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User Guide

SPV
Photovoltaic
Inverter

Part Number: 0471-0161-02


Issue Number: 2
General Information
The manufacturer accepts no liability for any consequences resulting from inappropriate, negligent or incorrect
installation or adjustment of the optional operating parameters of the equipment.
The contents of this guide are believed to be correct at the time of printing. In the interests of a commitment to a policy
of continuous development and improvement, the manufacturer reserves the right to change the specification of the
product or its performance, or the contents of the guide, without notice.
All rights reserved. No parts of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electrical or
mechanical including photocopying, recording or by an information storage or retrieval system, without permission in
writing from the publisher.

Environmental statement
Emerson is committed to minimizing the environmental impacts of its manufacturing operations and of its products
throughout their life cycle. To this end, we operate an Environmental Management System (EMS) which is certified to
the International Standard ISO 14001. Further information on the EMS, our Environmental Policy and other relevant
information is available on request, or can be found at www.greendrives.com.
When the products eventually reach the end of their useful life, they must not be discarded but should instead be recycled
by a specialist recycler of electronic equipment. Recyclers will find the products easy to dismantle into their major
component parts for efficient recycling. Many parts snap together and can be separated without the use of tools, while
other parts are secured with conventional fasteners. Virtually all parts of the product are suitable for recycling.
Product packaging is of good quality and can be re-used. Large products are packed in wooden crates, while smaller
products come in strong cardboard cartons which themselves have a high recycled fibre content. If not re-used, these
containers can be recycled. Polythene, used on the protective film and bags for wrapping product, can be recycled in the
same way. Emersons' packaging strategy favours easily-recyclable materials of low environmental impact, and regular
reviews identify opportunities for improvement.
When preparing to recycle or dispose of any product or packaging, please observe local legislation and best practice.

Software versions applicable to this user guide


This User Guide is intended for use with the SPV Photovoltaic Inverter which contains the software version V01.01.01
(or later) in the SM-Applications Plus PV modules. For previous versions of the software, please refer to the SPV User
guide Issue 1.

Copyright © March 2012


Issue Number: 2
Contents
1 Safety information .................................6 6 Commissioning ...................................62
1.1 Warnings, Cautions and Notes .............................6 6.1 Suggested test equipment for commissioning ....62
1.2 Electrical safety - general warning ........................6 6.2 Pre power-up checks ..........................................62
1.3 System design and safety of personnel ................6 6.3 No power checks for all SPVs .............................63
1.4 Environmental limits ..............................................6 6.4 Power module zone (contactor section) checks: .64
1.5 Access ..................................................................6 6.5 Additional pre-power up checks for
1.6 Compliance with regulations .................................6 split systems .......................................................65
1.7 Photovoltaic array .................................................6 6.6 Power connection DC .........................................66
1.8 Adjusting parameters ............................................6 6.7 Low power complete inverter tests .....................66
6.8 High power complete inverter test ......................67
2 Product introduction .............................7 6.9 Gain settings .......................................................69
6.10 Tuning Guide ......................................................70
3 Product information ............................10 6.11 BDEW Grid support / fault ride-through set-up ...71
3.1 Order code ..........................................................10 6.12 Further commissioning ........................................72
3.2 Nameplate description .......................................11 6.13 AC grid monitoring ..............................................76
3.3 Electrical ratings ..................................................11 6.14 PV array monitoring ............................................81
3.4 Voltage ratings ....................................................12
3.5 AC frequency ratings ..........................................12 7 Operation .............................................85
3.6 Power factor ........................................................12 7.1 Basic operation ...................................................85
3.7 Protective class ...................................................12 7.2 Power analyzer ...................................................85
3.8 Power circuit grounding ......................................12 7.3 Anti-islanding ......................................................85
3.9 Options ................................................................12 7.4 Grid fault (low voltage) ride-through ....................86
3.10 Enclosure design ................................................13 7.5 Minimum system on time ....................................87
7.6 Minimum system off time ....................................87
4 Mechanical installation .......................21 7.7 Power module data collection on the HMI data
4.1 Safety information ...............................................21 transfer module ...................................................87
4.2 Enclosure handling .............................................21 7.8 Emergency stop relay reset ................................88
4.3 Planning the installation ......................................22
4.4 Enclosure plan views ..........................................23 8 Parameters ...........................................89
4.5 SPV Dimensions and weight ...............................33 8.1 HMI data transfer module ...................................91
4.6 Ventilation ...........................................................34 8.2 System controller module .................................107
4.7 Electrical terminals ..............................................38 8.3 Power Module ...................................................140
4.8 Optional chopper resistor ....................................42
9 Diagnostics ........................................149
5 Electrical installation .......................45 9.1 Trip indications ..................................................149
5.1 AC grid connection requirements ........................45 9.2 System controller module trip ...........................149
5.2 AC grid connection ..............................................45 9.3 Power Module trip .............................................153
5.3 Grounding ...........................................................47 9.4 Trip history ........................................................160
5.4 Fuses ..................................................................48 9.5 Isolation monitor ................................................160
5.5 DC array connections .........................................48 9.6 Ground fault detector and interrupter ................160
5.6 Connecting the split enclosure configuration ......50
5.7 Auxiliary supply ...................................................56
5.8 Emergency stop switches (terminal -X2) ............57
5.9 Power control signals from the electricity
supply company (terminal -X5) ...........................58
5.10 User control signals (terminal -X6) ......................58
5.11 1000Vdc turn-on (chopper) option ......................58

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10 Technical data ....................................161
10.1 Electrical data ....................................................161
10.2 Voltage ratings ..................................................161
10.3 AC frequency ratings .........................................161
10.4 Power factor ......................................................161
10.5 MV / HV transformer requirements ...................161
10.6 Protective class .................................................162
10.7 Power circuit grounding .....................................162
10.8 Number of available AC grid connection points 162
10.9 Maximum number of DC landing points ............162
10.10 Total harmonic current distortion (THD) ............164
10.11 Flicker ................................................................164
10.12 Standby power loss ...........................................164
10.13 Turn on/off power ..............................................165
10.14 Efficiency ratings ...............................................165
10.15 Losses ...............................................................170
10.16 Mechanical data ................................................171
10.17 Environmental data ...........................................172
10.18 Humidity ............................................................172
10.19 Altitude ..............................................................172
10.20 Corrosive gasses ..............................................172
10.21 Ingress Protection .............................................172
10.22 Acoustic noise ...................................................172
10.23 Conformance and safety ...................................172
10.24 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ................172

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Declaration of Conformity

Control Techniques Ltd


The Gro
Newtown
Powys
UK
SY16 3BE

SPV248 SPV300 SPV600 SPV900


SPV1200 SPV1500 SPV1800 SPV2100
SPV2400 SPV2700

- with any 16-character option code following the part number


The photovoltaic inverter products listed above have been designed and manufactured in accordance with the following European harmonized
standards:

EN 50178:1998 Electronic equipment for use in power installations


EN 60204-1:2006 Safety of machinery. Electrical equipment of machines. General requirements

EN 60439-1:1999 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies. Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-4: Limits - Limitation of emission of harmonic currents in low-voltage power
IEC 61000-3-4:1998
supply systems for equipment with rated current greater than 16 A
EN 61000-6-2:2005 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Immunity standard for industrial environments

EN 61000-6-4:2007 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Emission standard for industrial environments

These products comply with the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2004/108/EC
T. Alexander
VP Technology
Date: 15th June 2010

These inverter products are intended to be used with appropriate photo-voltaic arrays, electrical protection components and other equip-
ment to form complete systems. Compliance with safety and EMC regulations depends upon installing and configuring inverters correctly.
The inverters must be installed only by professional assemblers who are familiar with requirements for safety and EMC. The assembler is
responsible for ensuring that the end product or system complies with all the relevant laws in the country where it is to be used. Refer to
the Installation Guide.

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Safety Product Product Mechanical Electrical
Commissioning Operation Parameters Diagnostics Technical data
information introduction information installation installation

1 Safety information electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations. Particular attention


must be given to the cross-sectional areas of conductors, the selection
of fuses or other protection, and protective ground (earth) connections.
1.1 Warnings, Cautions and Notes
1.7 Photovoltaic array
A Warning contains information which is essential for avoiding Ensure the photovoltaic array is installed in accordance with the
a safety hazard. manufacturer's recommendations. Particular attention must be given to
the provision of fuse or other protection to individual panel strings,
WARNING
groups of strings, string wiring, and to the provision of the necessary
ground connections.
The photovoltaic array installation must be provided with a correctly
A Caution contains information which is necessary for
designed surge protection arrangement in order to protect it form the
avoiding a risk of damage to the product or other equipment.
effects of lightning. This is beyond the scope of the inverter supplier.
CAUTION

1.8 Adjusting parameters


NOTE
Some parameters have a profound effect on the operation of the SPV
A Note contains information which helps to ensure correct operation of inverter. They must not be altered without careful consideration of the
the product. impact on the system. Measures must be taken to prevent unwanted
changes due to error or tampering.
1.2 Electrical safety - general warning
The voltages used in the SPV inverter can cause severe electrical shock This guide assumes that the user is familiar with the
and/or burns and could be lethal. The SPV inverter is fed from multiple Emersons’ Unidrive SP range of drives with regards to
power sources (the photovoltaic array, the grid, auxiliary power supplies parameter access and navigation.
and internal UPS where installed). Extreme care is necessary at all CAUTION
times when working with or adjacent to the SPV inverter. Specific
warnings are given at the relevant places in this guide. The setting of the inverter voltage and frequency protection relays may
affect the safety of electricity network operator personnel, and must be
1.3 System design and safety of carried out in accordance with their requirements.
personnel
The SPV inverter is intended as a component for professional
incorporation into a complete photovoltaic system. If installed incorrectly,
the SPV inverter may present a safety hazard. The SPV inverter uses
high voltages and currents, carries a high level of stored electrical
energy and is fed from multiple power sources. Close attention is
required to the electrical installation and the system design to avoid
hazards either in normal operation or in the event of equipment
malfunction. System design, installation, commissioning and
maintenance must be carried out by personnel who have the necessary
training and experience. They must read this safety information and this
guide carefully. Sources of power (the photovoltaic array, the main grid,
auxiliary power supplies and internal UPS where installed) must be
disconnected by an approved electrical isolation device before gaining
access to the electrical connections.
Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the SPV
inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the power contactors
but contactors are not approved isolation devices and must not be relied
on to provide isolation for personal.
A number of components in the SPV inverter can reach high
temperatures. These include the minimum power test resistor, the
chopper resistor, the line inductors and the charging resistors. Contact
with these components should be avoided.

1.4 Environmental limits


Instructions in this User Guide regarding transport, storage, installation
and use of the SPV inverter must be complied with, including the
specified environmental limits detailed in the Technical Data section. The
SPV inverter must not be subjected to excessive mechanical shock or
physical force.

1.5 Access
Access must be restricted to authorized personnel only. Safety
regulations which apply at the place of use must be complied with.

1.6 Compliance with regulations


The installer is responsible for complying with all relevant regulations,
such as national wiring regulations, accident prevention regulations and

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Commissioning Operation Parameters Diagnostics Technical data
information introduction information installation installation

2 Product introduction
The SPV inverter is a utility scale central inverter for photovoltaic applications covering a power range of 145 kWp to 1.76 MWp.
Figure 2-1 Photovoltaic overview

PV array SPV Inverter MV transformer Electricity grid

The SPV inverter converts the DC voltage produced by the PV array into AC. The medium voltage (MV) transformer then transforms the AC output
from the SPV inverter to the electricity grid voltage.
The SPV inverter is a modular system containing a number of power modules operating in parallel to provide the required power rating. To reduce
losses and increase efficiency, only the minimum number of power modules necessary to cope with the available power from PV array is switched
into circuit at any given time. SPV248 and SPV300 inverters contain a single module, SPV600 and larger inverters utilize multiple power modules.
Figure 2-2 SPV inverter single line overview

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Figure 2-3 SPV inverter control overview

User interface Inverter section


section

HMI Data Transfer System Controller


Module Module Power Power Power
Module 1 Module 2 Module n

PV HMI Data Transfer PV Control Module


SM-Apps Plus SM-Apps Plus
SLOT1 SLOT1
(Node 101) (Node 100)

External User I/O Interface


communications SM-I/O 32
SM-Ethernet SLOT2
SLOT2

PV Power Control PV Power Control PV Power Control


User Program module PV Control I/O Module SM-Apps
Module SM-Apps Module SM-Apps
SM-Apps Plus SM-I/O Plus Plus SLOT1
Plus SLOT1 Plus SLOT1
SLOT3 SLOT3 (Node n)
(Node 1) (Node 2)

There are two main pieces of controller software present in the SPV inverter system, one for each of the two levels of control. The highest level of
control is assigned to the system controller module which is responsible for the overseeing and ultimate sequencing control of the entire SPV inverter.
The System controller module controls functions such as the maximum power point tracking, active power control and reactive current/power control.
The second level of control is implemented on each of the power modules in the system.
The HMI data transfer module is effectively a sub-module of the System controller module providing monitoring functions and control of a limited
number of parameters. The HMI data transfer module can be installed with an external communications interface to provide a hub for communication
between the SPV inverter and an external controller or HMI. The HMI data transfer module also allows for customized local I/O configuration for
customer and power authority requirements or regulations.
The system controller module and HMI data transfer module are both SP control platforms with relevant Solution Modules installed.

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Listed below are some of the key features of the SPV inverter
High efficiency Due to the modular design of the SPV inverter, where only the necessary number of power modules are switched
into circuit, the SPV inverter has a high conversion efficiency of 98.0 % peak and 97.6 % EU factor.
Maximum inverter The modular design makes the inverter very tolerant against power module faults allowing a faulty power module to
availability and built in be switched out and another power module brought on-line in its place. This modular design also allows for
redundancy additional power modules to be incorporated into the inverter for redundancy to ensure that the availability of the
inverter is maximized.
Maximum Power Point A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is implemented within the SPV inverter to track the maximum
Tracking (MPPT) power point of the PV array at all ambient temperatures and irradiance conditions.
Maximum inverter lifetime The lifetime of the power modules in the inverter is maximized by rotating which power module is the first to be
turned on each day.
Automatic reactive and The SPV inverters allow full control of the reactive power flow and power factor between 0.8 inductive and 0.8
power factor control capacitive.
Low switch on point Due to the low power loss of the SPV inverter, it can start generating when the available power from the PV array
exceeds approximately 900 W.
Low standby power The standby night time power loss is less than 100 W.
Anti-islanding protection Islanding occurs when part of the power distribution network becomes separated from the power grid and is
unintentionally maintained by a distributed generator source, such as a PV inverter.
The SPV inverter can detect the presence of an island and shut itself down. It will then wait for the line voltage to
return to within the specified range before attempting to reconnect. See section 7.3 Anti-islanding on page 85 for
more information.
Very low total current The total current harmonic distortion produced by the SPV inverter is typically less than 2.28 % which means that no
harmonic distortion (ITHD) derating of the MV transformer is required.
Inverter protection The SPV inverter contains a comprehensive protection scheme to protect itself against over voltage, over current
and over temperature.
Auto phase rotation
The SPV inverter automatically detects the phase rotation of the AC supply
detection
Up to 1000Vdc switch-on The SPV inverter can be switched on to a PV array with an open circuit voltage of up to 1000 Vdc. This requires an
(option) optional chopper and resistor to be installed to bring the open circuit voltage of the PV array down to the controllable
range of the power modules.
Ride-through / grid support A ride-through / grid support version of the SPV inverter is available containing additional components
(option) which allow the SPV to remain synchronized to the grid during a fault. Additionally the SPV can be
configured to aid fault recovery by delivering voltage support. See section 7.4 Grid fault (low voltage) ride-through on
page 86.
Ground fault protection of The SPV inverter is supplied with PV array ground fault protection for when the PV array is floating with respect to
the PV array ground. If the DC supply from the PV array is to be grounded to either the positive or negative legs, then a ground
fault detector and interrupter (GFDI) is installed in the SPV inverter.
Remote monitoring The SPV inverter can be installed with various communication interfaces such as Ethernet to allow for remote
monitoring of the inverter.
Inverter layout The SPV inverter can be supplied in a single or two piece format depending on customer requirements. The two
piece format allows the inverter to be mounted against the shelter walls providing additional rigidity during transport
while allowing the shelter width to be kept to a minimum.
A two piece format is only available with SPV600 and larger. In the two piece inverter format, the AC grid connection
and inverter sections form one piece, and the auxiliary section and DC sections form the other piece. See section
4.4.2 Split enclosure configuration on page 26 for more information.

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3 Product information
3.1 Order code
The customer order code can be specified using the data in Table 3-1. This will call up a complete SPV system. A typical order code as shown in the
table would therefore be: 400-000-18-0-0-0-6-1-1-111111.
Table 3-1 Order code numbering scheme
Typical order
Option Code
code example
Product code 400 – SPV product family. 400
Customer 000 – Customer identification number 000
02 – SPV0248
03 – SPV0300
06 – SPV0600
09 – SPV0900
12 – SPV1200
SPV size 18
15 – SPV1500
18 – SPV1800
21 – SPV2100
24 – SPV2400
27 – SPV2700
0 – CE
1 – UL
Standards and grid connection codes 2 - BDEW 0
3 – G59/2
4 – PEA
0 – 340 V
1 – 260 V
AC Supply Voltage 0
2 – 300 V
Inverter 3 – 400 V
options
0 - Ungrounded
DC Grounding 1 - Positive leg grounded 0
2 - Negative leg grounded
0 - Braking chopper only
1 - No options
4 - Braking chopper and 125 A MCBs
Braking Chopper, Fuse Holders, 5 - 125 A MCBs
6
Fuses, MCBs Options 6 - Braking chopper, fuse holders and string fuses 200 A
7 - Fuse holders and string fuses 200 A
8 - Braking chopper and fuse holders
9 – Fuse holders
0 - Single cubicle without doors installed on Aux section
1 - Double cubicle without doors installed on Aux section
Cubicle construction 1
2 - Single cubicle with doors installed on Aux section
3 - Double cubicle with doors installed on Aux section
0 - No plinths, with lifting beams
1 - 100 mm (4 in) transportation plinths, with lifting beams
Transportation Plinth and Lifting
2 - 200 mm (4 in) transportation plinths, with lifting beams 1
Beam
3 - 100 mm (4 in) transportation plinths, without lifting beams
4 - 200 mm (4 in) transportation plinths, without lifting beams

Shelter 1 - Yes, 0 - No 1
System SCADA interface 1 - Yes, 0 - No 1
options String connection box 1 - Yes, 0 - No 1
Transformer 1 - Yes, 0 - No 1
MV/HV switchgear 1 - Yes, 0 - No 1

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3.2 Nameplate description 3.3 Electrical ratings


3.2.1 Model number Table 3-2 SPV Current and power ratings (45 °C ambient
A description of the model number which appears on the system label of temperature)
the SPV inverter is given in Figure 3-1 below.
Rated AC Rated DC Rated apparent power
Figure 3-1 Model number description
Model current current (at 340 Vac)*
SPV 1500 DC BC FH XX 1 A A kVA
SPV248** 246** 300** 145**
SPV inverter product line
SPV300 300 350 175
SPV: Photovoltaic inverter
SPV600 600 700 350
AC current rating SPV900 900 1050 530
SPV inverter product line SPV1200 1200 1400 700
SC: Single enclosure SPV1500 1500 1750 880
DC: Split enclosure
SPV1800 1800 2100 1060
1000 V turn-on option SPV2100 2100 2450 1230
XX: No chopper installed
BC: Chopper installed
SPV2400 2400 2800 1410
SPV2700 2700 3150 1590
Array SCB (string connection box) fusing
FH FU: With fuse holders and fuses installed
*Apparent power rating for other AC voltages is given by the following
FH XX: With fuse holders and without fuses equation;
MC XX: With MCB’s installed (miniature circuit breakers)
XX XX: No options installed
Apparent power rating = AC voltage line to line x √3 x rated AC current
**SPV248 ratings at 40 °C.
Plinth / lifting beam Table 3-3 SPV current and power ratings (50 ° C ambient
0: No plinth, lifting beam fitted temperature)
1: 100 mm plinth and lifting beam installed
2: 200 mm plinth and lifting beam installed Rated AC Rated DC Rated apparent power
3: 100 mm plinth, no lifting beam installed Model current current (at 340 Vac)*
4: 200 mm plinth, no lifting beam installed A A kVA
SPV248 208 252 122
3.2.2 System label
SPV300 285 332 166
Figure 3-2 Typical system label
SPV600 570 665 332
SPV900 855 997 503
SPV1200 1140 1330 665
SPV1500 1425 1662 836
SPV1800 1710 1995 1007
www.controltechniques.com
SPV2100 1995 2327 1168
Order - No. 000005
SPV2400 2280 2660 1339
Model - No. SPV1500 DC-BC-FH-XX-1
Supply voltage 3 x 340 V 50/60 Hz (IT)
SPV2700 2565 2992 1510
Max array turn on volt 1000 Vdc *Apparent power rating for other AC voltages is given by the following
Power rating (340Vac) 880 kW equation;
Rated AC current(45ºC) 1500 A Apparent power rating = AC voltage line to line x √3 x rated AC current.
Rated DC current(45ºC) 1750 A 3.3.1 AC grid connection short circuit current rating
Control voltage 230 V 50/60 Hz, 24 Vdc
The maximum symmetrical fault current of the AC grid connection must
Output power factor Adjustable be limited to 100 kA.
Date of construction STDN39
3.3.2 Input of short circuit current to the grid
The SPV inverter produces a maximum peak short circuit current of
260% of the rated current of the SPV. In the case of an SPV1800, the
Serial No: 3000005001 rated current is 1800 A, which results in a short circuit current of 4680 A.
This current is interrupted by the power semiconductors and decays to a
negligible value within 4 ms. The non ride-through version ceases
operation at this time. The ride-through version produces reactive
current up to 100 % of the SPV rated current.

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3.4 Voltage ratings 3.9 Options


3.4.1 AC voltage Factory installed options that are applicable to the SPV inverter are
The SPV inverter is available in four models suitable for the following listed in Table 3-4 below. These options must be specified at the time of
voltages; 260, 300, 340 and 400 Vac ±10 %. ordering.

3.4.2 MPPT voltage (also DC operating voltage) See section 3.1 Order code on page 10 for information on how to order
the various options.
The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) voltage range is the DC
operating voltage with a range of (√2 x AC voltage) + 30 V to 800 Vdc Table 3-4 Factory installed options
with an absolute range of 400 Vdc to 800 Vdc. Item Description
3.4.3 Maximum DC switch-on voltage The 1000 V turn-on option allows the SPV
With 1000 Vdc turn-on (chopper) option: 1000 Vdc inverter to start with an open circuit DC voltage
Without 1000 Vdc turn-on (chopper) option: 800 Vdc on the PV array of up to 1000 Vdc. A chopper
is utilized to temporarily reduce the DC voltage
If the open circuit voltage of the PV array exceeds 1000 Vdc with the 1000 V turn-on
down to 800 Vdc, in order that the SPV
1000 Vdc turn-on option installed or 800 Vdc without the 1000 Vdc turn-
inverter may start to feed power from the PV
on option installed, then the SPV inverter will not attempt to start.
array into the grid, at which point the chopper
is disabled.
3.5 AC frequency ratings
SPV600 and larger inverters may be supplied
The nominal AC frequency range is: 50 Hz to 60 Hz as either single or split configurations. In the
The absolute maximum AC frequency range is: 30 Hz to 100 Hz split configuration, the AC and DC sections of
Single or split inverter
(normally restricted to required limits) the inverter are separated which allows the
configuration
two sections to be installed on opposite walls
(SPV600 and larger)
3.6 Power factor of a shelter. This has the benefit of reducing
The SPV power factor is fully controllable, priority is given to reactive the width (W) of the shelter as illustrated in
Figure 3-3 below.
current over active current. The maximum reactive current before active
current is limited (in order to maintain the SPV total current rating) is The plinth the inverter enclosures are mounted
approximately the vector difference of inverter current rating and active Plinth on can be either 100 mm (4") or 200 mm (8")
current. i.e. high.
Option of fuse holders only, fuses and fuse
Ireactive_max2 = Irated2 - Iactive2 DC protection
holders, or MCBs for string protection.
For example, an SPV600 operating at 500 A active current has a The DC supply from the PV array can be
maximum reactive current of 332 A before any reduction in active floating or grounded at either the positive or
current occurs. Beyond this point the SPV will provide further reactive negative legs. If the DC is to be floating, then
current up to rated current, the impact this has on active current is an isolation monitor is installed in the inverter.
DC grounding
approximated by the following; If the DC is to be grounded to either the
positive or negative legs, then a ground fault
Iactive_max2 = Irated2 - Ireactive2
detector and interrupter is installed in the
In terms of power factor, a PF of 0.95 lagging or leading will result in inverter.
approximately 5 % reduction in available active power. This reduction in A ride-through / grid support version of the
available active power can be avoided by over sizing the SPV by 5 % SPV inverter is available containing additional
during the planning stage. components which allow the SPV to remain
synchronized to the grid during a fault.
NOTE
Additionally this SPV version can be
Adjustment of voltage relay thresholds may be necessary due to the Ride-through / grid
configured to aid fault recovery by delivering
rise/fall of AC voltage due to power factor settings other than unity, refer support.
voltage support. See section 7.4 Grid fault
to section 6.12.6 AC Voltage management on page 75. (low voltage) ride-through on page 86 for more
information. This option is selected by
3.7 Protective class specifying the BDEW grid connection code in
the order code numbering scheme.
The SPV inverter is protective class I according to IEC 62103 and IEC
61140. The P.E/ground terminal provided must be connected to an
appropriate ground as described in section 5.3 on page 47.

3.8 Power circuit grounding


AC grounding: The low voltage inverter side of the transformer must be
an ungrounded floating system (IT).
DC grounding: The DC bus can be floating or grounded at either the
positive or negative legs (array isolation monitoring or ground fault
detector and interrupter is provided).

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Figure 3-3 Maximized working space


Split configuration Single configuration

660 mm Access

W Access W
1000 mm
400 mm

Access
PV inverter enclosure
Working space around the enclosure

3.10 Enclosure design


The SPV inverter is made up of four separate zones as defined in the following sections. The SPV inverter is designed to be installed inside a building
or shelter. The SPV inverter is rated to IP00 (IP2X where access is required for commissioning).
3.10.1 Auxiliary zone
Isolation
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary power supply and
internal UPS where installed. All supplies must be disconnected from the inverter using approved isolation devices before any cover is
removed from the inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the
CAUTION
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation devices and must
not be relied on to provide isolation for personnel.

Access
This zone has no doors. Any electrical connection must only be made when the all supplies to the SPV inverter have been isolated. It is
possible to use the various programmable devices in this zone (such as the System controller module, voltage and frequency relays, etc)
CAUTION
while the SPV inverter is powered up.

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Figure 3-4 Auxiliary zone

Minimum power
test resistor System controller
module

HMI data
transfer module
Hygrostat

Isolation/ground
fault indicator

Power analyzer

Voltage and HMI


frequency monitor
relays

Isolation monitor
(floating PV array
only)

UPS and Batteries


(ride through / grid
230 Vac 4 A max. support version only)
power socket

Control terminals

Transformer -T56

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Table 3-5 Description of the items in the auxiliary zone


Item Description
This module communicates with the HMI and is used to interrogate the system via an optional
HMI data transfer module communications interface. This module is also installed with a user programmable SM-Applications
Plus Solutions Module.
This is the main control module for the SPV inverter. This module holds the overall control software for
System controller module
the system.
Isolation/ground fault indicator This is illuminated when an isolation or ground fault is detected on the PV array
This provides voltage, current, power and power factor information at the AC terminals of the SPV
Power analyzer
inverter. This information is passed to the System controller module via a RS485 communications link.
HMI This provides the local user interface to the SPV inverter
Minimum power test resistor This is used to determine when the PV array is providing enough power for the SPV inverter to start
Voltage and frequency relays These provide over and under, voltage and frequency monitoring for the inverter.
Isolation monitor This provides isolation monitoring of the PV array (floating PV array only)
230 Vac power socket (4 A max.) 230 Vac socket for laptop computers or similar monitoring equipment
This is where all external control connections are made such as E-stops, electricity supply company
Control terminals
power limit inputs, etc
Transformer –T56 Three phase transformer for auxiliary items
This is used to stop the SPV inverter when the measured humidity exceeds the set value (default
Hygrostat
setting is 90 %)
UPS and Batteries (ride through / grid
These are used to maintain the essential system control voltages during a mains fault condition
support version only)

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3.10.2 DC zone
Isolation
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary power supply and
internal UPS where installed. All supplies must be disconnected from the inverter using approved isolation devices before any cover is
removed from the inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the
WARNING
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation devices and must
not be relied on to provide isolation for personnel.

Access
This zone has covers and due to the stored charge in the SPV inverter, access must only be granted at least 10 minutes after the both the
DC source from the PV array and the main AC grid connections have been isolated. If it is not possible to isolate the DC source from the
WARNING
PV array, then access to this zone must only be granted at night.

Figure 3-5 DC zone

DC contactors

DC filters

Power module
DC fuses

Chopper units
(optional)

String connection
points (fuse holders
or MCBs not shown)

Contactor - K293
(used to connect
one pole of the chopper
resistor/s)

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3.10.3 AC grid connection zone


Isolation
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary power supply and
internal UPS where installed. All supplies must be disconnected from the inverter using approved isolation devices before any cover is
removed from the inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the
WARNING
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation devices and must
not be relied on to provide isolation for personnel.

Isolation
This zone has covers and due to the stored charge in the SPV inverter, access must only be granted at least 10 minutes after the both the
DC source from the PV array and the main AC grid connections have been isolated. If it is not possible to isolate the DC source from the
PV array, then access to this zone must only be granted at night.
WARNING

Figure 3-6 AC grid connection zone

AC fuses for the


power modules

Current transformers
for the power
analyzer

AC busbars and grid


connection points

Grounding point
(on side wall of enclosure)

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3.10.4 Power module zone


Isolation
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary power supply and
internal UPS where installed. All supplies must be disconnected from the inverter using approved isolation devices before any cover is
removed from the inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the
WARNING
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation devices and must
not be relied on to provide isolation for personnel.

Access
This zone has covers, and due to the stored charge in the SPV inverter, access must only be granted at least 10 minutes after the both the
DC source from the PV array and the main AC grid connections have been isolated. If it is not possible to isolate the DC source from the
WARNING
PV array, then access to this zone must only be granted at night.

