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Propagation of Fruit Crop

Plants
By
Robert Tomesh
UW-Extension
Fruit Crops
• Strawberry • Blueberries
• Raspberry • Fruit Trees
• Grapes – Apple
• – Pear
Gooseberry
– Plum
• Currant
– Peach
• Elderberry – Apricot
• Saskatoons – Nuts
Obtaining Plants

• Purchase plants from a reputable nursery


– True to name
– Disease free
– Virus indexed
• Arrange for spring delivery
• Home Propagation (???Name, diseases)
Propagation
• Don’t come true from seed
• Must be propagated asexually
– Stool layering (rootstocks)
– Layerage
– Cuttings
– Grafting & budding
Fruit from a single cross
Wholesale Nursery

• Some grow several hundred plant types-


(Trees and Shrubs)
• Some focus on a few plant types-(Roses)
(Hilltop Nursery-Fruit Trees)
Wholesale Nursery
• Propagation Area – Start seeds, cuttings,
grafting, tissue culture, layerage
• Move rooted plants to field area
– Trained, pruned, root pruned, pest control
• Canned stock – grown in containers
• Grading and packing area (cold storage)
Collecting, Storage and Planting

• Spring produced seeds (red maple, silver maple,


poplar, elm) should be collected when mature
and sowed immediately.
• Pulpy fruits (apple, walnut, rose, viburnum) must
be de-pulped, and stored in a cool moist
environment for 1 – 4 months.
• Some with hard seed coats (honey-locust,
Kentucky Coffee Tree, basswood) need seed
coat abrasion.
Stratification of Seeds
• Stored in a cool (35 t0 39 degrees) moist
environment (moist peat moss, shredded
leaf litter, potting soil) for 1 – 4 months.
• Hormone (Dormin) in the seed has to break
down before seeds will sprout.
• Collect acorns in fall, store in refrigerator
with moist material…after 3 months the
radical will begin to emerge.
• Natural seeding in soil…chilling, moist.
Scarification of Seeds
• Seeds with hard seed coats.
• Place seeds in a covered can with equal
portions of sand and set in the truck bed
for a day or two…this will scratch the seed
coat.
Cuttage Vegetative Propagation
• The vegetative plant part that is to develop
adventitious roots and/or shoots is cut
(detached) from the mother plant.
• Most commonly pieces of stem are used
as cuttings by nurseries.
Cuttage Vegetative Propagation
• Hardwood cuttings – stem segments from the
previous season’s growth are collected during
the dormant season (chilling may be necessary
to break dormancy).
• Softwood cuttings – stem segments collected
from current seasons growth during early
summer.
• Root cuttings – root segments are taken in late
winter or early spring before new growth starts.
Hardwood Cutting
• Dormant 4 to 6 inch
stem segments from
last season’s growth.
• Cut just below a
node.
• Use rooting hormone.
• Heat soil medium.
Softwood Cutting
• Four to 6 inch
segments of current
season’s growth.
• Remove lower leaves
or major portion of
leaf.
• Basal cut below node.
• Use rooting hormone.
Root Cutting
• Four to 6 inch
dormant root
segments are used.
• Adventitious buds
originate from the
cambial region of the
root.
• Polarity is important
for adventitious
formation.
Tissue Culture
Amelenchier sp.
15 shoots per culture jar
1524 culture jars
4 week rotation
1 round = 22,860 shoots
1 year = 297,180 shoots
Whitespire Senior Birch
Strawberry Propagation
• Breeding program
• Tissue Culture (virus
index)
• Each plant from
tissue
• Field run propagation
Breeding Program
• Runner verses hill type production
• Fruit rot resistance
• Resistance to soil diseases: red stele,
verticillium wilt
• Herbicide tolerance
• Fruit quality factors
• Productivity
Strawberry Cultivars
• Annapolis • Jewel
• Earliglow • Mesabi
• Honeoye • Mira
• Raritan • Lateglow
• Redchief • Sparkle
• Cavendish • Winona
• Glooscap
• Kent
Everbearing Strawberries
• Fort Laramie
• Ogallala
• Ozark Beauty
Day-neutral Cultivars
• Fern
• Selva
• Seascape
• Tribute
• Tristar
Raspberries
Black Summer-fruiting Fall-fruiting
raspberries red raspberries red raspberries

