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Royal Holloway

INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION University of London

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA


Problems and Models
SHORT COURSE
October 2003

Robert Hall
SE Asia Research Group
Department of Geology
Royal Holloway
University of London UK
CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Contents 1 Contents 2
‡ Methods ‡ Specific regions
î Dating/Igneous activity î New Guinea
î Palaeomagnetism î Moluccas
î Plate tectonics î Sulawesi
î Provenance studies î Banda
‡ Regional background î Borneo
î Tectonic framework î Java
î Controls î Sundaland
î Tomography ‡ Conclusions and commentary
î Heatflow

SUNDALAND MOLUCCA
SEA
BORNEO
SULAWESI
NEW
GUINEA
JAVA
BANDA
SEA

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Dating
‡ The most fundamental part of geology is
stratigraphy
‡ Essential part of this is good dating
‡ Traditional biostratigraphic methods remain
important
‡ Isotopic dating important because of
abundance of magmatic rocks in active arc
regions

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Present-day volcanoes Geochemical and


mainly Smithsonian data isotopic database
Symbols
Metamorphic
Plutonic
Hypabyssal
Volcanic
Basic Plutonic
Basic Hypabyssal
Basic Volcanic
Intermediate Plutonic
Intermediate Hypabyssal
Intermediate Volcanic
Evolved Plutonic
Evolved Hypabyssal
Evolved Volcanic

Current volcanic Past igneous


activity largely activity also
subduction- largely
related subduction-
related

Ages: Methods Whole Rock Ages


Total ages Ar-Ar K-Ar Rb-Sr Other Total ages WR ages Ar-Ar K-Ar Other
Indonesia 1240 43 1120 17 60 Indonesia 1240 494 1 488 5
New Guinea 533 13 515 5 — New Guinea 533 74 — 74 —
Philippines 421 12 395 3 11 Philippines 421 344 1 340 3
Phil Sea Plate 162 43 119 — — Phil Sea Plate 162 154 38 116 —
2356 111 2149 25 71 2356 1066 40 1018 8

‡ Most are K-Ar ‡ About 50% of dates are whole rock


‡ Very few Ar-Ar or other methods ‡ One third of Ar-Ar dates are whole rock

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Ages: Distribution Quality of Database


Total ages 0-10 Ma 10-65 Ma >65 Ma ‡ Undervalues remote and poorly investigated
Indonesia 1240 546 432 262 areas
New Guinea 533 219 239 75 ‡ May undervalue importance (volume, etc) in
Philippines 421 221 190 10 some areas
Phil Sea Plate 162 12 149 1
2356 998 1010 348 ‡ Does not display areas where igneous activity
dated stratigraphically
‡ Cenozoic ages unevenly distributed ‡ In some areas significant discrepancies
between isotopic methods (K-Ar v Ar-Ar), and
‡ Approximately 50% of Cenozoic dates are <
biostratigraphic dating
10 Ma

IZU-BONIN ARC
(Cosca et al., 1998) K-Ar versus Ar-Ar dating
5
frequency

4
YEMEN BASALTS
3
30 (Baker et al., 1996)
2
25 Ar-Ar ages (Ma)
frequency

1
20
Thai apatite
0
15
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

5
Ar-Ar ages (Ma)
10
frequency

4 5

3 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

2 K-Ar ages (Ma)


1

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
FT dating
K-Ar ages (Ma)

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

1
6
Turen
14
Je –
volcanic
Palaeomagnetism
1 mb
A breccia
Jember 10 N er
2
7 10 -
‡ Vital for location of palaeo-positions
8
gra
- nod
î But only palaeolatitude
4 iorit
d e ‡ The only way to detect rotations
0 i
5 1 1 2 2 3
zircon U-Pb o Ma
date
SHRIMP U-Pb ages 0 0 5 0
r
5 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 i 0 0
t
e

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

26°CCW 1 1
STRUCTURAL
CORRECTION
INCREASES
D = 333° DISPERSION
LAVA DIPS NOT
I = -26° PALAEO-HORIZONTAL
a95 = 4.1°
K = 161

WOI FORMATION WOI FORMATION


SESEPE RIVER SESEPE RIVER
OBI OBI
IN SITU TILT CORRECTED

Reconstruction
principles

Plate tectonics

200 Ma

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sediment Provenance Detrital Zircon Morphologies


‡ Sources of sediment Euhedral
î Timing of input
î First cycle detritus from a granite
î Sediment pathways
î Drainage Subhedral
î Uplift
î Possibly first cycle
‡ Tectonics
Rounded
î Polycyclic history

Photos: W. Uttamo, Thailand

Detrital Zircon from Crocker Detrital zircon from Crocker Formation sandstones

Formation Sandstones

‡ Euhedral shape
‡ Limited recycling
‡ Proximal source

Marco van Hattum, Sabah

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Provenance-Specific Heavy Minerals


SE Asia and SW Pacific
Fresh chrome spinel
(Crocker Fm)
‡ Background to the region
‡ Animation to show principal features of tectonic
history

Tourmaline (Kudat Fm)

Kyanite (Kudat Fm)

Gondwana
breakup in
Mesozoic: partial
reassembly in SE
Asia during
Cenozoic

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

30

C QS
SC
PS NP
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Pre-Cenozoic subduction
L

WB S
I
SWB

Metcalfe 1998
around SE Asia
PA
‡ Sundaland ‘core’ amalgamated to Asia by end
0 Si
N
M WS

CENO-TETHYS
Sm Ba
Triassic
ES O
80 Ma ‡ In similar geographic position to present day
Ba-Su

30
GREATER
INDIA
B-S
WIJ
reconstruction since then (i.e. close to equator)
Bu
N. GUINEA

‡ Evidence of long-term subduction at south and


INDIA

INDIAN east margins from at least Mesozoic onwards


OCEAN
AUSTRALIA ‡ Cenozoic growth of SE Asia associated with
M0

Pacific/Philippine Sea and India/Australia plate


60
subduction
Late Cretaceous SE Asia
surrounded by subduction zones;
ANTARCTICA LATE CRETACEOUS (80 Ma) Australia by passive margins

55

Virtually all areas


shown in dark
blue without
anomalies have
been subducted
since 55 Ma
Hall, 2002

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Current Motions
‡ SE Asia close to equator throughout Cenozoic
‡ GPS observations give information on current
vectors
‡ Current position influences ocean circulation,
atmospheric circulation and history of life

McCaffrey 1996

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Major ocean currents in east Indonesia and the west Pacific after Godfrey (1996) Indonesian Throughflow

Pacific Ocean

Indian Ocean

The Indian ‘Myth’


‡ SE Asia often regarded as the ‘result’ of India-
Asia collision
‡ This is not the case
‡ Palaeomagnetic rotations inconsistent with
model
‡ Displacements on strike-slip faults difficult to
trace offshore
‡ Timing and amounts of motions on strike-slip
faults still controversial

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

30
SC PACIFIC
C QS Metcalfe 1998
PS NP OCEAN
L
I
SWB
WB S

0 Si PA
N
M WS

CENO-TETHYS
Sm Ba

South China
Sea

Andaman
Sea Hutchison 1996

Leloup et al 2001

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Borneo Rotation 6287+($67$6,$


5(&216758&7,21:,7+
‡ “The reason for the alternative view revolves $121527$7,1*
around the requirement in the Hall &(12=2,&%251(2
5:0XUSK\
reconstruction for large scale counter-
clockwise rotation of Borneo…”
‡ “This runs counter to my understanding
which… …visualises a clockwise rotation of ´6XQGDDQGWKH3KLOLSSLQH6HDDUHWUHDWHGDV
ULJLGEORFNV«µ
Sunda…”
´«DFORFNZLVHURWDWLRQRI6XQGD«WDNHQDV
‡ Murphy’s Law DVLQJOHEORFN«µ

î “…Resolution of the tectonic problems lies ´«WZRPDMRUSODWHV6XQGDDQGWKH3KLOLSSLQH


6HD«µ
in recognising the major left-lateral bounding
´«6XQGDDOWKRXJKKLJKO\GHIRUPHGKDVQRW
fault sets of the eastern margin of Sunda…” EHHQVSOLWLQWRIUDJPHQWVZLWKLQWHUYHQLQJ
RFHDQEDVLQV«µ

Cenozoic History of SE Asia


‡ Most important periods of plate reorganisations 55 Ma to Present in SE Asia and SW Pacific
î about 45 Ma
î about 25 Ma
î about 5 Ma
‡ These events are recorded through the entire
region

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Tomography and Tectonics


‡ S wave and P wave seismic tomography
‡ Offers insights into nature of mantle below SE
Asia
‡ Seismic tomography can also provide
independent tests of tectonic models

Link to Tomography

S20RTS model
SE Asia plotted by Wim Spakman
Regional Heat Flow
‡ Heat flow is high in much of the region
‡ What are the causes ?
î Shallow crust: sediments?
î Crustal production?
î Mantle?
î Tectonically driven?

