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# KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

## THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The first law of thermodynamics, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that
energy can neither be created nor destroyed; energy can only be transferred or changed from
one form to another. For example, turning on a light would seem to produce energy; however,
it is electrical energy that is converted.
A way of expressing the first law of thermodynamics is that any change in the internal energy
(∆E) of a system is given by the sum of the heat (q) that flows across its boundaries and the
work (w) done on the system by the surroundings:
[latex]\Delta E = q + w[/latex]
This law says that there are two kinds of processes, heat and work, that can lead to a change in
the internal energy of a system. Since both heat and work can be measured and quantified, this
is the same as saying that any change in the energy of a system must result in a corresponding
change in the energy of the surroundings outside the system. In other words, energy cannot be
created or destroyed. If heat flows into a system or the surroundings do work on it, the internal
energy increases and the sign of q and w are positive. Conversely, heat flow out of the system
or work done by the system (on the surroundings) will be at the expense of the internal energy,
and q and w will therefore be negative.

## THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The second law of thermodynamics says that the entropy of any isolated system always
increases. Isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermal equilibrium—the state of
maximum entropy of the system. More simply put: the entropy of the universe (the ultimate
isolated system) only increases and never decreases.
A simple way to think of the second law of thermodynamics is that a room, if not cleaned and
tidied, will invariably become more messy and disorderly with time – regardless of how careful
one is to keep it clean. When the room is cleaned, its entropy decreases, but the effort to clean
it has resulted in an increase in entropy outside the room that exceeds the entropy lost.

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## 4.2 Solve problem related to Thermodynamics Law

Question 1
3000 J of heat is added to a system and 2500 J of work is done by the system. What is the
change in internal energy of the system?

Known:
Heat (Q) = +3000 Joule Work (W) = +2500 Joule
Wanted: the change in internal energy of the system

Solution:
The equation of the first law of thermodynamics
ΔU = Q-W
The sign conventions:
Q is positive if the heat added to the system
W is positive if work is done by the system
Q is negative if heat leaves the system
W is negative if work is done on the system
The change in internal energy of the system:
ΔU = 3000-2500
ΔU = 500 Joule
Internal energy increases by 500 Joule.

Question 2

2000 J of heat is added to a system and 2500 J of work is done on the system. What is the
change in internal energy of the system?

Known:
Heat (Q) = +2000 Joule Work (W) = -2500 Joule
Wanted: The change in internal energy of the system

Solution:
ΔU = Q-W
ΔU = 2000-(-2500)
ΔU = 2000+2500
ΔU = 4500 Joule
Internal energy increases by 4500 Joule

Question 3

2000 J of heat leaves the system and 2500 J of work is done on the system. What is the change
in internal energy of the system?

Known:

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## Heat (Q) = -2000 Joule Work (W) = -3000 Joule

Wanted: The change in internal energy of the system
Solution:

ΔU = Q-W
ΔU = -2000-(-3000)
ΔU = -2000+3000
ΔU = 1000 Joule
Internal energy increases by 4500 Joule.

Conclusion:

– If heat is added to the system, then the internal energy of the system increases
– If heat leaves the system, then the internal energy of the system decreases
– If the work is done by the system, then the internal energy of the system decreases
– If the work is done on the system, then the internal energy of the system increases

## 4.3 Describe linear expansion and volume expansion

Expansion in solids
When calculating thermal expansion it is necessary to consider whether the body is free to
expand or is constrained. If the body is free to expand, the expansion or strain resulting from
an increase in temperature can be simply calculated by using the applicable coefficient of
Thermal Expansion.
If the body is constrained so that it cannot expand, then internal stress will be caused (or
changed) by a change in temperature. This stress can be calculated by considering the strain
that would occur if the body were free to expand and the stress required to reduce that strain to
zero, through the stress/strain relationship characterised by the elastic or Young's modulus. In
the special case of solid materials, external ambient pressure does not usually appreciably
affect the size of an object and so it is not usually necessary to consider the effect of pressure
changes.
Common engineering solids usually have coefficients of thermal expansion that do not vary
significantly over the range of temperatures where they are designed to be used, so where
extremely high accuracy is not required, practical calculations can be based on a constant,
average, value of the coefficient of expansion.

Linear expansion

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## Change in length of a rod due to thermal expansion.

Linear expansion means change in one dimension (length) as opposed to change in volume
(volumetric expansion). To a first approximation, the change in length measurements of an
object due to thermal expansion is related to temperature change by a "linear expansion
coefficient". It is the fractional change in length per degree of temperature change. Assuming
negligible effect of pressure, we may write:

where L is a particular length measurement and dL / dT is the rate of change of that linear
dimension per unit change in temperature.
The change in the linear dimension can be estimated to be:

This equation works well as long as the linear-expansion coefficient does not change much
over the change in temperature , and the fractional change in length is small
. If either of these conditions does not hold, the equation must be integrated.

