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# Washington State University

## School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

EE 525 Power System Applications of Power Electronics
Fall 2014

Final Exam
Tuesday, December 16, 2014
8:00 am to 10:00 am
Instructor: Ali Mehrizi-Sani

• You can have a calculator with you. No formula sheet is allowed as the required
formulae are provided on the last page.

• Some problems are easier than others. Allocate time accordingly. Read prob-
lems carefully. Do not overdo.

• Show your work; answers without justification will not receive full mark.

• This exam has 4 problems, 8 pages (including this cover page), and 105 points.

Name: SOLUTIONS

## Problem Points Your Grade

1 20
2 60
3 20
4 5
Total: 105

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 1 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014
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EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 2 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014
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Problem 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 points
Short-Answer Questions. Answer the following questions concisely.
(a) 5 points What is the purpose of reactive power compensation? Give two.
Solution:
(1) Decreasing transmission losses due to excess current flow, (2) having a flat voltage
profile, and (3) increasing real power transmission capacity.

(b) 5 points In a TSC-TCR compensator, why is the rating of the TCR usually slightly
higher than the rating of the TSC?
Solution:
To avoid frequent switching of the TSC when the reactive power required from TCR is
close to zero.

(c) 5 points What is the V -I characteristic of a STATCOM, a TSC, and a TCR individually?
What is the combined characteristic when they are connected in parallel?
Solution:

V V V V

+ + =

I I I I
STATCOM TSC TCR STATCOM +TSC +TCR

(d) 5 points Briefly explain how a shunt compensator (e.g., a STATCOM at the middle of
a line) improves transient stability.
Solution:

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Problem 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 points
Compensation. Consider the following system:

VS ]δ compensator XL VR ]0◦

## where |VR | = |VS | = 1 pu = 345 kV, XL = 0.5 pu = j100 Ω, and δ = 30◦ .

(a) 5 points Calculate the MW transmission of the line without the compensator.
Solution:
Sbase is 600 MV A. Also, Ibase = √600 = 1 kA, Vbase,LN = 200 kV, and Zbase = 200 Ω.
3·345

1×1
P = sin(30◦ ) = 1 pu = 600 MW.
0.5

(b) 10 points Assume compensator shown above is an SSSC, which can be modeled as a
variable impedance. It is desired to transfer 1.3 pu of real power via the line. Calculate P
(MW), Q (MVAr), and S (MVA) supplied by the SSSC. The SSSC is connected through
a 10:1 wye-delta transformer rated at 150 MVA and 5 kV at the low-voltage (VSC) side.
Solution:
1·1
Pnew = 1.3 = sin(30◦ ) ⇒ Xnew = 0.385 pu
Xnew
XSSSC = 0.385 − 0.5 = −0.115 pu
1]30◦ − 1]0◦
I= = 1.345]15◦ pu
j0.385
VSSSC = jXSSSC I = 0.155] − 75◦ pu
PSSSC = 0
QSSSC = ={VSSSC I ∗ } = XSSSC I 2 = −0.208 pu consumed = 125 MVAr 3ph supplied
SSSSC = 0 + jQ.

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(c) 10 points Replace the SSSC with an FC connected at the middle of the line that keeps
the midpoint voltage at 1 pu. What is the transmitted power in this case? Calculate the
required reactance if FCs are connected in delta.
Solution:
1×1
P = sin(15◦ ) = 1.03 pu.
0.25
The midpoint voltage is 1]15◦ . We have
1]30◦ − 1]15◦
ISM = = 1.044]22.5◦
j0.25
1]15◦ − 1]0◦
IM R = = 1.044]7.5◦
j0.25
IQ = ISM − IM R = 0.273]105◦ pu = 0.273 kA
1
|XC | = = 3.66 pu.
0.273

Equivalently, since the FC is connected in delta, the current in each arm is 0.273/ 3 kA.
Therefore,
345 kV
XC = − √ = −2190 Ω.
0.273 kA/ 3

(d) 10 points Assume that the FC is replaced with a TSC-TCR that at a particular operation
point provides 164 MVAr reactive power. Each TSC is rated at 50 MVAr and the TCR is
rated at 60 MVAr. How many TSCs are needed? What is the firing angle of the TCR if
it is connected in wye? (No need to solve for α; write the equation to be solved.)
Solution:
Total reactive power required is Q = 0.273 pu = 164 MVAr. Therefore, four TSC units
are required (which will provide 200 MVAr). The excess reactive power of 36 MVAr needs
to be cancelled out by the TCR. The required reactance in each phase of wye is

Vln2 (345/ 3)2
X(α) = = = 3306 Ω.
Q1Φ 36/3

(345/ 3)2
The total reactance of each phase is X0 = 60/3 = 1983 Ω. α is calculated from

X0
X(α) = ,
2 1
1 − α − sin(2α)
π π
which gives α = 18.65◦ .