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Heatflow
mW/m2

Pollack et al (1993) NGDC dataset

Heatflow Heatflow
mW/m2 mW/m2

Pollack et al (1993) NGDC dataset + IPA/SEAPEX data Pollack et al (1993) NGDC dataset + IPA/SEAPEX data + estimate for active volcanoes

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Subduction Rollback
‡ Also known as
î Hinge retreat or hinge rollback

IPA Short Course 2003 Introduction 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

North New Guinea


arc terranes
Ontong Java
plateau

Arc terranes in ‘Mobile Belt’ of New Guinea, north of Australia 45 to 25 Ma


‡ Massive rollback of subduction hinge north of
Melanesian arc
‡ Northward subduction of Australian plate
beneath Philippines-Halmahera arc
‡ Arc-continent collision in New Guinea at 25
Ma
‡ Arrival of Ontong Java plateau at Melanesian
arc at about the same time
‡ After 25 Ma strike-slip along New Guinea
margin

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Velocity anomalies in the


deep Upper Mantle can be
interpreted as the result of
45 Ma to 25 in the SW Pacific 45-25 Ma subduction

P wave tomographic image


by Wim Spakman

No evidence for subduction beneath North New Guinea in Miocene

Charlton, 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Possible young extension in Bird’s Neck but no good evidence for rotation of Bird’s Head
Since 5 Ma
‡ Major elevation of New Guinea mountains
‡ Region of very high sediment productivity

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

SLAB PULL:
THE
WOODLARK
BASIN

A3
A7

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

from Taylor et al. 1995, Nature Western Woodlark Basin

New Britain
Trench
New
G u in
ea

Ontong-
Solomon
Java
Sea
plateau
Woodlark
Basin

Coral
Sea

Anomaly 2 ~1.9 Ma

Woodlark Basin
‡ Ocean basin formed in convergent setting
10 Ma to Present east of New Guinea
‡ Extension driven by slab pull at New Britain
subduction zone
‡ Ridge formed since 10 Ma is being subducted
beneath the Solomon Islands at its eastern
end
‡ Spreading centre is propagating west into
Papuan peninsula
‡ Ocean basin is being subducted faster than it
is propagating west
‡ What will remain in 5 Ma?

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

from Martinez et al. 2001, Nature

ARC LINE
S N
EN INSULA
PAPUAN P
5

TROBRIAND
0
–5
–10
–15
Depth (km)

DI

TRO
CORAL
–20 SEA PAPU A OSM GB
N PLA
–25

UGH
TE
AU PUB
–30
M ANTLE PUB

C
–35 LITHOSPH

ON
ERE
–40

TI
NE
HYDRA PHERE
–45 TED CR ITHOS

N
UST
AL

TA
SE

L
AND MAN

CR
ASTHEN US TLE N
OSPHERE T

O
M
LO
SO
de
gititu
Lo n

Recent subduction
beneath Papuan
peninsula postulated
to have contributed to
formation of core Latitude No seismic evidence
complexes for this subduction

IPA Short Course 2003 New Guinea 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

PHILIPPINE
SULU
SEA
SEA

Sangihe
CELEBES Arc
SEA
Molucca Halmahera
Sea Arc

Arc-arc collision

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Molucca Sea region

500

1000

1500

P wave tomographic P wave tomographic image by Wim Spakman


image by Wim Spakman

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Microcontinental fragments Stratigraphic arguments for origin in east

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Moluccas: Pre-Neogene
 Intra-oceanic arc
 Long history
 Cretaceous arc built on older ophiolitic
basement
 Eocene-Oligocene arc built on this
 Important stratigraphic change in early
Miocene

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Palaeomagnetism: PSP Long term


northward motion
of sites in PSP
revealed by
 Philippine Sea plate has history of northward inclination data
motion
 Land sites suggest large CW rotations, but
results were considered controversial
because they are from sites close to eastern
plate margin

Different sites
show parallel
tracks, depending
on present latitude

Land sites (and


two DSDP sites)
show similar
northward motions
but also reveal
clockwise rotation

Are these showing


local rotation or
whole plate
rotation?

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Palaeomagnetism: SFZ SFZ sites show


northward motions
like PSP sites
 North Moluccas sites show northward motion
typical of PSP
 They also show large CW rotations similar to
sites in PSP

They also reveal


clockwise rotation,
except south of
Sorong Fault,
suggesting local
rotations near fault
zone

Meaning of Results
 All sites are within PSP
 Long-term CW rotation of entire plate can
account for northward motions and rotation
 EU-PSP rotation pole can be calculated
 Past poles are not at present-day position

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Present Eu-PSP Pole

Pole at Palau

Poles calculated
from SFZ data

Pole positions
 Poles can be combined with opening history
of marginal basins
 Predicted and observed latitudes and
rotations can be compared
 Good fit suggests estimates of rotation poles
are reliable
 Model predicts strike-slip motion along SFZ
since 25 Ma
 Provides basis for tectonic reconstruction

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Rotations: Latitudes:
model versus model versus
observed observed

Geochemistry
25 Ma event was  Slivers of continental crust within strands of
Australia-PSP arc
collision, causing
SFZ
change from  Geochemistry can help to understand timing
subduction to strike-
slip motion along
of arrival of continental crust beneath arc
SFZ  Modern arc volcanics show continental
contamination at south end of arc?
 When is this contamination recorded first?

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Pb isotope Most volcanic


geochemistry rocks require
of oceanic only mixing of
segment I-MORB and
indicates sediments,
sediment but Pb isotope
contamination geochemistry
indicates
Bacan
segment has
been
contaminated
by continental
material

Nd, Sr and Pb Sibela


isotope metamorphic
geochemistry rocks
of Bacan exposed on
segment also Bacan are
indicates continental
contamination but do not
by continental have required
material extreme
compositions:
much older
Precambrian
material
implied at
depth

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sorong Fault Structure


 Seismic lines show faults and distribution of
sediment
 Abrupt termination of Australian crust and
overlying sediments forming part of Salawati
basin
 Within fault strands small half graben-like
structures
 Suggest westward escape of blocks, and
young transtension

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Weda Bay, Halmahera has


similar character at depth

Molucca Sea Collision Gravity modelling


has been used to
suggest ophiolites
of Molucca Sea
 Ophiolites in collision zone are parts of
 Molucca Sea plate or not? subducted plate,
somehow elevated
 E-W sections and MODEC results reveal by collision

northward progression of collision between


Sangihe and Halmahera arcs

McCaffrey et al., 1983

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Other models
suggest numerous Melanges and Ophiolites
slab fragments at
depth, based
mainly on
 I interpret the ophiolites as part of the
seismicity Sangihe forearc
 Collision has stacked the two forearcs and
elevated the central ridge
 But convergence has not been
straightforward
 Several episodes of failure within Halmahera
backarc , arc and forearc
 The arc is the weakest point

Bader et al., 1999

Eocene pillows, Talaud

Reefs, Talaud

Reefs, Mayu

Pre-Neogene melange, Mayu

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

15 Ma to Present in Molucca Sea region

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 17


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Molucca Sea
 Neogene Halmahera arc active only since
<15 Ma
 Arc-arc collision led to repeated failure of the
Halmahera arc by thrusting at the site of the
arc
 Halmahera arc currently partly overridden by
the Sangihe arc
 What will remain in 5 Ma?
 Arcs can disappear with almost no trace (at
the surface)

IPA Short Course 2003 Moluccas 18


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sulawesi Geology
‡ Western plutono-volcanic arc
‡ Central suture zone / blueschists
‡ Eastern ophiolite
‡ Microcontinental fragments

‡ Interpretation
‡ Product of arc-continent collision in Early
Miocene
‡ Many different models

Guntoro (1999) Simandjuntak & Barber (1996) Neogene Sulawesi Orogeny


after Parkinson (1991)

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Parkinson (1998) Ali et al (1996)

End Eocene
East Arm
‡ Ophiolite with Indian Ocean origin, may be
composite
‡ Ages suggested range from Cretaceous to
Eocene
‡ Emplaced by Early Miocene
Late Miocene

Charlton (2000)

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Parkinson
(1991)

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

West Sulawesi
‡ Ophiolite obduction interpreted by Bergman
et al (1996) as Late Oligocene-Early Miocene
‡ Miocene collision interpreted to result from
continent-continent collision
‡ Makassar Straits interpreted as foreland
basin between converging Neogene fold and
thrust belts
‡ Western Sulawesi magmatic arc interpreted
as continent-continent collision product

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Bergman et al (1996)

South Sulawesi
‡ Long history of carbonate platform deposition
‡ No obvious record of any Miocene collision

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Moyra Wilson
1995

Moyra Wilson
Moyra Wilson

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Moyra Wilson

Alit Ngakan, 1997

Lariang and Karama Regions


‡ Also show no sign of Miocene collision
‡ Evidence of Eocene rifting
‡ Mainly steady subsidence through Oligocene
and Miocene
‡ Major tectonic change only in Pliocene
‡ Present high relief is very young

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Stephen Calvert, 2000


Stephen Calvert, 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Contraction
‡ Begins only in Pliocene
‡ Has propagated west
‡ No sign of deformation in central Makassar
Straits, even today
‡ Basement involved, not simply thin-skinned
‡ Influence of pre-existing structural trends,
especially NW-SE faults

Stephen Calvert, 2000

Stephen Calvert, 2000 Stephen Calvert, 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Stephen Calvert, 2000

Makassar Straits
‡ Central Makassar Straits undeformed
î Sediment thickens from Paternoster
Platform
î Sediment thickens from Kalimantan
‡ Asymmetrical: Kalimantan side much wider
than Sulawesi side
‡ Floored by oceanic or continental crust ?

