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THE MAKING OF BIODIESEL FROM AVOCADO SEED

THROUGH TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS WITH BASA


CATALYST

Ananda Dewi S, Natania Rosalinda A. S, Petryan Paulus P.


Faculty of Mathmatics and Science, UNPAD, Sumedang
E-mail : anandadewisuhardana@gmail.com; angelinasiagian7@gmail.com;
petryan_paulus@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Avocado seeds contain vegetable fat in the form of fatty acid methyl ester which makes
avocado seeds potentially become an alternative fuel for biodiesel.
Transesterification is a chemical process that converts large fat molecules into smaller
molecules and similar to diesel fuel molecules. For the reaction to be more reactive, a catalyst is
needed. For the transesterification process, base catalysts are more effective than acid catalysts.
Measured using ASTM D-925 tools, the results showed that the flashpoint values of avocado
seed biodiesel fulfill the Indonesian biodiesel standard (above 100⁰C).Measured using ASTM D-97
tool The results showed that the pour point value of avocado seed biodiesel fulfills the Indonesian
biodiesel standard (below 18⁰C).

Keywords: Biodiesel, transesterification, avocado seeds.

BACKGROUND
With the development of industry and transportation, the need for petroleum fuels is
increasing. If this continues, the petroleum supply will be depleted. This situation triggered a study
of the development of alternative energy from natural materials which are abundant and renewable.
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is clean and environmentally friendly and allows it as a
substitute fuel because it has several advantages including non-toxic and higher flash points than
petroleum diesel making it safer to use. Biodiesel can generally be extracted from various natural
products (agriculture and plantations). Raw materials that have the potential as biodiesel include oil
palm, jatropha curcas, soybeans, and avocados.
Avocado seeds have vegetable fat which is composed of alkyl and ester compounds where
the ester in avocado seeds has the same composition as diesel fuel. When compared with other
plants, avocado seeds have a higher oil content so that they can be used as alternative fuels that are
environmentally friendly. Because of the above reasons, we took the initiative to investigate further
to make biodiesel from avocado seeds with the transesterification process.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Avocado Seed
An avocado seed contains vegetable oil more than the other plants, so the exhaust gas that is
produced will be more environmentally friendly. The vegetable fat in the form of fatty acid methyl
ester makes avocado seeds potentially become an alternative biodiesel fuel.
Transesterification
Transesterification is a chemical process which changes large fat molecules into smaller
molecules and similar to diesel fuel molecules. The process needed a reagent which is alcohol with
methanol type because it's more stable and reactive. For the reaction to be more faster, the catalyst
is needed because the catalyst is used for activating the reagents so the reaction gets faster. For
transesterification process, base catalyst is more effective than acid catalyst because the temperature
and the pressure is low so the process is more economical. The example of base compounds is
NaOH, KOH, NaOCH3, KOCH3.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


According to Sri Risnoyatiningsih in her research about biodiesel from avocado seeds,
obtained results such as the form of methyl esters (biodiesel) that suit the characteristics of diesel
substitute biodiesel, including Flash Point and Pour Point.

Flash Point
Measured using ASTM D-925 tools. The measurement results state the lowest temperature
of the fuel, where the fire can ignite for a moment. And if the flashpoint value is higher, then the
fuel is safer because it is not flammable. The results show that the flashpoint value of avocado seed
biodiesel meets the Indonesian biodiesel standard, which is above 100⁰C.

Pour Point
Measured using the ASTM D-97 tool. The measurement results state the lowest temperature
of the fuel, where oil is still able to flow due to gravity. And if the pour point value gets lower, the
fuel is getting better because the tendency of biodiesel to freeze decreases. The results showed that
the pour point value of avocado seed biodiesel meets the Indonesian biodiesel standard, which is
below the temperature of 18⁰C.

CONCLUSION
1. Biodiesel from avocado seeds suits the standard of Indonesian biodiesel which contains flash
point and pours point so it can be used as alternative fuel.
2. Avocado seeds can be used as an ingredient of making biodiesel because it contains a high
vegetable oils and vegetable fats in the form of methyl fatty acids
3. Biodiesel from avocado was made through transesterification process which is a chemical
4. process making fat molecules which is similar to diesel fuel.

REFERENCES
Risnoyatiningsih, S., Teknik, J., Fakultas, K., Industri, T., Veteran, U. ", Timur, J., …
Surabaya, G. A. (2010). BIODIESEL FROM AVOCADO SEEDS BY
TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS (Vol. 5). Retrievced from www.Geocities.com
Risyad, A., Permadani, R. L., & Mz, S. (2016). EKSTRAKSI MINYAK DARI BIJI ALPUKAT
(Persea Americana Mill) MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT N-HEPTANA. Jurnal Teknik
Kimia USU (Vol. 5).