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CHAPTER 3

Methodology

Research Design

Power source is directly connected to the device that provides electricity. Power
limiter is composed of voltage sensor, LCD and keypad in which the consumer can set
the power input desired. Inputted data will be interpreted by the microcontroller Arduino
UNO. Corresponding data yields different number of desired power requirement.

Current sensor is proportional to the amount of current flowing through the


outlets. The sensor signal may be amplified and/or consumed into a direct current
signal, or otherwise processed as desired, before sending data to microcontroller.

When the power input reach to its limit, the power relay switch will cut-off the
current flowing through its branch.
Super Power Consumption Limiter Diagram
Research Location
Research Respondent

Barangay Sta. Cruz

Population: 1,211 latest from PSA 2015

Households: 259 Households

From the latest update of Philippine Statistics Authority Brgy. Sta. Cruz, San
Juan, Southern Leyte has a population of 1,211 people and 259 households.
Sampling Procedure

Flow Diagram
Illustrates the operation of power consumption limiter. The process begins by
setting a power limit for the four outlets through the power limiter. It controls the entire
circuit using a keypad with LCD monitor.

Power limiter composes of voltage sensor which is connected to microcontroller


that will send signal to the current sensors. Both voltage and current sensors measure
the power consumption. Each current sensor sends feedback signal to the
microcontroller for each power they consume. The microcontroller transmits back a
signal to each relay for the remaining power. Each outlet has ascending number from
1– 4 as bases for priority and non-priority system.

First and foremost our project will automatically compute the power rating
amount of each appliances that are connected into the outlets before it will give the said
amount of the power needed.

If the inputted power is 2.4 kW and the four outlets are already connected to the
appliances. Each of every outlets has a rating of 1.2 kW. The 1st and 2 nd outlets are the
one who has power while the 3rd and 4th outlets are waiting for the exceeding power of
the first and 2nd outlets.

In other condition you will witness the priority and non-priority by unplugging an
appliances in the outlet because if you unplug an outlet, the same amount of power will
be distributed to the next outlet respectively rated 1-4. And it will automatically cut off
the power of each outlet when the power distributed is not enough to full fill the rated
amount of power of each appliances connected in the outlet. The cut off outlet and the
outlet that’s not in use are safe.
Research Instruments

The Power Consumption Limiter is consists of both electronic and electrically operated
system. It concerns designing, layouts of components and programming. A further
discussion for each component and its functions is in the following topics.

Structure of the power consumption limiter

A device constructed like rectangular shape form with a dimension of 11.5in x 12.5in x
4.5in. Its base is made out of wood, thickness approximately 2cm and bolted properly to
stabilize its structure.
Adding fiber glass to its side so the components inside is easy to see when
troubleshooting may occur. It is also bolted properly so its structure is stable.
COMPONENTS OF THE DEVICE

LCD and (0-9) Keypad

The microcontroller is attached inside in the upper middle part. It is then mounted
with 2-gang outlet for its source 5V power supply.
Arduino Uno

Using Arduino Uno as the main part of the device controlling the whole system
which provide sets of digital and analog (I/O) pins of which 6 pins can be used as
analog inputs. Easy connection to computer through its USB port and supports also C
and C++ languages.
Its role is to send signal to each outlets attached outside. The power
consumption of each load consumed is being measured by the voltage and current
sensors. And allowing it to send feedback signal to the microcontroller for each load
they received. Microcontroller then transmits signal to each relay and closes its contact
to the outlet when power reaches its load limit.
Voltage and Current Sensors

By further securing the safety of this device, a circuit breaker is connected to the
main power source in case of emergency purposes.
Circuit Breaker
Research Procedure

System Flow

The process begins by setting a power limit for the four outlets through the power
limiter. It controls the entire circuit using a keypad with LCD monitor.

Power limiter composes of voltage sensor which is connected to microcontroller


that will send signal to the current sensors. Both voltage and current sensors measure
the power consumption. Each current sensor sends feedback signal to the
microcontroller for each power they consume. The microcontroller transmits back a
signal to each relay for the remaining power. Each outlet has ascending number from 1
– 4 as bases for priority and non-priority system.

First and foremost our project will automatically compute the power rating
amount of each appliances that are connected into the outlets before it will give the said
amount of the power needed.
Program Flow
Operation Flow
References

A. Books

Grob Basic Electronics (seventh edition) author: Bernard Grob

Electronic Devices and Circuit Analysis author: Abraham Pallas

B. Journals & Periodicals

Electronic House January-December 2013

EC and M The Magazine of Electrical Design, Construction and Maintenance

January-December 2012

C. Unpublished Thesis & Dissertation

RF MEMS-Based Frequency Dependent Power Limiters, author: Desireh Shojaei-Asanjan, 2018

Modeling and Simulation of Electricity Consumption, author: Claes Sandels, 2016

D. Website

Derya Eryilmaz, November 09, 2015; Science and energy consumption

https://www.reference.com/science/energy-consumption-a687ac74c2cac2ee]

Alan D. Fuller, Warren, PA (US) Apr. 16, 2002; Load limiter

https://patents.google.com/patent/US6373150B1/en

Jon D. Chadwick., Dec. 5, 2009; Electrical control system

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2009107998A2/en

Josh A. White., April 11, 2008; Current sensor and conductors

http://www.allegromicro.com/en/Products/Current-Sensor-ICs/Zero-To-Fifty-Amp-
Integrated-Conductor-Sensor-ICs/ACS712/ACS712-ACS713-Frequently-Asked-
Questions.aspx
Appendices
Appendix A
Location Map (Barangay Sta. Cruz, San Juan, Southern Leyte)