Stephen Calvert, 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Fraser et al., 2003

Sulawesi side
‡ Three sections, bounded by older faults,
possibly reactivated
‡ North segment
î Muddy sediment derived from east
î Mainly thrust to NW
‡ Central segment
î Sediment onlaps from west
î Little deformation offshore
‡ Southern segment
î Much sandier, clearly derived from east
î Simple detachments and folding

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sea bed " Basal unconformity

Northern segment Central segment

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Central segment Southern segment

Basal unconformity Seabed Basal unconformity Seabed

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Evolution
‡ Eocene: rifting
‡ Makassar Straits floored by continental crust?
‡ Oligocene and Miocene shelf sedimentation
in present West Sulawesi
‡ Steep slope to deep basin
‡ Pliocene shortening and rapid elevation
‡ Thrusting, folding propagates west
‡ Detachments within basement

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Australian Crust?
‡ Isotopic signature indicating old Precambrian
crust beneath West Sulawesi has been
interpreted to be product of Miocene collision
‡ But no evidence of Miocene collision in West
Sulawesi
‡ Was the continental crust there already?
‡ Are the magmatic rocks products of extension
not collision?

Stephen Calvert, 2000

Late Neogene
‡ Extension initiated in Middle Miocene?
î Volcanic evidence
î Bone Gulf
î Gorontalo Bay ?
‡ Important changes in Pliocene
î Initiation of subduction
î Very late strike-slip faulting
î Palu Fault?
î Gorontalo Bay ?
î Walanae Fault?

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Present seismicity
West Sulawesi Bellier et al, 2001
volcanic
activity in
Neogene has
extensional Una-Una Only one active volcano:
character. except at east end of North Arm

Unlike
subduction or
post-collision
settings.

GPS motions
Vigny et al, 2002

IPA Short Course 2003 Sulawesi 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Banda controversies Sulawesi


Bird’s
 More literature and more argument than Seram Head
Trough
anywhere else Seram
 Banda arc is the subject of controversy about
 Age and origin of the enclosed ocean basin
Weber
Banda Sea
 Location of the suture Deep

 Timing of collision
 Nature of subducted crust
 How it acquired its shape Timor
h
rT roug
Timo AUSTRALIA

McCaffrey, 1989

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Arc-continent Gravity
collision Sera
m
anomalies
Trou
began in Late g h
highlight
Neogene deep troughs

Weber
Deep

gh
ou
Tr
u
Ar
Structure: solid where active,
dashed where inactive gh
rou
ar T
i mb
Supposed present Tan
or former trench

Normal faults

Strike-slip fault

Active volcanoes

Timor
 Most work on land has been done on Timor
 Not a melange
 Deformed Australian margin forms a lower
folded and thrusted sequence (‘para-
autochthon’)
 Upper thrust units of SE Asian origin (‘Banda
allochthon’)
 Interpreted as result of collision of Australian
margin and Banda volcanic arc

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Roep & Fortuin, 1996 Fortuin et al., 1997

Many interpreted
collisions conflict with
geological evidence

“SUMBA 8 Ma collision”

Little or no evidence to support models involving microcontinent


Keep et al., 2003
collisions earlier in Cenozoic (e.g. 30+ Ma, 16 Ma, pre 8 Ma….) Adrian Richardson, 1994

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Timor records arc-continent


collision from about 3-4 Ma, but
there are numerous models

In particular, is the Timor Trough a


Trench or foredeep? Audley-Charles, 1986

GPS shows Timor region is now moving broadly with Australia

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Timor Trough is not a subduction trench but a Seram


foredeep within the Australian margin
 Suggested to be mirror image of Timor
 Similar Mesozoic-Tertiary sequences with
Australian character stacked in thrust sheets
 Interpreted as result of arc-continent collision,
but earlier than that in Timor
 Many problems
 How does same plate subduct to north and south?
 Why is arc younger than supposed collision?
 Why does subduction terminate to west?
 Why is Seram stratigraphy like Bird’s Head?
Arc collision in Timor region has led to intra-arc
thrusting and reversal of subduction polarity

Audley-Charles et al, 1979

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Honthaas et al. (1999)


after O’Sullivan et al. (1985)

GPS shows Seram and Bird’s Head currently converging at high rate

SW NE
Seram Trough
 New work (Angelique Pairault) based on new
seismic lines across Seram Trough (TGS- TWT
(ms)

NOPEC Geophysical Co) 0

 Early Pliocene unconformity recognised, not 500


Early Pliocene U/C

previously known 1000


Top Jass
 Trough develops after this
1500 Top Inanwatan
 Post-unconformity
strata rotated into Early Pliocene unconformity clearly
appears as an ancient land surface.
trough

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

30 km

Eroded areas of top Inanwatan


West
Eroded areas of top Jass
Eroded areas of top Lower New Guinea LST
N
Eroded areas of top Upper New Guinea LST
High created by folding prior to Pliocene U/C
Antiform axis of Pliocene U/C surface

100 km

Most deeply eroded areas are where unconformity resembles ancient land surface
Unconformity surface was later folded: fold axis is parallel to trough
East

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

• No subduction
• Early Pliocene
deformation event
produced unconformity
• Later thrusting formed
load on Seram
• Load produced trough
and bulge
• Seram Trough is
foredeep not trench

• What caused
Thrust faults in the trough detach at their contact with the
unconformity surface, but on Seram thrust faults repeat
unconformity?
sequences of Mesozoic–Miocene sediments and detach
at their contact with metamorphic basement.
Pairault et al., 2003

Seismicity
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9
 Defines a west–plunging lithospheric fold in
the mantle
 Two principal explanations:
 Single slab subducted northwards was
rotated and deformed
 Two different slabs were subducted from
north and south
 Both interpret subduction and collision to
result from northwards movement of the
Indian–Australian plate relative to SE Asia
and the Pacific
McCaffrey, 1989

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

East

Banda Arc: one slab or two?

McCaffrey, 1989
West

Seismicity shallower than 75 km


Seismicity 1964-2000
 Shallow events
 Seismicity not just restricted to ‘plate
boundaries’
 Whole of region is deforming
 Intermediate and deep events
 N Banda terminates abruptly to west
 Gap beneath East Timor
 Flat section beneath Banda Sea

Seismicity is widespread: whole region is deforming


Compare seismicity at Seram Trough with Java Trench: almost none at
trough, and north of trough no seismicity

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Seismicity from 75 km to 700 km

North Banda arc: seismicity


terminates at Buru

Flat deep seismicity beneath


central Banda region

East Timor: triangular


region is aseismic

Note flat slab at


base of upper
mantle

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Present: View
View from West from above

Past: Slab
View from NW undeformed

Subduction due to Rollback?


 Oceanic embayment within Australian plate
 Edge arrives at trench at about 10 Ma
 Trench propagates east by tearing at ocean-
continent boundary
 Slab falls away into mantle
 AUS-PAC-SEA convergence not the issue,
hinge rolls back to east, unrelated to plate
convergence vectors

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Focus on Australia’s northward


movement has caused the
embayment to be overlooked

The oceanic embayment was


moving as part of Australia

AUS-PAC and AUS-SEA vectors


not relevant

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Tearing the slab


15 Ma to present in Banda Sea region  There was only one slab
 Slab rolls back within a plate
 Tear at boundary initiates trough and
unconformity
 South-dipping slab beneath Seram is not
connected to Seram Trough
 Thrusting in Seram is very young (last 1 Ma?)
 Flat high-velocity seismic anomaly at base of
upper mantle is further evidence for rollback

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

12 Ma 7-6 Ma

Slab reaches 100 km


Jurassic failed rift below Seram
Seram “proto Banda Sea” Australia volcanism begins

Uplift Subsidence 11 Ma
Arc splits
Slab rollback begins Banda Sea opens
inducing extension in after 6 Ma Arc volcanism ceases on
upper plate north side

X X
Subsidence Uplift Subsidence
10 Ma

Core complex
formation on Seram

Australia is moving north with embayment


Slab is rolling back into plane of diagram No net shortening between X and X
i.e. from west to east but upper plate is extending as hinge rolls back

3 Ma

Seram Timor
Banda Sea spreading
ceases e.g. 3 Ma

Arc continent collision At any single time slab is


begins in Timor region subducting north in west
but still attached in east

Seram Trough
Present Day Wetar Thrust Timor Trough

Intra-continental subduction
at Seram Trough
Slab break-off below Timor
Subduction polarity reversal

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Banda Sea East


Sulawesi:
continental
 This region has changed dramatically in < 10 Ma crust arrived
at 25 Ma
Buton, Sula
and Buru:
moved along
 New backarc basin formed in convergent setting SFZ strands

 Extension of upper plate driven by slab rollback Banda Ridges


extended from East
 Slab is deforming in mantle, partly due to rollback, Sulawesi
but also due to geometry of former ocean basin and
propagation of subduction zone
 Arc now in collision with Australian margin
 Backarc basin seems to be beginning to subduct to
south in Timor region
 What will remain in 5 Ma?