Figure 3-7 Power Module zone

AC contactor
DC charging
contactors

Power module
(AC filters behind)

Line inductor

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3.10.5 SPV248 and SPV300


For the two smallest SPV models (SPV248 and SPV300), the enclosure is a single side solution with no separate AC grid connection zone necessary
because AC cables are terminated at the AC fuse carrier.
Figure 3-8 SPV248 & SPV300 enclosure solution (without optional chopper)

3.10.6 Single piece enclosure solution


For larger models (SPV600 to SPV2700) a back to back mounting solution is available with auxiliary and power module zones on one side and DC &
AC grid connection zones on the other. Access is required from the front and rear of the enclosure.
Figure 3-9 Single piece enclosure solution (SPV1200 shown)
800mm (31.50in) 1200mm (47.24in) 800mm (31.50in)

1000mm
(39.37in)

1200mm (47.24in) 400mm


(15.75in)
2800mm (110.24in)

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3.10.7 Split enclosure solution (SPV600 to SPV2700 only)


To allow easy installation in concrete enclosures or steel containers, a dual or split enclosure solution is available with AC grid connection and power
module zones in one enclosure and DC & auxiliary zones in another. The two enclosures are placed against opposing walls (i.e. with the front side of
each enclosure facing each other) and connected together during installation. Access is only required to the front of the two enclosures (see also
Figure 3-3 Maximized working space on page 13).
Figure 3-10 Split enclosure solution (SPV1200 shown)
Front of enclosure Front of enclosure

Rear of enclosure

CONTROL DC DC

Front of enclosure

AC PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0

Rear of enclosure

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4 Mechanical installation enclosure is greater than 45 ° in conformity with DIN 580 (see Figure
4-1). Using slings that are too short places excessive stress on the
This chapter details the following: lifting eyes and could result in damage.
• Handling the SPV inverter • Ensure the enclosure does not swing on the rope during lifting by
• SPV inverter layouts checking the crane is correctly centred above the enclosure prior to
• Terminal locations and torque settings lifting.
• Enclosures installed with optional 100 or 200 mm plinths can also be
4.1 Safety information lifted as shown in Figure 4-3 on page 22. Lifting arms should be
Follow the instructions inserted as far apart as possible for a particular plinth structure. The
lifting arms must be long enough to support the load. Abrasion
The mechanical and electrical installation instructions must
protection for the enclosure paintwork should be provided at the
be adhered to. Any questions or doubt should be referred to
the supplier of the equipment. It is the responsibility of the enclosure top edge as shown in Figure 4-5 on page 36.
WARNING Figure 4-1 Four point lift cable angle
owner or user to ensure that the installation of the inverter
and any external option unit, and the way in which they are
operated and maintained, comply with the requirements of
the Health and Safety at Work Act in the United Kingdom or
applicable legislation and regulations and codes of practice
in the country in which the equipment is used.

Competence of the installer


The SPV inverter must be installed by professional
assemblers who are familiar with the requirements for safety
and EMC. The assembler is responsible for ensuring that the
WARNING
end product or system complies with all the relevant laws in
the country where it is to be used.

The weight of the SPV inverters range from 1150 kg (2540


lb) to 5300 kg (187000 lb). Lift the SPV inverter by the
methods detailed in section 4.2 Enclosure handling . The
centre of gravity of the unit is high. An overturning unit can NOTE
WARNING cause physical injury. The cable or rope angle should be greater than 45 °

Isolation Figure 4-2 Location of abrasion protection


The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which
include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary
power supply and internal UPS where installed. All supplies Protective
WARNING
must be disconnected from the inverter using approved timbers
isolation devices before any cover is removed from the
inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone.
Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate
the SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open
the power contactors but contactors are not approved
isolation devices and must not be relied on to provide
isolation for personnel.

Stored charge
The SPV inverter contains capacitors that remain charged to
a potentially lethal voltage after the AC or DC supply has
been disconnected. If the SPV inverter has been energized,
WARNING
the AC and DC supply must be isolated at least ten minutes
before work may continue.
Normally, the capacitors are discharged by an internal
resistor. Under certain, unusual fault conditions, it is possible
that the capacitors may fail to discharge, or be prevented
from being discharged by a voltage applied to the terminals.
If the inverter has failed in a manner that causes the display
to go blank immediately, it is possible the capacitors will not
be discharged. In this case, consult the manufacturer or their
authorized distributor.

4.2 Enclosure handling


The SPV enclosure is designed to be handled either with a crane or
forklift truck. Handling by crane is the preferred method.
4.2.1 Crane lifting
• The maximum weight rating of the lifting sling or ropes must be
sufficient, i.e. the lifting capacity of each must be greater than half of
the entire enclosure weight based on a four point lift.
• The length of the lifting slings or ropes must be long enough to
ensure that the angle between the sling and the top edge of the

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4.2.2 Forklift lifting


Forklift lifting should only be used when absolutely necessary. Lifting by
crane is the preferred method.
• Ensure the ground over which the enclosure is to be moved is
sufficiently level and can withstand the combined weight of the
enclosure and forklift.
• Ensure the forklift has sufficient lifting capacity.
• Check the intended location for the enclosure is clean, level and free
of debris.
• Pad the forklift arms with rubber or other suitable material to prevent
metal on metal damage to the base or movement of the load.
• Do not allow the enclosure to tilt during lifting.
• Lower slowly and carefully.
Figure 4-3 Lifting by forklift or pallet truck

4.3 Planning the installation


The following considerations must be taken into account when planning
the installation:
4.3.1 Access
Access must be restricted to authorized personnel only. Safety
regulations which apply at the place of use must be complied with.
4.3.2 Environmental protection
The inverter must be protected from:
• Moisture, including dripping water or spraying water and
condensation
• Contamination with electrically conductive material
• Contamination with any form of dust which may restrict the fan or
impair the airflow
• Temperature beyond the specified operating and storage ranges
• Corrosive gases

4.3.3 Cooling
The inlet and outlet vents on the inverter must not be restricted or
covered. The ambient temperature must not exceed the specified
operating temperature of the inverter. See section 4.6 for further details.
4.3.4 Electrical safety
The installation must be safe under normal and fault conditions.
Electrical installation instructions are given in Chapter 5 Electrical
installation .
4.3.5 Hazardous areas
The inverter must not be located in a classified hazardous area.

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4.4 Enclosure plan views


The following figures illustrate plan views of each available inverter configuration. Table 4-1 below is a key to the labels used in the figures.
Table 4-1 Key to the plan view figures

Label Zone Contents


HMI data transfer module, System controller, auxiliary transformers, power supplies, voltage and frequency
Control Auxiliary zone
relays.
PM Power module zone Inverter power module, AC contactor, relays and AC filter.
AC AC grid connection zone AC fuses, bus bars, and current transformer.
DC DC zone Main DC fuses, string fuses, contactors, bus bars, filters, choppers (option) etc.

4.4.1 Single enclosure configuration


Figure 4-4 SPV248 and SPV300 single enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view
Top view (without optional chopper)

600 mm
(23.62 in) CONTROL PM 0 DC

1200 mm (47.24 in) 400 mm (15.75 in)

2000 mm (78.74 in)

Figure 4-5 SPV248 and SPV300 single enclosure (including optional chopper) plan view

Top view (including optional chopper)

2400 mm (94.49 in)

600 mm
(23.62 in) CONTROL PM 0 DC CH

1200 mm (47.24 in) 400 mm


(15.75 in)

Figure 4-6 SPV600 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

AC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)

CONTROL PM 0 PM 1

1200 mm (47.24 in) 400 mm


(15.75 in)
2000 mm (78.74 in)

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Figure 4-7 SPV900 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

AC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)
CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2

1200 mm (47.24 in) 400 mm


(15.75 in)

2400 mm (94.49 in)

Figure 4-8 SPV1200 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm 1200 mm 800 mm
(31.50 in) (47.24 in) (31.50 in)

AC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)

CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3

1200 mm 400 mm
(47.24 in) (15.75 in)
2800 mm
(110.24 in)

Figure 4-9 SPV1500 single enclosure back to back plan view

Top view (including optional chopper)


800 mm 800 mm
(31.50 in) (31.50 in)

AC DC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)
CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4

1200 mm 400 mm
(47.24 in) (15.75 in)
3200 mm
(125.98 in)

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Figure 4-10 SPV1800 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

AC DC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)
CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5

1200 mm (47.24 in) 400 mm


(15.75 in)
3600 mm (141.73 in)

Figure 4-11 SPV2100 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm 800 mm
(31.50 in) (31.50 in)

AC DC DC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)
CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5 PM 6

1200 mm (47.24 in) 400 mm


(15.75 in)
4000 mm (157.48 in)

Figure 4-12 SPV2400 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm 800mm
(31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in) (31.50in)

AC DC DC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)
CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5 PM 6 PM 7

1200 mm (47.24 in)


400 mm
(15.75 in)
4400 mm (173.22 in)

Figure 4-13 SPV2700 single enclosure back to back plan view


Top view (including optional chopper)
800 mm 800 mm
(31.50 in) (31.50 in)

AC DC DC DC DC DC
1000 mm
(39.37 in)
CONTROL PM 0 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5 PM 6 PM 7 PM 8

1200 mm (47.24 in)


400 mm
(15.75 in)

4800 mm (188.98 in)

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4.4.2 Split enclosure configuration


Figure 4-14 SPV600 split enclosure (including optional chopper) plan view

Rear of enclosure

Front of enclosure

600 mm
660 mm (23.62 in)
(25.98 in)

Figure 4-15 SPV600 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view

Rear of enclosure

Front of enclosure

600 mm
660 mm (23.62 in)
(25.98 in)

Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-16 SPV900 split enclosure (including optional chopper) plan view

Top view (including optional chopper)


Rear of enclosure
2800 mm (110.24 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC

Front of enclosure

400 mm 400 mm 400 mm


800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in) (15.75 in) (15.75 in)

600 mm
660 mm (23.62 in) AC PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in)

2000 mm (78.74 in)

Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-17 SPV900 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view

Top view (without optional chopper)


Rear of enclosure
2400 mm (94.49 in)
1200mm (47.24in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC

Front of enclosure

400 mm 400 mm 400 mm


800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in) (15.75 in) (15.75 in)

600 mm
660 mm (23.62 in) AC PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in)

2000 mm (78.74 in)

Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-18 SPV1200 split enclosure (including optional chopper) plan view

Top view (including optional chopper)


Rear of enclosure
3200 mm (125.98 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC

Front of enclosure

800 mm 400 mm
(31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
AC
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

2400 mm (94.49 in)

Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-19 SPV1200 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view

Rear of enclosure
2800 mm (110.24 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC

Front of enclosure

800 mm 400 mm
(31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm
AC PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

2400 mm (94.49 in)

Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-20 SPV1500 split enclosure (including optional chopper) plan view
Top view (including optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure
3600 mm (141.73 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm AC PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

2800 mm (110.24 in)


Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-21 SPV1500 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view

Top view (without optional chopper)


Rear of enclosure
3200 mm (125.98 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm AC PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

2800 mm (110.24 in)


Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-22 SPV1800 split enclosure (with optional chopper) plan view
Top view (including optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure
4000 mm (157.48 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC

Front of enclosure

400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

600 mm
660 mm
(23.62 in) AC PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in)

3200 mm (125.98 in)


Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-23 SPV1800 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view

Top view (without optional chopper)


Rear of enclosure
3600 mm (141.73 in)

1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC

Front of enclosure

400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

600 mm
660 mm
(23.62 in) AC PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in)

3200 mm (125.98 in)


Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-24 SPV2100 split enclosure (with optional chopper) plan view
Top view (including optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure
4400 mm (173.22 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

600 mm
660 mm AC PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(23.62 in)
(25.98 in)

3600 mm (141.73 in)

Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-25 SPV2100 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view
Top view (without optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure

4000 mm (157.48 in)


1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.2 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

600 mm
660 mm AC PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(23.62 in)
(25.98 in)

3600 mm (141.73 in)

Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-26 SPV2400 split enclosure (with optional chopper) plan view

Top view (including optional chopper)


Rear of enclosure
4800 mm (188.98 in)

1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm AC PM 7 PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

4000 mm (157.48 in)


Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-27 SPV2400 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view
Top view (without optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure
4400 mm (173.22 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm AC PM 7 PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

4000 mm (157.48 in)


Rear of enclosure

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Figure 4-28 SPV2700 split enclosure (with optional chopper) plan view
Top view (including optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure
5200 mm (204.72 in)
1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm AC PM 8 PM 7 PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

4400 mm (173.22 in)


Rear of enclosure

Figure 4-29 SPV2700 split enclosure (without optional chopper) plan view
Top view (without optional chopper)
Rear of enclosure
4800 mm (188.98 in)

1200 mm (47.24 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 800 mm (31.50 in) 1200 mm (47.24 in)

400 mm
(15.75 in) CONTROL DC DC DC DC

Front of enclosure
400 mm
800 mm (31.50 in) (15.75 in)

660 mm 600 mm AC PM 8 PM 7 PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 0
(25.98 in) (23.62 in)

4400 mm (173.22 in)


Rear of enclosure

4.5 SPV Dimensions and weight


4.5.1 Single enclosure solution
Table 4-2 Single piece enclosure dimensions
Width Height* Depth Weight
Model
mm mm mm kg
SPV248 2000** 2000 600 1150
SPV300 2000** 2000 600 1200
SPV600 2000 2000 1000 1800
SPV900 2400 2000 1000 2300
SPV1200 2800 2000 1000 2800
SPV1500 3200 2000 1000 3300
SPV1800 3600 2000 1000 3800
SPV2100 4000 2000 1000 4300
SPV2400 4400 2000 1000 4800
SPV2700 4800 2000 1000 5300
*The height does not include optional 100 mm or 200 mm plinths.
** This dimension increases by 400 mm if the 1000 V turn-on (chopper) option is requested.

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NOTE
If extra inverter power modules are requested for redundancy purposes the width will increase by 400 mm for each power module added.
4.5.2 Split enclosure solution
Table 4-3 Split enclosure dimensions (AC grid connection and power module enclosure)
Width Height* Depth Weight
Model
mm mm mm kg
SPV600 1600 2000 660 900
SPV900 2000 2000 660 1250
SPV1200 2400 2000 660 1600
SPV1500 2800 2000 660 1950
SPV1800 3200 2000 660 2300
SPV2100 3600 2000 660 2650
SPV2400 4000 2000 660 3000
SPV2700 4400 2000 660 3350
*The height does not include optional 100 or 200 mm plinths.
Table 4-4 Split enclosure dimensions (DC and auxiliary enclosure)
Width** Height* Depth Weight
Model
mm mm mm kg
SPV600 2000 2000 400 900
SPV900 2400 2000 400 1050
SPV1200 2800 2000 400 1200
SPV1500 3200 2000 400 1350
SPV1800 3600 2000 400 1500
SPV2100 4000 2000 400 1650
SPV2400 4400 2000 400 1800
SPV2700 4800 2000 400 1950
*The height does not include optional 100 or 200 mm plinths.
**This dimension increases by 400 mm if the 1000 V turn-on (chopper) option is requested.
NOTE

If extra inverter power modules are requested for redundancy purposes, the width will increase by 400 mm for each power module added.

4.6 Ventilation
4.6.1 Minimum clearance to shelter / E-house walls
Space is only required to the front and above the SPV inverter installation for ventilation purposes. No clearance is required between the sides or the
rear of the SPV inverter to the walls of the shelter or E-house.
4.6.2 Air flow management
The SPV draws cool air in from the open front of the enclosure and hot air is expelled from the top of the enclosure as shown in Figure 4-30 and
Figure 4-31 on page 36. No air flow is required to the rear of the enclosure. It is recommended that a ventilation duct is built on top of the enclosures
to produce a defined air flow.

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Figure 4-30 Ventilation example (AC section)

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Figure 4-31 Ventilation example (DC section)

The required ducted air flow rates are shown in Table 4-5 below.
Table 4-5 Typical cooling air flow requirements to AC and DC sections of the SPV inverter
Air flow on AC section Airflow on DC section
Type
m3/h m3/h
SPV248 2000
SPV300 2600
SPV600 4676 374
SPV900 6780 720
SPV1200 8890 1010
SPV1500 11043 1407
SPV1800 13082 1818
SPV2100 15285 2065
SPV2400 16988 2812
SPV2700 19090 3160
The air flow values above are at 1.01325 bar, 0 % humidity and 15 °C (normalized conditions from ISO2533). It is recommended that these airflow
values are achieved using ducting and fans.

The typical airflow values above are based on the total (Inverter + Auxiliary) losses from section 10-7 Worst case cooling losses on
page 170 and ΔT of 6 °C. These figures should only be used for first approximation of shelter design, a full CFD Flotherm analysis should
be carried out for the detail design, refer to section 4.6.4 CFD Flotherm Thermal Analysis on page 37 for further information.
CAUTION

NOTE
The cooling air must be filtered for particles >10 µm. It is recommended that a class G4 filter from EN 779 is used. Concentrations of corrosive gases
must not exceed the levels given in:
• Table A2 of EN 50178:1998
• Class 3C2 of IEC 60721-3-3

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4.6.3 Shelter / E-house cooling airflow (first approximations for initial shelter quote only)
The Shelter/E-house cooling airflow requirements can be calculated as described below.
Calculate the temperature rise:
Temperature rise (ΔT) = Allowable SPV ambient – Max external ambient
If the allowable SPV ambient temperature is greater than 45 °C, the SPV must be operated at a de-rated current level (1 % / °C between 45 and
50 °C, see Table 3-3 on page 11). This is applied by setting the module rated current Pr 18.18 appropriately. Where operation is required with external
ambient temperatures greater than 49 °C, shelter cooling with airflow alone is not sufficient and other methods such as air conditioning must be used.

NOTE
The SPV inverter must be de-rated for altitudes greater than 1000 m as described in section 10.17 by setting Pr 18.18 appropriately. If other losses
affecting shelter temperature such as solar gain are significant, their loss value should be increased by a value of 0.666 % / 100 m above sea level.
Calculate the airflow requirements:
V = 3Pr/dT
Where:
V = Total shelter airflow in m3 / h
Pr = losses affecting shelter temperature (W)
ΔT = Temperature rise (°C)

NOTE

Pr should include ALL losses affecting shelter temperature. For a typical installation this would include;
SPV losses (including auxiliary losses), losses of any other equipment installed in the shelter and shelter solar gain. The total shelter airflow
requirement is achieved using ducting and fans as shown in Figure 4-30 Ventilation example (AC section) on page 35. The total shelter airflow must
be divided between SPV AC side and DC side in the proportions given in Table 4-6.
Table 4-6 Cooling airflow proportions
Airflow on AC side Airflow on DC side
(% total airflow) (% total airflow)
SPV248
100 N/A
SPV300
SPV600 92.6 7.4
SPV900 90.4 9.6
SPV1200 89.8 10.2
SPV1500 88.7 11.3
SPV1800 87.8 12.2
SPV2100 88.1 11.9
SPV2400
85.8 14.2
SPV2700

NOTE

The cooling air must be filtered for particles >10 µm. It is recommended that a class G4 filter from EN 779 is used.
4.6.4 CFD Flotherm Thermal Analysis
Conditions vary considerably world-wide and the shelter supplier may choose specific plenum designs & fans which would alter the critical air flows
required through the AC inverter units. Dependent on the structure of the shelter and layout of ancillary equipment, the position of the air-intakes to
the shelter and the filters chosen by the shelter supplier may also vary considerably. For this reason, the final configuration of the forced air cooling
system shall be determined by a CFD software analysis program, specifically Flotherm.
Control Techniques can provide assistance, where the particular shelter configuration under consideration is similar to those already analysed.

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4.7 Electrical terminals


4.7.1 Torque settings
Table 4-7 Power connections torque settings
Split enclosure DC contactor DC connectors
AC connection Grounding point DC
Contactor Insulators Power module
Model
(See Figure 4-32,
Figure 4-33, (See Figure 4-35) (See Figure 4-36) (See Figure 4-35) (See Figure 4-36)
Figure 4-34)

SPV248
17 mm M10 hex nut
20 N m F48 fuses
SPV300
DC filter 17 mm M10 hex nut
19 mm M12 hex nut 25 N m
SPV600 25 N m
DC contactors
SPV900 Clamps 13 mm M8 hex nut
17 mm M10 hex bolt 9 N m
SPV1200 15 N m
Power module
String fuse holder 13 mm M8 hex nut 17 mm M10 hex nut
17 mm M10 hex nut
Power module 17 mm M10 hex nut 9Nm 15 N m
SPV1500 25 N m
19 mm M12 hex nut 17 mm M10 hex nut 25 N m
25 N m 25 N m
SPV1800 String fuse holder -
Main grounding DC bus bar
SPV2100 point
8 mm hex key Clamps M10 hex
30 N m bolt
SPV2400 15 N m

SPV2700

Figure 4-32 AC connection for SPV0248 and SPV0300


0
2
x
3 m
N
7
1 x
e
h
0
1
M t
u
n

3 x 17 mm M10 hex nut


20 N m

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Figure 4-33 AC connection for SPV0600

5 x 19 mm M12 hex nut


25 N m

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Figure 4-34 AC connection for SPV0900 to SPV2700

17 mm M10 hex nut for SPV900 to SPV1500


19 mm M12 hex nut for SPV 1800 to SPV2700
25 N m

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Figure 4-35 Grounding point and DC contactor

Insulator
17 mm M10 hex nut
15 N m

Contactor
13 mm M8 hex nut
9Nm
DC filter grounding point
19 mm M12 hex nut
25 N m

Grounding point clamps


17 mm M10 hex bolt
15 N m

String fuse holder


DC bus bar clamps
17 mm M10 hex bolt
15 N m

String fuse holder


17 mm M10 hex nut
25 N m

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Figure 4-36 DC Connection detail

Power Module
17 mm M10 hex nut
25 N m

4.7.2 Auxiliary
The maximum recommended torque setting when securing the auxiliary terminal -X16 is 4 N m.
4.7.3 Control terminals
The maximum recommended torque setting when securing the control terminals -X2, -X5 and -X6 is 1 N m.

4.8 Optional chopper resistor


The chopper is an option that allows the inverter to be connected to an array with up to 1000 Vdc open circuit voltage. The chopper is used to
dissipate power into a resistor temporarily bringing the open circuit voltage down to 800 Vdc so that the power modules can be connected and
become active (see Figure 4-38 Chopper resistor housing recommended location on page 44).

The chopper resistor can reach high temperature. Ensure contact with any hot surface is prevented.

WARNING

The chopper resistor housing must be mounted outside of the external enclosure in the open air to avoid fire risk and allow sufficient
cooling.
WARNING

The dimensions of the chopper resistor housing are the same for all SPV models. A total of up to three resistors are mounted in each housing.

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Figure 4-37 Chopper resistor housing detail


490 mm (19.29 in) 395 mm (15.55 in)

520 mm 460 mm
(20.47 in) (18.11 in)

Terminals

Plate for
cable entry
(undrilled)

Perforated 370 mm (15.57 in)


steel sheet

Installation
∅10.50

Mount on a
horizontal surface
380 mm
Do not mount unit (14.96 in)
on its side

370 mm (15.57 in)

It is recommended that the chopper resistor housing is mounted high up on the outside of the building to prevent the risk of burns to personnel,
livestock and to reduce the risk of fire as shown in Figure 4-38.

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Figure 4-38 Chopper resistor housing recommended location

Chopper resistor housing


recommended location

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5 Electrical installation 5.1 AC grid connection requirements


5.1.1 AC voltage
Array connections The SPV inverter is available in four models suitable for the following
The SPV inverter is designed to have DC PV array voltages; 260, 300, 340 and 400 Vac ±10 %.
connections made by connecting multiple cables to fuse
carriers spaced along the length of the DC bus bars. This 5.1.2 AC frequency ratings
WARNING
method utilizes current sharing to ensure that the bus bar The nominal AC frequency range is: 50 Hz to 60 Hz
current rating is not exceeded in some product ratings. Care The absolute maximum AC frequency range is: 30 Hz to 100 Hz
must be taken NOT to connect to the SPV in any other way (normally restricted to required limits).
i.e. large cross section cables at one end of the bus bar. 5.1.3 AC connection types
The SPV inverter must only be used on an IT type AC connection
Electric shock risk (ungrounded).
The voltages present in the following locations can cause
5.1.4 AC grid connection short circuit current rating
severe electric shock and may be lethal:
The maximum symmetrical fault current of the AC grid connection must
• AC supply cables and connections
WARNING be limited to 100 kA.
• DC and chopper cables, and connections
• Many internal parts of the inverter, and external option 5.1.5 Input of short circuit current to the grid
units The SPV inverter produces a maximum peak short circuit current of 260
Unless otherwise indicated, control terminals are single % of the rated current of the SPV. In the case of an SPV1800, the rated
insulated and must not be touched. current is 1800 A, which results in a short circuit current of 4680 A. This
current is interrupted by the power semiconductors and decays to a
negligible value within 4 ms. The non ride-through version ceases
Array polarity operation at this time. The ride-through version produces reactive
DC array connections must be made observing correct current up to 100 % of the SPV rated current.
polarity (see labels affixed to the SPV).
WARNING
5.1.6 MV/HV transformer requirements
The SPV has an AC filter installed which means the current is virtually
sinusoidal, therefore there are no special requirements for the
Stored charge
transformer other than the points below;
The inverter contains capacitors that remain charged to a
potentially lethal voltage after the AC or DC supply has been • The low voltage star point of the transformer must not be grounded.
disconnected. If the inverter has been energized, the AC and IT type grounding must be used.
WARNING • Each SPV inverter installed must either have a separate isolating
DC supply must be isolated at least ten minutes before work
may continue. transformer or a separate isolated winding on a common
Normally, the capacitors are discharged by an internal transformer.
resistor. Under certain, unusual fault conditions, it is possible • Additional consumers must have galvanic isolation from the SPV
that the capacitors may fail to discharge, or be prevented inverter.
from being discharged by a voltage applied to the terminals. • Suitable MV/HV transformers typically have 4.5 to 6.5 % per unit
If the inverter has failed in a manner that causes the display reactance.
to go blank immediately, it is possible the capacitors will not
be discharged. In this case, consult Emerson or their
5.2 AC grid connection
authorized distributor. Before cables are connected they must be checked for correct design
(cross sectional area, current capacity in conformity with the manner
they are laid, voltage drop, cable capacity in relation to the line length) as
Isolation
well as any other applicable local regulations.
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which
include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary
5.2.1 Number of available connection points
power supply and internal UPS where installed. All supplies
WARNING The available AC grid connection points are detailed in Table 5-1 below.
must be disconnected from the inverter using approved
isolation devices before any cover is removed from the Each connection point can accept a single 185 mm2 to 300 mm2 cable.
inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. Table 5-1 AC grid connection points
Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the
Model Connection points per phase
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the
power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation SPV 248 2*
devices and must not be relied on to provide isolation for SPV 300 2*
personnel. SPV 600 3
SPV 900 4
Fuses SPV 1200 5
The DC supply from the PV array to the inverter must be
SPV 1500 6
installed with suitable protection against overload. Failure to
observe this requirement could result in increased fire risk. SPV 1800 7
WARNING
SPV 2100 8
SPV 2400 9
SPV 2700 10
* AC connection is made directly to fuse carrier on models SPV248 and
SPV300

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5.2.2 AC connection clamp details


The connection to the AC bus bars is made with a cable clamp type termination (Rittal Part No SV9640.325). This clamp can be installed on any side
of the bus bars and can be rotated in relation to the bus bar so that connection is simplified and the minimum cable bend radius is not exceeded. The
recommended cable cross sectional area is 185 mm2 to 300 mm2 per clamp (copper or aluminium conductor). The tightening torque is 25 N m.
Figure 5-1 AC connection clamp (SPV600 to SPV2700)

The clamp is attached to the threaded insert in the bus bar using a 6 mm hex key. The cable is clamped by tightening the 19 mm (M12) nut.
5.2.3 Typical AC grid connection zone layout
Figure 5-2 below shows a typical AC grid connection zone (SPV2700) complete with fuse carriers. Up to 10 cables per phase (see table Table 5-1
above) can be used to provide the total required cross sectional area. In this example the cables enter the AC grid connection zone from below via an
underground distribution chamber.
Figure 5-2 AC grid connection zone layout (SPV2700 shown)

AC fuses

AC connection
points

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5.3 Grounding
The PE or ground cable(s) should be connected to the location indicated in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3 Location of the grounding point

Grounding busbar
(mounted on the
side wall of the
enclosure)

Figure 5-4 Grounding point on the side wall of the AC grid connection zone

Grounding
busbar

The connection is made using the cable clamp type termination (Wohner part no. 01760). The recommended cable cross sectional area per clamp is
120 mm2 to 300 mm2 (copper or aluminium conductor). An 8 mm hex key is required.
The tightening torque is 30 N m, see Figure 5-5.

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Figure 5-5 Grounding clamp

51 mm (2.01 in)

10.0 mm 42.0 mm
(0.39 in) (1.65 in)
85.5 mm (3.37 in)
43.0 mm
(1.69 in)
33 mm (1.30 in)
41 mm (1.61 in)

5.4 Fuses
5.4.1 AC supply fuses
The SPV inverter is supplied with the correct AC fuses to protect the inverter. The installer must ensure that the AC supply cables are suitably
protected.
5.4.2 DC fuses
It is the responsibility of the installer to ensure that the correct DC string fuses are installed for the cable size and the type of PV cell being used.

5.5 DC array connections

Array connections
The SPV inverter is designed to have DC PV array connections made by connecting multiple cables to fuse carriers spaced along the
length of the DC bus bars. This method utilizes current sharing to ensure that the bus bar current rating is not exceeded in some product
WARNING ratings. Care must be taken NOT to connect to the SPV in any other way i.e. large cross section cables at one end of the bus bar.

The SPV can be prepared for direct connection to optional string connection boxes. When this is requested fuse carriers or MCB’s are built into the
enclosure.
5.5.1 Maximum number of SCB points
Table 5-2 below shows the maximum number connection points possible with each SPV model. The actual number is customized for each application
depending on the array configuration.
Table 5-2 Maximum number of fuse carriers and string connection points
Model Maximum number of fuse carriers Maximum number of landing points
SPV248 4 2
SPV300 4 2
SPV600 12 6
SPV900 18 9
SPV1200 24 12
SPV1500 30 15
SPV1800 36 18
SPV2100 42 21
SPV2400 48 24
SPV2700 54 27

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5.5.2 SCB fuse carrier and fuses


If DC fuse protection is specified at the ordering stage the following fuse carriers are supplied. Customer cables from the string connection boxes
should be directly connected to this fuse carrier (SIBA part no. 2102801). The poles (+/-) are identified alongside the fuse carrier.
The mechanical dimensions are shown in Figure 5-6 below.
Figure 5-6 DC fuse carriers

257 mm (10.12 in)


232 mm (9.13 in) M10x30
137mm (5.39in)

82 mm (3.22 in)
35 mm (1.37 in)
205 mm (8.07 in) 55 mm (2.16 in)

Electrical characteristics of the fuse holder:


• Rated voltage: 1100 Vdc (L/R=10 ms)
• Breaking capacity: 30 kAdc
• Rated current: 50 A - 200 A
• Maximum Torque rating: 32 N m

5.5.3 String connection recommended fuses


SIBA produce fuses for photovoltaic applications that mechanically fit the fuse carrier. The part number is 2002820.XXX. Technical data for these
fuses is shown in Table 5-3 below and Figure 5-7 on page 50.

The fuse must be correctly chosen to match the characteristics of the cable used

WARNING

Table 5-3 SIBA photovoltaic fuses


Rated current Pre-arcing I2t value Total I2t value Test voltage Power loss
A A2s A 2s (time constant L/R) W
50 480 3200 12
63 900 6200 14
80 1900 13000 16
100 3600 24500 1000 Vdc (10 ms) 19
125 6700 45400 21
160 11200 76500 30
200 20000 144000 34

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Figure 5-7 Fuse characteristics

104

103

102

1 00
1 25

200
160
50
63
80
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
Virtual 101
pre-arcing
time (s)

100

10-1

10-2

101 102 103 104 105

Prospective RMS current (A)

5.6 Connecting the split enclosure Figure 5-8 Location of the power connections on the AC side (AC
zone)
configuration
The SPV inverter can be supplied in a split enclosure format. This allows
sections of the inverter to be installed against opposite walls of a shelter,
therefore requiring only one access path between the two sections. In
this configuration the front of the enclosure sections face each other as
opposed to being back-to-back with the single enclosure solution.
SPV inverters ordered in the split enclosure configuration must be
connected together with power and control cables as detailed in the
following sections, refer to section 4.7.1 Torque settings on page 38 for
torque settings and tooling requirements.

