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Neon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neon&...

Neon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Neon ( /ˈniːɒn/) is the chemical element that has the fluorine ← neon → sodium
symbol Ne and an atomic number of 10. Although a He
10 Ne
very common element in the universe, it is rare on ↑
Earth. A colourless, inert noble gas under standard Ne
conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow ↓ Periodic table
when used in discharge tubes and neon lamps and Ar
[4][5] Appearance
advertising signs. It is commercially extracted
from air, in which it is found in trace amounts. colorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow
when placed in a high voltage electric field

Contents
1 History
2 Creation
3 Isotopes
4 Characteristics
5 Occurrence
6 Applications
7 Compounds
8 See also
9 References
10 External links Spectral lines of Neon
General properties
Name, neon, Ne, 10
History symbol,
number
Neon (Greek νέον Pronunciation /ˈniːɒn/
(neon) meaning "new Element noble gases
one") was discovered in category
1898 by the British Group, 18, 2, p
chemists Sir William period, block
Ramsay (1852–1916)
Standard 20.1797(6) g·mol−1
and Morris W. Travers atomic weight
(1872–1961) in
[6] Electron 1s2 2s2 2p6
London. Neon was configuration
discovered when Electrons per 2, 8 (Image)
Ramsay chilled a sample shell
of the atmosphere until
Physical properties
it became a liquid, then
warmed the liquid and Phase gas
captured the gases as Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
they boiled off. After 0.9002 g/L
nitrogen, oxygen, and Melting point 24.56 K, -248.59 °C, 
In the bottom right corner -415.46 °F
argon, the three gases
of J. J. Thomson's
that boiled off were Boiling point 27.07 K, -246.08 °C, 
photographic plate are the -410.94 °F
krypton, xenon, and
separate impact marks for [7]
the two isotopes of neon: neon. Triple point 24.5561 K (-249°C), 43[1][2] kPa
neon-20 and neon-22. Critical point 44.4 K, 2.76 MPa
In December 1910,
Heat of 0.335 kJ·mol−1
French engineer fusion
Georges Claude made a lamp from an electrified tube
of neon gas. In 1912, Claude's associate began selling
Heat of 1.71 kJ·mol−1
vaporization
neon discharge tubes as advertising signs. They were

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Neon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neon&...

introduced to U.S. in 1923, when two large neon Specific heat (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
signs were bought by a Los Angeles Packard car capacity
dealership. The glow and arresting red colour made
Vapor pressure
neon advertising completely different from the
[8]
competition. P (Pa) 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k
Neon played a role in the basic understanding of the at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
nature of atoms in 1913, when J. J. Thomson, as part
of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, Atomic properties
channeled streams of neon ions through a magnetic Oxidation no data
and an electric field and measured their deflection by states
placing a photographic plate in their path. Thomson Ionization 1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol−1
observed two separate patches of light on the energies
2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1
photographic plate (see image), which suggested two (more)
different parabolas of deflection. Thomson eventually 3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1
concluded that some of the atoms in the neon gas Covalent 58 pm
were of higher mass than the rest. Though not radius
understood at the time by Thompson, this was the Van der 154 pm
first discovery of isotopes of stable atoms. It was made Waals radius
by using a crude version of an instrument we now Miscellanea
term as a mass spectrometer. Crystal face-centered cubic
structure
Creation Magnetic diamagnetic[3]
ordering
Stable forms of neon are produced in stars. It is Thermal (300 K) 49.1x10 -3 W·m−1·K−1
created in fusing helium and oxygen in the alpha conductivity
process, which requires temperatures above 100 Speed of (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s
megakelvin and masses greater than 3 solar masses. sound
Bulk modulus 654 GPa
Isotopes CAS registry 7440-01-9
number
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of neon
Main article: Isotopes of neon
Neon is the second lightest inert gas. Neon has three
20 21 iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
stable isotopes: Ne (90.48%), Ne (0.27%) and
22 21 22 20 90.48% 20
Ne (9.25%). Ne and Ne are nucleogenic and Ne Ne is stable with 10 neutrons
20
their variations are well understood. In contrast, Ne 21Ne 0.27% 21Ne is stable with 11 neutrons
(the cosmogenic primordial isotope made in stellar 22
nucleosynthesis) is not known to be nucleogenic, save Ne 9.25% 22Ne is stable with 12 neutrons
for cluster decay production, which is thought to
produce only a small amount. The causes of the
20 [9]
variation of Ne in the Earth have thus been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions
24 25
which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on Mg and Mg,
21 22
which produce Ne and Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series
decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha
20 22 21 22
particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower Ne/ Ne and higher Ne/ Ne ratios
observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has
21
demonstrated the cosmogenic production of Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation
reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the
cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests
that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and
[10]
meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as
21 22
well as nucleogenic Ne, relative to Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-
20
derived samples represents a non-atmospheric source of neon. The Ne-enriched components are
attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar
20
neon. Elevated Ne abundances are found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir

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Neon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neon&...

