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Science and technology in the Philippines

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Science and technology in the Philippines
National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Building at UP Diliman.
National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Building at UP Diliman.
Science and technology in the Philippines describes scientific and technological progress made
by the Philippines and analyses related policy issues. The main agency responsible for
managing science and technology (S&T) is the Department of Science and Technology (DOST).
There are also sectorial councils for Forestry,pp Agriculture and Aquaculture, the Metal Industry,
Nuclear Research, Food and Nutrition, Health, Meteorology, Volcanology and Seismology.

Among the men and women who have made contributions to science are Fe del Mundo in the
field of pediatrics, Eduardo Quisumbing in plant taxonomy, Gavino Trono in tropical marine
phycology and Maria Orosa in the field of food technology.[1]

Pre-Spanish Period

The Banaue Rice Terraces

Even before the colonization by the Spaniards in the Philippine islands, the natives of the
archipelago already had practices linked to science and technology. Filipinos were already
aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting
medicine from herbs. They already had an alphabet, number system, a weighing and measuring
system and a calendar. Filipinos were already engaged in farming, shipbuilding, mining and
weaving. The Banaue Rice Terraces are among the sophisticated products of engineering by
pre-Spanish era Filipinos.[2]

Spanish Colonial Period

The colonization of the Philippines contributed to growth of science and technology in the
archipelago. The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institution. During
the early years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Parish schools were established where
religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught. Sanitation and more advanced
methods of agriculture was taught to the natives. Later the Spanish established colleges and
universities in the archipelago including the University of Santo Tomas.[2]

The study of medicine in the Philippines was given priority in the Spanish era, especially in the
later years. The Spanish also contributed to the field of engineering in the islands by
constructing government buildings, churches, roads, bridges and forts.[2] Biology is given focus.
Contributors to science in the archipelago during the 19th century were botanists, Fr. Ignacio
Mercado., Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Dr. Leon Ma Guerrero, chemist Anaclento del
Rosario, and medicine scholars Dr. Manuel Guerrero, Dr, Jose Montes and Dr. Elrodario

The Galleon Trade have accounted in the Philippine colonial economy. Trade was given more
focus by the Spaniard colonial authorities due to the prospects of big profits. Agriculture and
industrial development on the other hand were relatively neglected.[3] The opening of the Suez
Canal saw the influx of European visitors to the Spanish colony and some Filipinos were able to
study in Europe who were probably influenced by the rapid development of scientific ideals
brought by the Age of Enlightenment.[3]

American Period and Post-Commonwealth era

Angel Alcala, national scientist, is seen wearing deep blue and yellow academic gown with cap,
deep blue with gold tassel.
Angel Alcala is a national scientist noted for his work in marine and aquatic biology.
The progress of science and technology in the Philippines continued under American rule of the
islands. On July 1, 1901 The Philippine Commission established the Bureau of Government
Laboratories which was placed under the Department of Interior. The Bureau replaced the
Laboratorio Municipal, which was established under the Spanish colonial era. The Bureau dealt
with the study of tropical diseases and laboratory projects. On October 26, 1905, the Bureau of
Government Laboratories was replaced by the Bureau of Science and on December 8, 1933,
the National Research Council of the Philippines was established.[2] The Bureau of Science
became the primary research center of the Philippines until World War II.[4]

Science during the American period was inclined towards agriculture, food processing, yawa
medicine and pharmacy. Not much focus was given on the development of industrial technology
due to free trade policy with the United States which nurtured an economy geared towards
agriculture and trade.[4]

In 1946 the Bureau of Science was replaced by the Institute of Science. In a report by the US
Economic Survey to the Philippines in 1950, there is a lack of basic information which were
necessities to the country's industries, lack of support of experimental work and minimal budget
for scientific research and low salaries of scientists employed by the government. In 1958,
during the regime of President Carlos P. Garcia, the Philippine Congress passed the Science
Act of 1958 which established the National Science Development Board.[4]

Marcos Era and Martial Law

During Ferdinand Marcos' presidency, the importance given to science grew. In the amended
1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Section 9 (1), he declared that the "advancement of
science and technology shall have priority in the national development."[5] In his two terms of
presidency and during Martial Law, he enacted many laws promoting science and technology.

In his Second State of the Nation Address on January 23, 1967, he declared that science was
necessary for the development programs, and thus, directed the Department of Education to
revitalize the science courses in public high schools. The Department of Education, with the
National Science Development Board (NSDB), is organizing a project to provide selected high
schools with science teaching equipment over a four-year period.[6]

In his Third State of the Nation Address on January 22, 1968, he recognized that technology
was the leading factor in economic development, and channeled additional funds to support
projects in applied sciences and science education.[7]

In his Fourth State of the Nation Address on January 27, 1969, he gave a big part of the war
damage fund to private universities to encourage them to create courses in science and
technology and to research. He stated that he planned a project to have medical interns do a
tour of duty in provincial hospitals to arouse their social conscious and reduce the "brain drain."
On April 6, 1968, he proclaimed 35 hectares in Bicutan, Taguig, Rizal as the site of the
Philippine Science Community. The government also conducted seminars for public and private
high school and college science teachers, training programs and scholarships for graduate and
undergraduate science scholars, and workshops on fisheries and oceanography.[8]

In his Fifth State of the Nation Address on January 26, 1970, he emphasized that the upgrading
of science curricula and teaching equipment is crucial to the science development program. He
added the Philippine Coconut Research Institute to the NSDB to modernize the coconut
industry. The NSDB also established the Philippine Textile Research Institute. The Philippine
Atomic Energy Commission of the NSDB explored the uses of atomic energy for economic
development. Marcos assisted 107 institutions in undertaking nuclear energy work by sending
scientists to study nuclear science and technology abroad, and providing basic training to 482
scientists, doctors, engineers, and technicians.[9]

