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CASE STUDY

Name: Daniel W. School: Lincoln Middle School


Birthdate: 4/24/2004 Grade: 8
Age: 14 Date of report: 12/12/18

REASON FOR TUTORING REFERRAL


★ Reading Difficulties
○ Below Grade Level Reading Ability - Daniel has consistently scored “Below
Basic” on national Forward Exams and district STAR assessments in all testable
areas including reading-key ideas and details, reading-vocabulary use,
reading-craft & struct/int of knowledge & ideas.
○ Sight Word Concerns - Daniel guesses at words based on the initial sound,
sometimes will self-correct but not always.
○ Comprehension Concerns - Daniel tends to struggle with understanding text
provided at the 8th grade level that he reads independently and silently in his
head.
○ Access Scores:
Reading 317, Prof Level 4
Comprehension 333, Prof Level 2.3
Literacy 305, Prof Level 2.1
★ Writing Concerns
○ Difficulty in Communicating through Writing - Daniel struggles with transferring
ideas to paper. Daniel has consistently scored “Below Basic” on National
Forward Exams in the areas of writing/language-text text and purposes,
writing/language-research, writing/language-conventions.
○ Inappropriate Grammatical Knowledge - Grammar, sentence structure, and
mechanics are a consistent challenge for Daniel.
○ Inappropriate Spelling Knowledge - Spelling has been a consistent challenge for
Daniel.
○ Access Scores:
Writing 293, Prof Level 2.6
★ Listening Comprehension Concerns
○ Daniel comprehends at a higher level when material is read to him but only when
sufficient background knowledge is present
○ Access Scores:
Listening 371, Prof Level 4

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★ Time on Task Concerns
○ Daniel struggles to focus during class and can often be seen listening to music.
★ Study Strategy Concerns
○ Daniel lacks organization and independent study skills.
★ Attitude/Engagement Toward Reading/Writing
○ Daniel avoids reading for class and for fun, he highly dislikes reading aloud
○ Daniel shows a clear lack of confidence in literacy, especially in large groups
○ Daniel does not show confidence or interest in reading, even in a one-on-one
setting
★ Attitude/Engagement Toward School
○ Daniel does not produce quality work, often finishing assignments as quickly as
possible
★ Lack of Interest in Reading/Writing
○ Has zero interest in reading one-on-one, in a small group, or independently

Comments: Daniel has received one-on-one and small group Tier 2 and Tier 3 reading
intervention since his 6th grade year. In 3 years of intensive intervention Daniel has increased
his Scaled Score in STAR from an 86 to 400, and Percentile Ranking from 1% to 3%. Although
not greatly, one-on-one work has proven to benefit Daniel in previous school years.

CASE HISTORY
★ Birth Data
○ Adopted at age 9 (Grade 4) from an orphanage in South Africa
★ Developmental History:
○ English Language Learner who spoke minimal English when he moved to the
United States, most of his schooling involved copying notes (in English) directly
with little assessment on comprehension

EDUCATIONAL HISTORY
★ Above, On, or Below Grade Level Achievements / Grades - Daniel has consistently
scored below grade level on national Forward exams and district STAR assessments.
His lexile ranged between 170L and 450L on STAR assessments throughout his 8th
grade year. Classroom assessments are regularly below grade level or not completed.
★ Attitude Toward School
○ Average/Poor
○ Comments: Depending on the subject and teacher, Daniel’s attitude toward
school can fluctuate between average and poor. If something is difficult, Daniel
will shut down and avoid completing tasks. Often times, Daniel can be found
sitting quietly in class and doesn’t draw attention to himself or ask for help.

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★ Self-perception as a Learner
○ Poor
○ Comments: Daniel does not generally have a lot of confidence in his academics
or academic abilities.
★ Subjects/Classes Likes: Art, Healthy Living, Physical Education
○ Comments: Daniel prefers class that provide hands-on, engineering style
opportunities, or those where he can be more active.
★ Subjects/Classes Dislikes: Reading, Math, US History, Science
○ Comments: Classes heavy in reading or writing tasks are often Daniel’s least
favorite.

FAMILY HISTORY
★ Lives With: Two adoptive parents (mother and father), a biological ​(to parents)​ child of the
same age, and 5 younger siblings
★ Relationship to Caregivers: Adoptive parents/guardians
★ Number of Siblings: F age 14 (bio), M age 12 (bio), F age 10, M age 9, M age 7 (bio), M
age 6
★ Relationship to Siblings: Struggles to get along with siblings of all ages as he thinks they
are treated differently. Often times takes caregiver role to younger siblings. Feels as if he
is held to a higher standard/expectations.
★ Friendships / Personal Relationships: Daniel has many friends and is well liked by his
peers. Connects to his teammates on the basketball team most.