[11]
in the Earth.

Characteristics
Neon is the second-lightest noble gas. It glows reddish-orange in a
vacuum discharge tube. According to recent studies, neon is the
least reactive noble gas and thus the least reactive of all
[12]
elements. Also, neon has the narrowest liquid range of any
element: from 24.55 K to 27.05 K (−248.45 °C to −245.95 °C, or
−415.21 °F to −410.71 °F). It has over 40 times the refrigerating
capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen
[13]
(on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less
[14]
Neon discharge tube expensive refrigerant than helium.

Neon plasma
has the most
intense light
discharge at
normal
voltages and
Spectrum of neon with ultraviolet lines (at left) currents of all
and infrared (at right) shown in white the noble
gases. The
average colour of this light to the human eye is red-orange due to many lines in this range; it also
contains a strong green line which is hidden, unless the visual components are dispersed by a
[15]
spectroscope.

Two quite different kinds of neon lights are in common use. Glow-discharge lamps are typically
tiny, and often designed to operate at 120 volts; they are widely used as power-on indicators and
in circuit-testing equipment. Neon signs and other arc-discharge devices operate instead at high
voltages, often 3–15 kilovolts; they can be made into (often bent) tubes a few meters long.

Occurrence
Neon is actually abundant on a universal scale: the fifth most abundant chemical element in the
universe by mass, after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element). Its relative
rarity on Earth, like that of helium, is due to its relative lightness, high vapor pressure at very low
temperatures, and chemical inertness, all properties which tend to keep it from being trapped in
the condensing gas and dust clouds which resulted in the formation of smaller and warmer solid
planets like Earth.

Neon is monatomic, making it lighter than the molecules of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen which
form the bulk of Earth's atmosphere; a balloon filled with neon will rise in air, albeit more slowly
[16]
than a helium balloon.

Mass abundance in the universe is about 1 part in 750 and in the Sun and presumably in the
proto-solar system nebula, about 1 part in 600. The Galileo spacecraft atmospheric entry probe
found that even in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the abundance of neon is reduced (depleted)
by about a factor of 10, to a level of 1 part in 6,000 by mass. This may indicate that even the
ice-planetesimals which brought neon into Jupiter from the outer solar system, formed in a region
which was too warm for them to have kept their neon (abundances of heavier inert gases on
[17]
Jupiter are several times that found in the Sun).

Neon is a monatomic gas at standard conditions. Neon is rare on Earth, found in the Earth's
atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 (by volume) or 1 part in 83,000 by mass. It is industrially
[13]
produced by cryogenic fractional distillation of liquefied air.

Applications

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Neon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neon&...

Neon is often used in signs and produces an


unmistakable bright reddish-orange light.
Although still referred to as "neon", all other
colours are generated with the other noble gases
or by many colours of fluorescent lighting.

Neon is used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage


indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter
"Neon" signs may use tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Neon gas-discharge
neon along with other Liquefied neon is commercially used as a lamps forming the
noble gases. cryogenic refrigerant in applications not symbol for Neon
requiring the lower temperature range "Ne".
attainable with more extreme liquid helium refrigeration.

Liquid neon is expensive – for small quantities, its price can be more than 55 times that of liquid
helium. The driver for expense is rarity of neon, not the liquefaction process.

The triple point temperature of neon (24.5561 K) is a defining fixed point in the International
[1]
Temperature Scale of 1990.

Compounds
Neon is the first p-block noble gas. Theoretically neon is the least reactive of all noble gases
[12]
(including helium which produces a metastable compound HHeF), and therefore generally
considered to be inert. The calculated bond energies of neon with noble metals, hydrogen,
beryllium and boron are lesser than that of helium or any other noble gas. No true compounds
+ + +
including the neutral compounds of neon are known. However, the ions Ne , (NeAr) , (NeH) ,
+
and (HeNe ) have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric studies, and there are
[13]
some unverified reports of an unstable hydrate.

