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Mar 16, 2019

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The first law of thermodynamics, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that

energy can neither be created nor destroyed; energy can only be transferred or changed from

one form to another. For example, turning on a light would seem to produce energy; however,

it is electrical energy that is converted.

A way of expressing the first law of thermodynamics is that any change in the internal energy

(∆E) of a system is given by the sum of the heat (q) that flows across its boundaries and the

work (w) done on the system by the surroundings:

[latex]\Delta E = q + w[/latex]

This law says that there are two kinds of processes, heat and work, that can lead to a change in

the internal energy of a system. Since both heat and work can be measured and quantified, this

is the same as saying that any change in the energy of a system must result in a corresponding

change in the energy of the surroundings outside the system. In other words, energy cannot be

created or destroyed. If heat flows into a system or the surroundings do work on it, the internal

energy increases and the sign of q and w are positive. Conversely, heat flow out of the system

or work done by the system (on the surroundings) will be at the expense of the internal energy,

and q and w will therefore be negative.

The second law of thermodynamics says that the entropy of any isolated system always

increases. Isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermal equilibrium—the state of

maximum entropy of the system. More simply put: the entropy of the universe (the ultimate

isolated system) only increases and never decreases.

A simple way to think of the second law of thermodynamics is that a room, if not cleaned and

tidied, will invariably become more messy and disorderly with time – regardless of how careful

one is to keep it clean. When the room is cleaned, its entropy decreases, but the effort to clean

it has resulted in an increase in entropy outside the room that exceeds the entropy lost.

1

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

Question 1

3000 J of heat is added to a system and 2500 J of work is done by the system. What is the

change in internal energy of the system?

Known:

Heat (Q) = +3000 Joule Work (W) = +2500 Joule

Wanted: the change in internal energy of the system

Solution:

The equation of the first law of thermodynamics

ΔU = Q-W

The sign conventions:

Q is positive if the heat added to the system

W is positive if work is done by the system

Q is negative if heat leaves the system

W is negative if work is done on the system

The change in internal energy of the system:

ΔU = 3000-2500

ΔU = 500 Joule

Internal energy increases by 500 Joule.

Question 2

2000 J of heat is added to a system and 2500 J of work is done on the system. What is the

change in internal energy of the system?

Known:

Heat (Q) = +2000 Joule Work (W) = -2500 Joule

Wanted: The change in internal energy of the system

Solution:

ΔU = Q-W

ΔU = 2000-(-2500)

ΔU = 2000+2500

ΔU = 4500 Joule

Internal energy increases by 4500 Joule

Question 3

2000 J of heat leaves the system and 2500 J of work is done on the system. What is the change

in internal energy of the system?

Known:

2

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

Wanted: The change in internal energy of the system

Solution:

ΔU = Q-W

ΔU = -2000-(-3000)

ΔU = -2000+3000

ΔU = 1000 Joule

Internal energy increases by 4500 Joule.

Conclusion:

– If heat is added to the system, then the internal energy of the system increases

– If heat leaves the system, then the internal energy of the system decreases

– If the work is done by the system, then the internal energy of the system decreases

– If the work is done on the system, then the internal energy of the system increases

Expansion in solids

When calculating thermal expansion it is necessary to consider whether the body is free to

expand or is constrained. If the body is free to expand, the expansion or strain resulting from

an increase in temperature can be simply calculated by using the applicable coefficient of

Thermal Expansion.

If the body is constrained so that it cannot expand, then internal stress will be caused (or

changed) by a change in temperature. This stress can be calculated by considering the strain

that would occur if the body were free to expand and the stress required to reduce that strain to

zero, through the stress/strain relationship characterised by the elastic or Young's modulus. In

the special case of solid materials, external ambient pressure does not usually appreciably

affect the size of an object and so it is not usually necessary to consider the effect of pressure

changes.

Common engineering solids usually have coefficients of thermal expansion that do not vary

significantly over the range of temperatures where they are designed to be used, so where

extremely high accuracy is not required, practical calculations can be based on a constant,

average, value of the coefficient of expansion.

Linear expansion

3

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

Linear expansion means change in one dimension (length) as opposed to change in volume

(volumetric expansion). To a first approximation, the change in length measurements of an

object due to thermal expansion is related to temperature change by a "linear expansion

coefficient". It is the fractional change in length per degree of temperature change. Assuming

negligible effect of pressure, we may write:

where L is a particular length measurement and dL / dT is the rate of change of that linear

dimension per unit change in temperature.

The change in the linear dimension can be estimated to be:

This equation works well as long as the linear-expansion coefficient does not change much

over the change in temperature , and the fractional change in length is small

. If either of these conditions does not hold, the equation must be integrated.

Volume expansion

For a solid, we can ignore the effects of pressure on the material, and the volumetric thermal

expansion coefficient can be written:

where V is the volume of the material, and dV / dT is the rate of change of that volume with

temperature.