BANDA
Active within-continent Bock et al., 2003
INTERPRETATION
thrusting – new AUS-PAC GPS estimated strain rates
plate boundary forming

Active thrusting – new


plate boundary forming

Subduction
by rollback of
Trace of former
embayment
subduction ended
by 3.5 Ma
ly t o Extension in
main
due East Banda
r T rough ding
imba n loa region
r-T an st-collis io
Timo po

Subduction of
Indian ocean

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Charlton et al., 1991a


Extension in Eastern
Banda region
Extension in (Tanimbar Islands)
Eastern Banda
region (Kai Islands)

Charlton et al., 1991b

IPA Short Course 2003 Banda 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Borneo Present-day
‡ No significant seismicity
‡ No significant igneous activity

‡ This was not the situation for most of the


Cenozoic

Harvard CMT
catalogue

Elevation
‡ Borneo is rather low
‡ Central mountain ranges rarely above 1000m
‡ The highest point is Mt Kinabalu (4100m)
‡ Kinabalu is in the wrong place
î It should be in the centre of the mountain
range

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Himalayas Andes

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sierra Nevada New Guinea

New Zealand Taiwan

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Basement
‡ Oldest rocks known from Borneo are
Devonian limestones
‡ SE Borneo broadly connected to Malay
peninsula since late Triassic
‡ Sundaland core includes Cretaceous granites
‡ Cretaceous ophiolites and arc rocks surround
this core
‡ Cenozoic sediments around and above this

Major basins on Borneo

This is an example of
how non-existent faults
become part of our
thinking

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Paleogene
‡ Eocene rifting formed Makassar Straits
î Oceanic or continental crust?
‡ Large sedimentary fan off north Borneo:
Crocker Fan
‡ Igneous activity associated with subduction of
proto-South China Sea

Ian Cloke, 1997 Ian Cloke, 1997

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Moss & Chambers, 1999


Stephen Calvert, 2000

Ian Cloke, 1997 Ian Cloke, 1997

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

NE Trending Thrust
and Fold Belt of
Crocker Ranges

Ian Cloke, 1997

Marco van Hattum, 2003

Crocker Fan Sandstone


provenance
"
"
Rif t

"
ene trai

~Middle Eocene
t
Eoc sar S
kas

Continental
Ma

After Dickinson
Landmass et al. 1983

Carbonate shelf

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Detrital zircon morphologies Detrital zircon from Crocker Formation


Euhedral: 38%
Euhedral Subhedral: 52%
First cycle detritus from a granite Rounded: 10%

Subhedral
Possibly first cycle

Rounded
Polycyclic history

Marco van Hattum, 2003

Other heavy minerals in Crocker Formation Late Cretaceous


to Eocene
Rajang Group
sediments (Upper
Cretaceous - ?Middle
Eocene) have mature
recycled orogenic
Almandine garnet Picotite (Chromian spinel) Tourmaline provenance, possibly
distal source.
Marco van Hattum, 2003

Rutile Framboidal pyrite  Monazite


secondary, deep marine,
anoxic

Marco van Hattum, 2003

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Eocene to Early
Miocene

After an Eocene event,


provenance change to
probable Borneo
source.
Granite (possibly
Schwaner Mountains)
and ophiolite material
(probably from Sabah)
became available.
Not obviously recycled
from Rajang Group as
commonly claimed.

Neogene
‡ Major change with significant increase in
sediment production
‡ Begins in Early Miocene
‡ Major deltas build out, beginning with Kutei-
Mahakam
‡ Inversion in Kutei starts in Early Miocene,
progresses east
î Sediments from cannibalised older sequences
î Inversion not due to collisions in Sulawesi
î Must be driven by Borneo events to north and
west

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Early Middle
Miocene Miocene

Late
Miocene Pliocene

Moss & Chambers, 1999

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Moss & Chambers, 1999 McClay et al., 2000

Carbonates
‡ To north and south of Kutei basin are
carbonate shelf areas
î Mangkalihat Peninsula and Paternoster
Platform
‡ Evidence for strike-slip faulting
î But importance, timing and regional significance
not clear

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sediment Yields
‡ Why is there so much sediment around
Borneo?
‡ Paleogene Crocker Fan
‡ Neogene basins
‡ Very high present-day sediment yields

‡ Yet the island is practically flat


î How does it do it?

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sabah Basement
‡ In Sabah exposed basement is ophiolitic
‡ Small granite body exposed on Kinabalu
î Intruded ~10 Ma
î Now exposed at 4 km above SL
‡ Gravity suggests thickest crust beneath
Kinabalu
‡ Ophiolites correspond to gravity highs and
thick sediments to gravity lows

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sabah Neogene
‡ Continental collision in Sabah in Early
Miocene
‡ Argument about nature of NW Borneo Trough
î Subduction trench or toe thrust
‡ More important
î Offshore basins have large volumes of
sediment yet source areas very small
î What causes onland elevation and basin
subsidence ?
î Foreland basins, Sulu Sea related?

WEST SABAH CENTRAL SABAH EAST SABAH


PLEISTO-
CE NE

MELIAU
Non-deposition OROGENY
Uplifted SRU
Unit II
Belait Kapilit Sandakan DRU/IRU/SRU
U nit I
IRU
Serudong Deep/Intermediate/Shallow
Group Regional Unconformity
Meligan U nit II
Tanjong
Tanjong
Setap Shale U nit I Kalabakan Gom ontong
DRU SABAH
? Wariu Garinono Kalumpang
OROGENY
Ayer
Kuamut
Temburong

Labang
Kulapis
West
Cr ocker Kinabatangan
Group

Simplified from
SARAWAK
OROGENY Allagu Balaguru,
Trusmad i
Sapulut
2001
? ? ? ?

Rajang Group
Ma da i-Ba turong

? ?
? ?
? ?
? ? Chert-Spili te Ophiolitic
Basement
Crys talline B as e me nt

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Allagu Balaguru, 2001 Sandal et al., 1996

Sandal et al., 1996 Hutchison et al., 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

South Sabah Neogene


‡ Continental collision in Sabah in Early
Miocene marked by unconformity (=DRU?)
‡ Change from deep water turbidite deposition
to shallow water clastic and fluvio-deltaic
sediments

Hutchison et al., 2000

Allagu Balaguru, 2001 Allagu Balaguru, 2001

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 17


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

WEST SABAH CENTRAL SABAH EAST SABAH


PLEISTO-
CE NE

MELIAU
Non-deposition OROGENY
Uplifted SRU
Unit II
Belait Kapilit Sandakan DRU/IRU/SRU
U nit I
IRU
Serudong Deep/Intermediate/Shallow
Group Regional Unconformity
Meligan U nit II
Tanjong
Tanjong
Setap Shale U nit I Kalabakan Gom ontong
DRU SABAH
? Wariu Garinono Kalumpang
OROGENY
Ayer
Kuamut
Temburong

Labang
Kulapis
West
Cr ocker Kinabatangan
Group

Simplified from
SARAWAK
OROGENY Allagu Balaguru,
Trusmad i
Sapulut
2001
? ? ? ?

Rajang Group
Ma da i-Ba turong

? ?
? ?
? ?
? ? Chert-Spili te Ophiolitic
Basement
Jon Noad, 1998 Crys talline B as e me nt

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 18


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Tanjong Formation

Jon Noad 2000 Jon Noad 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 19


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sandakan Formation Palaeogeography

Allagu Balaguru, 2001


Jon Noad 2000

Changing character of
magmatism

Allagu Balaguru, 2001

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 20


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

SA9826 Plio-Pleistocene: Mostyn SBK61


High-K Dent Semporna Mio-Pliocene: Dent
100
SBK60
Calc-Alkaline 1000 SBK35 SBK31
4 Two suites: SBK57 SBK30
SBK33 SBK62
SBK63
3
Mio-Pliocene has subduction 100 SBK37 SA9802
SBK34
character, and geochemistry

Primitive Mantle
Primitive Mantle
SA9827
K 2O

suggests north-directed subduction 10


10
2 Medium-K of Celebes Sea
Calc-Alkaline

1
Plio-Pleistocene basalts have 1

Low-K Tholeiite
ocean-island character, implying a
change in mantle beneath Sabah C
1
0.1
0
Rb Ba Th Nb K La Ce Pb Sr Nd Zr Ti Y Rb Ba Th Nb K La Ce Pb Sr Nd Zr Ti Y
48 53 58 SiO 2 63 68 73

0.7055 SBK1XG SBK13


87 86 Mio-Pliocene: Tawau I > 57% SiO2 Plio-Pleistocene: Tawau II < 57%SiO2
Sr/ Sr 1000 SBK1XM 100 SBK6
SBK14 SBK7
SA9803 SBK5
SBK11 SBK3
0.705
100 SBK8 SBK65
Sr/ 86Sr