In his Seventh State of the Nation Address on January 24, 1972, he spoke about his major
development projects in reforming sectors of education. Such projects included research and
development schools, technical institutes, science education centers, and agricultural colleges
and vocational high schools.[10]

In 1972, he created the National Grains Authority to provide for the development of the rice and
corn industry to fully harness it for the economy of the country. (Presidential Decree No. 4, s.
1972)[11] He established the Philippine Council for Agricultural Research to support the
progressive development of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries for the nation. It was attached to
the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources for administrative purposes.[12] He
provided further support for the promotion of scientific research and invention with Presidential
Decree No. 49, s. 1972. This decree contains details on the protection of intellectual property for
the creator or publisher of the work.[13] He established the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical
and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) under the Department of National
Defense to provide environmental protection and to utilize scientific knowledge to ensure the
safety of the people. (Presidential Decree No. 78, s. 1972)[14]

In 1973, he created the Philippine National Oil Company to promote industrial and economic
development through effective and efficient use of energy sources. (Presidential Decree No.
334, s. 1973)[15]

In 1976, he enacted a law under Presidential Decree No. 1003-A, s. 1976 to establish the
National Academy of Science and Technology, which is composed of scientists with "innovative
achievement in the basic and applied sciences," to serve as a reservoir of scientific and
technological expertise for the country.[16]

In 1978, he created a Task Force on the formulation of a national action program on science
and technology to assess policies and programs of science and technology. (Executive Order
No. 512, s. 1978)[17] In his Fourteenth State of the Nation Address on July 23, 1979, he said
that the government invested funds and time in organizations for scientific research, such as the
NSDB, the Philippine Council for Agricultural Research and Resources, the Plant Breeding
Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Bureau of Plant Industry, and the Bureau
of Forest Products. While these projects have had breakthroughs, the market machinery did not
adapt and invest in this technology due to the high-risk front-end costs.[18]

In 1979, he constituted the Health Sciences Center created by R.A. No. 5163 as an
autonomous member within the University of the Philippines System to improve the internal
organization and unity of leadership within its units. (Executive Order No. 519, s. 1979)[19]

In 1980, he created the National Committee on Geological Sciences to advise government and
private entities on matters concerning development in geological sciences. (Executive Order No.
625, s. 1980)[20]

In 1982, he reorganized the National Science Development Board and its agencies into a
National Science and Technology Authority to provide central direction and coordination of
scientific and technological research and development. (Executive Order No. 784, s. 1982)[21]
He granted salary increases to the people with teaching positions in the Philippine Science High
School due to their necessity in the advancement of national science. (Executive Order No. 810,
s. 1982).[22] He enacted a law on the completion of the National Agriculture and Life Sciences
Research Complex at the University of the Philippines at Los Baños. (Executive Order No. 840,
s. 1982)[23]

In 1986, he established the Mindanao and Visayas campuses of the Philippine Science High
School to encourage careers in science and technology and to be more accessible to the
talented students in the Mindanao and Visayas areas. (Executive Order No. 1090, s. 1986)[24]

Fifth Republic

Filipina food technologist Maria Y. Orosa (1893–1945) is credited with inventing banana
In 1986, during Corazon Aquino's presidency, the National Science and Technology Authority
was replaced by the Department of Science and Technology, giving science and technology a
representation in the cabinet. Under the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan for the
years 1987-1992, science and technology's role in economic recovery and sustained economic
growth was highlighted. During Corazon Aquino's State of the Nation Address in 1990, she said
that science and technology development shall be one of the top three priorities of the
government towards an economic recovery.[4]

On August 8, 1988, Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force for Science and
Technology which came up with the first Science and Technology Master Plan or STMP. The
goal of STMP was for the Philippines to achieve newly industrialized country status by the year
2000.[4] The Congress did not put much priority in handling bills related to science and
technology. The Senate Committee on Science and Technology was one of the committees that
handles the least amount of bills for deliberation.[4]

Former DOST Secretary Ceferin Follosco reported that the budget allocation for science and
technology was increased to 1.054 billion pesos in 1989 from the previous year's 464 million
pesos. However, due to the Asian financial crisis, budget allocation for the years 1990 and 1991
were trimmed down to 920 and 854 million pesos respectively. Budget allocation were
increased to 1.7 billion pesos in 1992.[4]

During her term, President Corazon Aquino encouraged scientists and inventors to bring the
Philippines to its former position as second to only Japan in the field of science and technology.
One of the goals of her administration was to achieve the status as being an industrialized
country by 2000. She urged that the private research sector form a stronger bond between
public research to help jump-start the progress in the area of Philippine Research and

Ironically, it was during President Corazon Aquino’s term and the reorganization of Philippine
bureaucracy that Executive Order No.128 abolished R.A. No. 3859, also known as the
“Philippine Inventors Incentive Act.” This Philippine Inventors Commission was under the
Science Development board. It gave assistance to Filipino inventors through giving financial aid,
patent application assistance, legal assistance, and to help inventors market their products
domestically and abroad.[28] Despite the abolishment of the Philippine Inventors Commission,
her administration gave rise to new avenues for the government to aid the progress of Science
and Technology in the country.