NOTE Connect DC and


ground cables
The following procedures are not necessary for the single enclosure
directly to the
configuration. power module
5.6.1 Power cables
The cables necessary for the connection of the AC and DC enclosures
are supplied with the SPV inverter. They are as follows:
2 x 150 mm2 single core shielded power cables per power module
1 x 95 mm2 ground cable per power module

Cable routing
Care must be taken when routing power cables to ensure
they are physically separated from control cables. The power
cables supplied are the correct length (5 m) for routing via the
CAUTION
ceiling of the building and are supplied with the appropriate
terminations. Ideally control cables (10 m long) should be
routed under the floor of the building to ensure physical
separation from power cables.

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Figure 5-9 Location of the power connections on the DC side (DC zone)

Ground connection Ground connection


for one power module for second power module

+DC and -DC connection +DC and -DC connection


for one power module. for second power module.
Connect to the insulator Connect to the insulator
provided provided

5.6.2 Control cables

Cable routing
Care must be taken when routing power cables to ensure they are physically separated from control cables. The power cables supplied
are the correct length (5 m) for routing via the ceiling of the building and are supplied with the appropriate terminations. Ideally control
CAUTION cables (10 m long) should be routed under the floor of the building to ensure physical separation from power cables.

A number of control signal and low current power connections must be made between the two enclosures of the split enclosure configuration as
detailed below.
All cables are prepared with the appropriate terminations.
Table 5-4 Control and low power cable connections for split enclosure configuration
AC side connection (all
Number of
Description located in Grid connection Auxiliary / DC side connection
ways
zone)
Control signals (pluggable cable supplied) Up to 92 -X88 -X88 Auxiliary zone
Current transformer connections (pluggable
6 -X99 -X99 Auxiliary zone
cable supplied)
Cable supplied all ready
Internal communication (CT-NET) 3 System controller module SLOT1 terminals 6,7,8
connected at this end
Internal AC auxiliary power supply
3 -X1 -X1 Auxiliary zone
(Cable supplied for the screw type terminals)
24Vdc power (Cable supplied for the screw
Up to 8 -X88 -X88 Auxiliary zone
type terminals)
Cable supplied all ready
High voltage DC 2 DC zone, main charging circuit fuse (F41)
connected at this end
For the control signal connections -X88 and -X90, the number of ways depends on the number of power modules in the SPV inverter.

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Figure 5-10 Location of the control and low power connections on Figure 5-11 Control and low power connections
the AC side (AC grid connection zone)

-X1 Internal AC
auxiliary power
supply

-X88 24Vdc
power supply

L1 L2 L3

Control and low power


connections (mounted
on the side wall of the
enclosure)

-X88 Control
signals

-X99 Current
transformer
All the terminals detailed in Figure 5-10 are mounted vertically on the signals
inside wall of the enclosure. See Figure 5-11 on page 52 for connection
details.
Figure 5-12 Cables supplied already connected

CT-Net cable

High voltage DC
for pre-charge circuit

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Figure 5-13 Location of the control and low power connections on the control side (auxiliary zone)

Control and low


power connections

Figure 5-14 Control and low power connections on the control side (auxiliary zone)
-X1 Internal AC -X88 24Vdc -X88 Control -X99 Current
auxiliary power power signals transformer
supply connections

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Figure 5-15 Location of the high voltage DC connections in the DC zone (models with chopper installed)
High voltage DC connections

Figure 5-16 High voltage DC connections in the DC Zone (models with chopper installed)

F41

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Figure 5-17 Location of the high voltage DC connections in the DC Zone (models without a chopper installed)

High voltage
DC connections

Figure 5-18 High voltage DC connections in the DC Zone (models without chopper installed)

F41

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5.7 Auxiliary supply


The auxiliary supply to the SPV inverter can be supplied from one of two
sources.
1. Internal auxiliary supply - The source of the auxiliary supply
voltage is the main power bus bars (default).
2. External auxiliary supply - The source of the auxiliary supply
voltage is an external 3 phase 400 Vac supply or UPS.
The external auxiliary supply can be useful where the electricity supply
company charges a large tariff for any power imported from the medium
voltage (MV) connection rather than exported, e.g. night time
consumption. Using an external auxiliary supply with a lower tariff
eliminates any imported power from the MV connections during the night
and hence avoids these potentially large import tariffs. The external
auxiliary supply should be rated for double the auxiliary loss value given
in table 10-7.

NOTE
The fuse rating for the external supply is 25 A gL/gG type. To convert the
SPV inverter from using the default internal auxiliary power supply to an
external auxiliary supply, the links on terminal -X16 must be changed as
detailed in section 5.7.1 Internal auxiliary supply on page 56 and section
5.7.2 External auxiliary supply on page 56. Terminal -X16 is located in
the lower section of the auxiliary zone.
5.7.1 Internal auxiliary supply
When using an internal auxiliary supply, link terminals 1 to 2, 4 to 5 and 7
to 8 on terminal -X16 as shown in Figure 5-19 below. This is the default
state when the SPV inverter is manufactured.
Figure 5-19 Links on terminal -X16 for internal auxiliary supply

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PE

5.7.2 External auxiliary supply


When using an external auxiliary supply, link terminals 2 to 3, 5 to 6 and
8 to 9 on terminal -X16 as shown in Figure 5-20 below. The external
supply should be connected to terminals 3, 6 and 9.
Figure 5-20 Links on terminal -X16 for external auxiliary supply

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PE

L1 L2 L3

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5.7.3 Configuration of transformer T56


Where X16 is configured for internal auxiliary supply, transformer T56 should be tapped and Q56 set as follows. Note this should already be set
correctly by the factory.
Winding Primary Secondary Q56 setting
Connections Input Links Output Links Setting (A)
260 Vac SPV model 1U3, 1V3 and 1W3 1U2 to 1V3, 1V2 to 1W3 and 1W2 to 1U3 2U1, 2V1 and 2W1 2U2 to 2V2 to 2W2 9.4
300 Vac SPV model 1U1, 1V1 and 1W1 1U2 to 1V1, 1V2 to 1W1 and 1W2 to 1U1 2U1, 2V1 and 2W1 2U2 to 2V2 to 2W2 8.1
340 Vac SPV model 1U4, 1V4 and 1W4 1U5 to 1V5 to 1W5 2U1, 2V1 and 2W1 2U2 to 2V2 to 2W2 7.2
400 Vac SPV model 1U4, 1V4 and 1W4 1U2 to 1V2 to 1W2 2U1, 2V1 and 2W1 2U2 to 2V2 to 2W2 6.4

Where X16 is configured for 400V external auxiliary supply, transformer T56 should be tapped and Q56 set as follows:
Winding Primary Secondary Q56 setting
Connections Input Links Output Links Setting (A)
400 Vac ext supply 1U4, 1V4 and 1W4 1U2 to 1V2 to 1W2 2U1, 2V1 and 2W1 2U2 to 2V2 to 2W2 6.4
NOTE
Transformer -T56 is located in the lower section of the auxiliary zone.

5.8 Emergency stop switches (terminal -X2)


The SPV inverter is configured to accept up to three local emergency stop switches connected to terminal block =ALL+CON-X2. The switches used
must be of the Double Pole Normally Closed (DPNC) latching type. If less than three switches are required, links must be present in the appropriate
terminals.
SPV's built in or after February 2012 are supplied with jumper links installed in these terminals, these links must be removed when emergency stop
switches are installed. If less than 3 emergency stop switches are installed, the remaining jumper links must be left in place in the unused terminals.
SPV's built prior to February 2012 are supplied without jumper links installed and it is necessary to obtain and fit links in the unused terminals if less
than 3 emergency stop switches are installed.

E-stop system
The emergency stop switches must be of the Double Pole Normally Closed (DPNC) latching type. During commissioning correct E-stop
operation must be verified as described in the commissioning section of this document.
WARNING

The local emergency stop switches are shown in Figure 5-21 below.
Figure 5-21 Local emergency stop connections

-X2 1 3 -X2 5 7 -X2 9 11

11 21 11 21 11 21

12 22 12 22 12 22

-X2 2 4 -X2 6 8 -X2 10 12

Emergency Emergency Emergency


stop 1 stop 2 stop 3

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Table 5-5 Emergency stop connections (terminal -X2) 5.10 User control signals (terminal -X6)
Terminal block number The SPV inverter contains nine external inputs which can be user
Description defined. These inputs have no predetermined function in the SPV
(-X2)
inverter. The status of these inputs can be seen in Pr 20.38 on the HMI
1
Emergency stop switch 1 contact 1 data transfer module.
2
These inputs are provided for use with the user programmable SM-
3
Emergency stop switch 1 contact 2 Applications module installed in the HMI data transfer module.
4
Table 5-8 User control signal description (terminal -X6)
5
Emergency stop switch 2 contact 1 Terminal Status bit number in
6 Description
number Pr 20.38
7
Emergency stop switch 2 contact 2 1 Control voltage +24 V
8
9 2 Input 1 Bit 1
Emergency stop switch 3 contact 1 3 Input 2 Bit 2
10
11 4 Input 3 Bit 3
Emergency stop switch 3 contact 2 5 Input 4 Bit 4
12
6 Input 5 Bit 5
7 Input 6 Bit 6
5.9 Power control signals from the
8 Input 7 Bit 7
electricity supply company (terminal - 9 Input 8 Bit 8
X5) 10 Input 9 Bit 9
The SPV inverter is designed to allow four signals for power control to be
connected. The interface is designed for relay contacts. For description Table 5-9 Electrical input characteristics for terminal -X6
of functionality see Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 in section 8.2 System controller
module on page 107. Description Specification
Nominal voltage range 0 - 24 V
Table 5-6 Power control signals description (terminal -X5)
Absolute maximum applied voltage range ± 30 V
Terminal number Description
Input load 2.2 mA
1 Control voltage +24V
Threshold +10.0V ±1V
2 Input 1 – Maximum Output Power Limit 1 select
3 Input 2 – Maximum Output Power Limit 2 select
4 Input 3 – Maximum Output Power Limit 3 select 5.11 1000Vdc turn-on (chopper) option
5 Input 4 – Maximum Output Power Limit 4 select The 1000 Vdc turn-on option utilizes a chopper and resistor to allow the
SPV inverter to be connected to a PV array with up to 1000 Vdc open
6 Spare
circuit voltage. The chopper is used to temporarily dissipate power into a
Connect terminal 1 to terminals 2 through 5 to select the relevant resistor bringing the open circuit voltage down to 800 Vdc so that the
maximum output power limit. These terminals are typically used to inverter can be connected and become active.
connect a Radio Ripple Control Receiver. The status of the chopper is monitored by the system controller module
Table 5-7 Electrical input characteristics for terminal -X5 and is displayed in Pr 18.48.

Description Specification Table 5-10 Chopper models used in each SPV inverter
Nominal voltage range 0 - 24 V SPV inverter model Chopper model Quantity used
Absolute maximum applied SPV248 A 1
± 30 V
voltage range SPV300 A 1
Input load <2 mA @ 15 V SPV600 B 1
Threshold +10.0 V +/-0.8 V SPV900 B 2
SPV1200 B 2
SPV1500 B 3
SPV1800 B 3
SPV2100 C 1
SPV2400 C 1
SPV2700 C 1
The chopper(s) are located in the DC zone.

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Figure 5-22 Location of the chopper unit(s) in the SPV inverter (example of a SPV1500 or SPV1800 shown)

Chopper 1

Chopper 2

Chopper 3

Terminals X55:1, Contactor


X55:2 and X55:3 K293

The resistor should be connected to the chopper using 35 mm2 cables. The connection on the resistor is provided by a M10 lug. The resistor must be
connected between terminal X55 and a terminal on contactor -K293 as specified in Table 5-15 on page 56.

NOTE
Where multiple resistors are used, a resistor must be connected between the terminal on contactor K293 and terminal X55 as detailed in Table 5-11
below. Ensure that the connections given in Table 5-11 are followed exactly. For example, resistor 3 on an SPV1500 or SPV1800 must only be
connected between terminal 5 on contactor -K293 and terminal X55:3.
Table 5-11 Resistor connection
Resistor Terminal on contactor -K293 /
SPV inverter model Resistor terminal Terminal X55
number X55
11 K293 terminal 1
SPV248 to SPV1800 1
12 X55:1
21 K293 terminal 3
SPV900, SPV1200, SPV1500 & SPV1800 2
22 X55:2
31 K293 terminal 5
SPV1500 and SPV1800 3
32 X55:3
11 X55:1
SPV2100, SPV2400 and SPV2700 1
12 X55:2
Where multiple choppers are installed, the choppers are numbered 1 to 3 from top to bottom as shown in Figure 5-22 on page 59.

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Figure 5-23 Resistor connections to the chopper models A & B

K293

Chopper 1

2 4 6

Chopper 2
-X55:1 Resistor 1
12 11

H
-X55:2 Resistor 2
Chopper 3 22 21

H
-X55:3 Resistor 3

32 31

Key: XX = terminal number

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Figure 5-24 Location of resistor connection on the chopper model C

K293

H G PE G H

A2

-X55:2 Resistor 1 -X55:1

12 11

Key: XX = terminal number

In operation, the chopper resistor generates heat which results in elevated temperature levels within the resistor housing. The maximum permissible
resistor temperature is 400 °C above the ambient temperature. Cooling of the resistor is by convection only, so if the resistor mounting is poor, or
where there is insufficient cooling the resistor or surrounding devices could suffer damage.
Table 5-12 Chopper resistance and power ratings
Resistance Rated power Peak power Weight
Model
Ω kW kW kg
SPV248
9.4 1 69 12
SPV300
SPV600 4.8 2 139 16
SPV900
2 x 4.8 2x2 2 x 139 21
SPV1200
SPV1500
3 x 4.8 3x2 3 x 139 25
SPV1800
SPV2100
SPV2400 1.09 69 554 30
SPV2700

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6 Commissioning
This first section offers a practical guide to the setting up and commissioning of Control Techniques SPV inverter systems based on practical
experience gained in the field. For more general commissioning topics refer to section 6.12 Further commissioning on page 72.

6.1 Suggested test equipment for commissioning


The following test equipment is recommended when commissioning the SPV inverter:
• Digital multimeter i.e. Fluke 77IV rated to 1000 V (CAT IV Rated), with suitable fused safety probes
• No-contact temperature sensor e.g. laser or IR camera type e.g. Fluke Ti10
• Power analyser with Rogowski principal clip on current probes e.g. Fluke 434/435
• Suitable personal protective equipment e.g. safety hat, goggles, boots and gloves, to meet or exceed the local safety and legal requirements
• LED keypads
• Ethernet or USB to RS485 comms lead

6.2 Pre power-up checks


It is assumed that before these checks commence, the system has been placed in a safe condition i.e. the main AC supply from the grid and the DC
supply from the array are disconnected, and a check has been made with a suitable multimeter confirming that no voltage is present in either case.
6.2.1 Checking connections - general
Isolation
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary power supply and
internal UPS where installed. All supplies must be disconnected from the inverter using approved isolation devices before any cover is
removed from the inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the
WARNING
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation devices and must
not be relied on to provide isolation for personnel.

Installation and removal of string fuses must only be performed at night during darkness unless the PV array can be isolated from the SPV
inverter by other means.
WARNING

Before power is applied to the system for the first time, it is good practise to check all cable terminations for mechanical strength to ensure a reliable
connection under load conditions. This is done by physically moving all cables near the termination point, to ensure there are no loose or slack
connections. In addition it is a good idea to check the torque settings of the terminating nuts and bolts with a torque wrench. In situations where a nut
or bolt may have been cross threaded, simply checking the torque alone does not establish if the cable connection beneath the bolt is a secure
electrical connection; always move cables to ensure a secure connection.
6.2.2 SPV Zones
Figure 6-1 Typical layout of SPV zones

Power module zone AC grid


Auxiliary zone DC zone
connection zone

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6.3 No power checks for all SPVs


Complete a basic visual inspection of the system looking for missing, dislodged or damaged parts.
Remove the transport supports for the system power analyzer current transformers located in the AC Grid Connection Zone. Ensure that the current
transformers have not slipped down the AC bus bars during transit.
Figure 6-2 Checking the current transformers

Current
transformers
AC grid
connection zone

Ensure the AC grid connections to the main AC bus bars have been tightened to the correct torque. Manually moving the cables and checking the
torque of the nuts/bolts with a torque wrench as required.

NOTE
Throughout this section, and where torque settings are discussed, the user should refer to Table 4.7.1 Torque settings on page 38 for specific torque
settings.
The AC bus bars are located in the AC Grid Connection Zone as shown in Figure 6-1 on page 62. Verify the CT Net, CT Sync and system power
analyzer communications cables are connected correctly and have the appropriate terminating resistor installed. Use an 82 Ω resistor for CT Net and
120 Ω resistor for CT Sync and system power analyzer communications. The termination resistors are located in the Auxiliary zone and on the final
power module on the CTNet cable in the Power Module Zone.
Verify that all control relays are seated correctly in the auxiliary section in the DC zone (Figure 6-1 on page 62). Make sure that the relays are not at
an angle in their holder and that the mechanical restraint / closing lever is in the correct position. If a relay has fallen out during transit, ensure that the
connection pins have not been bent and that they are straight when re-inserting the relay. This type of control relay is found in the Auxiliary Zone,
Power Module Zone and the DC Zone.
Figure 6-3 Check relay seating and insertion

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Check that: the E-Stop has been pressed and the other trips the E-stop relay off.
• All auxiliary section MCBs are in the ON position (red indicator After checking, verify the continuity of the E-Stop terminals X2 T1 to
shown), and that all fuse carriers contain a fuse and are closed. This T10, and X2 T3 to T12. The E-stop terminals are located in the
includes the Auxiliary Zone and DC Zone, together with the DC Auxiliary section. Refer to section 5.8 Emergency stop switches
braking chopper and GFDI fuse (if installed). (terminal -X2) on page 57.
• The AC main fuse (F11) carriers have been bolted on to the AC bus • Any power company remote power limit inputs have been wired
bars using the correct torque. This is particularly important, since a correctly to terminal X5. The power company remote input terminals
loose connection cannot easily be seen as the fuse obscures the are located in the Auxiliary section
connection point between the carrier and the AC bus bars. The fuse • For systems installed with a chopper (in the DC zone) also check
carriers are located in the AC Grid Connection Zone. that:
• The main AC fuses are installed correctly. The fuse holder must not • All power connections have been made correctly and are making
be raised when compared to the carrier mechanism. Take extra care good contact
when checking the fuse on the right, as it is covered by the fuse • The general installation including any water proof seals, and
carrier handle and it is not obvious that the fuse is not properly physical mounting brackets and bolts
seated. The main AC fuses are located in the AC Grid Connection • The resistor is of the correct value. The correct resistor values can
Zone. be found in Table 5-12 Chopper resistance and power ratings on
• The power module DC fuses, (F41 & F42), have been tightened to page 61
the correct torque. This must be a physical check using suitable • K148 "activate chopper" is NC, T11 to T12
tools to verify how tight the connection is. It is recommended that a
• K295 "delay relay" inhibit chopper is NO, T15 to T18
marker pen is used to indicate a checked connection. The power
• The power module control connections are still plugged in correctly.
module DC fuses are located in the DC Zone.
The power module control connections are located in the Power
6.3.1 Check all critical connections Module zone
A critical connection is defined as any un-fused length of cable or • A SMARTCARD is installed in to the SystemController and HMI
connection point. Transfer data module SMARTCARD ports. Both modules are
These connections include: located in the Auxiliary zone
• Between the AC busbars and F11 for all power modules (Grid • User emergency stop interlock check. Look for NC X46 T1 to T2 in
connection zone) the Auxiliary zone
• Between the AC busbars and F21 (Auxiliary zone) • Set the Hygrostat percentage humidity to 90 %. The Hygrostat is
• Between the DC busbars and F46 (Auxiliary zone) located in the Auxiliary zone
• Between the DC busbars and F48 for all power modules (DC zone) • Verify that the air filters are installed to the E-house air inlet to
• Between the DC busbars and F41 (DC zone) prevent dust ingress when running the inverter. The filter must also
• Between the DC busbars and chopper 1 fuses F11 & F13 where be verified as being fit for purpose i.e. capable of removing >10
chopper 1 is installed (DC zone) micron particles; a class G4 (EN779) filter is recommended
• Between the DC busbars and chopper 2 fuses F21 & F23 where • Check the independent AC auxiliary power supply jumpers are in the
chopper 2 is installed (DC zone) correct position, (X16). Refer to user guide Figure 5.7.1 Internal
• Between the DC busbars and chopper 3 fuses F31 & F33 where auxiliary supply and Figure 5.7.2 External auxiliary supply on
chopper 3 is installed (DC zone) page 56
• Between the DC busbars and F396 (DC zone) • Check that the blade fuses are installed to the UPS batteries, where
a UPS is installed. The UPS is located in the Auxiliary zone
• All string fuse / MCB connections to the main DC bus bars. To
perform this check the string supply cables must be isolated. • Where a UPS is installed, check that the UPS dip switches have
been set correctly. Refer to section 6.14.3 Uninterruptable power
• All ground connections
supply-UPS (ride-through / grid support version only) on page 84 for
6.4 Power module zone (contactor more information on the UPS setup. Figure 6-4 shows the default dip
switch settings.
section) checks:
Check that: Figure 6-4 UPS dip switch settings
• The main AC contactor coil supply is plugged in properly On / Off
• The main AC contactor auxiliary contacts are seated properly 1
• The main AC input and output cables are installed correctly 2
• The control relays are inserted and seated correctly 3
4
• The DC pre-charge fuses are present and inserted in the carrier
correctly. Ensure that the input and output cables are fully secured 5

by manually moving the cable 6


7
• The fan supply MCB is in the ON position (red indicator shown)
8
• The auxiliary supply transformer tappings are configured correctly
9
for the incoming AC supply voltage. The transformer is located in the
10
Auxiliary section. Refer to section 5.7.3 Configuration of transformer
1
T56 on page 57 for more information
2
• The primary ground connection makes good contact and is fully
3
secured. The main ground bus bar is present in all zones and
4
connects to the installation ground connection point
5
• The PV array connections to the Array MCB or fuse holder are of the
6
correct polarity, are at the correct torque and making good contact.
7
The array connections are made in the DC Zone
8
• The emergency stop inputs have been connected correctly, and that
9
any unused connection points have been linked out. For the E-stop
10
contacts, one NC connection informs the PV System Controller that

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When all the above checks are complete and before applying power, 6.5.2 Tests when AC is supplied to the auxiliary
ensure that the system guards have been replaced to prevent accidental 1. Verify the E-house cooling fans are installed and working with the
contact with live conductors. In particular, make sure the power module thermostat. When the cooling system is verified, set the thermostat
regen choke steel guard mesh is tightened down properly as this can to the design set-point e.g. approx 30 °C.
make a loud rattling noise when large currents flow through the choke 2. Check the voltage present at the system main transformer T56.
which can sound like there is a problem with the power module or with Refer to section 5.7.3 Configuration of transformer T56 on page 57.
the regen choke itself. 3. Check that the displays are lit on the following devices:
• System Control Module
6.5 Additional pre-power up checks for • HMI Data Transfer Module
split systems • All power modules
NOTE • The HMI touch screen
Make sure the CT Net communication cable and any other control cable • The voltage and frequency relays
that goes from side to side has not been routed in close proximity to the • The system power analyzer
main DC conductors. • The ground isolation monitoring device (if installed)
Make sure that the polarity of the side to side main DC cables is correct. 4. Check that the AC voltage is read correctly on all 3 phases in the
This should be done with a multimeter to avoid issues with incorrect system power analyser voltage measurement page.
cable marking. 5. Check the power analyzer settings. Verify communications between
Where a chopper is installed, check that the control connectors for the the power analyzer and system controller module are functioning by
chopper(s) are installed correctly. checking bit 14 of the control module status word in Pr 19.21 (bit 14
will be set if communications have failed). See section 6.13.4 Power
Ensure that the DC cables between the DC main contactors in the DC
analyzer on page 81 for more information. Check that the AC
zone to the top of the matching power module in the Power Module zone
voltage seen on the display of the power analyzer, matches Pr 18.02
have been terminated with the correct polarity. Here again, it is on the system controller module, and Pr 3.28 on the power modules.
recommended that a physical check is made by moving the cables by
6. Check the voltage monitoring relay settings are applicable to the
hand and checking to see if the cable crimps are secure.
voltage of the AC grid and comply with local regulations. See section
This must be performed at both ends of the DC cable; at the DC main 6.13.1 Voltage monitoring relay on page 76 for information on
contactors, and the DC terminals of the power module. setting the relay parameters. Check the frequency monitoring relay
The power module DC connections can be checked by removing the settings are applicable to the frequency of the AC grid and comply
white terminal cover, leaving the gland plate in place. If the gland plate with local regulations. During manufacture of the SPV inverter, the
needs to be removed, care must be taken as it is easy to drop the gland settings in the frequency monitoring relay will be based on a grid
plate screw into the Power Module electronics. It is recommended to with a frequency of 50 Hz. If the SPV inverter is to be used on a grid
either use a magnetized screwdriver for this operation, or to pull the with a frequency of 60 Hz, the settings in the frequency monitoring
gland plate and screwdriver together when undoing so that the screw is relay will need to be changed before the SPV inverter can be
captive. See also Figure 6-5 on page 65. enabled. See section 6.13.2 Frequency monitoring relay on page 79
for information on setting the relay parameters.
Figure 6-5 Gland plate cover removal
7. Check the setup of the ground isolation monitoring device:
• For floating PV arrays, check the isolation relay settings and
perform a self test. See section 6.14.1 Isolation monitor on
Gland Plate Cover
page 81 for information on setting the isolation device
parameters.
• For grounded PV arrays, check the Ground Fault Detector and
Interrupter (GFDI). See section 6.14.2 Ground fault detector
interrupter on page 83. Check the SM-Ethernet module
communication settings. Set the IP address to 192.168.178.111
and is set Pr 16.10 to Pr 16.13 in the HMI Data Transfer module
located in the Auxiliary section.
8. Verify that the power module SPV system software (Pr 15.49) and
the power module PV firmware (Pr 11.29) are the correct version.
Check with your local drive centre for the latest software version
information.
9. Verify that the System Controller and HMI data transfer module have
the correct SPV system software (Pr 15.49). This should match the
software version seen in Pr 15.49 on the power modules; if it does
not match update the software so that it is the latest version in all
locations.
10. Verify that the E-Stop system works correctly using the following
Ensure that the side to side control cables have been plugged in steps:
correctly as described in section 5.6.2 Control cables on page 51. Also • Set Pr 20.20 to 1 on the HMI data transfer module to disable comms
check that both halves of the split inverter have been grounded correctly. calls to the PV control module.
• Set Pr 18.31 to 0 on the PV control module to disable the inverter.
6.5.1 Power connection AC auxiliary
Press the E-stop button to ensure the inverter will not start. • Release the E-stop
• Set Pr 18.39 to 1 and then 0 on the PV control module to reset the E-
Remove all main power module AC fuses (F11).
stop relay.
Apply AC power to the auxiliary section. • Wait for the E-stop relay to reset. All lights on the relay will illuminate
Make sure the E-stop relay is tripped off. When the E-stop relay is following a reset.
tripped only one green LED will be lit. • Press the E-stop button, and make sure that the E-stop relay trips off
after 0.5 s. The relay is shown to have tripped off when only 1 LED is
lit.

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6.6 Power connection DC 4. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.13 to 1 or ON, so that the
system will run with a single power module.
Isolation 5. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.12 to the number
The SPV inverter is supplied from multiple sources which appropriate for the power module being tested. See the following
include the PV array, the main electrical grid, the auxiliary table:
power supply and internal UPS where installed. All supplies Table 6-1 Power module testing
WARNING
must be disconnected from the inverter using approved
isolation devices before any cover is removed from the Power Module to test Value to set in Pr 18.12
inverter or before servicing work is permitted in this zone. PM0 1
Please note that pressing an E-stop button will not isolate the PM1 2
SPV inverter. It will rapidly disable the inverter and open the
PM2 4
power contactors but contactors are not approved isolation
devices and must not be relied on to provide isolation for PM3 8
personnel. PM4 16
PM5 32
Installing and removal of string fuses must only be performed PM6 64
at night unless the PV array can be isolated from the SPV PM7 128
inverter by other means. PM8 256
WARNING
PM9 512
SPV inverters with the chopper option installed, have capacitance PM10 1024
permanently connected to the DC bus. Insertion of string fuses during
PM11 2048
daylight without isolating the PV array must not be attempted even with
the isolated insertion tool from the fuse manufacturer, as the fuse may PM12 4096
blow or become welded to the holder due to the inrush current in the PM13 8192
capacitors. 6. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.31 to 1 or ON to turn the
Only fit enough DC PV array fuses to provide 200 A to 250 A. This limits system on. When the system starts and is running Pr 18.01 in the
the current that can be passed to the SPV during the initial testing. system controller module will show state 11 (the running state), and
Tests when AC and DC are supplied (SPV is disabled) the power module being tested will show 8 in Pr 19.05.
7. On the power module under test check that Pr 4.02, the active
Check the DC voltage monitoring works correctly as shown in Pr 18.03.
current, shows an expected and stable value.
Confirm the DC voltage seen with a multimeter. If the voltage measured
8. Run for the system for 5 minutes, and observe the system
is not accurate, adjust the scaling using Pr 17.45 on the PV control
performance.
module. Save the new scaling when finished.
9. Shut the system down by setting Pr 18.31 = 0 or OFF and repeat
When undertaking this test, the multimeter used must be a cat IV type in steps 5 to 9 changing Pr 18.12 as required till all power modules
voltage mode with fused probes. The installer is responsible for have had an individual test.
complying with all relevant regulations relating to accident prevention If the system or an individual power module fails to start during this
and safety when completing this test. testing, look at the state machine indication and the status words to
Check that the current controller gains for the power modules are set to determine where the fault is. The state machine indication for the system
appropriate values. For V01.01.01 system software the current loop controller module is Pr 18.01, and for the power modules is Pr 19.05.
gains are set by Pr 19.14 to Pr 19.17, where Pr 19.14 is the starting The status words for the system controller module are Pr 19.20 and Pr
current loop P gain, Pr 19.15 is the starting current loop I gain, Pr 19.16 19.21, and for the power modules are Pr 19.02 and Pr 19.07.
is the running current loop P Gain, and Pr 19.17 is the running current As a starting point it can be helpful to use CT Scope to monitor Pr 18.01
loop I gain. Pr 19.14 and Pr 19.16 as a starting point should be set to 53, on the PV control module and Pr 19.05 for the power module under test
and the current loop I gain should be set to 1000. as this will accurately track the changes in state.
Check that the voltage controller gain is set to an appropriate level in all
power modules. Pr 3.06 sets the voltage controller P gain, where a value
6.7 Low power complete inverter tests
of 1000 is good starting point. The purpose of these tests is to verify at low current that the SPV is
capable of turning on with all power modules running together, and that
For systems that have to be de-rated due to high ambient temperatures the current controller gains and voltage controller gains are optimized
or altitudes >1000 m, adjust Pr 18.18 in the PV control module to the correctly.
appropriate per module current rating in amp units. This decision is
made when the system is specified, please ask the local drive centre 6.7.1 Low power test 1
representative for the de-rated current value. The purpose of test 1 is to gradually add power modules to a started
system i.e. voltage master power module is running, and verify that the
6.6.1 Individual module power test power modules share the current without oscillating. When performing
The purpose of this test is to make sure each individual inverter can run this test, it is helpful to have a power analyzer such as a Fluke 434 or
correctly on its own, proving that the power module is fully functional and 435 available with Rogowski high current transducers in order that the
all its associated auxiliary switch gear and protection. To do this use the AC voltage and current waveform may be observed for oscillation as
method described below: described in the following steps:
1. Verify Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1 in order to 1. Verify Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1 to disable
disable the communications to the system control module. the communications to the system control module.
2. On the system controller module, set 18.26 to: 2. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.31 to 0 or OFF so that
√2* AC supply voltage (Pr 18.17) + 30 V the SPV is disabled.
This is the minimum recommended MPP voltage. 3. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.42 to 1 or ON so that the
3. On the system controller module, switch off the MPP tracker by rated number of power modules, when available, will start.
setting Pr 18.36 = 0 or OFF. This will prevent the pulses caused by 4. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.13 to the number of
MPP tracking from being seen in Pr 4.02 in the active power power modules in the system. For a system with redundancy
modules when the system is running. modules this will be the number of power modules minus the
number of redundancy modules.