SBK12 SBK64

Primitve Mantle

Primitve Mantle
SBK1
87

10 10
0.7045

Tawau I (Mio-Pliocene) 1
0.704 Dent (Mio-Pliocene)
Mt Pock (Mio-Pliocene) A E
Tawau II (Plio-Pleistocene) 0.1 1
Mostyn (Plio-Pleistocene) Rb Ba Th Nb K La Ce Pb Sr Nd Zr Ti Y Rb Ba Th Nb K La Ce Pb Sr Nd Zr Ti Y
Kai Kim Chiang, 2002 0.7035
Kai Kim Chiang, 2002
48 53 58 SiO2 63 68 73

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 21


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Palaeomagnetism
‡ Suggests Borneo has rotated counter-
clockwise
‡ Evidence of large post-Cretaceous pre-
Neogene rotation (perhaps 45°)
‡ Evidence of large Miocene rotation (45°)

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 22


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Possible explanations
‡ Collisional thickening of crust and lithosphere
‡ Thickened root causes subsidence
‡ Subsidence causes formation of sedimentary
basins, filled by erosion from Central Borneo
Ranges
‡ Melting induced by thickening of former arc
crust
‡ Root becomes unstable
‡ Delamination leads to influx of new mantle
‡ Rapid elevation as root falls off
‡ Eruption of basalts

Plume Extension Delamination Slab break-off

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 23


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Borneo 24


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Java Tectonic Setting


 Usual view of Java is a volcanic arc situated
above a subduction zone
 What is unusual about Java?
 Was volcanic activity continuous?
 If not, why?
 What is the origin of the basins?
 What tectonic setting did they form in?
 Why is Java elevated today?

Present-day volcanoes
mainly Smithsonian data

Current volcanic
activity largely
subduction-
related

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Nias

Sunda Forearc
East Java

Kopp et al., 2002 Kopp et al., 2002

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Kopp et al., 2002

Kopp et al., 2002

Schlüter et al., 2002

Sunda Forearc

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Schlüter et al., 2002 Schlüter et al., 2002

Schlüter et al., 2002 Schlüter et al., 2002

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Schlüter et al., 2002

Sunda Forearc: Nias


 Nias is the source of the conventional forearc
model
 Accretion transfers material from
downgoing to upper plate
 Typical forearc high is elevated above sea
level due to this subcretion
 Accretionary prism is essentially a
contractional feature
 Nias does not conform to this simple model
 Neither do many other forearcs

Dickinson et al., 1977

Forearcs are Interpreted as


regions of contraction in
which elevation results from
addition of material from
lower to upper plate Nias

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Samuel & Harbury, 1996 Samuel & Harbury, 1996

Samuel & Harbury, 1996


Samuel & Harbury, 1996

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Samuel & Harbury, 1996 Samuel & Harbury, 1996

Nias Java on Land


 Forearcs are commonly characterised by  As expected, a long arc history
extension  But where exactly were the arcs?
 Normal faulting may be common and basins
 Why was arc activity not continuous?
may form by extension
 Nias does not have the melange character  When did arc activity occur?
inferred from a study of a limited area by
Karig & Moore (1980), nor is it a typical
accretionary prism
 The strike-slip character of the Mentawai fault
zone is not supported by land geology, rather
this fault zone seems to be an inverted
normal fault

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Zones of van Bemmelen (1949)


Alluvial plains of N Java
Rembang Zone
Kendeng Zone
Volcanic Arc
Randublantang Zone
Ngawi subzone
Southern Mountains

There was widespread carbonate deposition and little volcanism in Middle Miocene

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Stephen Lokier, 2000


Miocene Wonosari Limestone

Stephen Lokier, 2000

Central to East Java


 Usually assumed that continental core in
West Java but accreted basement in East of
arc/ophiolitic character
 Little known of pre-Eocene
 Basin formation appears to start in Eocene
 Nanggulan Formation exposed at one of the
few localities known on land

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Eko Lelono, 2000

Tectonic Setting

Mariana
Luzon Parece Vela
Basin

Manila Trench
EURASIAN PLATE Hainan
ham
Ben teau PHILIPPINE

Trough
Pla

Trench
SEA
Indochina PLATE

Ridge

na
Phili
Continental

ria
Ma
ppin

Palau Kyushu
e Tre
South
core
Gulf of
Thailand
China PACIFIC
10°N

nch

nch
Andaman Sea
Sulu PLATE

Tre
Sea Mindanao
MESOZOIC Sea Soro
SUNDALAND Yap l Tro
ug h
CORE Sabah
Malaya Celebes
Sunda Brunei Sea
Shelf Sarawak Molucca
Sea Ayu
Trough
Halmahera New
SUNDALAND Borneo Guine Trench 0°
Sula a Tren Manus
Su

ch

ait
Platform ng Bird's
nd

Sumatra Soro

Str
a

Kalimantan Fau lt Head

sar
North Bismarck

kas
Tr

Banda Sea
en

Buru Seram

Ma
Basin
ch

Java Sea Banda Sea New Guinea


Tukang Basin
Aru
da
Besi Platform South Ban Islands
Java Bali Lombok Inner Banda Arc
Jav Timor
Arafura
a Tre Shelf
h
n ch Sumba roug
or T
Tim
Sahul
INDIAN Shelf Coral
OCEAN Sea

Ophiolitic and metamorphic basement


INDIAN-AUSTRALIAN PLATE The Nanggulan Formation
90°E 100°E 110°E 120°E 130°E 140°E
is well known as terrestrial-
marine Eocene

Eko Lelono, 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Eko Lelono, 2000 Eko Lelono, 2000

East Java East Java Study Area


 There are many features of this region which
do not fit the conventional models
 Volcanic activity began earlier than
reported
 Character not exclusively andesitic
 Basins not rift basins
Activ
e Volca
 Their fill has some unusual characteristics
nic A
rc

0 50 100

kilometers

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Zones of East Java


2500
N
2000 Mt Muriah
1500
Height metres

1000
Kujung Platform
500
Java: topography and gravity Rembang
Rembang Zone
Zone
0 Kendeng Zone
Presen Kendeng Zone
Bouguer mgals

Present Day V
120
t Day Volcanic
Southe olcanic Arc
80
Arc
40 Southern Moun
rn Mou tains Z
0 ntains one
-40
Zone

Helen Smyth, 2003

East Java
 There are many features of this region which
do not fit the conventional models
 Volcanic activity began earlier than
reported
 Character not exclusively andesitic
0
 Basins not rift basins
 Their fill has some unusual characteristics

The strong gravity low associated with the


Kendeng Trough is less pronounced to the west

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Structures of the Kalimantan


East Java Basin
(various sources Carter, Structures of the East Java Basin.
Bransden and Matthews, GRDC) Barito Basin
Major Features of
East Java
Karimunjawa Arch Java Sea
•NE-SW C
Kalimantan Trend D
Bawean Arch •E-W Javanese
Karimunjawa Arch B
Trend
A Flores
1 Sea
Rembang Zone
Rembang 2 E
Kendeng Zone 3
Java
Volcanic Arc Kendeng F

Southern M
ountains
0 50 100 Indian Ocean

The ‘Old Andesites’ are Dacitic volcanic products


obvious and well known as have been overlooked –
the products of Oligocene they suggest a continental
volcanic activity basement and could be an
important source of quartz

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Plinian-type Volcanism Volcanic Quartz from East Java

Bipyramidal grains from the


Jaten Formation, Pacitan

0 8mm

A pyroclastic flow on the slopes of Gunung


Merapi in February 2001(www.geo.aau.dk)

0 8mm
Plinian eruption column exceeding 18 km
Crater Peak, Mount Spur, Alaska in August 1992 Helen Smyth, 2003
(USGS Photo Archive)

Large rounded embayments due to melt reaction, Melt Inclusions are diagnostic of a volcanic source
Jaten Formation, Pacitan Nanggulan Formation, Yogyakarta
Helen Smyth, 2003 Helen Smyth, 2003

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Helen Smyth, 2003 Helen Smyth, 2003

Angular shards of quartz with conchoidal fracture are common Crystal pits and microcrystalline bipyramidal quartz nucleating on a quartz grain

Source of Quartz
 A Sundaland source seems unlikely
 Where would it have come from?
 How would it have crossed important
Point count analysis of barriers?
the quartz-rich sands  A volcanic origin seems quite probable
 Implications for reservoirs?
 Shapes of sand bodies?
 Assessment of sediment maturity?

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Toba 2,200,000 sq km

Mt St. Helens
500 sq km
Krakatoa 20,000 sq km

Tambora 35,000 sq km

Area of ash deposits with a thickness >10 cm


Considerable amounts of material could have gone offshore

Kendeng Fold
Rembang Zone
Thrust Belt

????

