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# IGCSE FM Matrix Transformations

Dr J Frost (jfrost@tiffin.kingston.sch.uk)
www.drfrostmaths.com
The specification:

Introduction
A matrix (plural: matrices) is simply an ‘array’ of numbers, e.g.

On a simple level, a matrix is simply a way to organise values into rows and columns,
and represent these multiple values as a single structure.

For the purposes of IGCSE Further Maths, you should understand matrices as a
way to transform points.

## Matrices are particularly useful in

3D graphics, as matrices can be
used to carry out
rotations/enlargements (useful for
changing the camera angle) or
project into a 2D ‘viewing’ plane.
(Just for Fun) Using matrices to represent data
This is a scene from the film Good Will?Hunting.
Maths professor Lambeau poses a “difficult”* problem for his graduate students from
algebraic graph theory, the first part asking for a matrix representation of this graph.
Matt Damon anonymously solves the problem while on a cleaning shift.

## In an ‘adjacency matrix’, the

number in the ith row and jth
column is the number of
edges directly connecting
node (i.e. dot) i to dot j

?
* It really isn’t.
Using matrices to represent data

In my 4th year undergraduate dissertation, I used matrices to help ‘learn’ mark schemes from
GCSE biology scripts. Matrix algebra helped me to initially determine how words (and more
complex semantic information) tended to occur together with other words.
Matrix Algebra

Matrix Fundamentals
Understand the dimensions of a matrix, and operations on
matrices, such as addition, scalar multiplication and matrix
multiplication.
Matrix Fundamentals
#1 Dimensions of Matrices
The dimension of a matrix is its size, in terms of its number of rows and columns.

Matrix Dimensions

23

31 ?

13 ?
Matrix Fundamentals
#2 Notation/Names for Matrices
A matrix can have square or curvy brackets*.

## Matrix Column Vector Row Vector

(The vector you know
and love)

## * The textbook only uses curvy.

Matrix Fundamentals
#3 Variables for Matrices
If we wish a variable to represent a matrix, we use bold, capital letters.

1
𝑨= 6
−3
𝑪 = 𝑷𝟐 𝑻𝑷
Matrix Fundamentals
Simply add/subtract the corresponding elements of each matrix.
They must be of the same dimension.

?
Matrix Fundamentals
#5 Scalar Multiplication
A scalar is a number which can ‘scale’ the elements inside a matrix/vector.

1 ?

2 ?

3 ?
Matrix Fundamentals
#6 Matrix Multiplication
This is where things get slightly more complicated...

## Now repeat for the next row of the left matrix...

1 0 3 -2 5 1 -11 16
2 8 4 3 1 7 42 61
7 -1 0 2 0 3
8 -3 50 -6

We start with this row and column, and sum the products of each pair.
(1 x 5) + (0 x 1) + (3 x 0) + (-2 x 8) = -11
Further Example

## June 2012 Paper 1 Q2

10
= ?
17
Now you have a go...

1 0 0 1 𝟎 ?𝟏
a If 𝐴 = ,𝐵 = , 𝐴𝐵 =
1 1 3 2 𝟑 𝟑

1 1 3 𝟐 ?
b =
2 0 −1 𝟔
1
1 2 2
7 10 N 1 2 3 2 = 14 ?
c = ? 3
3 4 15 22 1 1 2 3
N 2 1 2 3 = 2 4? 6
3 3 6 9
N ?
Bro Exam Note: In IGCSEFM, you
will only have to multiply either a
2 × 2 by 2 × 1 or 2 × 2 by 2 × 1.
Identity Matrix
1 0 𝑎 𝑏
Let 𝑰 = and 𝐴 = .
0 1 𝑐 𝑑
Determine:

𝒂 𝒃
𝐴𝐼 = ?𝒅
𝒄
𝒂 𝒃
𝐼𝐴 = ?𝒅
𝒄

1 0
𝑰 = is known as the ‘identity matrix’.
0 1
Multiplying by it has no effect, i.e. 𝐴𝐼 = 𝐼𝐴 = 𝐴 for any matrix 𝐴.