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 5 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014
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(e) 15 points In the previous part, we assumed the compensator has infinite reactive power
injection capability. The reactive power supplied from a shunt compensator quickly in-
creases as the real power transfer through the line increases.
i. Draw the P δ curve of the line when the shunt compensator is assumed to be ideal
with infinite reactive power rating.
Solution:
P, Q
V2
√4 pu Pcomp = X/2 sin(δ/2)
2 3 pu
Pcomp with limited Q
2 pu

V2
Puncomp = X sin(δ)
δ
90◦ 120◦ 180◦

ii. Assume the maximum reactive that the compensator can provide is 4 pu. Draw the
new P δ curve.
Solution:
2
From Qcomp = 4VX (1 − cos( 2δ )), the compensator reaches the Qmax at δ = 120◦ . Be-
yond this angle, the compensator behaves as a constant impedance, i.e., all capacitors
are in. The impedance of the capacitors at this point can be calculated easily from
2
Qmax = XVmin , which gives Xmin = −0.25 pu. To calculate the power transmitted
via the line, note the new system as shown below. Using Thevenin equivalent seen
from the sending end is Zth = j0.25 + (j0.25)||(−j0.25) = ∞. However, this causes
a series resonance which causes the power to drop to zero. (Note that this is not
always the case.) The updated P δ is shown above.

+ j0.25 j0.25 +
1]δ − −j0.25 − 1]0◦

(f) 10 points Fill the blanks. Use only the keywords provided in parentheses.

## Solution: Solution: Solution: Solution:

Control Nature
Continuous Discrete Continuous Continuous
(continuous/discrete)

## Solution: Solution: Solution:

Response
Slow Fast Faster Fastest
(fast/faster/fastest)

## Solution: Solution: Solution:

Harmonics
None None High Very Low
(none/very low/high)

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Problem 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 points
Filter Design. The network admittance for a particular system for all frequencies can lie
anywhere in the first and fourth quadrants limited to the rays at ±45◦ . The locus of the 13th
harmonic filter admittance Yhf for a detuning of δm = 2.5% is a semicircle of diameter 0.3 f:
 2  2  2
1 1
Gf + B f + =
4δm X0 4δm X0
The filter is designed so that it gives the best performance for the worst possible network
admittance as discussed in class. The converter generates 100 A rms of 13th harmonic current;
the nominal voltage on the AC busbar is 230 kV. Permitted distortion levels require Dn < 1%.

Ih Vh Yhf YhN

(a) 5 points Calculate the worst-case network admittance (both magnitude and phase).
Solution:
sin(φm ) 1 1
YhN = = 0.3 sin(φm )
4δm X0 2 2δm X0
= 0 1061f
φhN = 45◦ .

(b) 10 points Calculate the worst-case 13th harmonic voltage on the AC busbar and state
whether the harmonic content is within the permissible limits.
Solution:
h = 13.
YhN
Yhf = = 0 2772f
sin( φ2m )
Yh = Yhf + YhN = 0 38323f
√ Ih √ 100A
Vh = 3 = 3 = 45V
Yh 0 38323f
Vh
Dh = = 0.02%.
V1

(c) 5 points Calculate the three-phase reactive power supplied by this filter at rated condi-
tions.
Solution:
1 1 1
X0 = = =
2 × 0.025 × 0.3 Cω0 C × hω
Cω = 0.001 15 Ω
V2
Q= = CωV 2 = 61 MVAr.
X1

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Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 points
Bonus Question. What is 6 − 1 × 0 + 2 ÷ 2?

Solution:
6 − 1 × 0 + 2 ÷ 2 = 6 − (1 × 0) + (2 ÷ 2)
=6−0+1
= 7.

Equation Comment
r]θ = r cos θ + jr sin θ Euler’s identity (in case your calculator doesn’t do phasors)
Vdc
vo (t) = m(t) For a half-bridge inverter with Vdc as total DC voltage
2
jX
VS VR + +
P = sin(δ)
X ⇒ P, Q
VS ]δ VR ]0
V 2 − VS VR cos(δ) − −
Q= S
X
2
Qcomp = 4VX δ
 (1 − cos( 2 )) 
Reactive power generated by a shunt compensator
V 2 1 Fundamental-component current of a TCR as a function of
|I1 | = 1 − α − sin(2α)
ωL π π the delay angle α (wrt to the peak of the voltage)
1 + cos(φm ) X0 = Lω0 Optimal quality factor for a filter with unknown network ad-
Q0 = =
2δm sin(φm ) R mittance
sin(φ m)
YhN = Yhf sin( φ2m ) = Impedance per leg of a Y -connected filter
4δm X0

EE 525 • Fall 2014 • Final Exam Page 8 of 8 Tuesday, December 16, 2014