Southern
Kujung Platform Active Volcanic Arc Mountains

Active mud volcanoes of East Java Source: Pertamina

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Information from Zircons


 Analysis of zircons from sediments and
Volcanoes act as a linear load volcanic rocks has been important
 Precise dating of igneous activity
 Could be useful for correlation since ash
layers should be widespread
 Surprisingly old ages found in some
samples
Kendeng Zone
 Compositions of volcanic products, and
ages of zircon suggest continental material
beneath parts of East Java

Changes in lithospheric strength (composition) will affect the shape of the depression

16 Turen 14 – volcanic breccia


SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon grains is providing Jember 10 - granodiorite

highly precise ages for volcanic activity and Jember 10


12 AN7 - diorite

revealing evidence of old continental material 8

4
Sample No. Formation and location U-Pb age Ma Error +/- 2 sigma Inherited ages Ma
JKB21 Kebobutak Fm, Bayat 29.3 1.4 0
JSemQ Semilir Fm, Bayat mean 26 19-31 scatter 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Psam31 Sambipitu Fm, Bayat 12.8 0.2 18.6 +/- 0.2 zircon U-Pb date Ma
Ngawi9 Kerek Fm, Ngawi 9.3 0.3 13 and 17
Pon4 Intrusive, Ponorogo 9.3 0.2
Treng18 Intrusive, Trenggelek 5.7 0.5
SHRIMP U-Pb ages
Pac30 Intrusive, Pacitan 12.5 0.5
Turen14 Intrusive, Turen 550 - 2700
Jember10 Intrusive, Jember 550 - 2700
AN7 Intrusive, Nanggulan 25 500 - 3200

Zircons of the
Nanggulan Fm,
Yogyakarta

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 17


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

What is beneath East Java?

Subducted sediments

Continental fragment
beneath the arc

Subducted continental fragment

Longley et al., 2002, after


Metcalfe, 1996

IPA Short Course 2003 Java 18


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Beibuwan

20°N

Yin
g
Hu g eha
SUNDALAND
Luzon
BASINS
West Philippine
Basin
Phitsanulok e i

South
China
Western Sea
/Kra East
Andaman

Philip
Vietnam
Sea

pine
an
Cuu

law
Long 10°N

Trenc
Pa
Mergui
Pattani

h
Chumphon
Con Sulu
Malay Son Sea
North Sabah
Sumatra West Sandakan
Natuna
East
Celebes

Sib
Natuna Sarawak Sea

olg
Penyu Tarakan

a
Molucca
Sea
Central Muara

Su
Sumatra Halmahera

nd
Sula

ait
Sulawesi

aT
Kutai

r Str
Platform

r en
ch

a ssa
South
Sumatra Barito North

M ak
Banda

Be
Basin Buru Seram

ng
Asem

ku
NW
 Often referred to as Sunda NE Java

lu
Java Asem Banda Sea
INDIAN PLATE Buton
u th Ba nda Basin
So
Shield, Craton or plate South Java Inner Banda Arc

 All inappropriate terms


h
Timor roug
Sumba or T
Java Trench Tim

90°E 100°E 110°E 130°E

Some Unusual Features of


Sundaland

Subsidence History
Elevation History
Sediment Yields
Heatflow

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Basin Histories
 Numerous basins
 Many of the ‘backarc’, ‘continental margin’ and
‘extensional’ basins have features in common
 Generally extensional
 Few, if any, have strike-slip character
 Many influenced by older basement fabrics
 Anomalous thicknesses of sequences in many basins
 Despite long term Cenozoic sea level fall, many
basins become marine very late
 What were the causes of extension?
 Timing is uncertain: synchronous or not?

Penyu Basin
Malay Basins

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Thailand Basins
Comparison of subsidence rates between the
North Sea and three super-deep basins of SE
Asia. The North Sea shows a rift to post-rift
subsidence rate typical of average continental
crustal conditions. The SE Asia basins have
subsided an order of magnitude faster, possibly
indicating unusual continental crustal conditions.
Hall & Morley, 2003

non- marine
marine
marine incursions

non- marine
marine
marine incursions

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Uplift Histories INDOCHINA

 Widespread (but irregularly distributed)


South China
elevation of many parts of Sundaland during Sea

Neogene MALAY
PENINSULA SUNDA SHELF
 Inversion of southern basins
 Elevation of Malay peninsula
Karimata Strait Makassar Strait
 Elevation of Java and Sumatra SUMATRA 29 m BORNEO 550m

 Elevation of Borneo
JAVA
 What were causes of uplift?

Lombok Strait
350m

Northern Sundaland showing the significant


extensional and strike-slip faults and
associated basins which indicate significant
internal deformation of the Sundaland block.

The Mae Ping and Three Pagodas fault


systems display numerous branching,
splaying and duplex geometries, and affect
a large area (unlike the more discrete
Sagaing and Red River faults), possibly
indicating a transpressional setting during
the Paleogene.
Hall & Morley, 2003

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

 There have been many studies of sediment yields to the


world’s oceans
 Almost all have ignored sediment derived from SE Asia

Sediment Yields

Despite low relief, present-day


sediment yields are estimated to be
very high, but are generally
overlooked in global compilations

modified from Summerfield and Hulton (1994)

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Estimated sediment yields Meaning of Yields?


 Highlights need for more and better data from SE Asia
 The algorithm is based on very few rivers and most
may not be representative of the mountainous tropics
 Bangladesh 2 rivers
 Burma 1 river
 China 2 rivers
 Indonesia (6 rivers from Java only)
 New Guinea (2 rivers)
 Philippines 1 river
 Taiwan 16 rivers
 Thailand 1 river
 Vietnam 1 river
 Problem of human contribution particularly when
considering long term yields
using Milliman et al (1999) algorithm and HYDRO1K dataset
(basins and DEM derived from GTOPO30)

Sediment paths

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Estimated sediment yields Estimated sediment yields

New Guinea 1756 x106 t/yr Brahmaputra 1157 x106 t/yr


Sumatra 783 x106 t/yr Ganges 680 x106 t/yr
Philippines 612 x106 t/yr Indus 300 x106 t/yr
Borneo 581 x106 t/yr Total Himalayas 2140x106 t/yr
Sulawesi 454 x106 t/yr
Malay peninsula 388 x106 t/yr
Java 323 x106 t/yr Amazon 1320 x106 t/yr
Mississippi 605 x106 t/yr
Total SE Asia 5170 x106 t/yr
Total Global 20,000 x106 t/yr
more than TWICE Himalayas

Long-term sediment yields


 Little known about longer term supply
 But Borneo has provided sediment at about
the same rate per unit area as the Himalayas
in the last 20-25 Ma
 Unusual considering relative relief
 High present-day and long-term yields must
imply prolonged tectonic activity to maintain
relief

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Sediment Sources
 What is the source of sediment in Sundaland
basins?
 Asia?
 Local?
 Provenance information
 If locally derived, highly radiogenic?

Cr spinel Cr spinel

Zircons
Tourmaline Kyanite

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

East and SE Asian Rivers

Incise old erosion surface


Complex capture history

Clark, 2003
Clark, 2003

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Clark, 2003 Clark, 2003

Clark, 2003
The present-day drainage
pattern of Thailand and
adjacent regions,
superimposed on the main
rift basins and associated
faults. Some of the main
blocks to through-going
drainage such as long-lived
lakes, and structural
barriers (Chainat Ridge) are
highlighted. The present
day drainage pattern
reflects the older syn-rift
pattern (rift-normal
drainage) and late linkage
of rift axial systems.
Hall & Morley, 2003

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Heatflow

Sundaland seems to be unusually


hot

Malay Basins

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Cause of high heatflow?


 Extension?
 If so, much higher temperatures at time of
stretching
 Inconsistent with maturity?
 Upper crust
 Highly radiogenic sediment or basement?
 Malay granites are very radiogenic
 Mantle?
 Deep source consistent with tomography?
 May imply longer term high heatflow,
similar to present day?

What is beneath Sundaland?

Shear wave tomography also


suggests the region is unusual
Shear wave models
long wavelength, large scale features
S20RTS

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

low Vs high Vs
150 km (6%)
Geology and tomography
show
long-term subduction history

Geochemical and
isotopic database
Symbols
Metamorphic
Plutonic
Hypabyssal
Volcanic
Basic Plutonic
Basic Hypabyssal
Basic Volcanic
Intermediate Plutonic
Intermediate Hypabyssal
Intermediate Volcanic
Evolved Plutonic
Evolved Hypabyssal
Evolved Volcanic

Past igneous
activity also
largely
subduction-
related

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Asian tectonics
 Preservation of 50 Ma erosion surface
 Descends to SE towards Indochina
 Now deeply incised
 Weak crust
 Lower crustal flow
Clark, 2003

Clark & Royden, 2000

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 15


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Clark & Royden, 2000

Clark & Royden, 2000

Clark & Royden, 2000


History and Models
 Anomalously hot mantle ?
 Weak lithosphere ?
 Stretching models with assumptions for
‘normal’ passive margins may be
inappropriate
 Thin lithosphere and thick crust need to be in
models

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 16


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Plume Extension Delamination Slab break-off

Neither model consistent with regional geological Both models could contribute to some aspects of
history regional geological history

Sundaland tectonics
 No simple explanations for extension, or
directions of stresses, forming sedimentary
basins
 Region is one of long-term subduction
 Has the result of this been anomalously hot
mantle and weak lithosphere?
 Very sensitive to changing plate boundary
forces at subduction edges?
 Strongly influenced by basement fabric?