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5. On the system controller module, set MPP start voltage Pr 18.26 to 6.8 High power complete inverter test
(√2 x Pr 18.17) +30.
The purpose of the high power test is to prove that the system runs
6. On the system controller module, switch off the MPP tracker by correctly at maximum output.
setting Pr 18.36 = 0 or OFF. This will prevent the pulses caused by
MPP tracking from being seen in Pr 4.02 when the system is When performing this test, it is helpful to have a power analyzer such as
running. the Fluke 434 or 435 available with Rogowski high current transducers
7. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.12 to 1 so that the so that the AC voltage and current waveform may be monitored for
system voltage master is forced to be power module 0. oscillation.
8. On all power modules except the voltage master (power module 0) For this test all PV array DC MCBs/fuses must be closed/installed so
set Pr 19.01 to 1 to disable those particular power modules. This will that full power is available. For systems installed with PV array fuses
allow the modules to be added individually later in the test. these must be installed at night to avoid arcing during the fitting process
9. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.31 to 1 or ON to turn the as described in the following steps:
system on. When the system starts and is running, Pr 18.01 in the 1. Verify Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, to
system controller module will show state 11 (the running state), and disable the communications to the system control module
the voltage master power module will show state 8 in Pr 19.05. 2. On the system controller module, verify that Pr 18.31 is set to 0 or
10. When power module 0 has started, gradually introduce the other OFF so that the SPV is disabled
power modules by setting Pr 19.01 to 0, enabling each current slave 3. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.42 to 0 or OFF so that
power module individually. When a current slave power module has the system will automatically optimise the number of power
started, observe the current in Pr 4.02 and make sure it is a stable modules.
value when compared to Pr 4.02 on the voltage master power 4. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.13 to the number of
module 0. Continue this process until all power modules are started power modules in the system. For a system with redundancy
and running. modules this will be the number of power modules minus the
11. Shut the system down by setting Pr 18.31 = 0 or OFF. number of redundancy modules.
6.7.2 Low power test 2 5. On the system controller module, set MPP start voltage Pr 18.26 to
The purpose of test 2 is to make sure that after the system is started and (√2 x Pr 18.17) + 30.
during the first 10 s of operation, the current slave modules that are 6. On the system controller module, switch off the MPP tracker by
running are not causing oscillations in the AC supply. setting Pr 18.36 = 0 or OFF. This will prevent the pulses caused by
MPP tracking from being seen in Pr 4.02 when the system is
When performing this test it is helpful to have a power analyzer such as
running.
the Fluke 434 or 435 available with Rogowski high current transducers
so that the AC voltage and current waveform may be monitored for 7. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.12 to the number shown
in the table below for the number of power modules in the inverter,
oscillation as described in the following steps:
so that the any power module can become the voltage master.
1. Verify Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, to
disable the communications to the system control module
2. On the system controller module, verify that Pr 18.31 is set to 0 or
OFF so that the SPV is disabled
3. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.42 to 0 or OFF so that
the system will automatically optimize the number of power
modules.
4. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.13 to the number of
power modules in the system. For a system with redundancy
modules this will be the number of power modules minus the
number of redundancy modules.
5. On the system controller module, set MPP start voltage Pr 18.26 to
(√2 x Pr 18.17) +30.
6. On the system controller module, switch off the MPP tracker by
setting Pr 18.36 = 0 or OFF. This will prevent the pulses caused by
MPP tracking from being seen in Pr 4.02 when the system is
running.
7. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.12 to 1 so that the
system voltage master is forced to be power module 0.
8. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.31 to 1 or ON to turn the
system on. When the system starts and is running Pr 18.01 in the
system controller module will show state 11 (the running state), and
the voltage master power module show 8 in Pr 19.05.
9. Observe the current going to the AC supply and make sure there are
no low frequency oscillations (low frequency is <50 Hz typically in
the order of 1 Hz to 5 Hz). Typically low frequency oscillations can
be corrected by modifying the starting current loop I gain, Pr 19.15,
and the voltage controller P gain, Pr 3.06. When modifying the
gains, all power modules must have the same gains as each other.
Failure to ensure finalised common gain values can result in
unwanted oscillations. When modifying the gain values when
running, provided small steps are made e.g. steps of 100 for current
loop I term and voltage controller P term, and steps of 5 for the
Current loop P term, the system will handle the change during
tuning.
10. Shut the system down by setting Pr 18.31 = 0 or OFF.

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Table 6-2 System controller settings

Voltage Master and Current Slave module


Slave only modules
Number of modules in the node address numbers
(CTSync connection to rx and /rx Pr 18.12 Value
system (Requires jumper links for CTSync rx to tx
only)
and /rx to /tx)
1 1
2 3
3 7
4 15
All N/A
5 31
6 63
7 127
8 255
9 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 5,9 239
10 1,2,4,6,7,9 3,5,8,10 363
11 1,4,6,9,11 2,3,5,7,8,10 1321
12 1,4,7,10 2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12 585
13 1,5,9 2,3,4,6,7,8,10,11,12,13 273
14 1,8 2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,13,14 129

NOTE
The node address order is left to right where node 1 is the node on the left, and the highest node number is to the right.
8. On the system controller module, set Pr 18.31 to 1 or ON to turn the system on. When the system starts and is running Pr 18.01 in the system
controller module will show state 11 (the running state), and the voltage master power module show 8 in Pr 19.05. The current slaves in the
system will show 9 in Pr 19.05 provided they are assisting the voltage master and handling a share of the total current from the array.
9. Observe Pr 4.02 and make sure that the current is stable on all active power.
10. If a power analyzer is available e.g. Fluke 434 / 435, observe the current and voltage waveforms looking for high frequency, >50 Hz components,
and low frequency <50 Hz components. Typically but not exclusively, excessive high frequency components are affected by the current loop P
and I gain, where the current loop P gain should be modified first if there is an issue. Typically but not exclusively, excessive low frequency
components are affected by the voltage controller P gain and the current loop I gain, where the I gain should be modified first if there is an issue.
The running current loop P gain is Pr 19.16, the running current loop I gain is Pr 19.17, and the voltage controller gain is Pr 3.06.
11. Run the system for 1 hour. If the performance is good, shut down by setting Pr 18.31 = 0. Observe all of the high power connections looking for
signs of over heating if a laser temperature probe is available use it to check for excessive heating of the connection points.
This should include:
• The AC Grid connection points on the Main AC bus bars, and any local switch gear, and on the low voltage side of the grid connection
transformer.

Isolate the main AC Grid connection before making the next check

WARNING

• The AC fuse carrier input connection behind the Main AC fuses, and the output connection to the individual power modules. The fuses must be
removed to view the input connection. The power module AC main contactor connections.
• The AC connections to the power module, AC filter, regen choke
• The array DC string fuse / MCB connections.
• The power module main DC fuse connections.
• The power module DC filter connections
• The DC main contactor and bus bar connections
• The DC connections to the power module. The terminal cover must be removed for this check.
• Close the main AC Grid isolator provided it is safe to do so.
12. Press the E-stop to prevent an unexpected system start. Pressing the E-stop does not isolate the system.
13. Enable the MPP tracker by setting Pr 18.36 = 1. Note that when Pr 4.02 is monitored when the system is enabled, there will be regular but small
changes in the active current caused by the process of MPP tracking.
14. Set Pr 20.20 to 0 to allow the HMI Data Transfer module to take control of the SPV.
15. Release the E-stop and wait for the user control system to reset the E-stop relay, and to start the inverter.

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6.9 Gain settings


General Information
In the SPV there are two groups of gain settings that must be set up correctly in order to have a stable operating system; these are:
• Current controller gains
• Voltage controller gain
These gains interact with each other to control Active and Reactive current flow; the diagram below shows the relationship:
Figure 6-6 Basic gain settings

Pr 4.40
Reactive current
demand

Pr 4.08
Reactive current + +
reference + -

Pr 4.17
Anti-island
Reactive current
Reference feedback

Current Modulator and


Controller Power Circuit

Pr 4.04
DC Bus Voltage
Active current
Following Error demand

Pr 3.05
DC Bus Voltage
DC bus voltage + Controller +
setpoint - -

Pr 3.06 Pr 4.13
Pr 5.05 Pr 4.02
DC bus voltage Controller P
DC Bus Voltage Active current
controller P gain
feedback feedback
gain

Internal Pr 4.14
DC bus voltage Controller I
Controller I Gain gain

From Figure 6-6 it can be seen that:


• The active current demand is generated by the voltage controller.
• If the DC bus voltage set-point is greater than the feedback, a positive DC bus voltage following error is generated, where an increasing active
current demand will increase the DC bus voltage (current flow from supply to inverter).
• If the DC bus voltage set-point is less than the feedback, a negative DC bus voltage following error is generated, where a decreasing active
current demand will decrease the DC bus voltage (current flow from inverter to supply).
• Access is provided to the Voltage controller P gain; the I term is set in internally with no user access.
• Access is provided to both the current controller P and I term, and these gain values are used by the active and reactive current control loops
within the current controller.
The PV system software controls the current controller gains Pr 4.13 and Pr 4.14. Table 6-3 lists the power module parameters which determine the
current controller gains:

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Table 6-3 Current control parameters

Power Module
Description
Parameter
Starting current loop P gain. This controls Pr 4.13 the current loop P gain when the power module state machine is in a
lower numbered state than the running state (<8 on voltage master and <9 on the current slave). This allows the user to
Pr 19.14 tune the behaviour to the given supply on start up.
This includes when current slave modules are waiting to be fast started for systems with >=2 power modules, during the
first 10 s after the voltage master has closed its DC main contactor.
Starting current loop I gain. This controls the Pr 4.14 the current loop I gain when the power module state machine is in a
lower numbered state than the running (<8 on voltage master and <9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune the
Pr 19.15 behaviour to the given supply on start up.
This includes when current slave modules are waiting to be fast started for systems with >=2 power modules, during the
first 10 s after the voltage master has closed its DC main contactor.
Running current loop P gain. This controls Pr 4.13 the current loop P gain when the power module state machine is in the
Pr 19.16 running state or a higher numbered state (>=8 on voltage master and <9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune
the behaviour to the given supply when running.
Running current loop I gain. This controls Pr 4.14 the current loop I gain when the power module state machine is in the
Pr 19.17 running state or higher numbered state (>=8 on voltage master and >=9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune
the behaviour to the given supply when running.
Pr 3.06, the voltage controller gain may be set directly since it is not manipulated by the PV System software.
6.9.1 Practical Gain Settings
The current controller gain and the voltage controller gain must have identical settings across the power modules e.g. Pr 3.06 on power module 1
must equal Pr 3.06 on power module 2. Failure to set common gains can cause system instability.
As a guide, the following settings are recommended:
• Voltage controller P gain can be set within a practical range of 500 to 2500, and is defaulted to 1000 when the power module defaults are
applied by setting Pr 19.50 to 1 or ON.
• Current controller P gain can be set within a practical range of 40 to 60, and is defaulted to 53 when the power module defaults are applied by
setting Pr 19.50 to 1 or ON.
• Current controller I gain can be set within a practical range of 500 to 3000, and is defaulted to 1000 when the power module defaults are
applied by setting Pr 19.50 to 1 or ON.

6.10 Tuning Guide


When tuning the SPV inverter it is preferred to have a power analyzer connected to the SPV AC Supply busbars e.g. Fluke 434 / 435, with the 3000
A Rogowski clip on current probes.
When the power analyzer is connected and the system is running, observe the current and voltage waveforms in particular looking for high frequency
>50 Hz components, and low frequency <50 Hz components.
Typically but not exclusively, excessive high frequency components are affected by the current loop P and I gain, where the current loop P gain
should be modified first if there is an issue. Normally high frequency issues can be heard as a high pitch noise, or seen on the power analyzer trace
when looking at the current waveform as a frequency in the range of 1.4 kHz and a period of 71 ms. In this case the corrective action is to reduce the
current controller P gain within the range described in the practical gain settings.
Again typically but not exclusively, excessive low frequency components are affected by the voltage controller P gain and the current loop I gain,
where the I gain should be modified first if there is an issue. Normally low frequency issues can be heard as a low frequency modulating noise, or
seen on the power analyzer trace when looking at the current wave form as a frequency in the range of 1 Hz to 5 Hz and a period of 1 s to 200 ms. In
this case the corrective action is to increase the current controller I gain within the range described in the practical gain settings. If this fails to settle
the oscillation try modifying the voltage controller P gain within the range described in the practical gain settings.
For installations where several SPVs are connected to a single medium voltage connection, e.g. >=10, insufficient current controller I gain can cause
an oscillation between SPV inverters. Low current loop I gains are in the order of 250.
Where 3rd 5th and 7th order harmonic content from the SPV is an issue, reducing the voltage controller P gain will help.
NOTE
ITHD as displayed by most power analyzers is based upon a percentage of the fundamental frequency current (50 Hz or 60 Hz). At low current it may
appear that there are very high levels of harmonics, when in fact the amplitude of the fundamental current has reduced making the background
harmonics level a higher proportion of the total and increasing the % ITHD value. For most systems the harmonic current levels must be quoted
based upon the current level for the point of common connection, not at low current levels.
Figure 6-7 Percentage ITHD values

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If the power analyzer used measures TDD (Total Demand Distortion) as defined in IEEE519, then the issue highlighted in this note is avoided.

6.11 BDEW Grid support / fault ride-through set-up


NOTE
Prior to setting the BDEW features, the user must first setup and tune the SPV as described in the preceding sections, in particular the current loop
and voltage controller gains must be set correctly to allow the fault ride through voltage detection scheme to operate correctly.
6.11.1 Voltage relay settings
Under voltage (Alarm 1) Under voltage (Alarm 2) Over voltage (Alarm 1) Over voltage (Alarm 2)
Voltage Threshold 0.45 * Vn 0.8 * Vn 1.2 * Vn 1.2 * Vn
Hysteresis 0.5 * Vn 0.15 * Vn 0.15 * Vn 0.15 * Vn
Alarm Delay 0.3 s 1.5 s 0.1 s 0.1 s
Reset Delay 9.5 s 9.5 s 9.5 s 9.5 s
Vn is the nominal AC RMS line voltage. BDEW guide lines do not specify two over voltage settings so the over voltage alarm 2 threshold is set-up to
be the same as over voltage alarm 1.
Table 6-4 Voltage Relay Example - 340V ac

Under voltage (Alarm 1) Under voltage (Alarm 2) Over voltage (Alarm 1) Over voltage (Alarm 2)
Voltage Threshold 153 V 272 V 408 V 408 V
Hysteresis 170V (323 V Reset) 51 (323 V Reset) 51 (357 V Reset) 51 (357 V Reset)
Alarm Delay 0.3 s 1.5 s 0.1 s 0.1 s
Reset Delay 9.5 s 9.5 s 9.5 s 9.5 s

Table 6-5 Frequency Relay Settings

Under frequency (Alarm 1) Over frequency (Alarm 1)


Frequency Threshold 47.5 Hz 51.5 Hz
Hysteresis 1.45 Hz (48.95 Hz Reset) 1.45 Hz (50.05 Hz Reset)
Alarm Delay 0.1 s 0.1 s
Reset Delay 9.5 s 9.5 s

NOTE
BDEW guidelines do not specify a second set of frequency thresholds so make Alarm 1 and Alarm 2 settings the same.
Inverter Settings Related to Grid Support
1. Enable ride through mode with Pr 18.40 = 1.
2. Set a K factor of 2. Pr 19.14 must be setup to implement a given K factor using the following formula;
Pr 19.14 = (10000 x K) / #18.17.
3. For a 340 Vn system and a K factor of 2, Pr 19.14 = 59 which is 0.59 % reactive current / volt error from nominal, this ensures that we are
producing rated reactive current when voltage is at 170 V (50 % for a 340 Vn system).
4. Set percentage dead band voltage in Pr 19.19. For a 340 Vn system with a 10 % dead band Pr 19.19 = 34 (10 % Vn at 340 V to enter ride through
mode).

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6.11.2 Other Inverter Settings Required by BDEW Table 6-6 Parameters controlled by the HMI data transfer module
• Enable 10 % system rated active power / minute limitation feature when remote control is selected
with Pr 19.46 = 1.
Parameter Description
• Set up the BDEW active power reduction with over frequency
scheme. The following parameters must be set: Overriding maximum output power limit
This parameter defines the maximum output power
• Pr 19.11 = 5020 (50.20 Hz, This value is set by default)
limit of the SPV inverter as a percentage of the rated
• Pr 19.12 = 5005 (50.05 Hz, This value is set by default) 18.19
output power of the SPV inverter. See section
• Pr 19.13 = 400 (40.0 %, This value is set by default)
6.12.2 Overriding maximum output power limit below
• Pr 19.15 = 2 (Enables FGW TR8 mode required for BDEW) for more information.
Figure 6-8 BDEW required settings Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) minimum
Pr 19.12 Active DC voltage
Power Control This sets the bottom limit for the operating range of the
“OFF” Threshold MPP tracker, and the MPP initial DC voltage, Pr 18.26.
In 0.01 Hz Units
18.24 The internally used absolute bottom limit is calculated
AC Line from:
Power
Frequency (√2 x Vac) + 30 V Where Vac = Pr 18.17.
This parameter can be used to force the MPP bottom
Pr 19.13
0.1% Sampled limit to a higher value if required.
Power / 1 Hz Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) initial
Units Above voltage
Pr 19.11
18.26 This parameter defines the initial value of the MPPT
when it is first enabled. This parameter should normally
Lowest active power be set to a value which is: AC grid voltage x √2 + 30.
Pr 19.11 Active reached is held
Power Control System enable
“ON” Threshold This parameter controls the SPV inverter. Setting this
In 0.01 Hz Units 18.31 parameter to On (1) will enable the SPV inverter.
Setting this parameter to OFF (0) will shut down and
disconnect the SPV inverter from the AC grid.
6.11.3 Inverter Setting 'Recommended' by BDEW
Set an AC voltage settling time in Pr 19.17 of 600 s to give a 10 minute Manual system E-Stop reset
settling delay after voltage or frequency relay trip. The delay on after a 18.39 This parameter will reset the SPV inverter after an
fault (DOF) setting for Ziehl voltage relay can only be set to a maximum Emergency Stop condition.
of 9.5 s so Pr 19.17 must be used to achieve the recommended delay. AC voltage feedback / Dynamic power factor
control stop power threshold
6.12 Further commissioning This parameter is used define the AC voltage feedback
or the end active power depending on the reactive
This section describes the configuration of the additional SPV inverter
reference mode selected in Pr 19.29 on the System
features. 19.23
controller module. If AC grid voltage based reactive
• Local/Remote control power control (Pr 19.29 set to 3) is selected, then the
• Overriding maximum output power limit current AC grid voltage must be continuously written to
• Remote disconnect command this parameter. See section 6.12.5 Reactive current/
• Selectable maximum output power limits power control for more information.
• Reactive current/power control
Reactive reference
• Active power control
This parameter is used to change the reactive
• Automatic island detection
19.30 reference when one of the reactive reference modes
6.12.1 Local/Remote control has been enabled. See section 6.12.5 Reactive
Remote control of the SPV inverter is where the HMI data transfer current/power control for more information.
module is in overall control of the SPV inverter. In this mode the HMI Reset all power module trip logs
data transfer module parameters listed in Table 6-6 are mapped to the 19.48 This parameter is used to clear the trip logs in all power
parameter of the same number in the System control module. The modules in the SPV inverter.
equivalent parameter in the System controller module then effectively
Active power mode enable
becomes read only.
This parameter enables the active power mode. See
19.49
section 6.12.6 AC Voltage management for more
information.
Local control of the SPV inverter is where the System controller module
is in overall control of the SPV inverter.
Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module determines whether the SPV
inverter is under local or remote control. Setting Pr 20.20 to 0 enables
remote control, i.e. the HMI data transfer module is in control of the
parameters in Table 6-3 on page 70.
6.12.2 Overriding maximum output power limit
Pr 18.19 in the HMI data transfer module or System controller module
can be used to limit the maximum output power from the SPV inverter.
Which module has overall control over Pr 18.19 depends on Pr 20.20 in
the HMI data transfer module as detailed in section 6.12.1 Local/Remote
control above.

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Pr 18.19 defines the maximum output power limit of the SPV inverter as
NOTE
a percentage of the rated output power of the SPV inverter in 0.1 %
The power analyzer considers the SPV inverter to be a generator rather
units, i.e. Pr 18.19 set to 900 will limit the maximum output power of the
than a load. Therefore, when the SPV inverter is producing negative
SPV inverter to 90 % of it rated value.
reactive current/power, the power analyzer will show positive reactive
If Pr 18.19 is set to zero the SPV inverter will shut down and will not current/power and vice versa.
restart until Pr 18.19 is set to a value greater than 0.
Reactive current control, Pr 19.29 = 0
6.12.3 Remote disconnect command In this mode the SPV inverter will produce reactive current. Pr 19.30
As standard, the SPV inverter provides a method of shutting down and
defines the reactive current reference in units of 0.1 % of the total rated
disconnecting the inverter from the grid using a 24 Vdc digital input. This
current of the SPV inverter. For example, a setting of 100 in Pr 19.30
could be used by the electricity supply company to disable the SPV
would mean that 10 % of the total current rating of the SPV inverter is
inverter in the event of an island condition occurring.
used for reactive current. A positive value in Pr 19.30 will produce a
Terminal -X5:5 can be used as a remote disconnect input. Applying 24 lagging current which will import reactive power from the AC grid. A
Vdc to terminal -X5:5 or connecting terminal -X5:1 to -X5:5 will shutdown negative value in Pr 19.30 will produce a leading current which will
the SPV inverter and disconnect it from the AC grid. The state of export reactive power to the AC grid.
terminal -X5:5 can be monitored in Pr 18.35 on the System controller
The rate of change of reactive current is set by Pr 19.28 with units of 0.1
module. Pr 18.35 equal to On(1) indicates that terminal -X5:5 is active.
% of the total rated current of the SPV inverter per second.
For this feature to work correctly Pr 18.23 on the System controller
module must be set to 0. Reactive power control, Pr 19.29 = 1
In this mode the SPV inverter controls the reactive power at the AC
6.12.4 Selectable maximum output power limits terminals of the inverter. Pr 19.30 defines the reactive power reference
It is possible to limit the output power of the SPV inverter to one of four
in units of 0.1 % of the rating power of the SPV inverter. For example, a
settings via digital inputs. This can be used by the electricity company to
setting of 100 in Pr 19.30 would mean that 10 % of the total power rating
limit the power the SPV inverter feeds into the AC grid.
of the SPV inverter is used for reactive power. A positive value in
Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 on the System controller module are used to define Pr 19.30 will import reactive power from the AC grid and a negative
four maximum output power limits. value in Pr 19.30 will export reactive power to the AC grid. Setting
The digital inputs on terminals -X5:2 to -X5:5 are used to select one of Pr 19.30 to 0 will ensure that the reactive power flow at the AC terminals
the four output power limits. The states of terminals -X5:2 to -X5:5 can of the SPV inverter is 0, hence ensuring the power factor of the SPV
be monitored in Pr 18.32 to Pr 18.35 on the System controller module. A inverter is unity for all load levels.
value of On(1) in these parameters indicates that the input is active. The reactive power at the AC terminals is measured by the power
Table 6-7 Output power limits, terminals and parameters analyzer and is used by the SPV inverter to ensure the reactive power at
Parameter Parameter AC terminals equals that set in Pr 19.30. A simple proportional term
Terminal
containing showing the controller is used for this control with a proportional gain in Pr 19.27 and
number Description
the output state of the proportional gain clamp in Pr 19.28 with units of 0.1 % of the total rated
on –X5
power limit digit input current of the SPV inverter per second.
2 Output power limit 1 18.20 18.32 Set-point power factor control, Pr 19.29 = 2
3 Output power limit 2 18.21 18.33 In this mode the SPV inverter controls the power factor at the AC
4 Output power limit 3 18.22 18.34 terminals of the inverter. Pr 19.30 defines the power factor set-point
offset to a resolution of 0.001. A setting of +50 in Pr 19.30 would mean a
Output power limit 4
capacitive power factor of -0.950 and a value of -50 in Pr 19.30 would
5 (or remote 18.23 18.35
mean an inductive power factor of +0.950. Pr 19.30 is limited to a range
disconnection input)
of ±200 giving a power factor set point range of -0.800 to +0.800. If
If a remote disconnection input is required in addition to the selectable Pr 19.30 is set to 0, the power factor set point will be 1.000.
maximum output power limits, then only three selectable power limits are The power factor at the AC terminals is measured by the power analyzer
available. This is because terminal -X5:5 is used as the remote and is used by the SPV inverter to ensure the power factor at AC
disconnection digital input and Pr 18.23 must then be set to 0. terminals equals that defined by the power factor offset set in Pr 19.30. A
6.12.5 Reactive current/power control simple proportional term controller is used for this control with a
The SPV inverter has five different modes for controlling the reactive proportional gain in Pr 19.27 and proportional gain clamp in Pr 19.28
current, reactive power or power factor. These modes are selected by with units of 0.1 % of the total rated current of the SPV inverter per
Pr 19.29 in the System controller module as follows. second.
Table 6-8 Reactive reference modes

Setting of Pr
Description
19.29
0 Reactive current control
1 Reactive power control
2 Set-point power factor control
3 AC grid voltage based reactive power control
4 Dynamic power factor control
AC grid voltage based reactive power control
5
with dead band

In all the modes above, Pr 19.30 is used as the reactive reference.


Pr 19.30 appears in both the HMI data transfer module and the System
controller module. Pr 20.20 in the HMI data transfer module defines
which Pr 19.30 parameter is used by the SPV inverter as the reactive
reference. See section 6.12.1 Local/Remote control above for more
information regarding Pr 20.20.

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AC grid voltage based reactive power control, Pr 19.29 = 3 equate to a negative or inductive power factor of 0.950 (i.e. the SPV
In this mode the SPV inverter controls the level of reactive power it inverter would import reactive power from the grid).
produces depending on the voltage of the AC grid. Figure 6-10 Output power based power factor control
If the grid voltage in Pr 19.23 increases above the reference defined in Power Factor
Pr 19.22, the SPV inverter will produce negative reactive power or Start Power
Factor Pr 19.25
import reactive power from the grid. If the grid voltage in Pr 19.23
decreases below the reference defined in Pr 19.22 the SPV inverter will Overexcited
Voltage increase
produce positive reactive power or export reactive power to the grid. Export VArs
Figure 6-9 AC grid voltage based reactive power control PF +Ve

Reactive Power % of SPV Inverter


Positive Reactive 0 Rated Power
Power Limit Pr 19.25
Under excited
Voltage increase

Voltage decrease
Export VArs

Overexcited

Import VArs
PF +Ve

PF -Ve

Stop Power
Factor Pr 19.26
Start Active
AC Line Voltage Error Power Pr 19.22
0 (Pr 19.22 – Pr 19.23) Stop Active
Voltage decrease

Power Pr 19.23
Under excited
Import VArs

0.1% Rated Power /


PF -Ve

Vac Error Pr 19.30 The SPV inverter uses a simple proportional term controller for this
control with a proportional gain in Pr 19.27 and proportional gain clamp
in Pr 19.28 with units of 0.1 % of the total rated current of the SPV
Negative Reactive
Power Limit Pr 19.26
inverter per second.
AC grid voltage based reactive power control with dead band,
The user must continuously write the voltage of the AC grid to Pr 19.23. Pr 19.29 = 5
Pr 19.23 is available on the HMI data transfer module to allow the user to In this mode, the reactive reference, Pr 19.30, is used to set a
interface with the voltage feedback via digital communications, or analog relationship of percentage of system rated power / volt, where deviation
signal. Pr 19.24 defines the scaling factor used for the AC grid voltages from the AC supply set point (Pr 19.22) when compared with the AC
defined in Pr 19.22 and Pr 19.23. For example, an AC grid voltage of supply feedback (Pr 19.23) outside of the dead band, will result in
132000 V could be represented by setting Pr 19.22 to 132 and Pr 19.24 reactive power being generated using the relationship set up in Pr 19.30
to 1000. plus any power generated in the dead band.
Pr 19.30 defines the reactive power produced by the SPV inverter per Pr 19.24 sets the dead band reactive power per volt error rate inside the
volt of deviation from the AC voltage reference in Pr 19.22, in units of dead band in 0.1 % / volt error units. Setting Pr 19.24 to 0 will give 0
0.1 % of the rated power of the SPV inverter per volt. For example, a reactive power output in the dead band. The symmetrical width of the
value of 50 in Pr 19.30 means that the SPV inverter will produce 5 % of dead band is set by Pr 19.25 in 1 V units.
the rated power of the SPV inverter as reactive power for a deviation of 1
The symmetrical reactive power limit is set by Pr 19.26 in 0.1 % of
V between the AC voltage reference in Pr 19.22 and the AC voltage
system rated power units e.g. a value of 1 represents 0.1 % of system
feedback in Pr 19.23.
rated power = Power module rated current (Pr 18.18) x power modules
Pr 19.25 defines the positive reactive power limit and Pr 19.26 defines required for rated current (Pr 18.13) x system rated AC voltage
the negative reactive power limit in units of 0.1 % of the rating power of (Pr 18.17) x √3. The final internal reactive power reference after limits is
the SPV inverter. then held by the same reactive power holding loop used in mode 1.
The SPV inverter uses a simple proportional term controller for this The user may select between external voltage feedback via Pr 19.23, or
control with a proportional gain in Pr 19.27 and proportional gain clamp to use the internal voltage feedback Pr 18.02 via Pr 19.44, where if
in Pr 19.28 with units of 0.1% of the total rated current of the SPV Pr 19.44 = 0 feedback is from Pr 19.23, but if Pr 19.44 = 1 feedback is
inverter per second. from Pr 18.02.
Dynamic power factor control, Pr 19.29 = 4
In this mode the SPV inverter controls the power factor of the inverter 0.1% Rated power /
depending on the active output power of the inverter. Vac error Pr 19.24
in dead band
Pr 19.22 defines the percentage of active output power at which control
Symmetrical
of the power factor should start, and Pr 19.23 defines the percentage of reactive power
(Inductive on DIRIS) (Capacitive on DIRIS)

active output power at which control of the power factor should stop. The limit Pr 19.26
voltage increase
Overexcited
export Vars

active output power values defined by Pr 19.22 and Pr 19.23 are in units
PF +Ve

of 0.1% of the rated power of the SPV inverter. For example, a value of Reactive power
100 in Pr 19.22 or Pr 19.23 would equate to an active output power of AC line voltage error
If Pr 19.44 = 0
10 %. (Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23)
or if Pr 19.44 = 1
If the active output power of the SPV inverter is less than the value set in 0 (Pr 19.22 - Pr 18.02
voltage decrease