This means that the volume of a material changes by some fixed fractional amount. For

example, a steel block with a volume of 1 cubic meter might expand to 1.002 cubic meters

when the temperature is raised by 50 K. This is an expansion of 0.2%. If we had a block of

steel with a volume of 2 cubic meters, then under the same conditions, it would expand to 2.004

cubic meters, again an expansion of 0.2%. The volumetric expansion coefficient would be 0.2%

for 50 K, or 0.004% K−1.

If we already know the expansion coefficient, then we can calculate the change in volume

where ∆V/V is the fractional change in volume (e.g., 0.002) and ∆T is the change in

temperature (50 °C).

4

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

The above example assumes that the expansion coefficient did not change as the temperature

changed and the increase in volume is small compared to the original volume. This is not

always true, but for small changes in temperature, it is a good approximation. If the volumetric

expansion coefficient does change appreciably with temperature, or the increase in volume is

significant, then the above equation will have to be integrated:

and 𝑇𝑖 ,𝑇𝑓 are the initial and final temperatures respectively.

4.4 Apply the concept and formula in solving problems related on linear expansion and

volume expansion

Linear Expansion

Question 1

A gold wire has a length of 50 meter at 300K. Calculate the change in it’s length when

temperature in increased to 400K [ αL = 14×10-6K-1 ]

αL = 14×10-6K-1

ΔL = αLLΔT

= ( 14×10-6K-1 ) × 50m × ( 400-300)oK

= 14×50×100×10-6 m

= 70000×10-6 m

= 0.07 m

Question 2

An Aluminium rod has a length of 50m at 300K. Find the temperature at which its length would

be 49.9m [ αL = 25×10-6K-1 ]

5

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

L = 50 m

T = 300K

ΔL = 49.9 – 50

= - 0.1 m

ΔL = αLLΔT

ΔT = ΔL / αLL

= - 0.1 m / 25×10-6K-1×50 m

= -100000 / 25×50

= - 80 K

TF = 300 – 80

= 220 K

Question 3

An Aluminium bar is 1.25 meter long at 20oC. The coefficient of linear expansion is 25×10-6C-

1

. If the temperature is increased to 75oC.

ΔL = αLLΔT

= ( 25×10-6C-1 ) × 1.25m × ( 75-20)oC

= 25×1.25×55×10-6 m

= 1718.75×10-6 m

= 0.00172 m

LF = L + ΔL

= 1.25 + 0.00172 m

= 1.25172 m

6

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

Volume Expansion

Question 1

A glass beaker has a volume of 50mL at 30oC. Find it’s volume at 130oC. ( Given αL for glass

= 4×10-6 oC-1 )

V = 50mL

ΔT = 130 – 30

= 100oC

αL = 4×10-6 oC-1

ΔV = αvVΔT

αv = 3αL

ΔV = ( 3×4×10-6 oC ) × 50 mL × 100oC

= 12×50×100×10-6 mL

= 60000×10-6 mL

= 0.06 mL

VF = V + ΔV

= 50 + 0.06

= 50.06 mL

Question 2

A cup contains 85 mL of water at 80 oC. What is the new volume at 15 oC? The coefficient of

volume expansion of water is 210×10-6C-1.

V = 85 mL

ΔT = 15 – 80

= - 65oC

αL = 210×10-6 oC-1

ΔV = αvVΔT

ΔV = ( 210×10-6 oC ) × 85 mL × (- 65oC)

= 210×85×(- 65)×10-6 mL

7

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

= - 1160250×10-6 mL

= - 1.16 mL

VF = V + ΔV

= 85 + (- 1.16)

= 83.84 mL

4.5 State the relation between pressure, volume and temperature of gas.

Unlike solids and liquids, a gas does not necessarily expand when heated. This is because the

volume is depend upon the container and therefore when heated the collision of molecules with

each other and with the walls of the container increase and therefore the pressure increase, it

the volume kept constant.

1) Pressure of a gas is the force exerted by gas per unit area. It is the measurement of the

number of collisions of molecules with the walls of the container.

2) The velocity and the number of collisions of these molecules increase with the increase

of temperature that is increase in kinetic energy of molecules, if the volume of the gas

kept constant.

3) Lowering the pressure decreases its temperature.

8

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

The volume of fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature if the pressure is

kept constant

The pressure of the fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature if the

volume kept constant.

The pressure of fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume if its temperature is

kept constant.

Absolute zero:

9

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

The lowest possible temperature is called absolute zero. It is -273oC or 0 K. At absolute zero

molecular motion of a substance is barely exists and it has no internal energy which is against

the laws of physics.

T (kelvin scale) = 273+ (Celsius scale) In physics the kelvin temperature is expressed by

‘capital letter T’ and degree Celsius is expressed by Greek symbol theta .

The ideal gas law describes the behavior of an ideal gas, but can also be used when applied to

real gases under a wide variety of conditions. This allows us to use this law to predict the

behavior of the gas when the gas is subjected to changes in pressure, volume or temperature.