R.A. 6655 or the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988 opened doors to free education
up to the secondary level, implemented in the education system together with this was the
“Science for the Masses Program” which aimed at scientific and technological literacy among
Filipinos. The Aquino administration recognized the importance of science and technology in the
development of the Philippines into a newly industrialized country. Funding for the science and
technology sector was tripled from 464 million in 1986 to 1.7 billion in 1992. The Science and
Technology Master Plan was formulated which aimed at the modernization of the production
sector, upgrading research activities, and development of infrastructure for science and
technological purposes. A Research and Development Plan was also formulated to examine
and determine which areas of research needed attention and must be given priority. The criteria
for identifying the program to be pursued were, development of local materials, probability of
success, potential of product in the export market, and the its strategic nature. The grants for
the research and development programs was included in the Omnibus Investment Law.[1]

There were noticeable improvements regarding science and technology as stated in President
Fidel Ramos' State of the Nation Address. In his third SONA, there was a significant increase in
personnel specializing in the science and technology field. At 1998, the Philippines was
estimated to have around 3,000 competent scientists and engineers. Adding to the increase of
scientists would be the result of the two newly built Philippine Science High Schools in Visayas
and Mindanao which promotes further development of young kids through advance S&T
curriculum.[29] The government provided 3,500 scholarships for students who were taking up
professions related to S&T. Schools were becoming more modernized and updated with the
addition of high-tech equipment for student improvement and teachers were getting training
programs to benefit themselves and their students. Health care services were promoted through
local programs such as "Doctors to the Barrio Program." The health care programs were
innovative and effective as shown by the change in life expectancy from 67.5 years in 1992 to
69.1 years in 1995.[30]

Priority for S&T personnel increased when Magna Carta for Science and Technology Personnel
(Republic Act No. 8439) was established. The award was published in order to give incentives
and rewards for people who have been influential in the field of S&T. In the sixth SONA,
education was one of the primary story-lines wherein programs such as National Program for
Gifted Filipino Children in Science and Technology and enactment of a law creating a
nationwide system of high schools specializing in the field of science and engineering.[31]

Fidel V. Ramos believes that science and technology was one of the means wherein the
Philippines could attain the status of new industrialized country (NIC). During his term, he was
able to establish programs that were significant to the field of S&T. In 1993, Science and
Technology Agenda for National Development (STAND) was established. Among its priorities
were: (1) exporting winners identified by the DTI; (2) domestic needs identified by the
President's Council for Countryside Development; (3) support industries and (4) coconut
industry development. Congress, during his term, was able to enact laws that were significant
for the field. Among were: (1) Magna Carta for Science and Technology Personnel (Republic
Act No. 8439); (2) Science and Technology Scholarship Law of 1994 (Republic Act No. 7687)
and (3) Inventors and Inventions Incentives Act (Republic Act No. 7459). The Intellectual
Property Code of the Philippines (Republic Act No. 8293) was enacted during Ramos' term. The
law provides industrial property rights, copyrights and related rights, and technology transfer

In President Joseph Estrada's term, two major legislations that he signed were Philippine Clean
Air Act of 1999 (Republic Act No. 8749[33]) which was designed to protect and preserve the
environment and ensure the sustainable development of its natural resources, and Electronic
Commerce Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8792)[34] which outlaws computer hacking and
provides opportunities for new businesses emerging from the Internet-driven New Economy.
Aside from these, in his first State of the Nation Address, President Estrada launched a full-
scale program based on cost-effective irrigation technologies. He also announced that Dole-
outs are out, which meant basic health care, basic nutrition, and useful education for those who
want, but cannot afford it. Lastly, he said that they would speed up the program to establish one
science high school in every province.[35] It was in his second State of the Nation Address that
President Estrada announced the passage of the Clean Air Act, and the decision to pursue the
15-year modernization program of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[36] His last State of the
Nation Address pushed for the advancement of industries and schools into the Internet age, as
well as the announcement of the passage of the e-Commerce Act.[37]

In the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration, the science and technology sector of the
Philippines was dubbed as the "golden age" of science and technology by then secretary
Estrella Albastro [3]. Numerous laws and projects that concerns both the environment and
science to push technology as a tool to increase the country's economic level. This is to help
increase the productivity from Science, Technology and Innovations (STI) and help benefit the
poor people. Moreover, the term "Filipinnovation" was the coined term used in helping the
Philippines to be an innovation hub in Asia.[4]

The STI was developed further by strengthening the schools and education system such as the
Philippine Science High School (PSHS), which focuses in science, technology and mathematics
in their curriculum. This helps schools produce get more involve in this sector. Private sectors
were also encouraged to participate in developing the schools through organizing events and
sponsorships. Future Filipino scientists and innovators can be produced through this system[4]

Helping the environment was one of the focus in developing technology in the Philippines. One
of the more known laws to be passed by her administration was the R.A. 9367 or the "Biofuels"
act. This act promotes the development and usage of biofuels throughout the country. This
potentially enables a cheaper alternative to gasoline as a medium in producing energy. Also,
this benefits the environment since it boasts a cleaner emission compared to regular fuel. Yet,
setbacks such as lack of raw materials is holding the full implementation of the laws since
importing the necessary materials are imported more.[5] On one had, drought-free rice was also
highly encouraged to by used during her term. This enables farmers to produce rice despite the
environmental hazards that slows or stops the production.[3]

In an effort to improve the efficiency of both land and water, the government imposes Republic
Act 10601 which improves the Agriculture and Fisheries Sector through Mechanization
(AFMech). RA 10601 covers research, development, and extension (RDE), promotion,
distribution, supply, assembling, manufacturing, regulation, use, operation, maintenance and
project implementation of agricultural and fisheries machinery and equipment (Section 4).[38]

In 2014, President Aquino conferred four new National Scientist for their contribution in the
Scientific field,[39] Academicians Gavino C. Trono, Angel C. Alcala, Ramon C. Barba, and
Edgardo D. Gomez was honored in their respective fields. Trono's contribution helped a lot of
families in the coastal populations through the extensives studies he made on seaweed species.
On the other hand, Alcala served as the pioneer scientist and advocate of coral reefs aside from
his contribution in the fields of systematics, secology and herpetology. Barba's contribution
changes the seasonal supply of fresh fruits to an all year round availability of mangoes through
his studies on the induction of flowering of mango and micropropagation of important crop
species. Lastly, Gomez steered the national-scale assessment of damage coral reefs which led
a national conservation.

Science and Technology Fields

Life Sciences
Life Sciences is a very broad field, it encompasses numerous specializations. It is commonly
defined by sciences that pertain to living organisms like microorganisms, plants, animals, and
most importantly human beings. Some of the well-known fields in the Life Sciences are zoology,
botany, biology, microbiology, biotechnology, and biomedical technologies.