Pr 19.22, the power factor of the SPV inverter will be equal to the start
Under excited
import Vars
PF -Ve

0.1% Rated power /


power factor set in Pr 19.25. If the active output power of the SPV / Vac error Pr 19.30
inverter is greater than the value set in Pr 19.23, the power factor of the
SPV inverter will be equal to the end power factor set in Pr 19.26. If the -Symmetrical
active output power of the SPV inverter is between the levels defined by reactive power
limit Pr 19.26
Pr 19.22 and Pr 19.23 the power factor is controlled with a linear Symmetrical
relationship between the power factor values set in Pr 19.25 and voltage error
dead band
Pr 19.26. Pr 19.25

The power factor values defined by Pr 19.25 and Pr 19.25 are in units of
0.001. For example, a value of -950 in Pr 19.25 or Pr 19.26 would

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6.12.6 AC Voltage management Example 2


When one of the reactive reference modes (system controller Pr 19.29) A group of SPV's is to be installed on a site, each SPV is connected via
is used, the effect the reactive current will have on the local AC voltage its isolation transformer to a MV (medium voltage) network. Each MV
must be considered. The active current has little effect on the voltage transformer used has per unit reactance of 6.1 % at full load. The entire
because the voltage drop in the reactance is almost orthogonal with the site is connected to the HV (high voltage) network via a transformer with
supply voltage. Where reactive current is required it may be necessary per unit reactance of 11.5 % at full load. The customer has requested
to adjust the voltage monitoring relay thresholds, and in some cases the that the SPV operates in the range of ±0.8 power factor in response to
voltage rating of the transformer may have to be adapted to allow for the an externally applied reference signal.
increase. The rise (or fall) in local AC voltage due to reactive power
HV transformer reactance = 11.5 %
produced or consumed by the SPV is dependent on the mains
reactance. Two examples of the type of calculations necessary are MV transformer reactance = 6.1 %
shown below. For more complex arrangements, for example where Required power factor range (PF) = ±0.8
power factor correction devices such as capacitors are in use, a detailed
Voltage relay under and over voltage trip thresholds = ±10 %
system voltage study should be carried out.
NOTE
NOTE
We neglect the cable inductance, resistance and capacitance. In very
Where there is significant reactance (i.e. transformers) between the
large installations these parameters might need to be allowed for.
inverter and the point of interconnection (POI) with the power network,
the reactive power at the inverter will differ from that at the POI because Calculate the percentage of rated reactive current (%Ir) required to
of the reactive power consumed by the transformers. Most of this achieve the requested power factor (PF).
reactive power is consumed by the transformer leakage (series)
reactance, and this varies in proportion to the active power exported. 2 2
%I = 100 – ( 100 × PF )
Example 1 r
A single SPV is to be installed on a site connected via its isolation
2 2
transformer directly to a strong (high fault current) MV (medium voltage) 100 – ( 100 × 0.8 ) = 60%
network. The MV transformer used has per unit reactance of 6.1 % at full
load. The customer has requested that the SPV operates in the range of Calculate total per unit reactance between SPV AC terminals and high
±0.8 power factor in response to an externally applied reference signal. voltage network.
We assume that the inverter rating has been selected to allow for the
%Ix = %IxMV + %IxHV
required simultaneous production of active and reactive power.
6.1 + 11.5 = 17.6%
MV transformer reactance (%Ix) = 6.1 %
Calculate local AC voltage percentage change (Δr) due to the 60 % rated
Required power factor range (PF) = ±0.8
reactive current.
Voltage relay under and over voltage trip thresholds = ±10 %
%I x
Calculate the percentage of rated reactive current (%Ir) required to Δ r = ---------- × %I r
achieve the requested power factor (PF). 100
17.6
----------- × 60 = 10.56%
2 2 100
%I = 100 – ( 100 × PF )
r
Calculate the total voltage change also considering the voltage rise due
2 2 to active power.
100 – ( 100 × 0.8 ) = 60%
2 2⎞
Δ total = ⎛ ( 100 ± Δ r ) + %I – 100
Calculate local AC voltage percentage change (Δr) due to the 60 % rated ⎝ xtotal ⎠
reactive current.
⎛ ( 100 ± 10.56 ) 2 + 17.6 2⎞ – 100 = +11.9 % or -8.8 %
%I x ⎝ ⎠
Δ r = ---------- × %I r
100 The AC voltage in this example can be expected to vary by a total of
+11.9 % and -8.8 % around the nominal AC voltage when all SPV's on
6.1 site are given a demand for ±0.8 PF. This is outside of the voltage
---------- × 60 = 3.66%
100 monitoring relay trip thresholds at ±10 % and therefore the thresholds
should be widened to avoid trips. It is usually not necessary to consider
Calculate the total voltage change also considering the voltage rise due
the combined effect of voltage drop and network voltage tolerance in the
to active power.
same direction, because the power factor reference is usually supplied
by an external voltage controller that would not create that situation.
2 2
Δ total = ⎛ ( 100 ± Δ r ) + %I x ⎞ – 100 Where possible a reactive power/voltage capability profile should be
⎝ ⎠
agreed with the operator of the MV network.

⎛ ( 100 ± 3.66 ) 2 + 6.1 2⎞ – 100 = +3.84 % or -3.46 %


⎝ ⎠
The AC voltage in this example can be expected to vary by a total of
+3.84 % and -3.46 % around the nominal AC voltage. This is inside the
voltage trip thresholds at ±10 %. It is usually not necessary to consider
the combined effect of voltage drop and network voltage tolerance in the
same direction, because the power factor reference is usually supplied
by an external voltage controller that would not create that situation.
Where possible a reactive power/voltage capability profile should be
agreed with the operator of the MV network.

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6.12.7 Active power control 6.12.8 Automatic island detection


The SPV inverter can control the active output power dependant on the The SPV inverter is able to monitor for an island condition and shut itself
frequency of the grid (BDEW active power control). In this mode the SPV down if an island is detected, refer to section 7.3.2 Automatic island
inverter will reduce the active output power as the grid frequency detection and protection on page 85 for further information.
increases. Automatic island detection is enabled by setting Pr 18.41 to On (1) on
To enable active power control, the following parameters need to be set- the System controller module. Automatic island detection works by
up. continually modulating the reactive current by a small periodic function,
Parameter Description Value and observing the AC frequency. Pr 19.16 defines the modulation
frequency used. Table 6-9 below details the recommend setting of
Active power control Pr 19.16 for standards VDE 0126-1-1 and IEEE 1547-1.
19.15 1
mode select
Table 6-9 Details of Pr 19.16
Active power mode
19.49 On (1) Modulation frequency Recommended for
enable Pr 19.16
Hz standard
Set this to the frequency that
Active power control ON 0 1 VDE 0126-1-1
the active power control
threshold
19.11 should start in units of 0.01 1 2 IEEE 1547-1
(Active power control
Hz. (Default is 5020, i.e. 50.20 2 4
setup parameter 1)
Hz)
Set this to the frequency that Automatic island detection should not be used if AC low voltage ride-
Active power control OFF through is enabled, or if any of the reactive reference modes are
the active power control
threshold selected in Pr 19.29 on the System controller module.
19.12 should stop in units of 0.01
(Active power control
Hz. (Default is 5005, i.e. 50.05 See section 7.3 Anti-islanding on page 85 for more information.
setup parameter 2)
Hz)
Set this to the rate at which
the active power should 6.13 AC grid monitoring
Active power
19.13 (Active power control
reduce as the frequency 6.13.1 Voltage monitoring relay
increases in units of 0.1% per The SPV inverter contains an AC grid voltage monitoring relay (Ziehl SW
setup parameter 3)
1 Hz. (Default is 400, i.e. 40.0 32 V) which must be set up correctly to ensure the SPV inverter is
% / 1 Hz) disconnected when the AC grid voltage is out of specification. The
Nominal AC grid Set this to the nominal AC grid following section gives a brief overview of setting the relay. Consult the
frequency frequency in units of 0.01 Hz. manufacturer's (Ziehl) documentation for further information.
19.14
(Active power control (Default is 5000, i.e. 50.00
setup parameter 4) Hz) The settings of the voltage monitoring relay can greatly effect
the behavior of the SPV inverter during a supply disturbance
The default values of Pr 19.11 to Pr 19.14 have been chosen for and must be set correctly to meet applicable regulations in
compliance with BDEW regulations. WARNING the area of installation.
If the active power control is enabled and the grid frequency rises above
Figure 6-12 Voltage monitoring relay
the ON threshold in Pr 19.11, the SPV inverter will reduce the active
output power at the rate defined in Pr 19.13. The SPV inverter will
control the active power in this mode until the grid frequency falls below
the OFF threshold defined in Pr 19.12 at which point the SPV inverter
will operate under normal conditions.
Figure 6-11 Active power control
  Active Power

Pr 19. 12 Active Power Control


“OFF” Threshold 0.01Hz

Max Power

Pr 19.13 0.1% Rated


Power / 1Hz Above Pr 19.11

Min Power AC Line


Frequency

Pr 19.11 Active Power Control


“ON” Threshold 0. 01Hz

Pr 19.14 Nominal AC
Frequency 0.01Hz

Pr 19.49 must be set to On (1) in the HMI data transfer module to enable
active power control. The electricity supply company could remotely
control this parameter via either communications or a digital input.

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Figure 6-13 Voltage monitoring relay display, keypad and status Figure 6-14 Parameter navigation on the voltage monitoring relay
LEDs

Table 6-10 Description of the voltage monitoring relay display


Item Description
1 Last decimal point (red)
2 LEDs relay status (yellow)
3 LED Asymmetry (red)
4 LEDs voltage limit undercut / exceeded (red)
5 LED phase sequence (red)
6 Up / Down key
7 Set/Reset key
8 LEDs measurement allocation (yellow)
9 Digital display 3-digits (red)
NOTE
Step 1 - Select program 2
SPV inverters produced before July 2011 have an older voltage relay
Program 2 will have been selected during manufacture of the SPV
installed (part number: S222279). This relay has a reduced menu
inverter, therefore this step is only required if the relay has been
structure that does not allow independent configuration of dAL (alarm
replaced.
delay) for under and overvoltage trips. This relay was replaced in July
The voltage relay has several different programs that configure how it 2011 by part number: S222276 which has the improved menu structure
operates. Program 2 must be selected when the relay is used in the SPV as shown above and in Table 6-11.
inverter.
Table 6-11 details the parameter values set in the voltage monitoring
In order to change the program, switch off the auxiliary power supply to relay during manufacture of the SPV inverter.
the SPV inverter (if the internal power supply is being used then the AC
grid connection will need to be isolated). Push and hold the 'Set/Reset'
button while re-applying power, the button must be held for a minimum of
10 s. The program (Pr 2) can then be selected with the 'Up' and 'Down'
buttons, and confirmed with the 'Set/Reset' button. The selected
program is displayed when switching on the power.
Step 2 - Set up parameters3
Settings for the following parameters will depend on local regulations in
the geographical area in which the SPV inverter is being installed.

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Table 6-11 Voltage monitoring relay parameters

Item Item Description Unit Default value


A1 ⎯ Alarm on
U1 ⎯ Upper limit V 1.1 x Vn*
A1 ⎯
(Alarm 1 Over voltage) H1 ⎯ Hysteresis V 10
dAL Alarm delay s 0.10
doF Reset delay s 9.5
A1 _ Alarm on
A1 _ U1 _ Lower limit V 0.9 x Vn**
(Alarm 1 Under voltage) H1 _ Hysteresis V 10
dAL Alarm delay s 0.10
doF Reset delay s 9.5
ASy Asymmetry % oFF
A1 dAL Alarm delay s 0.10
(Alarm 1) PhF Phase sequence oFF
rEL Relay function r
A2 ⎯ Alarm on
U1 ⎯ Upper limit V 1.1 x Vn*
A2 ⎯
(Alarm 2 Over voltage) H1 ⎯ Hysteresis V 10
dAL Alarm delay s 0.10
doF Reset delay s 9.5
A2 _ Alarm on
U1 _ Lower limit V 0.9 x Vn**
A2 _
(Alarm 2 Under voltage) H1 _ Hysteresis V 10
dAL Alarm delay s 0.10
doF Reset delay s 9.5
ASy Asymmetry % oFF
A2 dAL Alarm delay s 0.10
(Alarm 2) PhF Phase sequence oFF
rEL Relay function r
ddi Display delay s 0.5
ddi
dit Display duration s 3.5
On / oFF oFF
CodE
Pin Pin code 504
* For example where Vn is 340 Vac this would be set to 374 Vac
** For example where Vn is 340 Vac this would be set to 306 Vac

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6.13.2 Frequency monitoring relay Step 1 - Select program 2 (frequency measurement)


The SPV inverter contains an AC grid frequency monitoring relay (Ziehl Program 2 will have been selected during manufacture of the SPV
FRMU 1000) which must be set up correctly to ensure the SPV inverter inverter, therefore this step is only required if the relay has been
is disconnected when the AC grid frequency is out of specification. The replaced.
following section gives a brief overview of the required relay settings. The frequency relay has two different programs which configure its
Consult the manufacturer's (Ziehl) documentation for further information. mode of operation. Program 2 must be selected when the relay is used
in the SPV inverter.
The settings of the frequency monitoring relay can greatly To change the program, switch off the auxiliary power supply to the SPV
effect the behavior of the SPV inverter during a supply inverter (if the internal power supply is being used then the AC grid
disturbance and must be set correctly to meet applicable connection will need to be isolated). Push and hold the 'Set/Reset'
WARNING regulations in the area of installation. button while re-applying power, the button must be held for a minimum of
10 s. The program (Pr 2) can then be selected with the 'Up' and 'Down'
Figure 6-15 Frequency monitoring relay buttons, and confirmed with the 'Set/Reset' button. The selected
program is displayed when switching on the power.
Step 2 - Set up parameters
The settings of the following parameters depend on local regulations in
the area that the SPV inverter is being installed.
Figure 6-17 Parameter navigation on the frequency monitoring
relay

Figure 6-16 Frequency monitoring relay display, keypad and


status LEDs

Table 6-13 details the parameter values set in the frequency monitoring
relay during manufacture of the SPV inverter. These settings are based
on a grid frequency of 50 Hz. If the grid has a frequency of 60 Hz then
these settings will need to be changed before the SPV inverter can be
enabled.
Table 6-12 Description of the frequency monitoring relay display
Item Description
1 LED indicating the state of the relay
2 Five digit 7-segment LED display
3 LED indicating speed measurement (1/min)
4 LED indicating frequency measurement (Hz)
5 Up button
6 Set/Reset button
7 Down button

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Table 6-13 Frequency monitoring relay parameters


Item Description Value
InPut Input type U1-U2
NuLt Multiplier -
diu Divisor -
SuN Mean value 4
AL 1 Alarm 1 lower window limit 48.00
Func Alarm 1 function
AlHi Alarm 1 upper window limit 52.00
AL 1 H Alarm 1 hysteresis 1.00
dAL Alarm 1 delay 0.10
dof Alarm 1 switch-back delay 9.50
rel Alarm 1 relay function
AL 2 Alarm 2 lower window limit 47.00
Func Alarm 2 function
AlHi Alarm 2 upper window limit 53.00
AL 2 H Alarm 2 hysteresis 1.00
dAL Alarm 2 delay 0.10
dof Alarm 2 switch-back delay 9.50
rel Alarm 2 relay function
dEnAB Start-up-delay 0.1
ddi SP Display delay 0.5
out Type 0.10
out ____ Zero 0.00
¯¯¯¯ Full-scale 100.00
on, off Security code enable off
CodE
pin Security code 00504

6.13.3 Protecting voltage and frequency relay settings (code lock)


The settings of the voltage and frequency relays can be protected by activating a code lock if required. Below are instructions for setting the ‘code
lock’.
The device acknowledges an incorrect code entry, with ‘Err’ (flashes three times).
Adjustment process:
Select the menu item with the Up / down key until
• Display ‘Cod’ (Code lock)
Press the Set key
• Display ‘Pin / 0’ (Pin / Pin code) flash alternately
Use the Up and Down keys to set the saved pin code (factory setting is ‘504’)
Press the Set key
Set the desired code lock using the Up and down keys:
• ‘oFF’ - off, all parameters can be changed
• ‘on’ - on, no parameters can be changed
Press the Set key
• Display ‘Pin / 504’ (Pin / Pin code) flash alternately
Set the desired new pin code with the Up and Down keys (caution: write down the pin code)
Press the Set key
• Code lock on, display ‘on’ flashes three times
• Code lock on, display ‘oFF’ flashes three times
• Return to menu mode, menu item code lock
If there are any problems with the code lock (i.e. forgotten pin), the lock can be switched off and the pin can be reset to 504 by keeping the set key
pressed while switching on the mains until ‘Cod / off’ appears in the display.

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6.13.4 Power analyzer Table 6-15 Current transformer ratio


The SPV inverter contains a power analyzer instrument (Socomec Current transformer model
DIRIS A40) which must be set up correctly to ensure the System SPV model Ratio
number
controller module can receive various measurements from the power
SPV248 192T5050 500 / 5
analyzer via RS485 Modbus communications. The power analyzer is set
up during manufacture of the SPV inverter, but the following guide is SPV300 192T5050 500 / 5
provided in the event that the device needs to be replaced or SPV600 192T9590 1000 / 5
reconfigured. Please consult the manufacturer's (Socomec) SPV900 192T9596 1000 / 5
documentation for further information. SPV1200 192T9596 1000 / 5
Figure 6-18 Power analyzer SPV1500 192T9596 1000 / 5
SPV1800 192T9596 1000 / 5
SPV2100 192T9598 3000 / 5
SPV2400 192T9598 3000 / 5
SPV2700 192T9598 3000 / 5

Communication test
Bit 14 of the control module status word in Pr 19.21 on the System
controller module indicates if there is a communications problem
between the power meter and the System controller module. Bit 14 of
Pr 19.21 will be set if communications have failed. If communications
has failed and bit 14 of Pr 19.21 is set to 1, then the decimal value in
Pr 19.21 will be in the ranges of:
16384 <= Pr 19.21 <=32767
Or
-16384 <= Pr 19.21 <= -1

6.14 PV array monitoring


6.14.1 Isolation monitor
The SPV inverter contains an isolation monitoring device (Bender A-
ISOMETER IRDH275B) to monitor the PV array for faults. The isolation
monitor is set up with basic settings during manufacture of the SPV
inverter. The following guide is given in case the device needs to be
To enter programming mode replaced or reconfigured. A coupling device (Bender AGH150W-4) is
Press and hold the 'PROG' button for 3 seconds until the display shows used to increase the DC voltage range of the isolation monitor to that
CODE. Press the 'Right' arrow button, followed by the 'Up' arrow button, expected from the PV array. For further details please refer to the
enter the code 100 and confirm the setting by pressing the 'OK' button. manufacturer's (Bender) documentation.
Navigating the menus Figure 6-19 Isolation monitor (A-ISOMETER IRDH275B)
The various menus are navigated with the 'Up' and 'Down' arrow
buttons. To edit a value, press the 'Right' arrow button, select the
required value with the 'Up' and 'Down' arrow buttons, and then confirm
the setting by pressing the 'OK' button.
Basic settings
Table 6-14 details the settings programmed into the power analyzer
during manufacture of the SPV inverter.
Table 6-14 Power analyzer setting
Item Description Value
3NBL (Unbalanced three-
nEt Network type
phase network)
xxxx/y (please refer to
Ct Current transformer ratio
Table 6-15)
CON PAR Communications parity EVEN
Communications baud
CON BDS 38400
rate
CON STOP Communications stop bits 1
Communications module
CON ADR 005
address

To exit programming mode, press and hold the 'PROG' button for 3
seconds.

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Figure 6-20 Isolation monitor coupling device (AGH150W-4) Table 6-17 Isolation monitor error messages
Error
Description Steps to be taken
message
1) Check wiring of terminals
No low resistance KE and PE
Connection
connection of the 2) Press TEST button
PE?
terminals KE and PE 3) Switch the supply voltage
off and on
1) Press TEST button
Device 2) Switch the supply voltage
Internal device error
error x off and on
3) Contact BENDER

Figure 6-21 Isolation monitor display, keypad and status LEDs

Table 6-16 Description of the isolation monitor device display


Item Description
INFO button: to query standard information
1
ESC button: return to the menu function
TEST button: to initiate the self test
2 Up arrow button: parameter navigation and parameter value
change
3 LCD display
RESET button: to reset alarm and fault messages
4 Arrow down button: parameter navigation and parameter value
change
MENU button: to activate the menu system
5
Enter button: to confirm a parameter change
6 Alarm LED 1: insulation fault, 1st warning level reached
7 Alarm LED 2: insulation fault, 2nd warning level reached
8 Fault LED: a system fault exists
Navigation of menus
Menu mode is entered by pressing the 'Menu' button. Select the desired
menu item using the 'Up' and 'Down' buttons. The selected menu item is
indicated by a flashing cursor. Press the 'Menu' button to open the
associated sub menu. Use the 'Up' and 'Down' buttons again to select
the desired parameters. Move the cursor to the edit field by pressing the
'Menu' button.
Self test
A self test can be initiated by pressing the TEST button. If an error
message is returned, refer to Table 6-17.

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Basic settings
Please refer to the menu structure diagram in Figure 6-22 below.
Figure 6-22 Isolation monitor menu structure

Table 6-18 details the parameters values set in the Isolation monitor during manufacture of the SPV inverter.
Table 6-18 Isolation monitor parameter setting
Parameter values set in the Isometer during manufacture of
Menu Parameter
the SPV inverter
ISO Advanced AGH 150AK160
ISO Advanced Ce max 500 µF
ISO Setup Alarm1 010 kΩ
ISO Setup Alarm2 010 kΩ
ISO Setup K1 N.O.
ISO Setup K2 N.O.

6.14.2 Ground fault detector interrupter


The ground fault detector and interrupter is a fuse of a low current rating that connects one leg of the DC supply from the PV array to ground. If a
ground fault was to occur on the non-grounded leg of the DC supply from the PV array, the fuse would blow interrupting the ground fault. A micro-
switch on the fuse holder detects when the fuse has blown, which in turn activates the emergency stop circuit in the SPV inverter, shutting the inverter
down and disconnecting it from the AC grid. In addition to this, the indicator above the power analyzer will illuminate and bit 6 of Pr 19.21 on the
System controller module will be set to 1. To reset the GFDI the fuse will need to be replaced. The fuse installed is a Mersen fuse (CT part number C-
4300-0000, Mersen part number J075747). The 4 A current rating is installed as standard.

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6.14.3 Uninterruptable power supply-UPS (ride- DIP switch settings


through / grid support version only) The UPS has twenty configurable DIP switches located on the front of
the device to configure its behavior. The following settings are the basic
Servicing of batteries should be performed or supervised by configuration set during SPV manufacturing.
personnel knowledgeable about batteries and the required Summary of factory settings
precautions. When replacing batteries, replace with the same • Cut in threshold = 22.5 V
WARNING
type and number of batteries or battery packs. • End of charge voltage = 26.6 V
• Charging current = 1 A
• Buffering time = Determined by DIP switches
Do not dispose of batteries in a fire. The batteries may explode. Do not • Buffering time = 325 s (see note below)
open or damage batteries. Released electrolyte is harmful to the skin • Interrupt output for 5 s at the end of the buffering time = NO
and eyes. It may be toxic. A battery can present a risk of electrical shock • UPS is enabled via terminals X2.9 / X2.10 = YES
and high short-circuit current. The following precautions should be • Compatibility mode = NO
observed when working with batteries:
NOTE
• Remove watches, rings, or other metal objects. Although the buffering time is set to 325 s, in the event of a long term
• Use tools with insulated handles. loss of mains the UPS will in fact buffer for the period of time defined in
• Wear rubber gloves and boots. the voltage monitoring relay under voltage trip settings (dAL). This is
• Do not lay tools or metal parts on top of batteries. because the UPS battery enable is controlled by the voltage monitoring
• Disconnect charging source prior to connecting or disconnecting relay via terminals X2.9 / X2.10 (lower DIP 9 = off). If it is required that
battery terminals. the UPS continues to buffer for the entire 325 s (for instance to allow
A 24 Vdc UPS and associated batteries are installed in the ride-through / time for an intelligent modem to send an email reporting the loss of
grid support version to maintain the essential system control voltages mains), lower DIP 9 should be set to ON. This overrides the battery
during a mains fault. The UPS is set up with basic settings during enable via X2.9 / X2.10 and causes the UPS to buffer for the entire 325
manufacture of the SPV inverter that will be suitable for most s.
applications. The following guide is given in case the device needs to be
replaced or reconfigured. For further details please refer to the
manufacturer's (Siemens) documentation.
Figure 6-23 Uninterruptable power supply (Siemens 6EP1 931-
2FC21)

Figure 6-24 Default UPS power supply settings


On / Off
1 +2 V
Cut in voltage (22 V
2 +1 V
base + DIP value)
3 + 0.5 V
4 +1 V
5 +1 V
6 +0.5 V End of charge voltage
7 +0.2 V (26.3 V + DIP value)
8 +0.2 V
9 +0.1 V
10 Charge current-1 A / 2 A
1 Buffering time- set time / max
2 +320 s
3 +160 s
4 +80 s Buffering time (5 s +
5 +40 s DIP value)
6 +20 s
7 +10 s
8 Interrupt output output for 5 s at end of buffering- yes / no
9 Override battery enable via X2.9 / X2.10- yes / no
10 Compatibility mode 6EP1931-2FC0- yes / no

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7 Operation Table 7-1 Power analyzer measurements displayed on the HMI


data transfer module
This chapter details some of the features of the SPV inverter.
HMI data transfer
Description
7.1 Basic operation module Parameter
The power modules are configured as voltage masters or current slaves. 20.21 Power analyzer phase 1 current
Only one voltage master is present at any one time with all other power 20.22 Power analyzer phase 2 current
modules configured as current slaves. The System controller module will 20.23 Power analyzer phase 3 current
configure each power module as either a voltage master or a current
20.24 Power analyzer L1 L2 voltage
slave, and in a system with more than one power module (i.e. SPV600
and larger) it will also rotate which power module is voltage master. The 20.25 Power analyzer L2 L3 voltage
voltage master is the power module which controls the DC bus voltage 20.26 Power analyzer L3 L1 voltage
and then passes a current reference to current slaves. 20.27 Power analyzer AC grid frequency
The SPV inverter turns on when approximately 900 W of power is 20.28 Power analyzer active power
flowing for 5s continuously from the array to the SPV inverter. 20.29 Power analyzer reactive power
The SPV inverter turns off when power has been continuously imported 20.30 Power analyzer apparent power
from the grid rather than exported for a period of 10 seconds. 20.31 Power analyzer power factor
Lifetime of the power modules in the SPV inverter is maximized by 20.32 Power analyzer hour meter
rotating the function of voltage master across all modules rather than
20.33 Power analyzer active energy positive
having a dedicated master module which is always used at low
irradiance levels. See Pr 18.11 in the System controller module. 20.34 Power analyzer reactive energy positive
20.35 Power analyzer apparent energy
7.2 Power analyzer 20.36 Power analyzer active energy negative
The power analyzer provides information about the power, voltage,
20.37 Power analyzer reactive energy negative
current, and power factor at the SPV inverters AC terminals. The display
of the power analyzer is always available for power monitoring. 7.3 Anti-islanding
The parameters from the power analyzer that are used for control The purpose of this feature is to prevent unwanted islanded operation,
purposes are: where part of the power distribution network becomes separated from
1. L1 to L2 AC Voltage the power grid and is unintentionally maintained by the PV inverter.
2. L2 to L3 AC Voltage The design of the inverter is such that it normally operates in
3. L3 to L1 AC Voltage synchronism with the supply and exports all available power from the PV
4. Reactive power array. It does not contain a frequency regulation function which can
5. Active power adapt the exported power to demand; therefore operation with an island
Active and reactive power monitoring from the power analyzer is used is very unlikely. If an island occurs then unless the power demand in the
for feedback control of the active and reactive power (see section island by chance exactly matches the power available from the PV array,
6.12.5 Reactive current/power control on page 73 and section 6.12.6 AC the frequency of the inverter will drift away from its nominal value as the
Voltage management on page 75 for more information). inverter attempts to continue exporting, and the frequency protection
relay disconnects it.
The power analyzer supplies data to the System controller module via
MODBUS communications link. If this communications link is broken the However under unusual conditions of power system resonance, a stable
SPV inverter will not be allowed to start, and will shutdown if the islanded state could occur and this is modeled by the tests required in
communications link is lost while running. Bit 14 of the control module standards VDE 0126-1-1 and IEEE 1547-1. A special arrangement is
status word (Pr 19.21), indicates the state of the power analyzer to needed in order to meet these requirements, and is described in section
System controller module communications link. Bit 14 set to 0 indicates 7.3.1 Remote disconnect command and section 7.3.2 Automatic island
that the communication link is good, and bit 14 set to 1 indicates that the detection and protection .
communications link has failed. 7.3.1 Remote disconnect command
Many of the power monitoring functions of the power analyzer are For PV systems connected at medium or high voltage, it is normal for the
displayed in parameters on the HMI data transfer module. Table 7-1 power grid protection system to generate a disconnection command for
gives a list of the quantities measured by the power analyzer that are local generation if an island condition has occurred A digital input is
displayed on the HMI data transfer module. provided on the SPV inverter to accept this command and disconnect
the inverter system when required. This is provided on terminal -X5:5.
See section 6.12.3 Remote disconnect command on page 73 for more
information.
Disconnection is by two channels within the inverter, a high integrity
electronic disable circuit and an electromechanical contactor. Once this
has occurred, if there is also MV/HV switchgear then it will also
automatically disconnect due to under-voltage.
When the disconnect command is removed, if the supply is present the
inverter operates its normal start-up procedure.
7.3.2 Automatic island detection and protection
This function is enabled from the System controller module Pr 18.41.
The default factory value is 0, i.e. automatic detection off.
Automatic island detection works by continually modulating the reactive
current by a small periodic function, and observing the power line
frequency. Power export is not affected. When the power grid is present,
the frequency is not affected by the reactive current. If a self-sustaining
island has formed because of the existence of a resonant condition, the
operating frequency becomes voltage dependent and changes with a

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change in reactive current. This is detected by the inverter and used to 7.4.1 Effect of a voltage dip on the inverter
trip and disconnect the system. Normally the standard protection relay disconnects the inverter if the
This method of island detection is very sensitive. Its performance is voltage deviation exceeds the permitted range. The low voltage
limited by the need to restrict the modulation of reactive current in order disconnect setting of the relay, i.e. the disconnect voltage level and the
to avoid lighting flicker limits from being exceeded. time, must be adapted to the desired ride-through range. In the following
description, it is assumed that the low voltage disconnect settings have
The function meets the anti-islanding requirements of VDE 0126-1-1 and
been adjusted appropriately. The relay is also typically arranged to
IEEE 1547-1. The level of reactive current modulation is fixed at 5%
prevent a re-connection until a defined time has elapsed. This always
peak. The modulation frequency can be selected from values of 1 Hz, 2
takes precedence over inverter ride-through capability.
Hz and 4 Hz using PV system controller Pr 19.16. The factory set value
is 1 Hz. The table shows the recommended modulation frequency and If the supply voltage falls below the rated minimum continuous supply
maximum detection time for these two standards. voltage, the capability to export power is limited to the product of the
inverter rated current and the actual voltage. Therefore if the voltage falls
Table 7-2 Island detection modulation frequency and relevant
below the nominal range the power export capability of the inverter is
standard
restricted.
Maximum time to detect If the power produced by the PV array at the moment of the voltage dip
Modulation
and exceeds the inverter capability, then the inverter limits the current, and
frequency Recommended
disconnect from an the array voltage moves upwards and away from the optimum power
Pr 19.16 for standard
island point. Usually a new stable operating point is then achieved
Hz s automatically.
1 5 VDE 0126-1-1 With a very low array temperature and high irradiance the natural array
voltage might then exceed the inverter over-voltage trip protection level.
2 2 IEEE 1547-1
If the "1000 V turn-on" option is installed then the surplus power is
4 2 -
absorbed in the chopper-controlled resistor and the inverter remains
After a disconnection caused by a detected island condition, the inverter ready to re-start as soon as grid conditions permit. If this option is not
system reverts to the normal state following a loss of supply. It waits for installed then the inverter will trip and will not re-start until the voltage
the line voltage to return to the specified range before attempting to re- has fallen below the maximum start-up level.
synchronize. If there had been a simple island, the disconnection would Assuming that the array voltage is correctly managed, then a voltage dip
have resulted in a total loss of power, and re synchronization will not of up to 35 % has no other effects on the inverter.
occur until the grid connection is reinstated.
An instantaneous voltage dip exceeding 35 % may result in an over
There is a small possibility that in normal operation a supply frequency current trip of the inverter because of the high transient current. The
variation from other causes might give a false correlation with the anti- current is limited to 2.25 times the inverter rated current, and is
islanding modulation and result in an unwanted disconnection. For this terminated in about 0.7 ms. It therefore has no effect on the fault current
reason it is recommended that the automatic anti-islanding function flowing into a fault close to the inverter terminals. The trip occurs if the
should only be enabled when it is a requirement of the power company voltage dip fall-time is less than about 1 ms, so it applies to a fault
to whose network the inverter is connected. The lowest acceptable sufficiently close to the inverter terminals for the current to rise rapidly.
modulation frequency should be selected, since this causes the least Following the trip, the inverter immediately attempts to resynchronize
voltage modulation and therefore the least flicker. itself and recover the load. Table 7-3 on page 87 shows the sequence of
It is not recommended that automatic island detection be used in events for a system of N modules.
combination with grid fault (low voltage) ride-through. The two
NOTE
requirements are contradictory, and whereas island detection is slow
compared with typical fault episodes, there is a risk that it might cause a If a further voltage step (dip or swell) exceeding 35 % occurs during the
disconnection during a grid fault. recovery sequence, the inverter trips again and the sequence re-starts.
7.4.2 Inverter recovery behavior following a grid fault
7.4 Grid fault (low voltage) ride-through The effect of the under-voltage disconnection relay is not included here,
A variety of regulations exist for distributed generators, inverters and PV see above.
power plant giving requirements for behavior during and after grid faults. (a) Non-ride-through version
The requirements are also evolving as power company experience of
1. The inverter is inactive until the supply voltage recovers to
distributed generation is gained and predictions of the future level of
approximately 80 % of its rated value. This voltage is not defined
distributed generation are established.
exactly, except by the under-voltage disconnection relay setting.
This section describes the behavior of the inverter system under grid Operation is only guaranteed when the voltage is within its normal
fault conditions resulting in large temporary voltage deviations at the working range.
inverter terminals. It covers both the standard and ride-through versions. 2. The inverter control system starts up as a "cold start". The inverter
The standard version of the inverter has no special facilities for DC bus is charged (if required). Various internal test processes are
managing ride-through, but behaves during and after a fault in the same run. Synchronization of the first inverter power module is initiated.
way as for a long term loss of power. It is designed for rapid Time from recovery of power to commencement of export from
synchronization and in many applications this will be adequate for the module 1 is less than 20 s.
requirements. 3. Power export from the first inverter module begins.
4. The remaining inverter modules are synchronized in sequence, and
The ride-through version has additional components which allow it to
each starts to export power as it becomes available from the PV
maintain synchronization to the grid during a fault and deliver voltage
support if required. This includes a UPS which maintains the control array. Time from power export by module (x-1) to export by module x
= 200 ms.
system operation throughout the voltage drop.
NOTE
Synchronization may be delayed if the voltage is still unstable because
of continuing dynamic fault behavior or phase imbalance. The inverter
continuously attempts to re-synchronize unless a severe disturbance
causes over-current trip, in which case it waits for 100 ms before
repeating the attempt.