The Ideal Gas Law is expressed as

PV = nRT

where

P = Pressure

V = Volume

n = number of moles of gas particles

T = Absolute Temperature in Kelvin

and

R is the Gas Constant.

The Gas Constant, R, while a constant, depends on the units used to measure pressure and

volume. Here are a few values of R depending on the units.

R = 0.0821 liter·atm/mol·K

R = 8.3145 J/mol·K

R = 8.2057 m3·atm/mol·K

R = 62.3637 L·Torr/mol·K or L·mmHg/mol·K

This ideal gas law example problem shows the steps needed to use the Ideal Gas Law equation

to determine the amount of gas in a system when the pressure, volume, and temperature are

known.

Problem 1

A cylinder of argon gas contains 50.0 L of Ar at 18.4 atm and 127 °C. How many moles of

argon is in the cylinder?

Solution

The first step of any Ideal Gas Law problem is to convert temperatures to the absolute

temperature scale, Kelvin. At relatively low temperatures, the 273 degree difference makes a

very large difference in calculations.

10

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

T = °C + 273

T = 127 °C + 273

T = 400 K

The second step is to choose the ideal gas constant value of R suitable for our units. Our

example has liters and atm. Therefore, we should use

R = 0.0821 liter·atm/mol·K

Our example wants us to find the number of moles of gas.

PV = nRT

solve for n

n = 28.0 mol

Answer

There are 28.0 moles of argon in the cylinder.

There are two important factors to keep in mind when doing this type of problem. First, the

temperature is measured as absolute temperature. Second, use the correct value of R for your

problem. Using the correct units of R will avoid embarrassing unit errors.

Problem 2

2.035 g H2 produces a pressure of 1.015 atm in a 5.00 L container at -211.76 °C. What will

the temperature (in °C) have to be if an additional 2.099 g H2 are added to the container and

the pressure increases to 3.015 atm.

Solution:

Notice that we have pressure, volume and temperature explicitly mentioned. In addition,

mass and molecular weight will give us moles. It appears that the ideal gas law is called for.

11

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

However, there is a problem. We are being asked to change the conditions to a new amount

of moles and pressure. So, it seems like the ideal gas law needs to be used twice.

P1V1 = n1RT1

This equation will use the 2.035 g amount of H2 as well as the 1.015 atm, 5.00 L, and the -

211.76 °C (converted to Kelvin, which I will do in a moment).

P2V2 = n2RT2

This second equation will use the data in the second sentence and T2 will be the unknown.

What I need to do is set the two equations equal to each other. First, I rearrange a bit.

3) Like this:

P1V1

R = –––––

n1T1

and

P2V2

R = –––––

n2T2

4) I will use the fact that R is the same value in each equation:

R = R, therefore:

P1V1 P2V2

––––– = –––––

n1T1 n2T2

12

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

Since the volume never changes, we can eliminate it from the equation:

P1 P2

––––– = –––––

n1T1 n2T2

Now, cross-multiply:

P1n2T2 = P2n1T1

Isolate T2:

P2n1T1

T2 = –––––

P1n2

T2 = P2n1T1 / P1n2

Each of the mole amounts would be arrived at by dividing the grams by the molar mass (in

this case, H2). However, notice the molar masses will cancel, being the same numerical value

and one in the nominator and one in the denominator.

P2mass1T1

T2 = –––––––––

P1mass2

T2 = –––––––––––––––––––––––––

(1.015 atm) (4.134 g)

T2 = 89.546867 K

Converting to Celsius and using four sig figs gives 362.5 °C for the answer.

13

KUMPULAN 4 | CHAPTER 4: THERMAL PHYSICS

Reference :

1. https://www.google.com/amp/s/physics.gurumuda.net/the-first-law-of-

thermodynamics-problems-and-solutions.htm/amp%3fthe-first-law-of-

thermodynamics-problems-and-solutions_htm

2. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/in-in-class11th-physics/in-in-thermal-

properties-of-matter/in-in-thermal-expansion-in-solids/v/linear-expansion-class-11-

india-physics-khan-academy

3. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/in-in-class11th-physics/in-in-thermal-

properties-of-matter/in-in-thermal-expansion-in-solids/v/linear-expansion-numerical-

class-11-india-physics-khan-academy

4. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/in-in-class11th-physics/in-in-thermal-

properties-of-matter/in-in-thermal-expansion-in-solids/v/volume-expansion-

coefficient-class-11-india-physics-khan-academy

5. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/in-in-class11th-physics/in-in-thermal-

properties-of-matter/in-in-thermal-expansion-in-solids/v/volume-expansion-

numerical-class-11-india-physics-khan-academy

6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWzX3hBYxdk

7. https://sciencenotes.org/ideal-gas-law-example-problem/

8. https://www.chemteam.info/GasLaw/Gas-Ideal-Prob1-10.html

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