Volume expansion
For a solid, we can ignore the effects of pressure on the material, and the volumetric thermal
expansion coefficient can be written:

where V is the volume of the material, and dV / dT is the rate of change of that volume with
temperature.
This means that the volume of a material changes by some fixed fractional amount. For
example, a steel block with a volume of 1 cubic meter might expand to 1.002 cubic meters
when the temperature is raised by 50 K. This is an expansion of 0.2%. If we had a block of
steel with a volume of 2 cubic meters, then under the same conditions, it would expand to 2.004
cubic meters, again an expansion of 0.2%. The volumetric expansion coefficient would be 0.2%
for 50 K, or 0.004% K−1.
If we already know the expansion coefficient, then we can calculate the change in volume

where ∆V/V is the fractional change in volume (e.g., 0.002) and ∆T is the change in
temperature (50 °C).

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The above example assumes that the expansion coefficient did not change as the temperature
changed and the increase in volume is small compared to the original volume. This is not
always true, but for small changes in temperature, it is a good approximation. If the volumetric
expansion coefficient does change appreciably with temperature, or the increase in volume is
significant, then the above equation will have to be integrated:

## where 𝜶𝑽 (T) is the volumetric expansion coefficient as a function of temperature T,

and 𝑇𝑖 ,𝑇𝑓 are the initial and final temperatures respectively.

4.4 Apply the concept and formula in solving problems related on linear expansion and
volume expansion

 Linear Expansion

Question 1
A gold wire has a length of 50 meter at 300K. Calculate the change in it’s length when
temperature in increased to 400K [ αL = 14×10-6K-1 ]

αL = 14×10-6K-1
ΔL = αLLΔT
= ( 14×10-6K-1 ) × 50m × ( 400-300)oK
= 14×50×100×10-6 m
= 70000×10-6 m
= 0.07 m

Question 2
An Aluminium rod has a length of 50m at 300K. Find the temperature at which its length would
be 49.9m [ αL = 25×10-6K-1 ]

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L = 50 m
T = 300K
ΔL = 49.9 – 50
= - 0.1 m
ΔL = αLLΔT
ΔT = ΔL / αLL
= - 0.1 m / 25×10-6K-1×50 m
= -100000 / 25×50
= - 80 K
TF = 300 – 80
= 220 K

Question 3
An Aluminium bar is 1.25 meter long at 20oC. The coefficient of linear expansion is 25×10-6C-
1
. If the temperature is increased to 75oC.

## a) How much will the length of the bar change?

ΔL = αLLΔT
= ( 25×10-6C-1 ) × 1.25m × ( 75-20)oC
= 25×1.25×55×10-6 m
= 1718.75×10-6 m
= 0.00172 m

## b) What is the new length of the bar at this temperature?

LF = L + ΔL
= 1.25 + 0.00172 m
= 1.25172 m

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 Volume Expansion

Question 1
A glass beaker has a volume of 50mL at 30oC. Find it’s volume at 130oC. ( Given αL for glass
= 4×10-6 oC-1 )

V = 50mL
ΔT = 130 – 30
= 100oC
αL = 4×10-6 oC-1
ΔV = αvVΔT
αv = 3αL
ΔV = ( 3×4×10-6 oC ) × 50 mL × 100oC
= 12×50×100×10-6 mL
= 60000×10-6 mL
= 0.06 mL
VF = V + ΔV
= 50 + 0.06
= 50.06 mL

Question 2
A cup contains 85 mL of water at 80 oC. What is the new volume at 15 oC? The coefficient of
volume expansion of water is 210×10-6C-1.

V = 85 mL
ΔT = 15 – 80
= - 65oC
αL = 210×10-6 oC-1
ΔV = αvVΔT
ΔV = ( 210×10-6 oC ) × 85 mL × (- 65oC)
= 210×85×(- 65)×10-6 mL

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= - 1160250×10-6 mL
= - 1.16 mL
VF = V + ΔV
= 85 + (- 1.16)
= 83.84 mL

4.5 State the relation between pressure, volume and temperature of gas.

## PRESSURE, VOLUME AND TEMPERATURE OF GASES

Unlike solids and liquids, a gas does not necessarily expand when heated. This is because the
volume is depend upon the container and therefore when heated the collision of molecules with
each other and with the walls of the container increase and therefore the pressure increase, it
the volume kept constant.

## The effect of pressure and temperature on gas:

1) Pressure of a gas is the force exerted by gas per unit area. It is the measurement of the
number of collisions of molecules with the walls of the container.
2) The velocity and the number of collisions of these molecules increase with the increase
of temperature that is increase in kinetic energy of molecules, if the volume of the gas
kept constant.
3) Lowering the pressure decreases its temperature.

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## Charles’s law: volume – temperature relationship at constant pressure

The volume of fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature if the pressure is
kept constant

## Pressure law: pressure-temperature relationship at constant volume

The pressure of the fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature if the
volume kept constant.