Hall & Morley, 2003

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 17


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Pre-Miocene Early Miocene

RESULT RESULT
Oblique extension Local Inversion
in Sundaland Mountain Building in
Borneo and Sulawesi

ll

ll
pu

pu
ab

ab
Sl

Sl
H
in
H

ge
in
ge

ad
ad

va
va

nc
nc

e
Hinge
e

retreat

Late Miocene Conclusions


 Sundaland is a globally unusual region of
RESULT weak lithosphere and crust
Slab Renewed Subsidence  How would this respond during contraction?
pull Extension in SE
co

 Is the region very sensitive to changing plate


ntr

Mountain Building in E
boundary forces?
ac
ti o

 And strongly influenced by basement fabric?


n

Hi
ng
es
ta
ti on
ar
va ge

y?
e
nc
ad Hin

IPA Short Course 2003 Sundaland 18


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

It is just a plasticine model ! Driving Force is Subduction


 Most of SE Asia has been close to the current
position at the equator since the early Mesozoic
 Evidence of long-term subduction at south and east
margins from the early Mesozoic onwards
 Cenozoic growth of SE Asia associated with
Pacific/Philippine Sea and India/Australia plate
subduction
 Despite what you may read in the papers, India was
not the cause of everything
 Events at 45 Ma and 25 Ma can be identified from
mainland SE Asia to the SW Pacific

Magmatism and Subduction


 Ultimately almost all Cenozoic magmatism
MAGMATISM subduction-driven
AND  Hinge movement critical
SUBDUCTION  Subduction signature may be inherited from
previous subduction events
 Evidence for extension still not fully
HINGE MOVEMENTS appreciated
SUBDUCTION INITIATION  Some magmatism may not have subduction
character

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

During subduction the subducting slab has a tendency to fall away rather During hinge retreat the mantle wedge will be constantly replenished,
than move down a fixed slot, thus inducing hinge retreat promoting continued magmatism

If the hinge advances, or remains relatively stationary, the mantle wedge will not be
replenished, and magmatism may cease despite continued subduction

Hinge
Movements

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

How is Subduction Initiated?


 Almost all new subduction zones initiated at edges of
small ocean basins
 Typically at margins of areas of thickened crust
Hinge
 Rarely initiated at former transform faults (Woodlark)
Movements  Never (?) within ocean basins (notably ridges)
 No obvious indication that early subduction-related
magmatism is chemically unusual
 Boninites require special combinations of conditions
(e.g. plume preheating and subduction initiation)

Boninite Formation
 The 50 Ma boninite ‘event’
 Boninites essentially high-Mg andesites
 Require water, extra high T to melt refractory
mantle at low P
 Several hypotheses for magmatism but all
work only in localised areas
 Most involve subduction initiation at
transform, and/or ridge subduction

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 3


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Philippine Sea
Plate origin
after Uyeda and
Ben-Avraham,
1972

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 4


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Alternative Hypothesis
 Subduction begins in region of pre-heated
mantle
 Initial heating due to plume initiation Manus
 Age about 50 Ma plume

MANUS PLUME TRACK 55-45 Ma

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 5


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

West Pacific Boninites


 Boninites mark subduction initiation
 Plume pre-heats mantle
CAUSES
 Regional uplift at time of plume initiation AND
 Chemistry of early magmatism OIB type SPEED
 Subsequent subduction in region of extra-hot
mantle
 Normal subduction chemistry

Speed of Change Subduction and Extension


 The Woodlark Basin illustrates that ocean  Within an overall convergent setting
basins may be formed and eliminated within extension seems to be very common
15 Ma  Causes include slab pull, hinge rollback and
 The Molucca Sea region illustrates that arcs strike-slip movements
may be formed and lost within <25 Ma, and  However, there are still major problems
leave no trace finding explanations for timing and causes of
 The Banda Sea region illustrates dramatically basin formation, and some important
a sequence of changes including continental orogenic events unrelated to collisions, which
extension, backarc spreading, and arc- are well illustrated by Sundaland
continent collision within < 10 Ma
 All essentially subduction-driven processes

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 6


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Weak Lithosphere?
 Postulated explanations for regional tectonic
events (India indentor, strike-slip, plate SEDIMENTS
motions, backarc extension) do not satisfy, AND
but it is difficult to find alternative models
TECTONICS
 SE Asia a globally unusual region of weak
lithosphere and crust
 Is the mantle unusually hot, and is this the
consequence of long-term subduction?
 Is this region very sensitive to changing
balance of forces at subduction boundaries?

Most Sediment not from Asia Sediment Yields


 Region is one of exceptionally high sediment
yields
 Total SE Asia production may be more
than TWICE Himalayas
 Still little known about longer term supply
 But Borneo has provided sediment at same
rate as the Himalayas in the last 20-25 Ma
 Requires a tectonic explanation for long-term
elevation to provide supply

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 7


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Land-Sea Relationships
 Distribution of land modifies local climate
CLIMATE  Major increases in area of land/shallow seas
AND  45 Ma
TECTONICS  25 Ma
 In past 2 Ma
INDONESIAN THROUGHFLOW  Sea level has generally been falling since the
Early Miocene

Elevation of Mountains Oceanographic Changes


 Mountain elevation modifies local climate  Indonesian Throughflow of fundamental
 In Borneo mountains rose quickly to 5 km significance
(??) at about 20 Ma  Only major low latitude link between
 In New Guinea elevation began at around world’s oceans
10 Ma, but probably rose to 5 km since 5  Important role in Pacific-Indian thermo-
Ma haline flow and possibly global climate
 Sulawesi, Banda Arc and Moluccas were  Closure of Indo-Pacific gateway (IPG) of
elevated above sea level in most areas great importance
since 5 Ma or less

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 8


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Major currents in east Indonesia and the west Pacific after Godfrey (1996)

JGR,101 (C5) 12217-12237

LAND-SEA
and
INDONESIAN
THROUGHFLOW

Modelled currents in east


Indonesia and the west INDOCHINA
Pacific after Metzger &
Hurlburt (1996)
showing SL difference of >50
cm between Pacific and South China
Indian Oceans Sea

MALAY
PENINSULA SUNDA SHELF
JGR,101 (C5) 12331-12353

Karimata Strait Makassar Strait


SUMATRA 29 m BORNEO 550m

JAVA

Lombok Strait
350m

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 9


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Indian-Pacific Gateway
fully open

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 10


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 11


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 12


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Gateway Changes 1 Gateway Changes 2


 IPG fully open until at least 25 Ma  During periods of low sea level
 Indian-Pacific exchange easier  Currents stronger
 Indian-South Pacific links through Torres  Main passage in Makassar Straits
Straits?  Links between marine sub-areas different
 Warm Pool situated off East Africa? (e.g. no link between SCS and Java Sea)
 Between 25 and 5 Ma IPG could have been  Path of present Indonesian Throughflow
intermittently fully open to closed suggests the route taken by Pacific water
could have been quite convoluted

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 13


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Value of Reconstructions
 Help understanding
AN  Provide context
UNUSUAL  Generate new ideas
REGION  Can be tested

 Show the importance


Merapi, Java of SE Asia

Our Knowledge
 This huge region, which illustrates so many of
the processes related to subduction and
mountain building…
 Probably has been, and is, extremely http://www.gl.rhul.ac.uk/seasia/
important for global atmospheric and
ocean circulation, and hence life on our
planet…
 Remains relatively poorly known,
understudied and unfashionable
 Has many unusual features which are
overlooked by ‘shoehorning’ them into
models developed elsewhere Royal Holloway
 An opportunity is waiting University of London