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(b) Ride-through / grid support version available for grid support.


The purpose of this version is to remain synchronized to the grid during Alternatively the system could be programmed to run more than the
the fault and if required deliver voltage support to the grid during the fault optimum number of modules continuously in order to make additional
(reactive current), so that fault recovery is assisted. The voltage dip (or grid support current available (see Pr 18.42). There would be an obvious
swell) does not cause the inverter to trip. The inverter limits its fault efficiency penalty when the system is configured in this manner.
current contribution to the peak value of 260 % (183 % rms) of the rated
current of the SPV. This current is interrupted by the power 7.5 Minimum system on time
semiconductors and decays within 4 ms. Within 20 ms after the dip has A minimum system on time of 15 minutes is set within the SPV inverter
occurred, the SPV can support the grid by injecting reactive current into software. This is to ensure that the SPV inverter does not enable and
the fault at a level determined by Pr 19.14 up to a maximum of 100% disable many times over a short period of time with small variances in
rated. the irradiance level when close to the minimum power approximately
PV system controller configuration settings. (900 W).
A symmetrical dead band is defined using Pr 19.19. This specifies a If the system has successfully started and remained active for 10 s, then
voltage band either side of the rated AC voltage (Pr 18.17). The AC line it will remain active for a minimum of an additional 14 minutes and 50 s.
voltage is monitored at the power module terminals and an estimate is The user can still choose to disable the SPV inverter within this 15
made of the value at the SPV AC terminals. When the AC line voltage is minute time period by setting the system enable bit to zero (Pr 18.31 =
within the dead band the SPV reactive reference mode is defined by 0).
Pr 19.29 and any of the various control modes can be utilized, (see After this time period has expired the SPV inverter is disabled
Pr 19.29 description for more details). If Pr 18.40 is enabled (=1), and if
automatically if the system imports power continuously for a period of 10
during a fault the AC line voltage moves out of the dead band, the
seconds.
reactive current injection per volt error is defined by Pr 19.14. This
relationship is sometimes referred to as K factor, refer to Pr 19.14 7.6 Minimum system off time
description for an exact definition. For SPV versions installed with a chopper (Pr 19.41 = 1) a minimum
Summary: system off time of 15 minutes is set within the inverter software to allow
time for the chopper resistor to cool. This time period begins when the
High Speed High Speed
Current Control
Low Speed
Current Control
SPV starts i.e. the system controller module enters state 11 (Pr 18.01 =
Closed Loop 11). If a power module trips on over voltage (OV) when in the running
Ride Through Ride Through
Reactive Power
is Active
Control
is Active state, the system will wait for 15 minutes from the moment the OV trip
+100% occurs before restarting. If a power module trips on anything else within
Reactive the first 15 minutes of operation, a 15 minute period starting from when
(Capacitive on Power

Current the voltage master was enabled is used.


Voltage decrease

(Pr 4.08)
Under excited
Import VArs

For SPV versions not installed with a chopper (Pr 19.41 = 0) if a power
Analyzer)

PF -Ve

module trips during the first 15 minutes of operation a 1 minute minimum


system off time is applied to prevent fast repetitive (starting / tripping)
cyclic behavior.

7.7 Power module data collection on the


0
AC Line Voltage HMI data transfer module
(Inductive on Power

Voltage increase

The HMI data transfer module can be used to display status information
Export VArs

Overexcited
Analyzer)

PF +Ve

on any one of the power modules installed in the SPV inverter. Table 7-3
details the power module information that is available on the HMI data
transfer module.
-100%
Reactive To request information on a particular power module set Pr 20.01 in the
Current HMI data transfer module to the power module number. When the
0.1% Rated Symmetrical (Pr 4.08) information is ready, Pr 20.02 on the data transfer module will be set to
Power / VAC Voltage Error
Error Pr 19.14 Dead Band
the module number in Pr 20.01, at which point the parameters listed in
outside of the Table 7-3 will be updated with the relevant information.
Pr 19.19
Dead Band Table 7-3 Power module information available on the HMI data
For balanced faults, the maximum reactive current available for dynamic transfer module
grid support is the sum of the active power module’s current ratings. For HMI data transfer
Description
unbalanced faults (negative phase sequence voltage exceeds dead module Parameter
band), the maximum reactive current available is 40% of the active 20.03 Status word 1 for module x
power module’s rating. The reactive current injection will continue until
20.04 Last alarm code for module x
one of the following occur;
20.05 Highest temperature for module x
• The settings of the voltage relay cause the SPV to be disconnected.
20.06 Reactive current for module x
• The AC line voltage recovers to a level that is inside the dead band.
20.07 Power module state for module x
• The AC line voltage has remained less that 50% of rated AC voltage 20.08 Last power module trip for module x
(Pr 18.17) for greater than 2 s, at which point the system will disconnect
20.09 Status word 2 for module x
to avoid islanded operation (see section 7.3 for more information).

Outside of the dead band, active current is limited to 23 % of rated for


both balanced and unbalanced faults.
NOTE
The available grid support reactive current is limited by the number of
active modules at the time of the fault. For example an SPV1800 with 4
modules active at the time of the fault would have 4 x 300 A or 1200 A

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7.8 Emergency stop relay reset


The SPV inverter will perform an emergency stop if any one of the
following conditions occurs:
• An Emergency stop switch has been activated
• The voltage monitoring relay has detected an out of range condition
• The frequency monitoring relay has detected an out of range
condition
• The ground fault detector and interrupter has detected a fault
After the condition for the emergency stop has been rectified the
emergency stop relay will need to be reset.
Trips caused by the voltage or frequency relays are reset automatically
after the time set in Pr 19.17 ‘AC Voltage Settling Time’ has elapsed.
Trips caused by an emergency stop switch being activated or GFDI must
be reset manually.
This is done by setting Pr 18.39 in the System controller module or HMI
data transfer module to On(1). If no emergency stop condition is active
at the time of powering up the SPV inverter then the emergency stop
relay will also be reset.

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8 Parameters
This chapter details the parameters in the HMI data transfer module, the System controller module and the Power modules.
Figure 8-1 below provides an overview of the control structure on the SPV inverter.
Figure 8-1 SPV inverter control overview

User interface Inverter section


section

HMI Data Transfer System Controller


Module Module Power Power Power
Module 1 Module 2 Module n

PV HMI Data Transfer PV Control Module


SM-Apps Plus SM-Apps Plus
SLOT1 SLOT1
(Node 101) (Node 100)

External User I/O Interface


communications SM-I/O 32
SM-Ethernet SLOT2
SLOT2

PV Power Control PV Power Control PV Power Control


User Program module PV Control I/O Module SM-Apps
Module SM-Apps Module SM-Apps
SM-Apps Plus SM-I/O Plus Plus SLOT1
Plus SLOT1 Plus SLOT1
SLOT3 SLOT3 (Node n)
(Node 1) (Node 2)

The System controller, the HMI data transfer module and all power modules are connected to each other via a CTNet communications network.
There are two main pieces of controller software present in the SPV inverter system, one for each of the two levels of control. The highest level of
control is assigned to the System controller module which is responsible for the overseeing and ultimate sequencing control of the entire SPV inverter.
The System controller module controls functions such as the maximum power point tracking, active power control and reactive current/power control.
The second level of control is implemented on each of the power modules in the system.
The HMI data transfer module is effectively a sub-module of the System controller module providing monitoring functions and control of a limited
number of parameters. The HMI data transfer module can be installed with an external communications interface to provide a hub for communication
between the SPV inverter and an external controller or HMI. The HMI data transfer module also allows for customized local I/O configuration for
customer and power authority requirements or regulations.
The HMI data transfer module, the System control module and all the power modules are installed with identical control software. The CTNet module
address determines the function of the module.

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Table 8-1 Key to parameter table coding


Coding Attribute
Bit 1 bit parameter: ‘On’ or ‘OFF’ on the display
Bi Bipolar parameter
Uni Unipolar parameter
Txt Text: the parameter uses text strings instead of numbers.
SP Spare: not used
Filtered: some parameters which can have rapidly changing values are filtered when displayed on the power module keypad for easy
FI
viewing.
Destination pointer parameter: This parameter can be used to set up the location (i.e. menu/parameter number) where the
DE
destination data is to be routed.
VM Variable maximum: the maximum of this parameter can vary.
DP Decimal place: indicates the number of decimal places used by this parameter.
No default: when defaults are loaded (except when the power module is manufactured or on EEPROM failure) this parameter is not
ND
modified.
Rating dependant: this parameter is likely to have different values and ranges with power modules of different voltage and current
ratings. Parameters with this attribute will not be transferred to the destination drive by a SMARTCARD when the rating of the power
RA
module drive is different from the source power module if the drive voltage ratings are different or the file is a parameter file.
However, the value will be transferred if only the current rating is different and the file is a differences from default type file.
NC Not copied: not transferred to or from SMARTCARD during copying.
NV Not visible: not visible on the keypad.
PT Protected: cannot be used as a destination.
US User save: saved in power module EEPROM when the user initiates a parameter save.
RW Read/write: can be written by the user.
RO Read only: can only be read by the user
Bit default one/unsigned: Bit parameters with this flag set to one have a default of one (all other bit parameters have a default of
BU
zero. Non-bit parameters are unipolar if this flag is one.
Power-down save: parameter automatically saved in drive EEPROM when the under volts (UV) trip occurs. Power-down save
PS
parameters are also saved in the power module when the user initiates a parameter save.

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8.1 HMI data transfer module


The HMI data transfer module software runs on an SM-Applications Plus module hosted by an SP control platform. The purpose of this module is to
provide read only access to all of the monitoring parameters and access to a limited number of read write parameters in the SPV inverter.
8.1.1 Single line parameter descriptions
Parameter Range(Ú) Default(Ö) Type
15.49 PV software version 0 to 32767 RO Uni NC
18.01 System controller module state 0 to 17 RO Uni NC
18.03 Solar array DC voltage 0 to 1200 RO Uni NC
18.04 Power module ok status word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
18.05 Power module available status word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
18.06 Power module running status word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
Maximum power module start attempts
18.07 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
exceeded word
Voltage master module CTNet module
18.08 1 to 14 RO Uni NC
address
18.09 Power module detected word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
18.10 System controller module timeout state 3 to 10 RO Uni NC
18.19 Overriding maximum output power limit 0 to 1000 1000 RW Uni US
Maximum power point tracker minimum
18.24 400 to 800 RO Uni US
DC voltage
Maximum power point tracker initial DC Pr 18.24 to Pr 18.25 on the system
18.26 630 RW Uni US
voltage controller module
18.31 System enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.39 Manual system E-stop reset OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.20 Control alarm word 2 Signed 16bit RO Bi US
19.21 Control alarm word Signed 16bit RO Bi US
AC voltage feedback / Dynamic power
19.23 0 to 32767 / 0 to 1000 340 RW Uni US
factor control stop power threshold
19.30 Reactive reference -1000 to 1000 0 RW Bi US
19.47 SPV inverter temperature units select OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.48 Reset all power module trip logs OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.49 Active power mode enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.50 Load parameter defaults OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
20.01 Power module data collection module 1 to 14 1 RW Uni NC
Current power module data collection
20.02 1 to 14 RO Uni NC
module
20.03 Status word 1 for module x Signed 16bit RO Bi NC
20.04 Last alarm code for module x 0 to 114 RO Uni NC
20.05 Highest temperature for module x -128 to 127 °C RO Bi NC
± 400 for SPV248
20.06 Reactive current for module x RO Bi NC
± 552 for SPV300 and larger
20.07 Power module state for module x 0 to 13 RO Uni NC
20.08 Last power module trip for module x 0 to 232 RO Uni NC
20.09 Status word 2 for module x Signed 16bit RO Bi NC
20.10 Last control module trip 0 to 232 RO Uni NC
System controller module PCB
20.11 -128 to 127 °C RO Bi NC
temperature
20.12 Active current for module x Signed 16bit RO Bi NC
20.13 SPV inverter temperature Signed 16bit RO Bi NC
20.14 Final active power limit 0 to 1000 RO Uni NC
20.15 HMI write pointer -1 to 9122 RW Bi NC
20.16 HMI write value Signed 16bit RW Bi NC
20.17 HMI read pointer 0 to 9122 RW Uni NC
20.18 HMI read value Signed 16bit RO Bi NC US
20.19 HMI data transfer module alarm word Signed 16bit RO Bi NC
20.20 SPV inverter local control enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF(0) RW Bit NC
20.21 Power analyzer phase 1 current Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.22 Power analyzer phase 2 current Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.23 Power analyzer phase 3 current Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.24 Power analyzer L1 L2 voltage Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.25 Power analyzer L2 L3 voltage Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.26 Power analyzer L3 L1 voltage Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.27 Power analyzer AC grid frequency Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.28 Power analyzer active power Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.29 Power analyzer reactive power Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.30 Power analyzer apparent power Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.31 Power analyzer power factor Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.32 Power analyzer hour meter Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.33 Power analyzer active energy positive Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.34 Power analyzer reactive energy positive Signed 32bit RO Bi NC

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Parameter Range(Ú) Default(Ö) Type


20.35 Power analyzer apparent energy Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.36 Power analyzer active energy negative Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
Power analyzer reactive energy
20.37 Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
negative
20.38 SM-I/O 32 input word Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.39 SPV inverter serial number Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.40 Menu 18 condensed bit parameters Signed 32bit RO Bi NC

8.1.2 Parameter descriptions


15.49 PV software version
Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write
This shows the software version of the PV solution software in the HMI data transfer module where V1.13.24 = 11324

18.01 System controller module state


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 17
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the operating state of the System controller module software. This parameter is an exact copy of Pr 18.01 in the System
controller module.

18.03 Solar array DC voltage


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 1200
Update rate 4 ms write
This is the DC voltage measured across the incoming connections from the PV array.

18.04 Power module ok status word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the ok / tripped status of all power modules. This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.04 in the System controller module.

18.05 Power module available status word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the available / unavailable status of all power modules. This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.05 in the System controller
module.

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18.06 Power module running status word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the running / not running status of all power modules. This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.06 in the System controller module.

18.07 Maximum power module start attempts exceeded word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the start attempts exceeded / not exceeded status of all power modules. This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.07 in the System
controller module.

18.08 Voltage master module CTNet module address


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 1 to 14
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.08 in the System controller module.

18.09 Power module detected word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.09 in the System controller module.

18.10 System controller module timeout state


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 3 to 10
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter is a copy of Pr 18.10 in the System controller module.

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18.19 Overriding maximum output power limit


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1000
Default 1000
Update rate Read on reset
This parameter determines the maximum power as a percentage of the total SPV inverter rated power that will be transferred from the PV array to the
electricity grid (irradiance permitting).
Setting this parameter to 100 % (1000) will result in each power module delivering its maximum power to the supply at the rated current value set in
Pr 18.18 in the System controller module.
The minimum of the overriding maximum output power limit (Pr 18.19) and maximum power output limit x (Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 on the System
controller module), is used to set the voltage master current limit, taking into account the total system rating, the current offset and power module
current overhead, such that an active current limit (Pr 4.07 in the power module) appropriate to the number of power modules enabled will be used.
The current slave module current matches the voltage master current thus no individual slave module current limit is applied. An over-riding current
limit of 100 % applies to each current slave module.
For example, in a system with a SPV900 (3 x 300 A power modules), if a 50 % current limit is applied where there is only sufficient irradiation for 40%
of system rated current, and two modules were selected, the current limit of the voltage master is set to 75 % or 225 A. With the selected current slave
this gives a total capability of 450 A for the SPV inverter (225 A per power module), however because at 40 % load the current from the array is only
360 A the power modules will not reach overriding maximum output power limit and hence will not go in to current limit.
If Pr 18.19 is set to OFF (0), the system will shut down, and cannot be re-started until it is >0.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to OFF (0), the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in
the System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to On (1), the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

18.24 Maximum power point tracker minimum DC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 400 to 800
Default 400
Update rate 4 ms Read
This sets the bottom limit for the operating range of the MPP tracker, and the MPP initial DC voltage, Pr 18.26. The internally used absolute bottom
limit is calculated from:
(√2 x Vac) + 30V Where Vac = Pr 18.17.
This parameter can be used to force the MPP bottom limit to a higher value if required.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in the
System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

18.26 Maximum power point tracker initial DC voltage


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range Pr 18.24 to Pr 18.25 on the System controller module
Default 630
Update rate 4 ms Read

If the MPP tracker is disabled, [Pr 18.36 = OFF (0)], or when the MPP tracker is first enabled [Pr 18.36 changes OFF (0) to On (1)], this value sets the
DC bus set-point for the voltage master power module.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in the
System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

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18.31 System enable


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read

Setting this parameter to On(1) will start the SPV inverter.


When starting the SPV inverter the following sequence is followed.
1. Read the measured rms AC voltage and determine if it is within specification.
a) If measured value is not within tolerance of value in Rated AC voltage Pr 18.17, the SPV inverter will wait until it is.
2. Wait until minimum starting power is available.
a) Minimum power is available when the PV array voltage (with load resistance applied) is greater than the rectified AC voltage by a minimum
of 35 V.
3. Determine what power modules are available on the CTNet network by scanning from module 1 to module 14 inclusive.
a) Ensure that each power module is a PV variant of Unidrive SP. If a power module is not a PV variant of Unidrive SP then the power module
will not be used and a trip 40 is generated.
b) Check if the power module can be used as a voltage master module.
4. Configure the voltage master module as required.
5. Configure all current slave modules as required.
6. Enable the chopper (where installed)
a) Wait until array voltage falls to 825 Vdc.
7. Enable power module sequencer
Setting this parameter to Off(0) will stop the SPV inverter.
When stopping the SPV inverter the following sequence is followed:
1. Remove software enable for all power modules
a) Wait until all power modules indicate that they are stopped
2. Disconnect all power contactors
a) Wait until all contactors are opened
3. Change the power module state (Pr 18.01) to 1
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to OFF (0), the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in
the System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to On (1), the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

18.39 Manual system E-stop reset


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms read

On a rising edge, this parameter will cause the E-stop reset source to become set, resetting the E-stop relay, provided Pr 18.38 = On (1) and
Pr 18.37 = On (1). If the E-stop buttons are not pressed on power up [Pr 18.38 = On (1)] then the system will automatically reset the E-stop relay. See
Figure 8-2 for a complete diagram of the reset logic.

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Figure 8-2 Reset logic (HMI module)

Reset on
power up

Pr 18.39
Pr 18.38 E-stop reset

E -stop reset

E -stop reset
Pr 18.37 Pr 18.46

When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to OFF (0), the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in
the System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to On (1), the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

19.20 Control alarm word 2


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 16bit signed
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the alarm status of the System controller module. This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.20 in the System controller module.

19.21 Control alarm word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 16bit signed
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the alarm status of the System controller module. This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.21 in the System controller module.

19.23 AC Voltage Feedback / Dynamic power factor control stop power threshold
Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range 0 to 32767 / 0 to 1000
Default 340
Update rate 4 ms Read

When Pr 19.29 = 3 or 5 and Pr 19.44=0


This parameter is the AC voltage feedback .
The reference and feedback parameters are scaled in Pr 19.24.
If the AC voltage feedback (Pr 19.23) < > the set point (Pr 19.22), reactive power flows according to the relationship:
System rated reactive power (0.1 % units) = (Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23) x Reactive reference (Pr 19.30)
i.e. System rated reactive power = 500 = 50 % of system rated reactive power. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 19.29 = 4
This parameter is the stop threshold for dynamic power factor control based on the output active power level.
The units are 0.1 % of system rated power i.e. 500 = 50.0 %. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.23 in the System controller module.

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When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in the
System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the parame-
ter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

19.30 Reactive reference


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range ±1000
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms Read
This value is used to set the reactive reference. Changing this value may cause additional power modules to be switched on or off.
The units of the reactive reference change depending on the reactive reference mode. See Pr 19.29 on the System controller module for the
description of how Pr 19.30 is affected by each reactive reference mode.
When the reactive current reference is used it is dominant over the active current due to possible contractual obligations to provide reactive power to
the energy authority. This means that the active current limit will be reduced to allow the reactive current to be generated, such that the vector sum of
the active and reactive currents will not exceed the connected modules continuous current rating.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to OFF (0), the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in
the System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to On (1), the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

19.47 SPV inverter temperature units select


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On (1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter selects the temperature units for the temperature that is shown in Pr 20.13.
If Pr 19.47 is set to Off (0) then the temperature units used for Pr 20.23 are °C.
If Pr 19.47 is set to On (1) then the temperature units used for Pr 20.23 are °F.

19.48 Reset all power module trip logs


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On (1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter clears the trip log in all the power modules.
A power module can be prevented from starting if the trip log in the power module contains a HF trip or a Solution Module trip (i.e. SLx.yy trips). This
parameter will clear all trips including HF and Solutions Module trips from the trip logs on all power modules in the SPV inverter. If a power module
has tripped on a HF trip, then this HF trip must be cleared by cycling the power to the SPV inverter (including auxiliary supplies) before Pr 19.48 can
be used to clear the trip log.
This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.48 in the System controller module.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in the
System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

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19.49 Active power mode enable


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On (1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read

When set to a 1 (On), this parameter will enable the active power control mode selected by Pr 19.15. When set to a 0 (OFF) this parameter will
disable the active power control mode selected by Pr 19.15.
This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.49 in the System controller module.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in the
System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System controller module.

19.50 Load parameter defaults


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On (1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
When set to 1 (On), this parameter will load default values in the HMI data transfer module parameters. When the defaults have been applied, this
parameter will be reset to 0 (Off). A parameter save is performed automatically. It is recommended that the HMI parameter defaults are loaded with
the SPV in the idle state, Pr 18.31=0 (Off).

20.01 Power module data collection module


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 14
Default 1
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter value determines the power module from which data is collected from and is placed in Pr 20.03 to Pr 20.09.

20.02 Current power module data collection module


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 1 to 14
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power module collection module shown in Pr 20.01 once all data has been read into Pr 20.03 to Pr 20.09.

20.03 Status word 1 for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter indicates status word 1 of the power module selected in Pr 20.01. This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.02 in the power module.

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20.04 Last alarm code for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 114
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the last alarm code of the power module selected in Pr 20.01. This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.04 in the power module.

20.05 Highest temperature for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -128 to 127 °C
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter shows the highest temperature (maximum of Pr 7.04, Pr 7.05, Pr 7.06 and Pr 7.36) for the power module selected in Pr 20.01.

20.06 Reactive current for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
± 400 A for SPV248
Range
±552 A for SPV300 and larger
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the reactive current of the power module selected in Pr 20.01.This parameter is a copy of Pr 4.17 in the power module.

20.07 Power module state for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 13
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the state of the power module selected in Pr 20.01. This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.05 in the power module.

20.08 Last power module trip for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 232
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the last trip of the power module selected in Pr 20.01. This parameter is a copy of Pr 10.20 in the power module.

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20.09 Status word 2 for module x


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the status word 2 of the power module selected in Pr 20.01. This parameter is a copy of Pr 19.07 in the power module.

20.10 Last control module trip


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 232
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the last trip code of the System controller module. This parameter is a copy of Pr 10.20 in the system controller module.

20.11 System controller module PCB temperature


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -127 °C to 128 °C
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the control pcb temperature of the System controller module. This parameter is a copy of Pr 7.06 in the System controller
module.

20.12 Active Current for module x


Location PV
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Regen Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

This shows the active current (Pr 4.02) in 0.01 A units for the power module selected in Pr 20.01.

20.13 SPV inverter temperature


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter shows the temperature of the SPV inverter auxiliary zone.
The temperature is shown in 0.1 °C or 0.1 °F units. Pr 19.47 selects the units of temperature for this parameter as follows:
Pr 19.47 Units of Pr 20.13
0 0.1 °C
1 0.1 °F
For example, 25 °C would be represented as 250 in Pr 20.13.

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20.14 Final active power limit


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 1000
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the final active power limit in 0.1 % of system rated power units. This is the lowest of:
• The four user power limits (System Controller Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23) if enabled
• The algorithm which limits active power in order to limit the DC current value set in the System Controller Pr 19.18
• The algorithm which reduces active power in order to give priority to reactive power if necessary
• The two frequency regulation modes selected with System Controller Pr 19.15 if enabled
• The active power ramp on start feature enabled with Pr 19.46, if active
• The overriding maximum output power limit, Pr 18.19

20.15 HMI write pointer


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range -1 to 9122
Update rate 4 ms Read
HMI parameter write pointer in MMPP format where 1811 = Pr 18.11. Setting this value to -1 will stop writing to the system control module, and
Pr 20.19 bit 4 will become set when writing has stopped at the system control module, showing that it is safe to alter the write value. The order when
writing is to first ensure that writing is disabled, then set the value to be written, then set the parameter pointer. Once the user has verified that the
value has been written using the read function, the write pointer must be set to -1 to stop writing. This process repeats for each different parameter
write. If the write pointer is an invalid location Pr 20.19 bit 7 will become set.
This parameter must not be set manually via the keypad, only via software or comms. This is because as the user scrolls through to reach the
final parameter pointer value, the incidental values reached on the way will be written to.

20.16 HMI write value


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
HMI parameter write value. The range of this parameter is limited at the PV Control module to be within the range of the parameter.

20.17 HMI read pointer


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 9122
Update rate 4 ms Read
HMI parameter read pointer in MMPP format where 1811 = Pr 18.11. When this value is changed Pr 20.19 bit 6 will become reset, and will only
become set again when the data within Pr 20.18 matches the data for the selected parameter pointer. If the read pointer is an invalid location Pr 20.19
bit 8 will become set.

20.18 HMI read value


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

HMI parameter read value. The range of the returned value is limited at the PV control module to be within the range of Pr 20.18 (limited to a signed
16bit range). In the event of an invalid read pointer i.e. Pr 20.19 bit 8 = 1, Pr 20.18 will be set to 0.

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20.19 HMI data transfer module alarm word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 16bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This shows the HMI Xfer alarm word, where each discrete bit represents a different alarm.
Bit Description
0 When set, there has been an individual parameter read alarm. This will stay high for a minimum period of 1 s to allow the user to see the alarm.
1 When set, there has been a general parameter read alarm. This will stay high for a minimum period of 1 s to allow the user to see the alarm.
When set, there has been an individual parameter write alarm. This will stay high for a minimum period of 1 s to allow the user to see the
2
alarm.
3 When set, there has been a general parameter write alarm. This will stay high for a minimum period of 1 s to allow the user to see the alarm.
When set, this indicates that parameter writing at the PV Control has stopped so it is ok to change the value to write, and then to change the
write pointer to a new value. It is important to make sure that writing has been disabled before altering the value to make sure that the last
4
parameter written to is left with the last value for the written parameter Pr 20.16 remains set in the parameter pointed to by Pr 20.15. To stop
writing the user must set the parameter pointer directly to -1.
5 When set, this indicates that the comms has failed to be serviced within 1 s. When reset messages are being sent at a rate of <1 s.
This indicates when a read value (Pr 20.18) does not match the pointer value (Pr 20.17). When the user changes the read pointer bit 6
6 becomes set, and only becomes reset again when the value parameter contains the value of the pointer. This prevents read skew when
automating multiple parameter reads.
7 The current write pointer is an invalid location.
8 The current read pointer is an invalid location.