It may seem pointless to have such a matrix, but it’ll have more
importance when we consider matrices as ‘transformations’ later.
Although admittedly you won’t quite fully appreciate why we have it
unless you do Further Maths A Level…
Exercise 1
1
? ? ?

? ? ?

? ? ?
? ? ?
3

? ? ?
? ? ?
Exercise 1
4 ? ? ?
? ? ?

? ?
?

? ?
?
6
? ?
?
? ? ?
Exercise 1
7

? ? ?

? ?
?
Harder Multiplication Questions
Matrix multiplications may give us simultaneous equations, which we solve in
the usual way.

## June 2013 Paper 2 Q12

𝑥 2 − 12 4𝑥
=
𝑥 − 4𝑦 8
𝑥 2 − 12 = 4𝑥 𝑥?2 − 4𝑥 − 12 = 0
𝑥 = −2 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 6
𝑦 = −2.5 𝑜𝑟 𝑦 = −0.5

AQA Worksheet 2

𝟐 + 𝟐𝒂 = 𝟏𝟐 → 𝒂 = 𝟓
𝟔 + 𝒂𝒃 = 𝟐𝟔 → 𝒃=𝟒
𝟑+𝟐=𝒄
?→ 𝒄 = 𝟓
3 2 a 
22
   
Exercise 1b
94 3 
7

−𝟔 + 𝟕𝒂
? = 𝟐𝟐
𝒂=𝟒

## 2 June 2013 Paper 2 Q11

−𝒂 𝟐𝒃 − 𝒄 𝟐𝒂 + 𝒂𝒃 = −𝟏
𝟎
𝟏
𝟑
?
𝒃 𝒂 − 𝟑𝒃 = 𝟐

𝒂 = 𝟐 + 𝟑𝒃
∴ 𝟐(𝟐 + 𝟑𝒃) + 𝟐 + 𝟑𝒃 𝒃 = −𝟏
?
𝟑𝒃𝟐 + 𝟖𝒃 + 𝟓 = 𝟎
𝟑𝒃 + 𝟓 𝒃 + 𝟏 = 𝟎
?
𝒂 = −𝟏, 𝒃 = 𝟑, 𝒄 = 𝟔
𝒃 = −𝟏 𝒐𝒓 𝒃 = −
𝟓
𝟑
3 𝒂 = −𝟏 𝒐𝒓 𝒂 = −𝟑
Set 2 Paper 2 Q16

𝟐 𝟓
𝑷𝑸 =
𝒂 𝒂+𝒃
𝑸𝑷 = ?
𝟐+𝒂 𝟑+𝒃
𝒂 𝒃
∴ 𝒂 = 𝟎, 𝒃 = 𝟐
Matrices representing transformations
Matrices can represent transformations to points in 2D or 3D space.

## 𝑥 (Note: You’re used to representing

points as coordinates like 𝑥, 𝑦 rather
Let us represent a point as the vector 𝑦 than vectors, but it allows us to apply
matrix transformations to them more
We can multiply it by a matrix: easily in this form)

2 0 𝑥 𝟐𝒙
𝑦 = ? 𝑦
0 2 𝟐𝒚
Important Note: When we multiply by a matrix, it goes on the front, not after.
This is a bit like how with composite functions, e.g. 𝑔𝑓(𝑥), we applied 𝑓 to 𝑥
followed 𝑔. We go right to left. 2𝑥
2𝑦
𝑥
𝑦
What ‘transformation’ therefore does the
2 0 𝑥
matrix represent?
0 2
An enlargement by scale factor 2 about
the origin. ?
A further example

0 1
What transformation does the matrix represent?
−1 0

## 0 1 𝑥 𝒚 Step 1: Find the effect

𝑦 = −𝒙
? 𝑥
on a point 𝑦 .
−1 0
Step 2: Draw the old and
𝑦 new point (using a specific
example point if you wish) to
see the effect.