IPA Short Course 2003 Conclusions 14


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

SE ASIA RESEARCH GROUP THESES

Srisuwon, P. 2002 Structural and sedimentological evolution of the Phrae Ascaria, A.N. 1997 Carbonate facies development and sedimentary
Basin, Northern Thailand. PhD Thesis evolution of the Miocene Tacipi
Chiang, K.K. 2002 Geochemistry of the Cenozoic igneous rocks of Borneo Forde, E.J. 1997 The geochemistry of the Neogene Halmahera Arc,
and tectonic implications. PhD Thesis eastern Indonesia PhD Thesis
Balaguru, A. 2001 Neogene sedimentation and tectonic evolution of the Agustiyanto, D.A. 1996 The geology and tectonic evolution of the Obi
southern Sabah Basins, Malaysia. PhD Thesis region, eastern Indonesia. MPhil Thesis
Imtihanah, 2000 Isotopic dating of the Sumatran Fault System. MPhil Wilson, M.E.J. 1995 The Tonasa Limestone Formation, Sulawesi,
Thesis Indonesia: development of a Tertiary carbonate platform. PhD Thesis
Calvert, S.J. 2000 The Cenozoic geology of the Lariang and Karama Guntoro, A. 1995 Tectonic evolution and crustal structure of the central
regions, Western Sulawesi, Indonesia. PhD Thesis Indonesian region from geology, gravity and other geophysical data.
Uttamo, W. 2000 Structural and sedimentological evolution of Tertiary PhD Thesis
sedimentary basins in northern Thailand. PhD Thesis Rose, G. 1994 Late Triassic and Early Jurassic radiolarians from Timor,
Lelono, E.B. 2000 Palynological study of the Eocene Nanggulan eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Formation, Central Java, Indonesia. PhD Thesis Strogen, D.M. 1994 The Chiang Muan Basin, a Tertiary sedimentary basin
Lokier, S.W. 2000 The Miocene Wonosari Formation, Java, Indonesia: in northern Thailand. PhD Thesis
volcaniclastic influences on carbonate platform development. PhD Samuel, M.A. 1994 The structural and stratigraphic evolution of islands at
Thesis the active margin of the Sumatran Forearc, Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Upton, D. 1999 A regional fission track study of Thailand: implications for Richardson, A.N. 1994 Lithospheric structure and dynamics of the Banda
thermal history and denudation. PhD Thesis Arc, Eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Noad, J. 1998 The sedimentary evolution of the Tertiary of eastern Sabah, Malaihollo, J.F.A. 1993 The geology and tectonics of the Bacan region,
northern Borneo. PhD Thesis eastern Indonesia PhD Thesis
Sardjono 1998 Gravity field and structure of the Sorong Fault Zone, Roberts, S.J. 1993 Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and biofacies of the
eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis Neogene sediments of the Halmahera region, northeast Indonesia.
Holt, R.A. 1998 The gravity field of Sundaland acquisition, assessment PhD Thesis
and interpretation. PhD Thesis Barkham, S.T. 1993 Permo Triassic Carbonates of West Timor. PhD
Cloke, I.R. 1997 Structural controls on the basin evolution of the Kutai Thesis
Basin and Makassar Straits, Indonesia. PhD Thesis Omang, S.A.K. 1993 Petrology, Geochemistry and Structural Geology of
McCarthy, A. 1997 The evolution of the transcurrent Sumatran Fault the Darvel Bay Ophiolite, Sabah, Malaysia. PhD Thesis
System, Indonesia. PhD Thesis Baird, A.M. 1992 The sedimentology and diagenesis of the Ratburi
Baker, S.J. 1997 Isotopic dating and island arc development in the Limestone, Peninsular Thailand. PhD Thesis
Halmahera region, eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis Clennell, M.B. 1992 The mélanges of Sabah, Malaysia. PhD Thesis
Clowes, E. 1997 Micropalaeontological analysis of the Kolbano sequence Harrison, D. 1991 The gravity field of the Papuan fold belt and its
Jurassic to Pliocene, West Timor, and its radiolarian fauna. PhD geological implications. PhD Thesis
Thesis Parkinson, C.D. 1991 The petrology, structure and geologic history of the
Howells, C.G. 1997 Tertiary sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Ombilin metamorphic rocks of Central Sulawesi. PhD Thesis
intramontane basin, West Sumatra. PhD Thesis

IPA Short Course 2003 References 1


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

Hasan, K. 1990 The upper Cretaceous flysch succession of the Tongkul F. 1987 Sedimentology and structure of the Crocker Formation in
Balangbaru Formation, southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. PhD Thesis the Kota Kinabalu Area, Sabah, East Malaysia. PhD Thesis
Edwards, C.M.H. 1990 Petrogenesis of tholeiitic, calc alkaline and alkaline Cook, S.E. 1987 Triassic sediments from East Kekneno, West Timor,. PhD
volcanic rocks, Sunda Arc, Indonesia. PhD Thesis Thesis
Ballantyne P.D. 1990 The petrology of the ophiolitic rocks of eastern Charlton, T.R. 1987 The tectonic evolution of the Kolbano Timor Trough
Halmahera, Indonesia. PhD Thesis accretionary complex, Timor, Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Kallagher, H.J. 1989 The Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Bird, P.R. 1987 Permo Triassic rocks of the Kekneno Area, West Timor,
Sunda Forearc Basin, North Sumatra, Indonesia. PhD Thesis eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Kaye, S.J. 1989 The structure of eastern Indonesia: an approach, using Wajzer, M.R. 1986 Geology and tectonic evolution of the Woyla Group,
gravity and other geophysical methods. PhD Thesis Natal Area, N. Sumatra. PhD Thesis
Kusnama. 1989 Petrography and provenance of Neogene sandstones of Tatto Sudharto, R. 1986 Mineralisation at Gunung Limbung, West Java,
South Halmahera, East Indonesia. MPhil Thesis Indonesia. MPhil Thesis
Yassir, N.A. 1989 Mud volcanoes and the behaviour of overpressured Simandjuntak, T.O. 1986 Sedimentology and tectonics of the collision
clays and silts. PhD Thesis complex in the East Arm of Sulawesi. PhD Thesis
Harris, R.A. 1989 Processes of allochthon emplacement, with special Sikumbang, N. 1986 Geology and tectonics of the Pre Tertiary rocks in the
reference to the Brooks Range Ophiolite, Alaska and Timor, Meratus Mountains, S.E. Kalimantan, Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Indonesia. PhD Thesis Sumartono 1985 An investigation of the Belok Gadang manganese
Tobing, S.L. 1989 The geology of East Timor. MPhil Thesis deposits in the Natal Area, North Sumatra, Indonesia. MPhil Thesis
Hakim, A.S. 1989 Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Halmahera Area, Heesterman, L.J.H. 1984 Geology and mineralisation of the Mangani Area,
Indonesia. MPhil Thesis West Sumatra, Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Roslan, K. 1988 The stratigraphy and sedimentology of Triassic rocks of Situmorang, B 1982 The formation and evolution of the Makassar Basin,
Peninsular Malaya. PhD Thesis Indonesia. PhD Thesis
Polachan, S. 1988 The geological evolution of the Mergui Basin, S.E. Earle, M.M. 1980 A study of Boi and Molo, two metamorphic massifs on
Andaman Sea, Thailand. PhD Thesis Timor, eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis

IPA Short Course 2003 References 2


CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models Robert Hall

OTHER REFERENCES

Most material referred to in the course is referenced in:

Hall, R. 1996. Reconstructing Cenozoic SE Asia. In: Hall, R. & Blundell, D. Pairault, A. A., Hall, R. & Elders, C. F. 2003. Tectonic evolution of the
J. (eds.) Tectonic Evolution of SE Asia. Geological Society of London Seram Trough, Indonesia. Indonesian Petroleum Association,
Special Publication, 106, 153-184. Proceedings 29th Annual Convention, Jakarta, 2003.
Hall, R. 2002. Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia Schlüter, H.U. et al., 2002. Tectonic features of the southern Sumatra-
and the SW Pacific: computer-based reconstructions and animations. western Java forearc of Indonesia. Tectonics 21(5), 11-1–11-15.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20 (4), 353–434. Smyth, H., Hall, R., Hamilton, J. & Kinny, P. 2003. Volcanic origin of
Hall, R. & Blundell, D. J. (eds.) 1996. Tectonic Evolution of SE Asia. quartz-rich sediments in East Java. Indonesian Petroleum Association,
Geological Society of London Special Publication, 106. Proceedings 29th Annual Convention, Jakarta, 2003.
Suggate, S. & Hall, R. 2003. Predicting sediment yields from SE Asia: A
Other more recent material is in: GIS approach. Indonesian Petroleum Association, Proceedings 29th
Annual Convention, Jakarta, 2003.
Bock, Y. et al., 2003. Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning van Hattum, M., Hall, R. & Nichols, G. J. 2003. Provenance of northern
System measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B8), Borneo sediments. Indonesian Petroleum Association, Proceedings
ETG3-1-ETG3-21. 29th Annual Convention, Jakarta, 2003.
Calvert, S.J. & Hall, R. 2003. The Cenozoic geology of the Lariang and Vigny, C. et al., 2002. Migration of seismicity and earthquake interactions
Karama regions, Western Sulawesi: new insight into the evolution of monitored by GPS in SE Asia triple junction: Sulawesi, Indonesia.
the Makassar Straits region. Indonesian Petroleum Association, Journal of Geophysical Research 107(B10), ETW7 1-11.
Proceedings 29th Annual Convention, Jakarta, 2003.
Hall, R. & Nichols, G. J. 2002. Cenozoic sedimentation and tectonics in
Borneo: climatic influences on orogenesis. In: Jones, S. J. & Frostick,
L. (Eds.) Sediment Flux to Basins: Causes, Controls and
Consequences. Geological Society of London Special Publication,
191, 5–22.
Hall, R. & Spakman, W. 2002. Subducted slabs beneath the eastern
Indonesia–Tonga region: insights from tomography. Earth and
Planetary Science Letters, 201, 321-336.
Kopp, H., Klaeschen, D., Flueh, E.R., Bialas, J. and Reichert, C., 2002.
Crustal structure of the Java margin from seismic wide-angle and
multichannel reflection data. Journal of Geophysical Research 107
(B2), ETG 1-24.
Michel, G.W. et al., 2001. Crustal motion and block behaviour in SE Asia
from GPS measurements. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 187
(3-4), 239-244.

IPA Short Course 2003 References 3