦

(f) 10 points Fill the blanks. Use only the keywords provided in parentheses.

Control Nature

Continuous Discrete Continuous Continuous

(continuous/discrete)

Response

Slow Fast Faster Fastest

(fast/faster/fastest)

Harmonics

None None High Very Low

(none/very low/high)

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 6 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

Problem 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 points

Filter Design. The network admittance for a particular system for all frequencies can lie

anywhere in the first and fourth quadrants limited to the rays at ±45◦ . The locus of the 13th

harmonic filter admittance Yhf for a detuning of δm = 2.5% is a semicircle of diameter 0.3 f:

2 2 2

1 1

Gf + B f + =

4δm X0 4δm X0

The filter is designed so that it gives the best performance for the worst possible network

admittance as discussed in class. The converter generates 100 A rms of 13th harmonic current;

the nominal voltage on the AC busbar is 230 kV. Permitted distortion levels require Dn < 1%.

Ih Vh Yhf YhN

(a) 5 points Calculate the worst-case network admittance (both magnitude and phase).

Solution:

sin(φm ) 1 1

YhN = = 0.3 sin(φm )

4δm X0 2 2δm X0

= 0 1061f

φhN = 45◦ .

(b) 10 points Calculate the worst-case 13th harmonic voltage on the AC busbar and state

whether the harmonic content is within the permissible limits.

Solution:

h = 13.

YhN

Yhf = = 0 2772f

sin( φ2m )

Yh = Yhf + YhN = 0 38323f

√ Ih √ 100A

Vh = 3 = 3 = 45V

Yh 0 38323f

Vh

Dh = = 0.02%.

V1

(c) 5 points Calculate the three-phase reactive power supplied by this filter at rated condi-

tions.

Solution:

1 1 1

X0 = = =

2 × 0.025 × 0.3 Cω0 C × hω

Cω = 0.001 15 Ω

V2

Q= = CωV 2 = 61 MVAr.

X1

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 7 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Name: Student Number:

Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 points

Bonus Question. What is 6 − 1 × 0 + 2 ÷ 2?

Solution:

6 − 1 × 0 + 2 ÷ 2 = 6 − (1 × 0) + (2 ÷ 2)

=6−0+1

= 7.

Equation Comment

r]θ = r cos θ + jr sin θ Euler’s identity (in case your calculator doesn’t do phasors)

Vdc

vo (t) = m(t) For a half-bridge inverter with Vdc as total DC voltage

2

jX

VS VR + +

P = sin(δ)

X ⇒ P, Q

VS ]δ VR ]0

V 2 − VS VR cos(δ) − −

Q= S

X

2

Qcomp = 4VX δ

(1 − cos( 2 ))

Reactive power generated by a shunt compensator

V 2 1 Fundamental-component current of a TCR as a function of

|I1 | = 1 − α − sin(2α)

ωL π π the delay angle α (wrt to the peak of the voltage)

1 + cos(φm ) X0 = Lω0 Optimal quality factor for a filter with unknown network ad-

Q0 = =

2δm sin(φm ) R mittance

sin(φ m)

YhN = Yhf sin( φ2m ) = Impedance per leg of a Y -connected filter

4δm X0

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 8 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014

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