20.20 SPV inverter local control enable


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range OFF(0) or On(1)
Default OFF(0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter determines whether control of the SPV inverter comes from the HMI data transfer module or the System controller module.
Pr 20.20 = 0
HMI data transfer module control is selected (remote control)
In this condition, the following parameters in the System controller module are overwritten by the parameters of the same number in the HMI data
transfer module.
Pr 18.19
Pr 18.24
Pr 18.26
Pr 18.31
Pr 18.39
Pr 19.23
Pr 19.30
Pr 19.48
Pr 19.49
The communications write alarm bits 2 and 3 in Pr 20.19 are forced to a zero in this mode.

Pr 20.20 = 1
System controller module control is selected (local control)
In this condition the parameters in the System controller module listed above are not overwritten hence the System controller module has overall
control of the SPV inverter.

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20.21 Power analyzer phase 1 current


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer phase 1 current in Amps.

20.22 Power analyzer phase 2 current


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer phase 2 current in Amps.

20.23 Power analyzer phase 3 current


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer phase 3 current in Amps.

20.24 Power analyzer L1 L2 voltage


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer L1 L2 voltage in Volts.

20.25 Power analyzer L2 L3 voltage


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer L2 L3 voltage in Volts.

20.26 Power analyzer L3 L1 voltage


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter indicates the power analyzer L3 L1 voltage in Volts.

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20.27 Power analyzer AC grid frequency


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer AC grid frequency in 0.1 Hz units i.e. a AC grid frequency of 50 Hz is displayed as 500.

20.28 Power analyzer active power


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer three phase active power in kW.
Figure 8-3 Power analyzer three phase power

  Apparent 
power 
(kVA)    
Pr 20.30 
Active 
power 
(kW) 
Pr 20.28  Ø

Reactive 
power 
(kVAr) 
Pr 20.29 

2 2 2
Active power + Reactive power = Apparent power
Cos ø = Power factor (Pr 20.31)

20.29 Power analyzer reactive power


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer three phase reactive power in kVAr.

20.30 Power analyzer apparent power


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter indicates the power analyzer three phase apparent power in kVA.

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20.31 Power analyzer power factor


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer three phase power factor in 0.01 units, i.e. a power factor of 0.99 is displayed as 99.

20.32 Power analyzer hour meter


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer hour meter in 1 hour units.

20.33 Power analyzer active energy positive


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer positive active energy in kWh units.

20.34 Power analyzer reactive energy positive


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer positive reactive energy in kVArh units.

20.35 Power analyzer apparent energy


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer apparent energy in kVAh units.

20.36 Power analyzer active energy negative


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer negative active energy in kWh units.

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20.37 Power analyzer reactive energy negative


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the power analyzer negative reactive energy in kVArh units.

20.38 SM-I/O 32 input word


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the state of the inputs on terminal -X6 via the SM-I/O 32 Solutions Module installed in slot 2 of the System controller module.
This parameter is a copy of Pr 20.38 in the System controller module.

20.39 SPV inverter serial number


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter is reserved for the SPV inverter serial number. This value is entered and saved by the Drive Center commissioning the system.

20.40 Menu 18 condensed bit parameters


Location HMI data transfer module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the state of the menu 18 bit parameters in the System controller module in a condensed word format. This parameter is a
copy of Pr 20.40 in the System controller module.

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8.2 System controller module


The System controller module software runs on an SM-Applications Plus module that is hosted on an SP-control platform.
8.2.1 Single line parameter descriptions
Parameter Range(Ú) Default(Ö) Type
15.49 PV software version 0 to 32767 RO Uni NC
18.01 System controller module state 0 to 17 RO Uni NC PS
18.02 RMS AC voltage 0 to 700 RO Uni NC
18.03 Solar array DC voltage 0 to 1200 RO Uni NC
18.04 Power module ok status word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
18.05 Power module available status word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
18.06 Power module running status word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
Maximum power module start attempts
18.07 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
exceeded word
Voltage master module CTNet module
18.08 1 to 14 RO Uni NC
address
18.09 Power module detected word 0 to 16383 RO Uni NC
18.10 System controller module timeout state 3 to 10 RO Uni NC
18.11 Module cycling interval 0 to 365 1 RW Uni US
18.12 Master power module mask 1 to 16383 1 RW Uni US
18.13 Power modules required for rated power 1 to 11 1 RW Uni NC US
Minimum time before bringing a module
18.14 1 to 32767 1 RW Uni US
offline
Power hysteresis before taking a module
18.15 1 to 50 10 RW Uni US
offline
18.16 Maximum attempts to start a module 0 to 10 10 RW Uni US
18.17 Rated AC voltage 260 to 690 340 RW Uni US
248 for SPV248
18.18 Power module rated current 0 to 300 RW Uni US
300 for SPV300 and larger
18.19 Overriding maximum output power limit 0 to 1000 1000 RW Uni US
18.20 Maximum output power limit 1 0 to 100 100 RW Uni US
18.21 Maximum output power limit 2 0 to 100 100 RW Uni US
18.22 Maximum output power limit 3 0 to 100 100 RW Uni US
18.23 Maximum output power limit 4 0 to 100 100 RW Uni US
Maximum power point tracker minimum DC
18.24 400 to 800 400 RW Uni US
voltage
Maximum power point tracker maximum DC
18.25 400 to 800 795 RW Uni US
voltage
Maximum power point tracker initial DC
18.26 Pr 18.24 to Pr 18.25 630 RW Uni US
voltage
Maximum power point tracker voltage step
18.27 1 to 20 5 RW Uni US
magnitude
Maximum power point tracker proportional
18.28 1000 to 32767 8000 RW Uni US
gain
Minimum CTNet modules working before a
18.29 1 to 14 1 RW Uni US
trip
18.30 DC voltage analog input level 0 to 32767 RO Uni
18.31 System enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.32 Output power limit 1 enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.33 Output power limit 2 enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.34 Output power limit 3 enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.35 Output power limit 4 enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.36 Maximum power point tracker enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.37 Voltage and frequency relay is ok OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit
18.38 System E-stop button inactive OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
18.39 Manual system E-stop reset OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.40 AC low voltage ride-through select OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.41 Anti-island select OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.42 Force rated modules on OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
18.43 DC voltage transient suppression ok OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US

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Parameter Range(Ú) Default(Ö) Type


18.44 PV array isolation monitor relay fault OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
18.45 Chopper resistor temperature ok OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
18.46 E-stop reset OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
18.47 Chopper enable OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
18.48 Chopper ok OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit NC US
18.49 Close minimum power resistor contactor OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
18.50 Minimum power resistor contactor closed OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
19.11 Active power control set-up parameter 1 3000 to 10000 5020 RW Uni US
19.12 Active power control set-up parameter 2 3000 to 10000 5005 RW Uni US
19.13 Active power control set-up parameter 3 0 to 1000 400 RW Uni US
Dynamic grid support reactive current per
19.14 0 to 10000 59 RW Uni US
volt error
19.15 Active power control mode select 0 to 2 0 RW Uni US
19.16 Anti-island test frequency 1Hz (0), 2Hz (1) or 4Hz (2) 1Hz (0) RW Uni US
19.17 AC voltage settling time 0 to 32767 0 RW Uni US
300 for SPV248
19.18 DC current limit 1 to 500 RW Uni US
350 for SPV300 and larger
19.19 Mains loss ride through dead band voltage 0 to Pr 18.17 34 RW Uni US
19.20 Control alarm word 2 Signed 16bit RO Bi US
19.21 Control alarm word Signed 16bit RO Bi US
AC voltage reference set point / Dynamic
19.22 0 to 32767 / 0 to 1000 340 RW Uni US
power factor control start power threshold
AC voltage feedback / Dynamic power
19.23 0 to 32767 / 0 to 1000 340 RW Uni US
factor control stop power threshold
19.24 AC voltage scaling factor 1 to 32767 1 RW Uni US
Positive reactive power limit / Dynamic
0 to 1000 / 1000 to 800 /
19.25 power factor control start power factor 300 RW Uni US
0 to 32767
threshold / Voltage error dead band
Negative reactive power limit / Dynamic
-1000 to 0 / -1000 to -800 /
19.26 power factor control stop power factor -300 RW Bi US
0 to 1000
threshold / symmetrical reactive power limit
19.27 Reactive P gain 0 to 32767 10 RW Uni US
19.28 Reactive P gain clamp 0 to 1000 10 RW Uni US
19.29 Reactive reference mode 0 to 5 0 RW Uni US
19.30 Reactive reference -1000 to 1000 0 RW Bi US
19.38 Closed loop reactive limit enable OFF (0) or On (1) On (1) RW Bit US
19.39 End of day active power shutdown disable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
Closed loop linear reactive power resolution
19.40 OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
select
19.41 Chopper installed OFF (0) or On (1) On (1) RW Bit US
GFDI (ground fault detector and interrupter)
19.42 OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
select
19.43 User E-stop trigger relay active OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
19.44 Reactive voltage feedback source select OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.45 Disable reactive power feed forward OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.46 Active power ramp on start enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.48 Reset all power module trip logs OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.49 Active power mode enable OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
19.50 Load parameter default settings OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
20.10 AC voltage settling time count 0 to Pr 19.17 RO Uni NC
20.11 System shutdown word Signed 32bit RO Bi NC US
20.12 System DC section temperature Signed 32bit RO Bi NC US
20.13 System auxiliary section temperature Signed 32bit RO Bi NC US
20.14 Final active power limit 0 to 1000 RO Uni NC US
20.15 HMI write pointer -1 to 9122 RO Bi NC
20.16 HMI write value Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.21 HMI read pointer and integrity check Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
HMI read value, integrity check and comms
20.22 Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
status word

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Parameter Range(Ú) Default(Ö) Type


20.38 SM-I/O 32 input word Signed 32bit RO Bi NC
20.40 Menu 18 condensed bit parameters Signed 32bit RO Bi NC

8.2.2 Parameter descriptions


15.49 PV software version
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write
This shows the software version of the PV solution software in the System controller module where V1.13.24 = 11324.

18.01 System controller module state


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range 0 to 17
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the state of the System controller module. The operating states are as follows:

State Description
This state performs an initial CTNet network discovery, to determine how many power modules there are in the system. If no
0 power module modules are detected the System controller module will trip “tr42”, and will continue to perform the initial network
discovery until at least one power module is found.
This is the idle state. The control software will wait in this state after the power nodes have been discovered in State 0. The system
will only start if:
• A system enable is seen (Pr 18.31 = 1 or On)
• If the system controller is ok
• If the chopper resistor temperature is ok
• If none of the power limits are active and set to 0 (Pr 18.19 to Pr 18.23)
1 • If the power analyzer comms are ok
• If the AC mains settling time is not counting down (Pr 19.20.1 = 0) or Pr 20.10 is counting up. The AC mains settling time
counter is activated when the system is powered up for the first time, if a GFDI is installed and it has detected a ground fault,
if the voltage or frequency relay has tripped, if the voltage and frequency relay supply MCB has tripped, if the E-stop button is
pressed, or if the E-stop relay is reset.
• If the DC voltage measured from the array is <=1000 V, and if the chopper resistor protection timer is not active (Pr 19.20 bit 5
is reset).
If AC low voltage ride through is not selected, Pr 18.40 = OFF (0), the system will wait here until >80 % and <120 % of system
rated AC voltage is reached before attempting to start again. If AC low voltage ride through is selected, Pr 18.40 = On (1), the
2 system will wait here until >20 % and <120 % of system rated AC voltage is reached before attempting to start again.
When the AC voltage is out of tolerance in this state bit 0 of Pr 19.21 will be set, and when the AC voltage is back in tolerance bit
0 of Pr 19.21 will be set to OFF (0).
The minimum power test contactor is closed.
3 If the minimum power test contactor fails to close, the System controller module will trip “tr63”. The feedback for the minimum
power test contactor is shown in Pr 18.50 on the System controller module.
The minimum power test is performed.
The System controller will remain in this state until approximately 900 W of power is present continuously over a period of 5
seconds. The user can exit this state by setting the user enable bit to zero [Pr 18.31 = OFF (0)].
4
The minimum power of 900 W flows when the voltage across the minimum power detection resistor equals ( Pr 18.19 x √2 ) + 35
V. Pr 18.19 is set to the Rated AC voltage, i.e. 400 V x √2 = 565 V, 565 V + 35 V = 600 Vdc.
With a voltage of 400 Vac, the minimum power threshold is achieved when the DC voltage reaches 600 Vdc.
The minimum power test contactor is open.
5 If the minimum power test contactor fails to open the System controller module will trip “tr64”. The feedback for the minimum
power test contactor is shown in Pr 18.50 in the System controller module.
This state performs the system enable CTNet network discovery. This test is performed every time the system starts to ensure the
6 latest information is available on the modules present in the system. In the event that the module that was due to become the
voltage master is not available for duty, another module will be selected and saved as the next voltage master module.
7 This state de-selects the voltage master, turning it into a current slave and then selects the next voltage master module.
8 This state waits until all detected power modules become ok after the change from master to slave.

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State Description
The voltage master module is selected in this state if the following conditions are met:
• The module has not exceeded the maximum number of starts (Pr 18.16)
• The module is physically capable of being selected as a voltage master (Pr 18.12)
• The selected module is available for work (Pr 18.05).
9
If any of the above conditions are not met, the next module in sequence will be selected and tested.
Any available slaves will be pre-charged and the AC contactor is closed. This is to allow fast turn on of the whole system in the
event that the system is switched on in the middle of the day, or if the AC supply fails with high irradiation levels, when there is a
large amount of power to absorb by the system.
In this state the selected voltage master module is engaged. If the voltage master module does not engage, the system will time
out, and the process will start again using the next voltage master module in sequence, starting from state 1. The system looks for
bit 2 of the selected modules status word to become set (Pr 19.02 on the selected power module).
Up to 3 additional power modules will be pre-charged in this state if Pr 18.13 > 1, and will become synchronised but with the DC
main contactor opened such that they may be started very rapidly in state 11 if required. This is done to rapidly unload the chopper
10
resistor in situations with a high open circuit voltage and high irradiance.
The chopper is enabled in this state, to bring down the array open circuit voltage to 825 Vdc, so that the voltage master module
can be started. If the voltage master module fails to bring the voltage down in time, the system will time out and the power module
will trip on "tr61". If the array voltage is seen to be above 825 Vdc, and if the chopper healthy status bit is reset (Pr 18.48 = 0 or
OFF) the system controller will trip "tr62".
This is the main running state in which the following operations are performed:
• The voltage master module load current is monitored to detect when additional current slaves are required. The power
thresholds for connecting additional current slave modules are fixed. Pr 18.15 on the System controller module sets the power
thresholds at which the current slave power modules are disconnected. After 10 seconds the pre-charged slaves will be
disconnected if not in use to reduce power losses.
• The voltage master module ok status (Pr 18.04) is confirmed as being a 1 (On). If the status is tripped 0 or OFF) another
module is selected.
• The current slave module(s) ok status (Pr 18.04) is confirmed as being a 1 (On). If the status is tripped (0 or OFF) another
module is selected.
• The chopper ok status ( Pr 18.48) ) is confirmed as being a 1 (On). If the status is tripped (0 or OFF) and the array voltage is
11
>825 Vdc, the system is stopped, and the System controller module is tripped on “tr62”.
• If the system enable bit (Pr 18.31 on the System controller module) is set to a 0 or OFF the system will be stopped.
• If the system begins to draw power from the AC line power supply, and only the voltage master is enabled, the end of the day
is detected, and the system will be stopped.
• If the voltage master module is the only module connected and the system draws power continuously from the AC grid for a
period of 10 seconds the system is shut down. Disconnection of the current slave modules is determined by the hysteresis set
in Pr 18.15 and the time set in Pr 18.14 on the System controller module.
• If the percentage load threshold (see Pr 18.15 for more details on the threshold level) is exceeded during the first 10 seconds
of operation then the number of slave modules that are available for work (not exceeding Pr 18.13) will be started very quickly
(approx 200 ms/ module) to absorb the array energy.
When the system is running (state 11) and the system is requested to stop [disabled by setting Pr 18.31 = 0 (OFF)], this state
12
disables the current slave modules in the system. The slave modules must be disabled first to prevent an over voltage condition.
13 This state stops the master power module if it has not been tripped.
This state determines if the amount of time that system has been running for in total, is long enough that it is likely that an entire
day has elapsed (15 minutes). If it has been running for the minimum time of 15 minutes the system off delay in state 15 will be 15
minutes is applied to allow the irradiation levels to drop completely at the end of the day avoiding spurious re-starts.
If the voltage master has failed during the first 15 minutes of operation, a 15 minute system off delay is introduced to allow the
14
chopper resistor time to cool down (Pr 19.41 = 1 or On), or where a chopper is not installed (Pr 19.41 = 0 or OFF) it is 1 minute .
If the voltage master has failed and an OV trip has been detected in any power module, a 15 minute delay is used to allow the
chopper resistor time to cool down. If the system has a trip during starting the master, but before the chopper has been used a
minimal delay of 500 ms is used, allowing the system to re-start quickly using a different voltage master module.
15 This state applies the delay chosen in state 14.
This state determines if the power module cycling interval, (Pr 18.11), has been reached. If it has, the master module will be
moved on to the next available master module. It also handles indexing the master module in the event of a voltage master power
16
module trip while running. After the next voltage master module is selected, the system will return to Idle state 1 if the System
controller module is ok, if not the system will move to the error state.
This is the error state, in which any power modules that are still on will be turned off, and the system will wait here if a System
17 controller module trip has happened, until the system enable bit becomes not set, [Pr 18.31 = OFF (0)], which in turn resets the
system.

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18.02 RMS AC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 700
Update rate 4 ms write

This is the RMS voltage of the AC connected to the SPV inverter.


The source for this parameter is defined by the setting of Pr 18.40 in the System controller module.
If Pr 18.40 = 0 the source is the power analyzer.
If Pr 18.40 = 1 the source is a high speed analog device (value also displayed in Pr 19.19 of the System controller module).

18.03 Solar array DC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1200
Update rate 4 ms write

This is the DC voltage measured across the incoming connections from the solar field, read from the DC voltage analog input level parameter,
Pr 18.30, on the System controller module.

18.04 Power module ok status word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This bit-field parameter indicates the ok state of each of the installed power modules. Bit zero, the least significant bit, relates to the power module at
CTNet module address 1 and bit 13 relates to the power module at CTNet module address 14 i.e. a value of 11101 indicates modules 1, 3, 4 and 5
status is ok, module 2 is tripped.

18.05 Power module available status word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This bit-field parameter indicates the available state of each of the installed power modules. Bit zero, the least significant bit, relates to the power
module at CTNet module address 1 and bit 13 relates to the power module at CTNet module address 14 i.e. a value of 11101 indicates modules 1,3,4
and 5 status is available, module 2 is unavailable.

18.06 Power module running status word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This bit-field parameter indicates the running state of each of the installed power modules. Bit zero, the least significant bit, relates to the power
module at CTNet module address 1 and bit 13 relates to the power module at CTNet module address 14 i.e. a value of 11101 indicates modules 1,3,4
and 5 status is running, module 2 is not running.

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18.07 Maximum power module start attempts exceeded word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write

This bit-field parameter indicates whether a particular power module has exceeded the maximum number of attempts to run, and is no longer
considered available for use by the System controller module. Bit zero, the least significant bit, relates to the power module at CTNet module address
1 and bit 13 relates to the power module at CTNet module address 14. This is reset, when the system enable bit is set to 0, [Pr 18.31 = OFF (0)] i.e.
a value of 00010 indicates modules 1,3,4 and 5 status is number of start attempts has not been exceeded, module 2 status is number of start
attempts has been exceeded.

18.08 Voltage master module CTNet module address


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 14
Update rate 4 ms write
When the system is successfully enabled, [Pr 18.31 = On (1), and Pr 18.01 = 12)], Pr 18.08 shows the CTNet module address of the power module
currently acting as the voltage controller. When the system is disabled [Pr 18.31 = OFF (0)], Pr 18.08 shows the CTNet module address of the power
module that will be started if available when the system is next enabled.

18.09 Power module detected word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 16383
Update rate 4 ms write
This bit-field parameter indicates whether a particular power module has been detected when the CTNet network discovery was last run. It may be
used as a commissioning aid to tell whether the CTNet network has been wired / configured correctly. Bit zero, the least significant bit, relates to the
power module at CTNet module address 1 and bit 13 relates to the power module at CTNet module address 14 i.e. a value of 11101 indicates
modules 1,3,4 and 5 status is detected, module 2 status is not detected.

18.10 System controller module timeout state


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 3 to 10
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the state in which the System controller module last timed out. It may be used as a commissioning aid to determine which
condition has not been met when starting the system. When the system enable bit is reset [Pr 18.31 = OFF (0)], this parameter is reset to 0 (OFF).
Please refer to the System controller module state in Pr 18.01 for further information on each state.

18.11 Module cycling interval


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 365
Default 1
Update rate 4 ms read
In order to provide equal use across all of the power modules in a multi-module SPV inverter (i.e. SPV600 and larger) it is possible to enable power
module cycling.
If this parameter is set to zero, power module cycling is disabled and the power module with the CTNet module address that was last successfully
started as the voltage controller (master module) for the system, will continue to be used as the voltage master. If a voltage master trips in this
configuration, the voltage master module will move to the next available master module to keep the system running. If module cycling is required to be
used, ensure that the Master power module mask parameter Pr 18.12 is correctly set.

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During normal operation, there will be a period of time when the SPV inverter will not be regenerating power to the electricity grid, i.e. at night where
the power available from the solar field reduces to such a low value. The System controller module detects this low power state and assumes that this
is the end of the day and increments the internal days counter. If the days counter is equal to the Module Cycling Interval set in this parameter (and
the interval value is greater than zero), the system controller will dynamically reconfigure the SPV inverter system so that when it restarts the next day
a different module is used first. As modules are then brought online in order of their CTNet module address (looping at each end of the range) all
modules in the system will be used for a similar amount of time over the lifetime of the system.
Example
An SPV inverter with five modules using CTNet module numbers one to five and a module cycling interval of one day will use the modules in the order
illustrated below (the numbers in the boxes are the CTNet module number of the module).
Increasing available power

Day 1 1 2 3 4 5

Day 2 2 3 4 5 1

Day 3 3 4 5 1 2

Master/Slave module

If a system has more than eight power modules the module cycling scheme is different.
The maximum number of unit loads on the CTsync network is 32. Each transmitter is 2 unit loads and each receiver is two unit loads. Each module
configured as a voltage master or a current slave is 4 unit loads. Each module configured as a current slave only is 2 unit loads.
For systems with greater than eight modules the number of slave only modules required is given by:
Number of slave only modules = ((Total modules × 4) – 32) / 2
Typical combinations are given in the table below.
Number of power Number of master/slave Number of slave only
modules power modules power modules
≤8 8 0
9 7 2
10 6 4
11 5 6
12* 4 8
*Eleven power modules is the maximum number of modules which can run at any point in time. In a twelve module system, the additional module is
for redundancy purposes. SPV2700 consisting of nine modules is the largest standard system described in this manual.
It is recommended that for systems where there are slave only power modules that the slave only modules be interleaved with the master/slave
modules to ensure that the modules are aged evenly. This is illustrated in the diagram below (the numbers in the boxes are the CTNet module
number of the module).
If the SPV inverter is designed to include one or more redundant power modules then this system cycles through all of the available modules up to the
maximum number modules defined by the parameter Pr 18.12. This means that all modules are aged evenly over time but there is always at least
one module not being used that can be called upon in the event of a module not being operational.

Increasing available power

Day 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Day 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2

Day 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4

Master/Slave module Slave only module

The status of the power module cycle is saved to the SMARTCARD in data locations 499 (Voltage master module) and 498 (days operation counter),
which must be reserved for the PV software. On power up the last saved voltage master module number and days service counter will be restored
from the SMARTCARD. In the event that the data location has been deleted, module 1 will be used as the voltage master. If the SMARTCARD is not
installed bit 4 of the control module alarm word will be set (Pr 19.21.4 = 1), and upon power up module 1 will be selected as the first voltage master
module (provided it is ok and available for work).

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18.12 Master power module mask


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 16383
Default 1
Update rate Read on reset

This parameter is setup to tell the system controller which of the installed modules can be used as the voltage master module. The parameter value is
a bit field with each bit of the value representing an installed power module. Bit 0, the least significant bit, is used for the power module with CTNet
module address 1, bit 1 relates the CTNet module 2 and so on.
For example, a system with ten power modules (of which six modules can be selected as a master or a slave) is to be configured as in the example
given above for Pr 18.11. The Master power module mask would be as follows: -

Bit number 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Decimal equivalent 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Mask 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
Value entered into Pr 18.12 = 1 + 2 + 8 + 32 + 64 + 256 = 363
The system controller will use this mask to determine the next module to be used as the voltage master for the system when the Module cycling
interval in Pr 18.11 is non-zero.
Table 8-2 Voltage master module selection

Pr 18.12
Number of modules in system Voltage master and current slave module numbers Dedicated slave modules
value
1 1
2 3
3 7
4 15
All N/A
5 31
6 63
7 127
8 255
9 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 5,9 239
10 1,2,4,6,7,9 3,5,8,10 363
11 1,4,6,9,11 2,3,5,7,8,10 1321
12 1,4,7,10 2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12 585
13 1,5,9 2,3,4,6,7,8,10,11,12,13 273
14 1,8 2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,13,14 129

NOTE
The module order is left to right where module 1 is the module at the far left, and the highest module number is to the far right.

18.13 Power modules required for rated power


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range 1 to 11
Default 1
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter defines how many of the available power modules are required when running at the rated power of the system and sets the maximum
number of modules that will be active at any one time. This allows for additional power modules to be added to the SPV inverter system for
redundancy, e.g. if a system requires 4 power modules to reach the rated power, but 6 power modules are installed, Pr 18.13 will be set to 4, so that
only 4 modules will be used at a time but the remaining modules will be automatically selected in the event of a fault. The redundant modules are
included in the module cycling scheme to even out the use of all of the power modules in the SPV inverter.

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18.14 Minimum time before bringing a module offline


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 32767
Default 1
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter specifies the amount of time in seconds that must pass when the current has fallen below the power hysteresis set in Pr 18.15, before
taking a power module offline. It may be increased above 1 in situations where it is desirable to improve the life time of the power contactors in the
system.

18.15 Power hysteresis before taking a module offline


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 50
Default 10
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter sets the switch off hysteresis, used when reducing the number of active power modules, when two or more modules are active. It is
expressed as a percentage below the efficiency switching threshold for the current number of active power modules -1, e.g. if two modules are active,
and with the hysteresis set to 5 % below the efficiency switching percentage of a single module, which is 70 %, giving a module deselect hysteresis of
65 % of a single modules current rating.
When the SPV inverter is running, the table below indicates the maximum percentage current that the currently running power modules will deliver
before the next additional power module is brought online.
Number of power modules Efficiency switching percentage
1 70 %
2 61 %
3 58 %
4 57 %
5 57 %
6 56 %
7 55 %
8 55 %
9 54 %
10 54 %
11 54 %

For example if only one module is running, the efficiency switching percentage current is 70 % then as soon as the available current rises above this
value the next module will be brought online. This will then reduce the power per module to 35 % each.
Once all modules are connected and running the system power will be allowed to increase above the value set here until 100 % of the total SPV
inverter rating is reached. The efficiency switching threshold shown in the table must be exceeded for 1 s, before other modules will be applied. The
hysteresis threshold set by Pr 18.15 must be exceeded for at least Pr 18.14 seconds to allow the next inverter to be brought off line. Having a
minimum continuous threshold time prevents momentary changes in irradiation from bringing drives on or off line. These thresholds are based on the
total current (Pr 4.01).

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18.16 Maximum attempts to start a module


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 10
Default 10
Update rate 4 ms read
If the value of this parameter = 0 then no limit on the number of retries will be applied.
The power module sequencing system described in Pr 18.11 will attempt to bring online the power modules in the order described. If a module fails to
start due to a fault on the module or one of its associated power or control devices, the sequencer will attempt to start the next module in the
sequence. The module that failed to start will then not be used until all other available modules are running. This parameter defines the maximum
number of times that the sequencer will attempt to start a module before marking that module as faulty and no longer using it. If redundant modules
are installed to the system then the system will still be able to transfer its rated power providing the number of failed modules is less than or equal to
the number of redundant modules.
The number of start attempts made for each module will be reset at each system enable or for an individual module should the module be
successfully started and then stopped before the maximum number of attempts is reached.

18.17 Rated AC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 260 to 690
Default 340
Update rate 4 ms read
The user must enter the rated AC supply voltage at the AC terminals of the power modules in this parameter.

18.18 Power module rated current


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 300
248 for SPV248
Default
300 for SPV 300 and larger
Update rate 4 ms read

This parameter defines the rated current for all of the power modules in the system. Setting this parameter directly affects the maximum output power
available for the system.
This value is transferred to Pr 5.07 in all power modules in the system with a 15 % headroom added. i.e. for a 300 A rated current, Pr 5.07 is set to
345 A. The overall system power is restricted back to 300 A at the power module terminals using the active current limit (Pr 4.07). The over-riding
maximum output power limit (Pr 18.19) and maximum power output limit (Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23) set the power limit via Pr 4.07.
Where the SPV inverter must be de-rated due to ambient temperatures >45 °C or altitudes >1000 m, the de-rating is implemented by reducing
Pr 18.18.

18.19 Overriding maximum output power limit


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1000
Default 1000
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter determines the maximum power as a percentage of the total SPV inverter rated power that will be transferred from the PV array to the
electricity grid (environmental conditions permitting). It is set in 0.1 % of system rated power units where 500 = 50.0 %
Setting this parameter to 100.0 % will result in each power module delivering its maximum power to the AC grid at the rated current value set in
Pr 18.18 in the System controller module.
The minimum of the overriding maximum output power limit (Pr 18.19) and maximum power output limit (Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 on the System controller
module), is used to set the voltage master current limit, taking into account the total system rating, and power module current overhead, such that an
active current limit (Pr 4.07 in the power module) appropriate to the number of power modules enabled will be used. The slaves current match the
voltage master power module, and do not have a forced limit.

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For example, in a system with a SPV900 (3 x 300 A power modules), if a 50 % current limit was applied at a point where there was only sufficient
irradiation for 40 % of system rated current, and two modules were selected, the current limit of the voltage master would be set to 75 % or 225 A.
With the selected current slave this would give a total capability of 450 A for the SPV inverter (225 A per power module), however because at 40 %
load the current from the array is only 360 A the power modules will not reach overriding maximum output power limit and hence will not go in to
current limit.
If Pr 18.19 is set to 0, the system will shut down, and cannot be started until it is >0.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

18.20 Maximum output power limit 1


18.21 Maximum output power limit 2
18.22 Maximum output power limit 3
18.23 Maximum output power limit 4
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 100
Pr 18.20 = 100
Pr 18.21 = 60
Default
Pr 18.22 = 30
Pr 18.23 = 0
Update rate 4 ms read
These parameters allow the output power of the entire SPV inverter to be limited to one of four percentage maximum power levels.
The active maximum power limit is selected by setting Pr 18.32 through Pr 18.34 respectively. If the selected power limit is greater than the overriding
maximum output power limit entered in Pr 18.19, then the output power is limited to the value in Pr 18.19.
In the event that more than one power limit is active, the limit with the lowest value is used.
The minimum of the overriding maximum output power limit (Pr 18.19), and maximum power output limit 1 to 4 (Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23), is used to set
the voltage master current limit, taking into account the system total rating, and power module current overhead, such that an active current limit
(Pr 4.07) appropriate to the number of power modules enabled will be used. The slave’s current match the voltage master module and do not have a
forced limit.
If any of these limits are set to 0, and the digital input which activates the limit (Pr 18.32 to Pr 18.35) is active, the system will shut down, and cannot
be started until the corresponding limit is >0.