Purple Blackberries
Golden
raspberries raspberries
Breeding Strategies
• Hardiness
• Productivity
• Quality (Self-life)
• Disease Resistance
• Plant vigor
• Bloom period
• Harvest period
Winter Breeding Process
• Complete pollination process in the
absence of field pollen
• Primocanes dug in fall, containerized
• Chilled at 32 degrees for 6 to 10 weeks
• Brought into greenhouse, fertilized and
allowed to grow
• Flowering about February or March
Pollination Process
• At balloon stage, sepals closed, stamen and
emasculated
• Emasculation – Sepals, petals, and stamen are
removed from the flower base
• Stigma has not yet reached receptive stage
• Flowers are bagged until pollination
• Selected crosses completed later
Balloon Stage
Pollination Process
• Pollination is completed 2 – 5 days after
emasculation
• Pollen is transferred with a camel hair
brush (sterilized with alcohol
• Flowers are re-bagged until fruit ripens
Fruit Harvest
Stratification of Seeds
• Stored in a cool (35 t0 39 degrees) moist
environment (moist peat moss, shredded
leaf litter, potting soil) for 1 – 4 months.
• Hormone (Dormin) in the seed has to break
down before seeds will sprout.
• Collect acorns in fall, store in refrigerator
with moist material…after 3 months the
radical will begin to emerge.
• Natural seeding in soil…chilling, moist.
Scarification of Seeds
• Seeds with hard seed coats.
• Scratch seed coat
• Acid scarification (wash)
• Place seeds in a covered can with equal
portions of sand and set in the truck bed
for a day or two…this will scratch the seed
coat.
Seed to Seedling
• At maturity, seeds are removed from pulp
• Stratified 4 months at 32 – 36 degrees
• Scarified and placed in a soil-mix and
allowed to germinate
• Transplanted to nursery for evaluation
Raspberry Propagation
• Breeding program
• Tissue Culture (virus index)
• Each plant from tissue
• Field run propagation
• Tip layering (Black raspberry)
Nursery Planting
Tips Floricanes
Side Branches

Primocanes

Crown

Roots Crown Buds


Summer-bearing Raspberry
• Boyne • Reveille
• Nova • K81-6
• Festival • Latham
• Killarney • Haida
Fall-bearing Raspberries
• Summit • Caroline
• Autumn Britten • Fall Red
• Autumn Bliss • Red Wing
• Ruby • Heritage
Black Raspberries
(Black-caps)
• (Tip Layer)
• Blackhawk
• Bristol
Tip Layerage
*Some plants (black
raspberry) rat-tail.
*Rooting takes place
near the tip of current
season’s shoot.
*Dig after rooting and
before transplanting.
Purple Raspberries
(Tip Layer)
• Amethyst
• Brandywine
• Royality
Yellow Raspberries
• Fall Gold
• Honeyqueen
• Anne
Blackberries
• Thornless not hardy in Wisconsin
• Native selections
• Darrow ???
Grape Species
• European Grapes Vitis vinifera
• American Grapes V. labrusca, V. riparia V.
aestivalis
• European/ – Rissling, Thompson
Seedless, Cabernet
• Labrusca – Concord, Catawba, Fredonia
• French/American hybrids - Foch, Milot,
Breeding Programs
• Hardiness
• Days to maturity
• Productivity
• Disease resistance
• Cluster size
• Berry size
• Open clusters
Pre-flowering showing cluster, leaf,
and leaf shoot
Wisconsin Challenges with
Growing Grapes
• Bud injury occurs between -10 and -25
degrees F.
• Select cultivars which mature within your
growing season (frost free period).
• Success depends upon selected cultural
management practices
Heat Unit Accumulation
Base 50
Fruiting Cane/Fruit
• Propagation wood
from currant seasons
growth
• Sticks with three buds
• Maintain cane polarity
Save canes from last seasons
growth…contains fruiting buds
Grape Cuttings
• Spring is best
– Chilled (stratified) by Mother Nature
– Plant when spring frost are past
• Fall
– Cut to three buds
– Store in cool area below 38 degrees
– Start after stratification (3 months)
Planting for Training System
Cultivar Choices - Hardiness
• Valiant • Swenson Red
• Beta (Alpha) • Eidelweiss
• King of the North • Other Swenson cvs.
(Jung’s Nursery) • Foch
• Suelter • Merlot
• Bluebelle • Worden
• MN 78 • Fredonia
• Eona • Concord
Cultivar Choices - Maturity
• Valiant (late Aug.) Foch
• Beta Suelter (late Sept.)
• Swenson Red (early King of the North
Sept.) Worden
• MN 78 Frontenac
• Bluebelle (mid to late Swenson Wine Var.
Sept.) Fredonia
• Eidelweiss Concord
Recent Introductions
• St Croix (wine type) • Swenson White
• St. Pepin (wine type) • Skujinsh 675 (Latvia)
• Lacrosse (wine type) –ripens early and in
• Kay Gray cool seasons
• Espirit (wine type) • Zilga (Lativa)
• Frontenac (wine type) • Kandiyohi
• Frontenac Gris • Summer Sweet
• Prairie Star (early, late Aug.)
• Louise Swenson • Trollhaugen
(Seedless)
Blueberry Types
• Lowbush – growing wild
– Seed, green tip cuttings, dig plants, root
cuttings
Half-high – Minnesota and Michigan
- Northblue, Northsky, North County, St.
Cloud, Freindship
Highbush – Blue Jay, Bluetta, Bluecrop, Elliott
Planting Blueberries