3
1
? Transformation:
the origin. ?
1
−3
Investigate
In pairs or otherwise, determine the transformations that each of these
matrices represents.

## −1 0 Reflection in the 0 −1 Rotation 𝟗𝟎°

line 𝒙 = ?
anticlockwise
0 1 𝟎 1 0 the origin.

## 1 0 Reflection in the 0 1 Rotation 𝟗𝟎°

line 𝒚 =?𝟎 −1 0 clockwise ?
0 −1 origin.

−1 0 Rotation 𝟏𝟖𝟎° 1 0
0 −1 ? origin.
?
0 1

## 0 1 Reflection in the line

𝒚=𝒙 ?
1 0
Going backwards
Work out the transformation that transforms a point 270° clockwise

𝑦
−1
3
?
? 3
Work
0 out −1 𝑥 −𝑦
𝑥1 what
1 matrix
0 𝑦 = 𝑥
Use a specific point or 𝑦 would have
𝑥 this effect
and find the effect of the
transformation.
Transforming the unit square
For more complex transformations
it’s not sufficient to look at the
Set 3 Paper 2 Q17
effect on just one point: we can’t
fully see what the matrix is doing.

## If we look at the effect on a unit

square (with coordinates
0,0 , 1,0 , 1,1 , 0,1 ), we can
better see the effect of a matrix
transformation on a region in the
𝑥-𝑦 plane.

## Just apply the transformation to

each point of the unit square.
3 0 0 𝟎
0 3 0
=
𝟎
?
3 0 1 𝟑
= ?
0 3 0 𝟎
3 0 0 𝟎
= ?
0 3 1 𝟑
3 0 1 𝟑
= ?
0 3 1 𝟑

## Set 1 Paper 1 Q14

0 −1 0 𝟎
=
−1 0 0 𝟎
0 −1 1 𝟎
=
−1 0
𝐴′ 0 −1 ? 00 −𝟏
−𝟏
=
−1 0 1 𝟎
0 −1 1 −𝟏
𝐶′
=
𝐵′ −1 0 1 −𝟏
Exercise 3
1 [Jan 2013 Paper 2 Q15] Describe fully the 5 [Worksheet 2 Q6] The point A(m, n) is
single transformation represented by the transformed to the point A (2, 0) by
0 −1 2 3
matrix the matrix
1 0 1 1
Rotation 𝟗𝟎° anticlockwise about the origin. Work out the values of m and n.
?
𝒎 = 𝟐, 𝒏 = −𝟐
?
2 [Set 2 Paper 1 Q4] The transformation matrix
𝑎 2 6 [Worksheet 2 Q8] Describe fully the
maps the point 3,4 onto the point
−1 1 transformation given by the matrix
2, 𝑏 . Work out the values of 𝑎 and 𝑏.
0 −1
𝒂 =?−𝟐, 𝒃 = 𝟏
−1 0
𝑎 𝑏 Reflection in the line 𝒚 = −𝒙
3 [Set 3 Paper 1 Q6] The matrix −𝑎 2𝑏 maps ?
the point 5,4 onto the point 1,17 . Work
7 [Worksheet 2 Q9] The unit square
out the values of 𝑎 and 𝑏.
OABC is transformed by the matrix
𝒂 = ?−𝟏, 𝒃 = 𝟏. 𝟓
ℎ 0
4 to the square OABC.
0 ℎ
[Worksheet 2 Q5] Work out the image of the The area of OABC is 27. Work out
point D (1, 2) after transformation by the the exact value of h.
2 3 𝟒
matrix
−1 1 ? 𝟑
Solution: 𝒉 =?𝟑 𝟑
Combined Transformations

𝐴 𝐵
𝑃 𝐴𝑃
? 𝐵𝐴𝑃
?