ASSESSMENT HISTORY (Parent or School)


★ General Achievements / Grades: C/D average. Reading, writing, and math are very
challenging for Daniel.
★ Formal / Standardized Tests:
○ Wisconsin Forward (7th Grade): ELA Scale Score: 557 Prof Level 1
○ STAR (8th Grade, Fall): Scaled Score: 346 Percentile Ranking: 2
○ Access (7th Grade): Composite Overall Scaled Score: 320 Prof Level 2.6
★ Comments: Consistently scored below average.

BEHAVIOR DURING TESTING AND LIMITATIONS OF RESULTS


★ Typical - At times, Daniel would complete assessments quickly while rushing through
some parts and taking his time on others. Rarely asks questions for clarification and will
oftentimes guess on questions he does not understand.

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★ Difficulty Understanding English - Daniel is sometimes provided audio readings of texts
but not always. His English competency could be a large factor in his comprehension
struggles.
★ Easily Distracted / Difficulty with Attention - Daniel’s social agenda tends to take a lead in
regards to his school life, he prioritizes sports and socializing with peers.
★ Difficulties with test that would affect reliability / validity of test results - Standardized
tests in school are electronic which may be distracting for Daniel.
★ Environmental Concerns / Distractions - The behavior of other students can sometimes
be a distraction for Daniel, as he often wants to join in.

ASSESSMENT RESULTS

Student Interest Inventory


● Attitude toward self as a reader: Daniel feels that he is not a good reader or student in
general. He is not confident in his ability to analyze unknown words or comprehend
texts.
● Interests (likes / dislikes)
○ Likes: Sports, animals, military, music, playing on the computer/iPad
○ Dislikes: reading, writing, math
● Learning style / preferences: visual, kinesthetic, verbal options

QRI-6

Word List Scores:

● Independent: Primer, First, & Second


● Instructional: Third
● Frustrational: Fourth & Fifth

Narrative Passage Scores:

● “The Lucky Cricket” Level 2


o Unfamiliar
o Oral reading
✓ Total Accuracy = 5
✓ Total Acceptability = 2
✓ Level Achieved = Independent
✓ Rate (WPM/WCPM) = 86 WPM + 84.75 WCPM
✓ Oral Reading Prosody Scale = 2
✓ Observations/Analysis = The student read choppy, haltingly, and
slow. Reluctant to read aloud but does acknowledge own errors

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and self-corrects often when mistakes are obvious. Self-corrected
8 times during the reading of this text.
o Comprehension
✓ Retelling = 5/29
Setting/Background 2/2
Goal 0/3
Events 2/21
Resolution 0/3
✓ Questions (Explicit/Implicit/Look-backs)
With Look-Backs
Explicit = 4/4 Implicit 3/4
✓ Level Achieved = Instructional
✓ Observations/Analysis = Daniel struggles to retell a story without
specifically stated questions.

● “A Special Birthday for Rosa” Level 3


o Familiar
o Oral reading
✓ Total Accuracy = 15
✓ Total Acceptability = 7
✓ Level Achieved = Instructional
✓ Rate (WPM/WCPM) = 73.05 WPM + 70.8 WCPM
✓ Oral Reading Prosody Scale = 2
✓ Observations/Analysis = The student read choppy, haltingly, and
slow. Reluctant to read aloud but does acknowledge own errors
and self-corrects often when mistakes are obvious. Self-corrected
13 times during the reading of this text.
o Comprehension
✓ Retelling = 7/32
Setting/Background 1/4
Goal 2/5
Events 3/19
Resolution 1/4
✓ Questions (Explicit/Implicit/Look-backs)
With Look-Backs
Explicit = 4/4 Implicit 4/4
✓ Level Achieved = Independent
✓ Observations/Analysis = Daniel struggles to retell a story without
specifically stated questions.