• Purchase potted
plants (tissue culture)
• Set at same height as
in the nursery pot
• Plant in spring
• Water thoroughly
Currants (Ribes rubrum, petaeum,
and sativum)
• Cultivars come in red,
white and black (white
pine blister rust host)
• Red cultivars – Red
Lake, Wilder, Zante
and Rovata
• White cultivars –
White Imperial and
White grape
Methods of Woody Vegetative
Propagation
• Graftage-combining rootstock and scion
wood.
• Induction of adventitious roots and shoots.
– Layerage-rooting while attached to mother
plant.
– Cuttage-rooting stems cut from mother plant
or shoots generated from mother plant root
segments.
Adventitious Roots and Shoots
• Roots and/or shoots produced from
abnormal or unusual locations.
• Growing points are initiated on a
vegetative structure.
Layerage
• The vegetative plant
part remains attached
to the mother plant
while it is developing
adventitious roots
and/or shoots.
Simple Layerage
• Dig hole to bury plant
part.
• Wounding stem
stimulates rooting.
• Initiate in late spring.
• Sever from mother
plant in late summer
• Transplant in fall or
earlier spring.
Trench Layerage
• Trench layering consists
of growing a plant or a
branch in a horizontal
position in the base of a
trench and filling with soil.
• Roots develop from the
base of new shoots
• Initiated in spring.
• Wounding between buds
stimulates rooting.
• Used for many shrubs.
Mound Layering (Stooling)
• Mound layering
involves cutting back
a plant to near the
ground during the
dormant season and
mounding soil over
the base where new
shoots will develop.
• Dwarf fruit tree
rootstock.
Cuttage Vegetative Propagation
• Hardwood cuttings – stem segments from the
previous season’s growth are collected during
the dormant season (chilling may be necessary
to break dormancy).
• Softwood cuttings – stem segments collected
from current seasons growth during early
summer.
• Root cuttings – root segments are taken in late
winter or early spring before new growth starts.
Plant Polarity
• Shoots are formed on the distal end
(nearest the tip).
• Roots are formed on the proximal end
(farthest from the tip).
• Keeping the polarity in proper dimension is
important with grafting.
Hardwood Cutting
• Dormant 4 to 6 inch
stem segments from
last season’s growth.
• Cut just below a
node.
• Use rooting hormone.
• Heat soil medium.
Softwood Cutting
• Four to 6 inch
segments of current
season’s growth.
• Remove lower leaves
or major portion of
leaf.
• Basal cut below node.
• Use rooting hormone.
Root Cutting
• Four to 6 inch
dormant root
segments are used.
• Adventitious buds
originate from the
cambial region of the
root.
• Polarity is important
for adventitious
formation.
Gooseberries (Ribes hirtellum)
• Pixwell
• Poorman
• Downing
• Welcome
• Chautauqua
• Fredonia
• Hinnonmake Red
• Hinnonmake Yellow Picture from Cornell

• Colossal University
Elderberries (Sambucus
canadensis)
• Adams # 1
• Adams # 2
• York
• John
• Kent
• Nova
Picture by

• Scotia UMAFRA
Juneberries (Amelanchier sp.)
• A. alnifolia – Saskatoon, serviceberry,
juneberry
• A. arborea – Downy serviceberry
• A. canadensis – Shadblow serviceberry
• A. grandifolia – apple serviceberry
• A. laevis – Alleghany serviceberry
• A. stolonifera – Running serviceberry
Juneberry
• Smokey
• Honeywood
• Pembina
• Thiessen
• Martin
• Northline
• Success Picture from University of
saskatuwan

• Regent
Mulberry (Morus rubra, alba, and
nigra)
• Hicks Everbearing
• Johnson
• Stubbs
• Townsend
• Illinois Everbearing
• Travis