In the Philippines, the various fields of the Life Sciences is under the Department of Science
and Technology (DOST). This government office is responsible for the coordination and funding
of different researches by Filipino scientists and inventors, which can potentially help the
progress of science and technology in the Philippines. There are different agencies under DOST
which cater to specialized fields, these are the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and
Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and
Seismology (PHIVOLCS), and the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic, and Natural
Resources Research Development (PCAARRD). The Secretary of Science and Technology is
appointed by the president of the Republic of the Philippines, and this position has no fixed
term. The incumbent Secretary of Science and Technology is Mario G. Montejo, a professor of
the University of the Philippines Diliman, he was appointed by President Benigno Aquino III on
June 29, 2010.

Botany and Biology

Botany and biology are two of the highly sought-after research topics in the Philippines, given its
rich biodiversity in flora and fauna.

Eucheuma denticulatum, a species of red alga that naturally exists in the country.
Eucheuma denticulatum is a species of red alga that naturally exists in the country.
Several Filipino scientist have pioneered in the field of biology. Eduardo Quisumbing, a biologist
who graduated MS in Botany at the University of the Philippines Los Baños in 1921, and Ph.D.
in Plant Taxonomy, Systematics and Morphology at the University of Chicago in 1923. He
conducted research on taxonomic and morphological papers deal with orchids[40] and authored
the book Medicinal Plants of the Philippines.[41] The species of Saccolabium quisumbingii was
named after him. Dioscoro L. Umali, is an agriculturist that was dubbed as the Father of
Philippine Plant Breeding due to the programs he conducted that are related to rainfed and
upland agriculture, social forestry, and environmental preservation.[42] Marine biologist helped
improve the knowledge on aquatic resources like Angel Alcala, a biologist who was recognized
for his research on amphibians and reptiles diversity and marine biodiversity in the country and
served as consultant on marine and aquatic projects under the United Nations Environment
Programme, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and others,[43] Gavino Trono, a biologist
who was dubbed as the Father of Kappaphycus farming for his contributions to the study of
tropical marine phycology, focusing on seaweed biodiversity, established the largest
phycological herbarium in the country – the G.T. Velasquez Herbarium in the University of the
Philippines’ Marine Science Institute, and authored a book that was considered as the most
authoritative books in the country on the seaweed flora titled Field guide and atlas of the
seaweed resources of the Philippines.[44]

The Philippines Biofuel Act of 2006, RA 9376 mandates an increase of the minimum 5%
bioethanol blend (E5) in gasoline to 10% ethanol blend (E10). In 2011, 600 million liters of
gasoline was consumed by car owners in the Philippines, if the 10% bioethanol blend would be
followed, this would be equivalent to 1 million metric tons of sugar.

Ethanol is an alcohol produced from fermenting carbohydrates in plants. Bioethanol can be

produced mainly from three different kinds of raw materials, namely simple sugars, starch, and
lignocellulosic biomass. Since the prices of the raw materials are very volatile and can easily
change, lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively studied due to its cheap price and
abundance in agricultural countries like the Philippines. Some of the top sources of
lignocellulosic biomass are forest residues, municipal solid wastes, and agricultural wastes like
sugarcane baggase, nipa sap, rice straws, etc.[45]

Numerous studies have been done by Filipino scientists on what raw material should be used to
achieve an efficient and cost-effective bioethanol production. Studies on nipa sap showed that
molasses is still more advantageous to use, as for the same amount of bioethanol produced, a
greater amount of nipa sap was needed compared to molasses.[46] A study by Tan et al.reports
on corn as being viable for bioethanol production, and could give a yield of around 0.37 Liters
per kilogram of corn used.[47] Other studies showed that sugarcane juice produced
approximately 70 Liters per ton of sugar, but using sugracane juice as the primary feedstock for
bioethanol production, would be problematic, as this would mean that it would be competing
with the sugar production in the country. These problems have pushed Filipino scientists today,
to continue searching for alternatives to sugarcane. One of the most promising fields is the
study of lignocellulosic agricultural wastes, as they are abundant and very cheap.

A study by Del Rosario in 1982 identified sweet sorghum as a possible source of ethanol, it is a
very adaptive crop which can withstand drought and grow in the low-lands as well as in the high
lands.[48] A study by the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics
(ICRISAT) showed that the production costs for sweet sorghum is higher than sugarcane by
4.28%, but this is balanced out by the grain yield of 1 ton per hectare. In 2007, the University of
Philippines-Los Banos, together with the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) and ICRISAT
conducted studies on sweet sorghum as feedstock for bioethanol production.

In 2013 the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) announced that the country may start
producing its first sweet sorghum-based bioethanol. The Philippine National Oil Co. -Alternative
Fuels Corp and the San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. are discussing on creating a 1,000 hectare sweet
sorghum plantation solely for the purpose of using the produce as feedstock for bioethanol

Engineering is the field of science that applies both science and math to solve problems. It
concerns the use of technology in practical ways that can advance the human condition. Some
of the fields of engineering include mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil
engineering, structural engineering, and industrial engineering.[50]

In the Philippines, many organizations and research institutes for engineering were established,
such as the National Engineering Center and the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers.