See also
Expansion ratio
Neon sign
Neon lamp

References
1. ^ a b Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The 5. ^ Kohmoto, Kohtaro (1999). "Phosphors for
International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)" lamps" (http://books.google.com
(http://www.bipm.org/en/publications /?id=lWlcJEDukRIC&pg=PA380) . in Shionoya,
/its-90.html) . Metrologia 27: 3-10. Shigeo; Yen, William M.. Phosphor Handbook.
http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/its-90.html. CRC Press. pp. 940. ISBN 9780849375606.
2. ^ "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and http://books.google.com/?id=lWlcJEDukRIC&
Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, pg=PA380.
and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC 6. ^ Ramsay, William, Travers, Morris W. (1898).
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th edition "On the Companions of Argon". Proceedings of
ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005. the Royal Society of London 63: 437–440.
3. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and doi:10.1098/rspl.1898.0057 (http://dx.doi.org
inorganic compounds (http://www-d0.fnal.gov /10.1098%2Frspl.1898.0057) .
/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering 7. ^ "Neon: History" (http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5
/elementmagn.pdf) , in Handbook of Chemistry /scenes-e/elem/e01000.html) . Softciências.
and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem
4. ^ Coyle, Harold P. (2001). Project STAR: The /e01000.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
Universe in Your Hands (http://books.google.com 8. ^ Mangum, Aja (December 8, 2007). "Neon: A
/?id=KwTzo4GMlewC&pg=PA127) . Kendall Brief History" (http://nymag.com/shopping
Hunt. pp. 464. ISBN 9780787267636. /features/41814/) . New York Magazine.
http://books.google.com/?id=KwTzo4GMlewC& http://nymag.com/shopping/features/41814/.
pg=PA127. 9. ^ Dickin, Alan P (2005). "Neon"
(http://books.google.com/?id=z8ZCg2HRvWsC&

4 of 5 Wednesday 22 September 2010 05:20 PM


Neon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neon&...

pg=PA303) . Radiogenic isotope geology. p. 303. /hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering


ISBN 9780521823166. http://books.google.com /elements.pdf.
/?id=z8ZCg2HRvWsC&pg=PA303. 14. ^ "NASSMC: News Bulletin"
10. ^ "Neon: Isotopes" (http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5 (http://www.nassmc.org/bulletin
/scenes-e/elem/e01093.html) . Softciências. /dec05bulletin.html#table) . December 30, 2005.
http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem http://www.nassmc.org/bulletin
/e01093.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. /dec05bulletin.html#table. Retrieved March 5,
11. ^ Anderson, Don L.. "Helium, Neon & Argon" 2007.
(http://www.mantleplumes.org/Ne.html) . 15. ^ "Plasma" (http://www.electricalfun.com
Mantleplumes.org. http://www.mantleplumes.org /plasma.htm) . http://www.electricalfun.com
/Ne.html. Retrieved July 2, 2006. /plasma.htm. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
12. ^ a b Lewars, Errol G. (2008-11-17). Modelling 16. ^ Gallagher, R.; Ingram, P. (2001-07-19).
Marvels (http://books.google.com Chemistry for Higher Tier
/?id=IoFzgBSSCwEC&pg=PA70) . Springer. (http://books.google.com/?id=SJtWSy69eVsC&
pp. 70–71. ISBN 1402069723. pg=PA96) . University Press. pp. 282.
http://books.google.com/?id=IoFzgBSSCwEC& ISBN 9780199148172. http://books.google.com
pg=PA70. /?id=SJtWSy69eVsC&pg=PA96.
13. ^ a b c Hammond, C.R. (2000). The Elements, in 17. ^ Morse, David (January 26, 1996). "Galileo
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition Probe Science Result" (http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov
(http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info /sl9/gll38.html) . Galileo Project.
/engineering/elements.pdf) . CRC press. p. 19. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/gll38.html.
ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov Retrieved February 27, 2007.

External links
The Periodic Table of Videos video of Neon (http://www.youtube.com/?v=wzv0pb7mzaw) at
YouTube
WebElements.com – Neon (http://www.webelements.com/neon/) .
It's Elemental – Neon (http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele010.html)
USGS Periodic Table - Neon (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/period/ne_iig.html)
Atomic Spectrum of Neon (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/quantum
/atspect2.html)
Neon Museum, Las Vegas (http://www.neonmuseum.org/)

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Categories: Neon | Chemical elements | Coolants | Noble gases | Refrigerants | Laser gain media

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