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Expository Passage Scores:

● “Seasons”
o Familiar
o Oral reading
✓ Total Accuracy = 4
✓ Total Acceptability = 2
✓ Level Achieved = Independent
✓ Rate (WPM/WCPM) = 70.9 WPM + 69.8 WCPM
✓ Oral Reading Prosody Scale = 2
✓ Observations/Analysis = The student read choppy, haltingly, and
slow. Reluctant to read aloud but does acknowledge own errors
and self-corrects often when mistakes are obvious. Self-corrected
8 times during the reading of this text.
o Comprehension
✓ Retelling = 5/18
Main Idea 1/1 Details 2/2
Main Idea 0/1 Details 1/3
Main Idea 1/1 Details 1/3
Main Idea 0/1 Details 1/3
Main Idea 0/1 Details 1/2
✓ Questions (Explicit/Implicit/Look-backs)
With Look-Backs
Explicit = 3/5 Implicit 1/3
✓ Level Achieved = Frustration
✓ Observations/Analysis = Daniel struggles to retell a story without
specifically stated questions.

● “Where Do People LIve?” Level 3


o Familiar
o Oral reading
✓ Total Accuracy = 6
✓ Total Acceptability = 2
✓ Level Achieved = Independent
✓ Rate (WPM/WCPM) = 83.3 WPM + 81.5 WCPM
✓ Oral Reading Prosody Scale = 2
✓ Observations/Analysis = The student read choppy, haltingly, and
slow. Reluctant to read aloud but does acknowledge own errors
and self-corrects often when mistakes are obvious. Self-corrected
8 times during the reading of this text.
o Comprehension
✓ Retelling = 5/24
Main Idea 0/1 Details 0/3

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Main Idea 0/1 Details 2/5
Main Idea 1/1 Details 1/8
Main Idea 0/1 Details 0/4
✓ Questions (Explicit/Implicit/Look-backs)
With Look-Backs
Explicit = 3/4 Implicit 3/4
✓ Level Achieved = Instructional
✓ Observations/Analysis = Daniel struggles to retell a story without
specifically stated questions.

Other Formal / Informal Reading Tests

San Diego Quick Assessment


● Independent: First, Second
● Instructional: Third
● Frustrational: Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth

STAR
Scaled Score: 400
Percentile Rank: 3

SYNTHESIS AND INTERPRETATION OF INFORMATION COLLECTED

Reading Achievement
Instructional Reading Level - Daniel’s current instructional reading level is at 3rd grade. Based
on his initial QRI-6 narrative and expository assessments and word lists, we began reading
some material in the 350 level Lexile scores. It was quickly recognizable that this level was
relatively easy for Daniel therefore we increased the reading level of our remaining texts to the
500-600L level. Using the Memphis Comprehension Framework, each week we focused on two
informational texts and one fictional short story or poem in connection to his science units of
study. Daniel showed growth in re-telling using the scaffolded graphic organizers.

Word Analysis Skills


( + strength, - weakness)
● Initial Consonants ​+
● Ending Consonants ​+
● Consonant Blend ​+
● Consonant Digraphs ​+

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● Short Vowel ​-
● Long Vowel ​-
● Vowel Digraph ​-
● Rimes ​-
● Initial Consonant Blends ​+
● Controlled Vowels ​-
● Schwa ​-

Sight Words
● Grade level Achieved - Using the San Diego Quick Assessment and the word lists from
QRI-6, I was able to determine Daniel’s sight word recognition is at that of a typical 3rd
grader. He could easily read through the lists until reaching the 3rd grade list in both
assessments and then struggles to decipher words.

Comprehension
( + strength, - weakness)
● Retelling ​-
● Explicit Questions ​+
● Implicit Questions ​-
● Familiar Text ​+
● Expository Text ​-
● Narrative Text ​+

Considerations for Student Learning


● Strengths - Daniel has many strengths that can assist him as he continues to develop
stronger literacy skills. Daniel is able to self-correct when he notices a mistake was
made the majority of the time, he will repeat text that was initially read incorrectly.
Daniel’s motivation to become a professional athlete and continue to participate in
school sports will be his prime motivator to work heard, increase his reading skills, and
keep his grades up.
● Needs - Daniel will benefit from any available opportunities to work one-on-one with an
adult. A focus on decoding and taking his time to read each word will help him discover
more meaning in the content he is reading. He will also benefit from being able to share
his thoughts aloud with others instead of having to write it first. The potential for
conversation to help him brainstorm and think through misconceptions prior to writing
would help get him writing in the first place. Focusing on taking opportunities to repeat
read and look back is important for Daniel’s comprehension as that is his biggest area of
need. Using graphic organizers to take notes and recall events will continue to benefit

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him recall of what he reads. Strategies such as reading the questions prior to reading the
text is a skill that he can practice regularly to build automatically with it.
● Ideal Learning modes / style - Daniel works best one-on-one but understands that he
needs to build his confidence to work in groups. Working on his comprehension by
slowing down and discussing meaning will help build this confidence for large groups.
● Attitude Toward Learning / Competence - Daniel’s goal is to be able to read faster, more
fluently, and understand texts better as he reads them. Continuing to coach Daniel in
independence and growth will be important to show him that working hard has long term
benefits. Self-tracking his data and growth may be helpful in this area.