The National Engineering Center (NEC) was first established on January 27, 1978 as the
research arm of the University of the Philippines College of Engineering. It absorbed the UP
Industrial Research Service Center, the National Hydraulic Research Center, the Training
Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry, the Transport Training Center, and the
Building Research Service.[51]

The Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE) was the result of the merging of two separate
civil engineer organizations, the Philippine Society of Civil Engineers (PSCE) and the Philippine
Association of Civil Engineers (PACE), on December 11, 1973. It was given accreditation by the
Professional Regulation Commission on August 13, 1975 as the only official recognized
organization of civil engineers in the Philippines.[52] It was established to advance the
knowledge and research and to maintain high ethical standards of civil engineering.[53]

The University of the Philippines also established the National Center for Transportation Studies
(NCTS) to contribute to scholarly research and training in the field of transportation. They
advocate sustainable transport, integrated transport system, road safety, and institutional
development.[54] They release advisories and feature studies by both undergraduate and
graduate students on transportation. For example, the NCTS website links to downloads of
Emer T. Quezon's research into the effects of flyover construction on traffic flow in Nagtahan
and R. Magsaysay Boulevard intersection in 1994,[55] as well as the research of Franklyn T.
Amistad and Jose Regin F. Regidor, Dr. Eng. researched into ways to improve traffic
management and congestion in Vigan without sacrificing its legacy as a World Heritage Site.[56]

Ricardo G. Sigua is a professor who contributed to engineering research in the Philippines.

Sigua, a professor at the Institute of Civil Engineering in the University of the Philippines,
Diliman, wrote a book called The Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering due to the scarcity of
textbooks on the traffic engineering relevant to the Philippine context. His book covers topics
such as traffic management and regulations, traffic flow, traffic studies, intersection design and
control, geometric design of highways, road safety, traffic accident analysis, travel demand
forecasting, the origin-destination table (OD Matrix), and the intelligent transportation
Electronic products accounted for 40% of the Philippines' export revenue in April 2013,
according to the Semiconductor and Electronics Industry in the Philippines, Inc., which groups
250 Filipino and foreign companies, including Intel. The share of high-tech products among
exports declined between 2008 and 2013 from US$26.9 billion to US$19.7 billion.[58]

Agriculture and Aquaculture

Agriculture is the field in science wherein it concerns with the different techniques of land
cultivation, crop and livestock raising, or otherwise, farming.[59] The Department of Agriculture
(Philippines) (DA) is a government agency responsible for the development of the Philippine's
agriculture by generating policies, investments, and support services which are significant in the
local and export-oriented trade.[60] In the Philippine Development Plan (PDP), Chapter 4:
Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector, both agriculture and fisheries
sector provides the needs and raw materials for the market and surplus labor to the industry and
service sectors. The focus for improvement would be to generate more opportunities of
employments and increased income for the farmers which would encourage participation from
them. Development of the agricultural sector is critical in maintaining an affordable price for food
especially for the poor which, then, could be translated to inclusive growth and poverty
reduction.[60] Proceso J. Alcala is a former district representative and the recently appointed
DA secretary by President Benigno Aquino III in 2010. He is considered the 'Father of Organic
Agriculture' because of his work in the Organic Agricultural Act of 2010 (RA 10068).[61]

Developments regarding the research and technology of Philippine agriculture are currently in
the works. Most of the researches are inclined in solving the problem of increasing hunger in the
country by creating a more efficient and cheaper process of yielding produce. The International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international research consortium, including the Philippines,
which serves to improve the rice production and quality through biotechnology and research.
One of their ongoing research involves changing the normal C3 carbon fixation mechanism of
rice into a supercharged photosynthetic mechanism, C4 carbon fixation. Converting rice from a
C3 plant into a C4 plant would be beneficial because the latter can efficiently produce more
yield than the former in a given and limited amount of resources (land, water, and fertilizer)
which bodes well to the Philippines' situation.[62] IRRI have made calculations which shows that
converting rice into a C4 plant would increase the yield at around 30-50%, demonstrating a
double water-use efficiency, and providing more at less fertilizer usage.[62] Other rice varieties
have been developed to increase efficiency without sacrificing the quality too much. PSB Rc26H
(Magat), PSB Rc72H (Mestizo), and PSB Rc76H (Panay) are some of the rice hybrids
developed but only Mestizo is currently available for planting. The texture and taste quality of
Mestizo is comparable to the normal grain, IR64.[63]

Overall records and statistics about Philippine agricultural growth is provided by the
CountrySTAT Philippines. In 2014, gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 6.13%. The
gross value added (GVA) in agriculture and fishing went up by 1.60% and this accounted for
10% of the GDP increase. There was an increase in the production of livestock rated at 1.01%.
Gross outputs of the following livestock showed an increase at different rates: hog, cattle,
carabao, goat, chicken, duck, and other products such as chicken eggs and dairy. There was an
increase in the prices of different produce such as crops, fruits, and livestock and a decrease in
the prices of vegetables. Food and other non-alcoholic beverage had an increase of 6.68%.
Earnings from exports increased by 5.78% and top earners were from coconut oil and banana.
Expenditures for imports increased by 19.86% and the highest spending were from wheat and
milk products. The labor force totaled to 40.05 million and 11.21 million were employed in the
agriculture sector which was around 30% of the national employment.

Metal Industry
This industry deals with the creation and innovation of metallic and steel products. The
metal/steel industry have shown remarkable technological dynamism over the centuries and
with the growing product innovation, there have been a great significance on the steels'
economic and political influence.[64] The Philippines have become part of the growing
revolution of the industry. The Metal Industry Research and Development Center (MIRDC) is a
government agency under the Department of Science and Technology that supports the local
metals and engineering industry through support services enhancing the industry's competitive
advantage. The agency's mission would consist of providing both public and private sectors with
professional management and technical expertise, quality control, research and development,
technology transfer, and business advisory services.[65]

MIRDC have been cooperating with different organizations to create technology for various
improvements and purposes. The Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) System and the Road
Train were unveiled to the public during the annual Lantern Parade in the University of the
Philippines Diliman. It was a collaboration between UP Diliman and MIRDC for the purpose of
faster travel time for students in UP and the public. It had two stations, one located along C.P.
Garcia and the other one is along the University Avenue.[66] The Hand Tractor was from the
works of both MIRDC and Center for Postharvest Development and Mechanization (PhilMech).
The concept of the equipment is a transplanter-attached hand tractor and harvester-attached
hand tractor wherein rice transplanting and harvesting implements are readily available from the
tractor. Farmers would benefit from this because of the reduced cost and more utilization of
hand tractor.[67]