## Boyle’s law: pressure - volume relationship at constant temperature

The pressure of fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume if its temperature is
kept constant.

## In all Gas laws the temperature must be used in kelvin scale.

Absolute zero:

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The lowest possible temperature is called absolute zero. It is -273oC or 0 K. At absolute zero
molecular motion of a substance is barely exists and it has no internal energy which is against
the laws of physics.
T (kelvin scale) = 273+ (Celsius scale) In physics the kelvin temperature is expressed by
‘capital letter T’ and degree Celsius is expressed by Greek symbol theta .

## 4.6 Solve problems related to ideal gas equation

The ideal gas law describes the behavior of an ideal gas, but can also be used when applied to
real gases under a wide variety of conditions. This allows us to use this law to predict the
behavior of the gas when the gas is subjected to changes in pressure, volume or temperature.
The Ideal Gas Law is expressed as
PV = nRT
where
P = Pressure
V = Volume
n = number of moles of gas particles
T = Absolute Temperature in Kelvin
and
R is the Gas Constant.
The Gas Constant, R, while a constant, depends on the units used to measure pressure and
volume. Here are a few values of R depending on the units.
R = 0.0821 liter·atm/mol·K
R = 8.3145 J/mol·K
R = 8.2057 m3·atm/mol·K
R = 62.3637 L·Torr/mol·K or L·mmHg/mol·K
This ideal gas law example problem shows the steps needed to use the Ideal Gas Law equation
to determine the amount of gas in a system when the pressure, volume, and temperature are
known.

Problem 1
A cylinder of argon gas contains 50.0 L of Ar at 18.4 atm and 127 °C. How many moles of
argon is in the cylinder?

Solution

The first step of any Ideal Gas Law problem is to convert temperatures to the absolute
temperature scale, Kelvin. At relatively low temperatures, the 273 degree difference makes a
very large difference in calculations.

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## To change °C to K, use the formula

T = °C + 273
T = 127 °C + 273
T = 400 K
The second step is to choose the ideal gas constant value of R suitable for our units. Our
example has liters and atm. Therefore, we should use
R = 0.0821 liter·atm/mol·K
Our example wants us to find the number of moles of gas.
PV = nRT
solve for n

## plug in our values

n = 28.0 mol

There are 28.0 moles of argon in the cylinder.
There are two important factors to keep in mind when doing this type of problem. First, the
temperature is measured as absolute temperature. Second, use the correct value of R for your
problem. Using the correct units of R will avoid embarrassing unit errors.

Problem 2

2.035 g H2 produces a pressure of 1.015 atm in a 5.00 L container at -211.76 °C. What will
the temperature (in °C) have to be if an additional 2.099 g H2 are added to the container and
the pressure increases to 3.015 atm.

Solution:

## 1) What gas law should be used to solve this problem?

Notice that we have pressure, volume and temperature explicitly mentioned. In addition,
mass and molecular weight will give us moles. It appears that the ideal gas law is called for.

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However, there is a problem. We are being asked to change the conditions to a new amount
of moles and pressure. So, it seems like the ideal gas law needs to be used twice.

## 2) Let's set up two ideal gas law equations:

P1V1 = n1RT1

This equation will use the 2.035 g amount of H2 as well as the 1.015 atm, 5.00 L, and the -
211.76 °C (converted to Kelvin, which I will do in a moment).

P2V2 = n2RT2

This second equation will use the data in the second sentence and T2 will be the unknown.

What I need to do is set the two equations equal to each other. First, I rearrange a bit.

3) Like this:

P1V1
R = –––––
n1T1

and

## P2V2 = n2RT2 leads to:

P2V2
R = –––––
n2T2

4) I will use the fact that R is the same value in each equation:

R = R, therefore:
P1V1 P2V2
––––– = –––––
n1T1 n2T2

## 5) I'm going to isolate T2 on one side of the equals sign:

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Since the volume never changes, we can eliminate it from the equation:
P1 P2
––––– = –––––
n1T1 n2T2

Now, cross-multiply:

P1n2T2 = P2n1T1

Isolate T2:

P2n1T1
T2 = –––––
P1n2

## Another way to write it is this:

T2 = P2n1T1 / P1n2

## 6) One more comment: it's about the moles:

Each of the mole amounts would be arrived at by dividing the grams by the molar mass (in
this case, H2). However, notice the molar masses will cancel, being the same numerical value
and one in the nominator and one in the denominator.

P2mass1T1
T2 = –––––––––
P1mass2

## (3.015 atm) (2.035 g) (61.24 K)

T2 = –––––––––––––––––––––––––
(1.015 atm) (4.134 g)

T2 = 89.546867 K

Converting to Celsius and using four sig figs gives 362.5 °C for the answer.

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Reference :

thermodynamics-problems-and-solutions.htm/amp%3fthe-first-law-of-
thermodynamics-problems-and-solutions_htm
properties-of-matter/in-in-thermal-expansion-in-solids/v/linear-expansion-class-11-