RECOMMENDATIONS

★ Word Study
I recommend that Daniel continue working on vocabulary and decoding unfamiliar words.
With vocabulary, we practice the process of pre-teaching. Daniel also practiced a
process each session with me that included identifying unfamiliar words, using context
clues to try and figure it out, looking up the definition, coming up with synonyms and
antonyms, using the word in a sentence, and drawing a picture that represents the word.
Daniel also recorded the unknown words on cardstock and created his own personal
word wall. The process became somewhat automatic and I hope that Daniel will continue
to use this strategy to help him develop stronger understanding of vocabulary, especially
those Tier 3, content specific vocabulary words. Decoding involves Daniel looking at the
entire word, all parts, and deciphering the pronunciation of the word. Using context clues
can also help him figure out unfamiliar words in text.

★ Comprehension Strategies, Narrative & Expository


Due to Daniel’s language deficits related to his ELL status, building background
knowledge is going to be essential in increasing comprehension. Comprehension and
integrated writing strategies should include scaffolded graphic organizers and guided
reading. Daniel and I practiced the comprehension strategy from “The Memphis
Comprehension Framework.” This framework is a research-based process which uses
fiction and informational books to teach concepts. The framework has three steps: 1)
select age appropriate comprehension skills or strategies and use it for a minimum of
three weeks. 2) Focused read-aloud and discussion. During this step, Daniel and I took
turns reading using the Dyad reading strategy. We also focused on topics connected to
Daniel’s studies in science, and other high-interest topics. We focused on unfamiliar
vocabulary, higher level thinking, and metacognition. Daniel also engaged in three-level
retelling including guided oral-retelling, teacher created graphic organizers, and student
created graphic organizers. Graphic organizers helped Daniel organize his thoughts on
paper. Focusing on vocabulary was also essential in aiding Daniel’s comprehension.

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★ Fluency
Echo and choral reading have both helped Daniel’s fluency due to the modeling that he
can get from both. Daniel and I also practiced Dyad reading which is another form of
paired reading where both readers read the same text, taking turns reading and
summarizing each paragraph before the second readers continues. Teacher modeling
and regular reminders of what a sentence should sound like and the different pauses for
commas and periods will also benefit his fluency. Focusing on reading every word and
slowing down will help fluency impact his comprehension. Continuing to self-monitor and
self-correct when necessary was also a focus of our practices.

★ Writing Plan

Daniel used graphic organizers to organize his thoughts during and post reading. Daniel
would benefit from a reading and writing journal or notebook where he could keep track
of the main ideas of the story and other important details. Daniel will still need to focus
on the mechanics of writing, but I anticipate that strengthening as his fluency gets
stronger and he recognizes common patterns in what he reads.

★ Text Suggestions
Daniel would work best with high/low titles that engage older readers using lower level
reading text. Allowing Daniel to choose the titles that he reads would have immense
success. Some text suggestions to start with include: “Rookie of the Year by Phil Bildner”
(550L) or “Outside Shot” by Paul Demko.

OVERALL SUMMARY STATEMENT

Due to Daniel’s language deficits related to his ELL status, building background knowledge is
going to be essential in increasing comprehension. Next steps should include a focus on fluency
to increase reading rate, word study, and comprehension. Word study including a personalized
word-wall and practicing using content in context is recommended. Comprehension and
integrated writing strategies should include scaffolded graphic organizers and guided reading. It
is recommended that timed repeated readings, teacher read alouds, and Dyad reading be used
to increase fluency. Due to Daniel’s lack of confidence and general interest in reading, high
interest, low reading level books are recommended.

Daniel is a charismatic young man that is a joy to work with, although he can be quite stubborn
at times. He is driven but not confident. Daniel almost always needs one-on-one teacher

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attention to produce almost anything, and that is not always an option. Daniel will benefit from
any extra literacy work to build his vocabulary, fluency and comprehension skills as well as his
confidence in reading. In our sessions we discussed how hard work and asking questions for
clarification can help him in the long run, and ultimately help him succeed as an athlete in high
school. Daniel has more potential than he is aware of at this point. I recommend connecting
Daniel to as many resources in high school as possible, since he will not search these out on
his own. Keeping his end goal in mind, Daniel will be able to build his confidence in reading and
academics in the future.

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