Statistics of recent steel and steel-related industry developments were published by the Census
of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) of the National Statistics Office (NSO) with 2001 as
the reference year. The industry totaled to 1,895 establishment which is 29.6% of the
manufacturing firms. Of all the establishments, 403 or 21.3% of the steel industries were from
intermediate steel sector and 1,246 were from manufacturing industries. The steel industry was
able to contribute 369,985 worker to the manufacturing sector. Total compensation paid by the
steel industry reached to P47.9 billion which was about 41.2% of the total salaries and
employers' contributions SSS/GSIS. The total expenses made by the industry was valued at
P692.6 billion which accounted for 48.8% of the costs made by the manufacturing
establishments. The total output of the industry was estimated at P832 billion which accounted
for 46.3% of the manufacturing output valued at P1,795.8 billion.[68]
Food and Nutrition
Food science or nutritional science is the field of science studying the nature of foods and the
natural changes in them resulting from handling and processing.[69] It is the science concerned
with food and nourishment and the role of nutrients in health. In the Philippines, food and
nutrition research investigates the ideal diet for Filipinos to solve the problem of malnutrition and
the current state of nutrition.

The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) is the principal research arm of the Philippine
government in food and nutrition. It was first created in 1947 as the Institute of Nutrition to serve
as a clearing-house of data and information regarding nutrition.[70] In 1949, it was authorized to
conduct research in the applied science of food, as well.[71] The FNRI was reorganized in
Executive Order No. 128, s. 1987 to redefine its mandate to research food and nutrition in order
to research and identify solutions to malnutrition problems, develop programs, projects, and
policies to address malnutrition, and disseminate these findings.[72] In accordance with these
functions, the Food Composition Laboratory was established. Now known as the Food
Analytical Service Laboratory (FASL), it is the pioneering laboratory researching into the food
and nutrient composition of Philippine foods. Their services include chemical testing,
microbiological testing, physico-chemical testing, and research and consultancy services.[73]
FNRI also develops simple recipes for small scale and household use, especially for the
consumption by infants and children. They provide the nutritional information, properties and
even market potential.[74]

Aside from the FNRI, Philippine scientists have been researching into food science. Patricia T.
Arroyo, Ph.D., an assistant professor and chairman of the Department of Fisheries Technology
of the University of the Philippines, Diliman wrote The Science of Philippine Foods as a
reference for students of food chemistry and food technology to be used instead of foreign
books. This book is a compilation of scattered literature about Philippine foods and contains
information about the structure, composition, methods in preparation, standards of quality,
preservation, and experiments about various food such as eggs, rice, red meat, poultry, fish,
fruits, vegetables, fats, oils, milk, milk products, wheat, flour, and sugar.[75]

Maria Ligaya T. Braganza, Ed.D, the Dean of the School of Food Science and Technology at
the Philippine Women's University conducts applied researches on food and product
development.[76] One of her studies investigates the use of banana flour as a wheat flour
extender in pan de sal and doughnuts.[77]

Ame P. Garong, a museum researcher at the National Museum of the Philippines, published
Ancient Filipino Diet: Reconstructing Diet from Human Remains Excavated in the Philippines
based on her doctoral dissertation. Using isotope analysis, she reconstructed the diet from the
archaeological human remains from different burial sites in the Philippines. Based on the bone,
hair, muscle samples and plant and animal tissues, Garong traced the diet of ancient Filipinos.
Filipinos in the pre-colonial and early colonial past ate mostly aquatic resources (such as marine
fish, freshwater shellfish, and coral reef resources). Some samples showed that the ancient
Filipinos practiced prolonged breast feeding.[78]
One aspect of healthcare is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases; the other
pertains to provisions for medical care for people in the community. In the Philippines,
healthcare is under the Department of Health (DOH). This government office is responsible for
organizing public healthcare and making sure that all Filipino citizens have access to quality
health services. This office is also responsible for supervising and funding researches pertaining
to new medicines and medical devices. The DOH has different bureaus, all of which have
different areas of specialization, these are the Bureau of Health Devices and Technology,
Bureau of Health Facilities and Services, Bureau of International Health Cooperation, Bureau of
Local Health Development, Bureau of Quarantine and International Health Surveillance, and
Food and Drug Administration. The DOH has a budget of Php 87.6 billion for the year 2015. The
Secretary of Health is nominated by the President of the Republic of the Philippines, the
incumbent Secretary of Health is Janette Garin; she was appointed last February 17, 2015.

The DOH has recently implemented the Philippines eHealth Strategic Framework and Plan
(2013-2017). This focuses on the application of Information and Communications Technologies
for healthcare. It draws up a long-term strategic plan for the development and implementation of
eHealth services in the Philippines. It looks into realizing a national electronic public-health
information systems, if this is reached, it can greatly improve the surveillance and response to
health emergencies, it can also impact researches of epidemiological nature, greatly speeding
up the process as sampling would be very convenient already. Another program recently started
by the DOH is the Universal Health Care high Impact Five (UHC-Hi-5), which focuses on the
regional operations and its convergence in high priority poverty program areas. Its goal is for
tangible outputs within a 15-month period of its implementation.