𝐵𝐴
?
If a point 𝑃 is transformed by the matrix 𝐴 followed by the matrix
𝐵, what calculation would get the new point?
Therefore what matrix represents the combined transformation
of 𝐴 followed by 𝐵?

##  The matrix 𝐵𝐴 represents the combined transformation

of 𝐴 followed by 𝐵.
Example
−1 0
A point 𝑃 is transformed using the matrix , i.e. a reflection in the line 𝑥 = 0,
0 1
0 1
followed by , i.e. a reflection in the line 𝑦 = 𝑥.
1 0
(a) Give a single matrix which represents the combined transformation.
(b) Describe geometrically the single transformation this matrix represents.

a 𝟎 𝟏 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏
𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏? =
−𝟏 𝟎

?
Worksheet 2 Q7

## Bro Note: The default direction of rotation is

anticlockwise if not specified.

0 ?1
𝑨=
1 0
0 1
−1? 0
𝑩=
0 1 0 1 1 0
𝑩𝑨 = =
−1 0 1 0 0 −1 ?
(The question does not ask, but this represents a reflection in the line 𝑦 = 0)
Exercise 3
1 Point 3, −2 is transformed by the matrix 3 The unit square is reflected in the 𝑥-axis
1 −1 followed by a rotation through 180° centre
followed by a further transformation
0 1 the origin. Work out the matrix for the
0 2 combined transformation.
by the matrix .
1 0
(i) Work out the matrix for the combined
𝟎 𝟐
Solution: ?−𝟏
𝟎
𝟎
𝟏
transformation. Solution:? 𝟏 −𝟏
(ii) Work out the co-ordinates of the image point
of 𝑃. Solution: (−𝟒, 𝟓) 4 The unit square is enlarged, centre the
? origin, scale factor 2 followed by a
reflection in the line 𝑦 = 𝑥. Work out the
2 Point −1,4 is transformed by the matrix matrix for the combined transformation.
3 −1
followed by a further
−2 2
transformation by the matrix
1 0
.
Solution: ?𝟎𝟐 𝟐
𝟎
3 −2
(i) Work out the matrix for the combined
𝟑 −𝟏
transformation. Solution: ?
𝟏𝟑 −𝟕
(ii) Work out the co-ordinates of the image point
of 𝑊. Solution: (−𝟕, −𝟒𝟏)
?
Exercise 3
5 [Jan 2013 Paper 2 Q17] −1 0 represents a 7 [Set 1 Paper Q14b] The unit square
0 1
0 1 OABC is transformed by reflection in
reflection in the 𝑦-axis. represents a
1 0 the line 𝑦 = 𝑥 followed by
reflection in the line 𝑦 = 𝑥.
Work out the matrix that represents a
reflection in the 𝑦-axis followed by a reflection scale factor 2. What is the matrix of
in the line 𝑦 = 𝑥. the combined transformation?
𝟎 𝟏 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟐 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟐
𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 ? =
−𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟐 𝟏 𝟎 ? =
𝟐 𝟎

## 6 [June 2012 Paper Q22] The transformation 3 0 −1 0

0 −1 𝐴= and 𝐵 = .
matrix maps a point 𝑃 to 𝑄. The 0 3 0 1
−1 0 The point 𝑃 2,7 is transformed by
1 0
transformation matrix maps point 𝑄 matrix 𝐵𝐴 to 𝑃′. Show that 𝑃′ lies on
0 −1
to point 𝑅. the line
Point 𝑅 is −4,3 . Work out the coordinates of 7𝑥 + 2𝑦 = 0.
point 𝑃.
𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 −𝟏 𝟎 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟑 𝟎 𝟐 −𝟔
= =
𝟎 −𝟏 −𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 ? 𝟑 𝟕 𝟐𝟏
?
This is a rotation 𝟗𝟎° anticlockwise. So
𝟑
𝟕 −𝟔 + 𝟐 𝟐𝟏 = 𝟎
original point 𝑷 is
𝟒