Picture from
UW Herbarium
Break
Tree Fruit Propagation
Fruit Tree Pollination
• Where cross-pollination results in a plant
different from the parent (apple).
• Increase the number of a plant cultivar which
is difficult to propagate by adventitious
rooting.
• Trees have different c-some levels
– Plum: Pipestone/Toka
– Apples: Mutsu, Jonagold
Plum Hybrids
• Cultivars and hybrid
cultivars needing
selected pollinators:
Oka, Compass, Sapa,
Opata, Nicollet, Tom
Thumb, and St.
Anthony
• Ploidy of cells
Picture from U
of Co.
History of Grafting
• Started with fruit, olive and nut trees
• Dates back 3000 years to China
• Found in written records in Rome and
Greece
• Now the primary method propagating
clonal selections,(ie. Delicious, MacIntosh)
Graftage
• Joining of plant parts by means of tissue
regeneration.
• Rootstock provides the root portion
(dwarf, disease resistant).
• Scion wood is the parent portion selected
for its cultivar characteristics.
• Graft union is the healing wound between
the rootstock and scion.
Reasons for Grafting
• Increase the number of a plant cultivar
which is difficult to propagate by
adventitious rooting.
• Where cross-pollination results in a plant
different from the parent (apple).
• Seedless cultivars (seedless grapes,
seedless plants, male plants).
• Peaches (self-pollinate)
Other Reasons for Grafting
• Leaf color (Autumn Blaze Maple)
• Flower color (Prairie Fire Crabapple)
• Fruit quality (Delicious Apple)
• Tree hardiness (Bud 9 Apple Rootstock)
• Disease resistance (Nova Easy Grow
Apple)
• Sexual status (Cotton-less Cottonwood,
Marshall Seedless Ash, Male Ginkgo,
Female Bittersweet)
Safety Concerns
• First aid supplies
• Wear leather gloves
• Cut away from yourself and others
Tools and Materials
• Rootstock and scion wood
• Sharp knife (utility knife).
• Grafting tape (rubber strips, rubber
electricians tape.
• Tree wound dressing.
• Practice wood (poplar, basswood).
Rootstocks
• Clonal
– Super dwarf
– Dwarf
– Semi-dwarf
– Semi-standard
• Seedling
• An established tree (top-working)
Dwarf Rootstocks
• M.27 - Smallest clone, 15% seedling size,
poorly anchors, high density plantings
• M.9 - 25% size, most dwarfing rootstock
used in Wisconsin, precocious
• Bud 9 – Originates from Russia, similar to
M.9
• These rootstocks require staking
Semi-dwarf Rootstocks
• M.26 - 50% size, cold hardy, used
commercially, does not tolerate wet soils
• M.7 – 55% size, widely use rootstock,
disease tolerant, adapted to a wide range
of soils, slow to bear, suckers
• G.30 Cold tolerant, resistant to fireblight,
weak graft unions,
Selecting Rootstock
• Young seedlings
• Root segments
• An established tree
(top working, or use
trunk)
Mound Layering (Stooling)
• Mound layering
involves cutting back
a plant to near the
ground during the
dormant season and
mounding soil over
the base where new
shoots will develop.
• Dwarf fruit tree
rootstock.
Stool Layering
Stool Layering
Stool Bed
Collecting Dormant Scion Wood
• Collect dormant wood in
late February.
• Select one year-old water
sprouts or shoots.
• One fourth to 3/8
diameter stems (pencil
sized).
• Store in moist cool (36
degree) environment.
Compatibility
• Graft only closely related plants (same
species (red maple/Autumn Blaze, white
ash/ Autumn Purple Ash).
• Unrelated plant species usually result in
plant failure.
Selecting the Grafting Site
• Select a smooth and straight area on both
the rootstock and scion wood.
• Root stock grafts may have side roots
trimmed.
• Match the cambial zone on both the
rootstock and scion wood.
Match the Cambial Zone
Whip and Tongue Graft
Whip and Tongue Graft
Graft
Union
Graft Union
Scion

Rootstock
Cleft Graft
Cleft Graft in Future Years
Modified Cleft Graft
Root Graft
Root Graft
Bud Grafting
• Budding is a form of
grafting; the scion is
reduced in size to one
bud.
• Can be done either
during dormancy or
during the growing
season.
Bud Shield
Bud (Shield) Graft
Bud (Shield) Graft
Summer Bud Graft
Field T-budding
Cutting ¾ inch
bud chip
Fruit Crops
• Strawberry • Blueberries
• Raspberry • Fruit Trees
• Grapes – Apple
• – Pear
Gooseberry
– Plum
• Currant
– Peach
• Elderberry – Apricot
• Saskatoons – Nuts
The End