Anti-cancer research
Soybean is a very sought-after crop, as its by products are used to generate bioethanol, and
most importantly it is linked with cancer research. During the past decade, soybean has been
extensively studied due to its 43-amino acid polypeptide called Lunasin. The anti-cancer
properties of Lunasin was first discovered by Dr Alfredo Galvez and Dr. Benito de Lumen, both
Filipino doctors, when they were enhancing the nutritional properties of soy protein. Dr. Galvez
observed mitotic disruptive properties of Lunasin in mammalian cancer cells, he saw that it
prevented normal cells from turning into cancerous cells. This eventually lead to more research
about its anti-cancer properties. In 2005, Dr. de Lumen conducted an experiment on Lunasin
using skin cancer mouse models, he discovered that Lunasin internalizes in mammals within
minutes of exogenous application, it eventually ends up in the nucleus wherein it inhibits the
acetylation of core histones. Dr de Lumen observed that in spite of Lunasin’s anti-cancer
properties, it does not inhibit the growth of normal mammalian cell lines.[79]

A very recent study on Lunasin showed that at certain doses, it reduced non-small cell lung
cancer tumor volume by 63%, it also showed a capability of inhibiting non-small cell lung cancer
cells by suppressing the cell-cycle dependent phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein.[80]
More studies of Lunasin also showed that it possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and a
cholesterol regulating role; all of which makes it a very good potential source of dietary
supplements.[81] All of these researches would have not been at the level of where it is now, if
not for the Filipino doctors who first discovered Lunasin.

Social sciences
Encarnacion Alzona, the first Filipina to get a Doctor of Philosophy.
Encarnacion Alzona, the first Filipina to get a Doctor of Philosophy.
Notable Filipino scientist have been contributors in the field of social science in the country.
Raul V. Fabella was an academic, economist and scientist that graduated in Seminario Mayor-
Recoletos (Bachelor of Philosophy; 1970); the University of the Philippines School of Economics
(Master of Arts; 1975); and Yale University (Doctor of Philosophy; 1982). He had written articles
in both theoretical and applied fields: political economy and rent-seeking; the theory of teams;
regulation; international economics; and mathematical economics and was associated with the
concepts of "Olson ratio" in rent-seeking, egalitarian Nash bargaining solutions, and debt-
adjusted real effective exchange rate.[82][83] Teodoro Agoncillo, a 20th-century Filipino
historian, and received the national scientist award for his contributions in the field of history. He
graduated from the University of the Philippines (Bachelor of Philosophy; 1934) and finished his
Master of Arts degree in the same university in 1935. He also wrote books regarding the
Philippine History like History of the Filipino People.[84] Encarnacion Alzona, a pioneering
Filipino historian, educator and suffragist became the first filipina to obtain a Doctor of
Philosophy. She got her degree in history and a master's degree from the University of the
Philippines and later obtained another master's degree in history from Radcliffe College in 1920,
and a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1923. She was an advocate of women suffrage in the
Philippines and authored the book The Filipino Woman: Her Social, Economic and Political
Status (1565-1933).[85] that stated a stable account for women despite their lack in political and
social rights.[86]

Forestry is the field of science that practice planting, managing and taking care of trees. The
governing body for the Philippine forestry is the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR). This department started way back in 1863, when the Spanish Royal Decree
established the Inspeccion General de Montes. This was transformed into the Department of
Interior in 1901. Then when the government reorganized, it became the Department of
Agriculture and Natural Resources. During 1987, the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources was formally established. Under this department, the Forest Management Bureau
was the sector that focuses on preserving the forest and the harvesting of its resources.[87]

The Philippines have an actual forest cover at 6.5 million hectares (ha) or 24% of the total land
area. A lot of Filipinos rely on these resources for their survival. The country's goal is to have a
sustainable forest-based industry that can contribute to the socio-economic development and
support the disadvantaged sectors of society. Several projects have been started by the Forest
Products Research and Development and Institute (FPRDI) to accomplish this goal. It starts
with the identification of the nation's tree species. and subsequently developing the products-
based industry of wood and lumber. The Institute also covers the sustainable creation of
furnishings using wood, bamboo, rattan and vines.

Natural disaster preparedness

The Philippines is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to natural disasters. Every year,
between six and nine tropical cyclones make landfall, alongside other extreme events such as
floods and landslides. In 2013, the Philippines had the misfortune to lie in the path of Cyclone
Haiyan (known as Yolanda in the Philippines), possibly the strongest tropical cyclone ever to hit
land, with winds that were clocked at up to 380 kph.[88]

To address disaster risk, the Philippines has been investing heavily in critical infrastructure and
enabling tools such as Doppler radars, generating 3D disaster-simulation models from Light
Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology and the wide-scale installation of locally developed
sensors for accurate and timely disaster information nationwide. In parallel, it has been building
local capability to apply, replicate and produce many of these technologies.[88]

Science, technology and innovation policy

Strategic framework and related legislation
Harmonized Agenda, 2002-2020
The Department of Science and Technology is the key government institution for science and
technology, with policy development being co-ordinated by a series of sectorial councils. Within
the framework of the current National Science and Technology Plan, 2002–2020 (NSTP), the
strategic focus is on building technological self-reliance. The Harmonized Agenda for Science
and Technology, 2002–2020 reflects this focus in its approach to problem-solving related to
inclusive growth and disaster risk reduction. The Harmonized Agenda was presented to the
President in August 2014. Although science and technology are guided by the NSTP, the
Harmonized Agenda attempts to provide more detail of how the country can become
technologically self-reliant to sustain science and technology beyond the mandate of the
administration in power at the time of the Agenda's adoption.[58]

The Harmonized Agenda focuses on the development of critical technologies such as remote
sensing, LiDAR processing, testing and metrology facilities, advanced climate change and
weather modelling, advanced manufacturing and high-performance computing. Five centres of
excellence are being established or upgraded by 2020 in biotechnology, nanotechnology,
genomics, semiconductors and electronic design. The five centres of excellence are all

the Centre for Nanotechnology Application in Agriculture, Forestry and Industry (est. 2014) is
based at the University of the Philippines Los Baños;
the Biotech Pilot Plant (est. 2012 and since upgraded) is housed at the University of the
Philippines Los Baños;
the Philippine Genome Centre (est. 2009) is hosted by the University of the Philippines Diliman;
it operates two core facilities in DNA sequencing and bioinformatics;
the Advanced Device and Materials Testing Laboratory is located in the Department of Science
and Technology’s compound in Bicutan in Taguig City and has been operational since 2013; it
houses three laboratories in surface analysis, thermal, chemical and metallurgical analysis; n
the Electronic Product Development Centre will also be located in the Department of Science
and Technology’s compound in Bicutan in Taguig City; it will provide state-of-the-art design,
prototyping and testing facilities for printed circuit boards.[88]
The government policies outlined above are seeking to create and fund infrastructure to support
the development of ‘core technologies', in order to solve pressing problems. This approach
reinforces the economic rationale for government intervention in the science system to address
market failures and make markets work within the purview of good governance. A key challenge
will be to build sufficiently solid infrastructure to sustain current efforts. One example of the
virtues of sustained support for research is the International Rice Research Institute based in
the city of Los Baños.[58]

Legislative reform
The Technology Transfer Act (2010) is expected to enhance innovation by providing a
framework and support system for the ownership, management, use and commercialization of
intellectual property arising from government-funded research and development (R&D).[58]

To better address needs in terms of human capital, the Fast- Tracked Science and Technology
Scholarship Act (2013) expands the coverage of existing scholarship programmes and
strengthens the teaching of science and mathematics in secondary schools. The Philippine
National Health Research System Act (2013), meanwhile, has formed a network of national and
regional research consortia to boost domestic capacity.[58]

Trends in investment in R&D

Human investment in R&D
The Philippines trails its more dynamic ASEAN peers for investment in both education and
research. The country invested 0.3% of GDP in higher education in 2009, one of the lowest
ratios among ASEAN countries. After stagnating for the first half of the century, tertiary
enrolment leapt from 2.6 million to 3.2 million between 2009 and 2013. The rise in PhD
graduates has been even more spectacular, their number having doubled over the same five-
year period from 1 622 to 3 305, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. This may
explain the leap in the number of researchers in just a few years. The Philippines counted just
78 researchers (in full-time equivalents) per million inhabitants in 2007 but the country's
researcher density had more than doubled to 188 researchers per million inhabitants by 2013,
according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. This is still well below the global average of
1,083 per million (2013).[58]

Scientific output is modest, with Filipino scientists producing just nine articles per million
inhabitants in 2014, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index
Expanded). The global average in 2014 was 176 publications per million.[88] Seven out of ten
Filipino researchers (70%) co-authored papers with foreign scientists between 2008 and 2014;
their preferred collaborators were based in the USA, Japan, Australia, China and the United
Kingdom, in descending order. [58]
Financial investment in R&D
The level of domestic investment in R&D remains low by any standards: 0.11% of GDP in 2007
and 0.14% of GDP in 2013, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. It will be a
challenge to bring science to underpin innovation and development, unless the level of
investment rises. Achieving this will include leveraging foreign direct investment in areas like
electronics, in order to move closer to the higher end of the scale for value-added goods in the
global value chain.[58]

An IRRI researcher studying rice DNA under ultraviolet light.
An IRRI researcher studying rice DNA under ultraviolet light.
International Research Organizations
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC)
Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC)
National Government Research Institutions, Bureaus and Attached Agencies
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)

Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI)

Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI)
Forest Products Research Development Institute (FPRDI)
Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI)
Metal Industry Research and Development Center (MIRDC)
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI)
Philippine Textile Research Institute (PTRI)
Department of Agriculture (DA)

Bureau of Agricultural Research

National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
Philippine Carabao Center
Philippine Center for Postharvest Development and Mechanization
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Department of Energy (DOE)

Energy Research and Testing Laboratory

Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR)

Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau

Environmental Research and Laboratory Services Division, Environmental Management Bureau
National Academic, Research and Professional Societies
Basic Science

Crop Science Society of the Philippines

Transportation Science Society of the Philippines
Philippine Physics Society
Samahang Pisika ng Pilipinas
Integrated Chemists of the Philippines
Kapisanang Kimika ng Pilipinas
Philippine Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Philippine Society for Cell Biology
Mathematical Society of the Philippines
Computing Society of the Philippines
Geological Society of the Philippines
Ecological Society of the Philippines
Philippine Association of Entomologists
Philippine Horticultural Society
Philippine Association of Marine Science
Philippine Astronomical Society
Philippine Meteorological Society
Philippine Corrosion Society
Philippine Society for Developmental Biology
Philippine Society for Microbiology
Applied Sciences

Philippine Society of Mechanical Engineers

Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineers
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers
Geodetic Engineers of the Philippines
Society of Metallurgical Engineers of the Philippines
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
Philippine Society of Sanitary Engineers
Institute of Electronics Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.
Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.
Society of Aerospace Engineers of the Philippines
Philippine Society of Agricultural Engineers
Philippine Society of Mining Engineers
Science Education in the Philippines
High School Education
Philippine Science High School System

The Philippine Science High School (PSHS) System is a specialized high school program in the
Philippines under the Department of Science and Technology. It offers scholarships to students
that are gifted in science and mathematics. High school students are bound by law to major in
pure and applied science, mathematics or engineering. PSHS have 12 regional campuses in
addition to the main campus. PSHS follows the K-12 basic education program of the

Regional Science High School System

The Regional Science High School (RSHS) System is a specialized high school program in the
Philippines under the Department of Education. RSHS have regional campuses and follows the
K-12 basic education program of the government.

Tertiary Education
Various universities offers science courses that encompasses the different fields of science.

The Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act of 2017 provides for free tuition and
exemption from other fees in public universities and colleges for Filipino students, as well as
subsidies for those enrolled in private higher education institutions.

See also
Space program of the Philippines
Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free
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Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

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As the revolutionary, he defeated the army of Governor General Blanco in Cavite when the
revolution had started. He is also the leader of revolutionaries in Cavite for your information.

As the president, he ordered the creation of the Philippine flag and composition of the national
anthem, and declared the nation’s independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.

After that he spent 2 years running away from pursuing American forces until his capture in
1901 with the help of some traitors from Pampanga.