18.24 Maximum power point tracker minimum DC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 400 to 800
Default 400
Update rate 4 ms Read
This sets the bottom limit for the operating range of the MPP tracker, and the MPP initial DC voltage, Pr 18.26. The internally used absolute bottom
limit is calculated from:
(√2 x Vac) + 30V Where Vac = Pr 18.17.
This parameter can be used to force the MPP bottom limit to a higher value if required.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

18.25 Maximum power point tracker maximum DC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 400 to 800
Default 795
Update rate 4 ms Read
This sets the top limit for the operating range of the MPP tracker, and the MPP initial DC voltage (Pr 18.26).

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18.26 Maximum power point tracker initial DC voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range Pr 18.24 to Pr 18.25
Default 630
Update rate 4 ms Read

If the MPP tracker is disabled, [Pr 18.36 = OFF (0)], or when the MPP tracker is first enabled [Pr 18.36 changes from OFF (0) to On (1)], this value
sets the DC bus set-point for the voltage master power module.
Internally this value is limited to be no less than Pr 18.24, therefore it is possible that with the MPP tracker disabled, and this parameter set to 400,
that the actual DC voltage set point may be higher due to the limit of Pr 18.24 and an AC grid voltage greater than 260 Vac.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

18.27 Maximum power point tracker voltage step magnitude


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 20
Default 5
Update rate 4 ms Read

The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) will attempt to find the optimal array operating voltage to be able to draw the maximum power from the
solar array.
To prevent undesirable operation and constrain the behavior of the MPPT parameters Pr 18.24 and Pr 18.25 can be used to set the lower and upper
limits of the array voltage that the MPPT will search for the maximum power point between. These two parameters combined with Pr 18.26 allow the
operating area of the MPPT to be tuned for the solar array being used and thus reduce the initial MPP search time.
If the maximum value in Pr 18.25 is less than the minimum value in Pr 18.24 then a value of 800 V will be used, similarly if the minimum value is
greater than or equal to the maximum value then a minimum value of 400 V will be used.
For acceptable behavior of the MPPT, the difference between Pr 18.24 and Pr 18.25 should be at least four times the step magnitude defined in
Pr 18.27.
The MPPT can be enabled or disabled using the Maximum Power Point Tracker Enable parameter, Pr 18.36. If the MPPT is disabled then the array
voltage will be controlled to the value set in Pr 18.26.

18.28 Maximum power point tracker proportional gain


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1000 to 32767
Default 8000
Update rate 4 ms Read
This value is used to define the scaling applied to the change in DC voltage set-point due to the detected deviation from the maximum power point.
The final system gain is applied as Pr 18.28/1000, therefore, if Pr 18.28 = 1000 then the applied gain is 1.

18.29 Minimum CTNet modules working before a trip


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 14
Default 1
Update rate 4 ms Read
This value is used to define the minimum number of power modules which must be seen on the CTNet network before a trip is initiated on the System
controller module. This value cannot be set to more than the number of power modules required for the rated power, Pr 18.13; such that if a system
has redundancy modules installed they will be tried before a trip occurs. If this parameter is set to 0, all of the system power module must be
undetected before a trip is initiated i.e. the system will try to continue to operate with whatever modules are available before tripping.

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18.30 DC voltage analog input level


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding

Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter displays the PV array voltage measurement data directly from the instrument connected to analog input 2 (terminal 10) on the SM-I/O
plus module installed on the System Controller module. The parameter has fixed scaling where 32767=1200 Vdc. The actual PV array voltage (in volt
units) can be seen in Pr 18.03, the relationship is as follows:
Pr 18.03 = Pr 18.30 x (1200 / 32767)

18.31 System enable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default 0FF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
Setting this parameter to On (1) will start the SPV inverter.
When starting the SPV inverter the following sequence is followed.
• Read the measured rms AC voltage and determine if it is within specification.
• If measured value is not within tolerance of value in Rated AC voltage Pr 18.17, the SPV inverter will wait until it is.
• Wait until minimum starting power is available.
• Minimum power is available when the PV array voltage (with load resistance applied) is greater than the rectified AC voltage by a minimum of 35
V.
• Determine what power modules are available on the CTNet network by scanning from module 1 to module 14 inclusive.
• Ensure that each power module is a PV variant of Unidrive SP. If a power module is not a PV variant of Unidrive SP then the power module will
not be used and a trip 40 is generated.
• Check if the power module can be used as a voltage master module.
• Configure the voltage master module as required.
• Configure all current slave modules as required.
• Enable the chopper (if installed).
• Wait until array voltage falls to 825 Vdc.
• Enable power module sequencer.
Setting this parameter to OFF (0) will stop the SPV inverter.
• When stopping the SPV inverter the following sequence is followed.
• Remove software enable for all power modules
• Wait until all power modules indicate that they are stopped
• Disconnect all power contactors
• Wait until all contactors are opened
• Change the power module state (Pr 18.01) to 1
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

18.32 Output power limit 1 enable


18.33 Output power limit 2 enable
18.34 Output power limit 3 enable
18.35 Output power limit 4 enable
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
Enable the maximum output power limit 1 to 4. See Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 for more information.

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18.36 Maximum power point tracker enable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
Setting this parameter to 1 will enable the maximum power point tracker. See Pr 18.24 to Pr 18.28 for further information about the operation of the
MPPT.

18.37 Voltage and frequency relay is ok


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter indicates that the system voltage and frequency relay is in the OK state. In the event that the voltage and frequency relay is not in the
OK state, the system will shut down and may not be started until the voltage and frequency have returned to a value within the set thresholds.
In the event that the voltage and frequency relay trips during operation, a minimum off delay time of 15 minutes will be imposed from when the system
was started to when it was tripped, in order to allow the chopper resistor time to cool down.
For systems which do not have a chopper installed (Pr 19.41 = 0 or OFF), the minimum off delay time is 1 minute.

18.38 System E-stop button inactive


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter indicates that the system E-stop buttons have not been pressed. In the event that the E-stop buttons have been pressed, the system
will shut down and may not be started.
In the event that the E-stop buttons are pressed during operation, a minimum off delay time of 15minutes will be imposed from when the system was
started to when it was tripped to allow the chopper resistor time to cool down.
For systems which do not have a chopper installed (Pr 19.41 = 0 or OFF) the minimum off time is optimized down to 1 minute.

18.39 Manual system E-stop reset


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms read

On a rising edge, this parameter will attempt an E-stop reset thereby resetting the E-stop relay provided Pr 18.38 = On (1) and Pr 18.37 = On (1). If
the Estop buttons are not pressed on power up [Pr 18.38 = On (1)], the system will automatically reset the E-stop relay. Figure 8-4 shows the
complete diagram for the logic reset logic function.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.
Figure 8-4 Reset logic (System module

Reset On
Power Up

Pr 18.39
Pr 18.38 E -Stop Reset

E -Stop Reset

E -Stop Reset
Pr 18.37 Pr 18.46

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18.40 AC low voltage ride-through select


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms read

SPV Start-up
When set, mains loss ride-through is selected and if the measured AC supply voltage is <20 % or >120 % of Pr 18.17 (system rated AC voltage),
then the system will wait until the voltage is within tolerance in PV Control State 2.
When reset, if the measured AC supply voltage is <80 % or >120 % of Pr 18.17 (system rated AC voltage), then the system will wait until the voltage
is within tolerance in PV Control State 2.
When the supply is out of tolerance Pr 19.21 bit 0 = 1, and when in tolerance Pr 19.21 bit 0 = 0.
Dynamic Grid Support / Ride Through
When the SPV is running (PV Control in State 11), and Pr 18.40 = 1, the following diagram shows the behavior with different AC line voltages in
accordance with BDEW dynamic grid support / ride through.

Where a grid connection code such as BDEW calls for a particular K factor, Pr 19.14 can easily be set to the appropriate value using the following
formula:
Pr 19.14 = (10000 x K) / Pr 18.17
When the SPV is running (PV Control in State 11), and Pr 18.40 = 0, there are no ride through functions active. A dip of >=80 % can be tolerated,
however a dip of <80 % will result in an over current trip in the system power modules, and an automated shutdown of the system.

18.41 Anti-island select


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter enables anti-islanding mode.
Please see anti-islanding in section 7.3 Anti-islanding on page 85.

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18.42 Force rated modules on


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms read
When this parameter is set to a 1 (On), the number of modules specified in Pr 18.13 will be forced on, providing they are available, and the system is
enabled, regardless of the efficiency switching percentage.

18.43 DC voltage transient suppression ok


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
Indicates the transient voltage suppression circuit is in circuit. When this parameter is 0 (OFF), the DC transient voltage suppression is out of circuit.
This has no effect on the software other than to set bit 7 in the control alarm word (Pr 19.21) to indicate that the transient voltage suppression circuit
has tripped. The transient voltage suppression relay is connected to digital input 5 (terminal 7) of the SM-I/O plus module on the System controller
module.

18.44 PV array isolation monitor relay fault


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
Indicates that the PV array isolation monitor relay has detected a fault. This has no effect on the software other than to set bit 6 in the control alarm
word (Pr 19.21) to indicate that a fault has been detected. The PV array isolation monitor relay is connected to digital input/output 1 (terminal 2) of the
SM-I/O plus module on the System controller module.

18.45 Chopper resistor temperature OK


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
When set to a 1 (On), this parameter indicates that the chopper resistor temperature is acceptable and the chopper may be used. When set to a 0
(OFF), this parameter indicates that the chopper resistor has overheated. In the event of a resistor over-heat, the enable signal to the chopper is
removed electrically in the system configuration. If the resistor overheats, bit 8 of the control alarm word (Pr 19.21) will be set to a 1 (On). If the SPV
inverter does not have a chopper installed, this parameter will be set to OFF (0).

18.46 E-stop reset


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates when the E-stop relay is to be reset. When a reset takes place this parameter will pulse every 500 ms for 10 on and off
cycles to ensure that the E-stop relay becomes reset, as this is an edge triggered reset.

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Commissioning Operation Parameters Diagnostics Technical data
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18.47 Chopper enable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter is controlled by the PV control state machine and the chopper resistor protection timer. This timer will allow a two second continuous
on time, and then a 1 s to 10 minute cooling period. Pr 19.20 bit 5 indicates when the timer scheme is protecting the resistor.

18.48 Chopper ok
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
When set to a 1 (On), this parameter indicates that the chopper status is OK. When set to a 0 (OFF), this parameter indicates that the chopper has
tripped. The chopper status is connected to digital input 6 (terminal 8) of the SM-I/O plus module.

18.49 Close minimum power resistor contactor


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter is set to one by the control software when the load resistor contactor has been commanded to close.

18.50 Minimum power resistor contactor closed


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates that the minimum load contactor has closed.

19.11 Active power control set-up parameter 1


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 3000 to 10000
Default 5020
Update rate 4 ms Read

The table below details the function of Pr 19.11 depending on the value of the active power mode selector Pr 19.15:
Pr 19.15 Pr 19.11 functional description
0 Not used.
This sets the active power control “ON” threshold in 0.01 Hz units. For compliance with BDEW set to 5020 (i.e. 50.2 Hz). In this
1
mode the parameter is limited from 3000 to 10000.
This sets the active power control "ON" threshold in 0.01 Hz units. For compliance with FGW TR8 set to 5020 (i.e. 50.2 Hz). In this
2
mode the parameter is limited from 3000 to 10000.

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19.12 Active power control set-up parameter 2


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 3000 to 10000
Default 5005
Update rate 4 ms Read

The table below details the function of Pr 19.12 depending on the value of the active power mode selector Pr 19.15:
Pr 19.15 Pr 19.12 functional description
0 Not used.
This sets the active power control “OFF” threshold in 0.01 Hz units. For compliance with BDEW set to 5005 (i.e. 50.05 Hz). In this
1
mode the parameter is limited from 3000 to 10000.
This sets the active power control "OFF" threshold in 0.01 Hz units. For compliance with FGW TR8 set to 5005 (i.e. 50.05 Hz). In
2
this mode the parameter is limited from 3000 to 10000.

19.13 Active power control set-up parameter 3


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1000
Default 400
Update rate 4 ms Read

The table below details the function of Pr 19.13 depending on the value of the active power mode selector Pr 19.15:
Pr 19.15 Pr 19.13 functional description
0 Not used.
This sets the active power control restriction rate per 1 Hz deviation above Pr 19.11 Hz, in 0.1 % of sampled power units. For
1
compliance with BDEW set to 400 (i.e. 40.0 % per 1 Hz deviation). In this mode the parameter is limited from 0 to 1000.
This sets the active power control restriction rate per 1 Hz deviation above Pr 19.11 Hz, in 0.1 % of sampled power units. For
2
compliance with FGW TR8 set to 400 (i.e. 40.0 % per 1 Hz deviation). In this mode the parameter is limited from 0 to 1000.

19.14 Dynamic grid support reactive current per volt error


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 10000
Default 59
Update rate 4 ms Read
System rated reactive current per / volt error for dynamic grid support. When set to 0, dynamic grid support is disabled. When set > 0 to maximum
10000 this parameter sets a percentage of reactive current for the active power modules in 0.01 % units. The percentage current is applied per volt
error where the error is derived from System rated AC volts (Pr 18.17) - Power module output AC Volts. The relationship set is only engaged when
the volts error goes outside of the symmetrical dead band voltage set by Pr 19.19 showing that this system has gone in to ride through mode.
Where a grid code calls for a particular K factor Pr 19.14 can easily be set to the appropriate value using the following formula:
Pr 19.14 = (10000 x K) / Pr 18.17

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19.15 Active power control mode select


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 2
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms Read
This value is used to select the active power control mode. When set >0, the grid frequency will be measured and used to set the active power limit
depending on the power authority rules selected. Active power modes must also be enabled by setting Pr 19.49 = 1 (On).

Pr 19.15 Description
0 No active power control.
BDEW active power control (Germany). In this mode when the measured mains frequency rises above the frequency set in
Pr 19.11, active power control will be enabled, where the active power is sampled and stored, and then the active power will be
limited at a rate of Pr 19.13 % / 1 Hz deviation above Pr 19.11 Hz. When the mains frequency drops between Pr 19.11 and Pr 19.12
Hz the active power will be held at the stored value. When the frequency drops below Pr 19.12 Hz the active power control will
release and the SPV will run under normal limitations.
Pr 19.12 Active
power control
“OFF” threshold 0.01 Hz units
AC Line
Power
frequency
1

Pr 19.13
0.1% Sampled power/
1Hz above Pr 19.11

Pr 19.11 Active
power control
“On”threshold 0.01Hz units
FGW TR8 active power control (Germany). In this mode when the measured mains frequency rises above the frequency set in
Pr 19.11, active power control will be enabled, where the active power is sampled and stored, and then the active power will be
limited at a rate of Pr 19.13 % / 1Hz deviation above Pr 19.11 Hz. When the mains frequency drops between Pr 19.11 and Pr 19.12
Hz the active power will be held at the at the lowest value reached in the envelope. When the frequency drops below Pr 19.12 Hz
the active power control will release and the SPV will run under normal limitations.

Pr 19.12 Active
power control
“OFF” threshold 0.01 Hz units
AC Line
Power
2 frequency

Pr 19.13
0.1% Sampled power/
1Hz above Pr 19.11

Lowest active power


Pr 19.11 Active reached is held
power control
“On”threshold 0.01Hz units

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19.16 Anti-Island test frequency


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 2
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms Read

This value is used to select the test frequency used when anti-island detection is enabled, Pr 18.41 = 1, where 0 is 1 Hz, 1 is 2 Hz and 2 is 4 Hz. This
value is placed into Pr 3.31 on the voltage master power module when the SPV inverter is running and anti-island detection has been enabled. See
also section 7.3 Anti-islanding on page 85.

19.17 AC voltage settling time


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 32767
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter is used to provide a delay time in seconds to allow the AC voltage to settle after one of the following:
• After power on
• After a voltage / frequency fault has been reset
• After an E-stop reset
When the settling time is in progress Pr 20.10 indicates the current counter value.

19.18 DC current limit


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 500
300 for SPV248
Default
350 for SPV 300 and larger
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter sets the maximum allowed DC current per power module in Amps. If the equivalent of this limit is reached in AC Amps, an additional
power module will be selected to assist. If the number of active modules = Pr 18.13, then the active current limit will be reduced to prevent the DC
current from increasing any further.

19.19 Mains loss ride-through dead band voltage


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to Pr 18.17
Default 34
Update rate 4 ms Read

Ride-through symmetrical dead band voltage. This specifies a voltage band either side of the rated AC volts Pr 18.17, where inside of the voltage
band the reactive reference specified by Pr 19.29 will be active, but outside of the band the reference selected by Pr 19.29 will be ignored, and
reactive current will be applied at the rate specified by Pr 19.14 in <20 ms.
This setting is made in Volt units. The default setting of 34 V equates to a 10 % symmetrical dead band (if the AC voltage is 340) covering the range
306 V to 374 V.

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19.20 Control alarm word 2


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 16bit signed
Update rate 4 ms Read
This value represents an alarm word where each discrete bit represents a different alarm warning as shown in the table below.

Bit Description
0 Indicates that the System controller module has tripped, i.e. not OK.
Indicates that the AC voltage settling time is counting down, and during this period the SPV inverter cannot be started. The settling time
1 is set in Pr 19.17. This will also be set on power up, after a voltage/frequency trip has been reset and after an E-stop reset if Pr 19.17 is
greater than 0.
2 Indicates that the active current has been limited by the selected active power mode. See Pr 19.15 for the mode that has been selected.
3 Indicates that the system cannot be started because Vdc is >1000 V
4 Indicates that the active current has been limited by the BDEW Active power ramping function (Pr 19.46 = 1).
Indicates that the chopper resistor timer protection has switched on and is allowing the chopper resistor time to cool down. The system
5
will not start until this bit returns to 0 (OFF).
Indicates that the temperature sensor connected to analog input 2 (terminal 7) on the System controller module may have a fault. The
6
alarm condition is raised if temperature is at minimum, maximum, or has not changed by at least ±1 °C in 24 hrs.
7 Indicates the user E-stop relay has been triggered via the HMI data transfer module.
8 Indicates the system is in high speed transient ride through mode.
Indicates that the DC section temperature sensor connected to System controller module analog input 3 T8 may be faulty. The alarm
9
condition is raised if temperature is at min (<=-28), max (>=58), or has not changed by at least ±1 °C in 24 hrs.

19.21 Control alarm word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 16bit signed
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter represents an alarm word where each discrete bit represents a different alarm warning.
Bit Description
0 Indicates there is not enough AC voltage to start (<20 % of Pr 18.17 if Pr 18.40=1, <80 % if Pr 18.40=0).
1 Indicates there is not enough array power to start.
2 Indicates when the E-stop circuit is tripped.
3 Indicates when the VF relay is tripped.
4 Indicates that there is a problem with saving the voltage master cycle module e.g. a SMARTCARD is not installed.
5 Indicates that the E-stop relay is tripped.
6 Indicates that there is an isolation monitoring relay fault.
7 Indicates that the DC transient voltage suppression circuit has a fault.
8 Indicates that the chopper resistor has overheated.
Indicates that the voltage master has detected a difference greater than the maximum of the MPP test step or 10V, between the
9
array VDC and the MPP voltage.
10 Indicates that the active current has been limited to allow for the reactive current demand.
Indicates that the active current has been limited to limit the maximum power to the maximum power limit that has been selected,
11
and that it has either the lowest value, or the lowest value and highest priority (Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23).
12 Indicates that the active current has been limited to limit the maximum power using the overriding maximum power limit (Pr 18.19).
Indicates that the active current has been limited to prevent the DC current from going over the limit set in Pr 19.18 on the System
13
controller module.
Indicates the power analyzer communications link has failed. If this is set the system will shut down, and will not restart until the
14
communications failure has been fixed.
15 Indicates one of the power limits has been set to 0, which causes the SPV inverter to shut down and stay off.

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AC voltage reference set point / Dynamic power factor control start power
19.22
threshold
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 32767 / 0 to 1000
Default 340
Update rate 4 ms Read
When Pr 19.29 = 3 or 5
This parameter is the AC voltage reference set point. The reference and feedback parameters are scaled in Pr 19.24.
The value entered determines the voltage at which the power factor is one i.e. no reactive power flows.
If the AC voltage feedback (Pr 19.23) < > the set point (Pr 19.22), reactive power flows according to the relationship:
System rated reactive power (0.1 % units) = (Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23) x Reactive reference (Pr 19.30) i.e. System rated reactive power = 500 = 50 % of
system rated reactive power. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 19.29 = 4
This parameter is the start threshold for dynamic power factor control based on the output active power level.
The units are 0.1 % of system rated power i.e. 500 = 50.0 %. See Pr 19.29 for more information.

19.23 AC voltage feedback / Dynamic power factor control stop power threshold
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 32767 / 0 to 1000
Default 340
Update rate 4 ms Read
When Pr 19.29 = 3 or 5 and Pr 19.44=0
This parameter is the AC voltage feedback.
The reference and feedback parameters are scaled in Pr 19.24.
If the AC voltage feedback (Pr 19.23) < > the set point (Pr 19.22), reactive power flows according to the relationship:
System rated reactive power (0.1 % units) = (Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23) x Reactive reference (Pr 19.30)
i.e. System rated reactive power = 500 = 50 % of system rated reactive power. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 19.29 = 4
This parameter is the stop threshold for dynamic power factor control based on the output active power level.
The units are 0.1 % of system rated power i.e. 500 = 50.0 %. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will overwrite the parameter of the same number in the
System controller module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter does not overwrite the
parameter of the same number in the System controller module, allowing local control via the parameters on the System Controller module.

19.24 AC voltage scaling factor


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 1 to 32767
Default 1
Update rate 4 ms Read
When Pr 19.29=3
This value is used to set the scaling factor for the AC supply reference (Pr 19.22) and the AC supply feedback (Pr 19.23), used in reactive reference
mode 3 (Pr 19.29 = 3), e.g. if Pr 19.24 = 100, and Pr 19.22 = 1320, the AC supply reference is 100 x 1320 = 132000 V.

NOTE
Scaling allows for the feedback device to be placed on the high voltage side of the transformer in which case both the reference and feedback
parameters need to be scaled accordingly in this parameter.
When Pr 19.29=5
This value sets the reactive power per volt error rate in 0.1 % of system rated power units applied inside the dead band. Outside of the dead band
(defined by Pr 19.25) the reactive power per volt error rate is set by Pr 19.30.

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Positive reactive power limit / Dynamic power factor control start power factor
19.25
threshold / voltage error dead band
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1000 / 1000 to 800 / 0 to 32767
Default 300
Update rate 4 ms Read

When Pr 19.29 = 3
This parameter is the positive reactive power limit.
The units are 0.1 % of system rated power i.e. 500 = 50.0 %. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 19.29 = 4
This parameter is the dynamic power factor control start power factor.
The units are in 0.001 power factor units i.e. 950 = 0.95 pf. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 19.29 = 5
This parameter sets the symmetrical voltage error dead band.
The units used are 1 V units i.e. a value of 100 will give a dead band of ±100 V error, where the error is Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23.

Negative reactive power limit / Dynamic power factor control stop power factor
19.26
threshold / symmetrical reactive power limit
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range -1000 to 0 / -1000 to -800 / 0 to 1000
Default -300
Update rate 4 ms Read
When Pr 19.29 = 3
This parameter is the negative reactive power limit.
The units are 0.1 % of system rated power i.e. 500 = 50.0 %. See Pr 19.29 for more information
When Pr 19.29 = 4
This parameter is the dynamic power factor control stop power factor.
The units are in 0.001 power factor units i.e. 950 = 0.95 pf. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When Pr 19.29 = 5
This parameter sets the symmetrical reactive power limit.
The units used are 0.1 % system rated power units. i.e. a value of 300 is a limit ± 30 % of system rated reactive power.

19.27 Reactive P gain


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 32767
Default 10
Update rate 4 ms Read
This value is used to set the reactive reference P gain.

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19.28 Reactive P gain clamp


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1000
Default 10
Update rate 4 ms Read
Pr 19.29 = 0
This value is used to set the reactive current rate of change in 0.1 % of system rated current per second units. It may be used to restrict the maximum
rate at which the reactive current reference Pr 4.08 is changed on the power modules. When set to 0 the rate of change clamp is disabled allowing the
current reference to be passed directly to the power modules.
Pr 19.29 > 0
This value is used to set the reactive current gain P Gain clamp, set in 0.1 % of system rated current per second units. This may be used to restrict the
maximum rate at which the reactive current reference Pr 4.08 is changed on the power module. When set to 0 the rate of change will be 0, effectively
disabling closed loop reactive power control.

19.29 Reactive reference mode


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 5
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms Read

This value is used to select the reactive reference mode, from 0 to 5. All of the closed loop modes (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) have reference feed forward with
a slow P term trim. Pr 19.45 may be used to disable the feed forward term if a slow response is required. The table below describes the operation of
each of the modes.

Mode Description
Reactive current control
In this mode, the reactive reference, Pr 19.30, sets the reactive current reference in 0.1 % of total system rated current units, e.g. a value
0 of 1 represents 0.1 % of system rated current.
System rated current= Power module rated current (Pr 18.18) x number of power modules required for rated current (Pr 18.13).
The rate of change of reactive current may be set by Pr 19.28, in 0.1 % of system rated current per second units.
Reactive power control
In this mode, the reactive reference, Pr 19.30, sets the reactive power reference in 0.1 % of system rated power units e.g. a value of 1
represents 0.1 % of system rated power.
1 System rated power = Power module rated current (Pr 18.18) x number of power modules required for rated current (Pr 18.13) x system
rated AC voltage (Pr 18.17) x √3.
The reactive power loop is a simple P term controller with P gain (Pr 19.27), and P gain clamp (Pr 19.28), set in 0.1 % of system rated
current per second units.
Set-point power factor control
In this mode, the reactive reference, Pr 19.30, sets the power factor set-point offset in 0.001 power factor units, e.g. an offset value of 50
represents a capacitive power factor of -0.950, and an offset value of -50 represents an inductive power factor of 0.950. Pr 19.30 is
internally limited to ± 200, offering a power factor set-point range of - 0.800 to + 0.800. If Pr 19.30 is set to 0, the power factor set-point will
2
be 1.000. The final power factor set-point is then used to derive the equivalent reactive power for the given power factor, and the same
reactive power holding loop used in mode 1 is then used to hold the internal reactive power reference.
The reactive power loop is a simple P term controller with P gain (Pr 19.27), and P gain clamp (Pr 19.28), set in 0.1 % of system rated
current per second units.

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Mode Description
AC grid voltage based reactive power control with dead band
In this mode, the reactive reference, Pr 19.30, is used to set a relationship of percentage of system rated power / volt, where deviation
from the AC supply set-point (Pr 19.22) when compared with the AC supply feedback (Pr 19.23), will result in reactive power being
generated using the relationship set up in Pr 19.30. The positive (capacitive) reactive power limit is set by Pr 19.25 in 0.1 % of system
rated power units, e.g. a value of 1 represents 0.1 % of system rated power = Power module rated current (Pr 18.18) x number of power
modules required for rated current (Pr 18.13) x system rated AC voltage (Pr 18.17) x √3.
The negative (inductive) reactive power limit is set by Pr 19.26 in 0.1 % of system rated power units.
The final internal reactive power reference after limits is then held by the same reactive power holding loop used in mode 1.
Positive
Reactive Power
Limit
Overexcited
voltage increase
3 Reactive power export Vars AC line
PF +Ve voltage error
(inductive on Power analyzer) If Pr 19.44 = 0
(Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23)
or if Pr 19.44 = 1
0 (Pr 19.22 - Pr 18.02)
Under excited 0.1% Rated
Voltage decrease power / Vac
Import VArs error Pr 19.30
PF -Ve
(Capacitive on Power analyzer)
Negative
reactive power
limit Pr 19.26
Dynamic power factor control
In this mode, the user specifies a relationship between output active power in kW and power factor. Pr 19.22 sets the start power in 0.1%
of system rated power; when the power is at or below this level the power factor is fixed at the value set in Pr 19.25 in 0.001 power factor
units. Pr 19.23 sets the end power in 0.1% of system rated power; when the power is at or above this level the power factor is fixed at the
value set in Pr 19.26 in 0.001 power factor units. When the actual active power is between the powers set in Pr 19.22 and Pr 19.23 a linear
relationship is formed with the power factor. Pr 19.30 and Pr 19.24 are not used in this mode.
p
factor threshold
Overexcited Pr 19.25
Voltage increase
Power Factor Export VArs
PF +Ve
(Capacitive on Power analyzer)

% of System
0 rated power
Under excited
Voltage decrease
4
Import VArs
PF -Ve
(Capacitive on Power analyzer)

Stop power
factor threshold
Pr 19.26
Start active power
threshold Pr 19.22
Stop active power
The start and end active power set in Pr 19.22 and Pr 19.23 in 0.1 % of system rated power units (where a value of 1 represents 0.1 % of
system rated power).
System rated power = Power module rated current (Pr 18.18) x
Power modules required for rated current (Pr 18.13) x
system rated AC voltage (Pr 18.17) x √3.
The final internal reactive power reference after limits is then held by the same reactive power holding loop used in mode 1. The reactive
power loop is a simple P term controller with P Gain (Pr 19.27), and P gain clamp (Pr 19.28), set in 0.1 % of system rated current per
second units.

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Mode Description
AC grid voltage based reactive power control with dead band
In this mode, the reactive reference, Pr 19.30, is used to set a relationship of percentage of system rated power / volt, where deviation
from the AC supply set point (Pr 19.22) when compared with the AC supply feedback (Pr 19.23) outside of the dead band, will result in
reactive power being generated using the relationship set up in Pr 19.30 plus any power generated in the dead band.
Pr 19.24 sets the dead band reactive power per volt error rate inside the dead band in 0.1 % / volt error units. Setting Pr 19.24 to 0 will give
0 reactive power output in the dead band. The symmetrical width of the dead band is set by Pr 19.25 in 1V units.
The symmetrical reactive power limit is set by Pr 19.26 in 0.1 % of system rated power units e.g. a value of 1 represents 0.1 %
of system rated power = Power module rated current (Pr 18.18) x power modules required for rated current (Pr 18.13) x system rated AC
voltage (Pr 18.17) x √3. The final internal reactive power reference after limits is then held by the same reactive power holding loop used
in mode 1.
The user may select between external voltage feedback via Pr 19.23, or to use the internal voltage feedback Pr 18.02 via Pr 19.44, where
if Pr 19.44 = 0 feedback is from Pr 19.23, but if Pr 19.44 = 1 feedback is from Pr 18.02.

0.1% Rated power /


Vac error Pr 19.24
in dead band

Symmetrical
reactive power
5
(Inductive on DIRIS) (Capacitive on DIRIS)

limit Pr 19.26
voltage increase
Overexcited
export Vars
PF +Ve

Reactive power
AC line voltage error
If Pr 19.44 = 0
(Pr 19.22 - Pr 19.23)
or if Pr 19.44 = 1
0 (Pr 19.22 - Pr 18.02
voltage decrease
Under excited
import Vars
PF -Ve

0.1% Rated power /


/ Vac error Pr 19.30

-Symmetrical
reactive power
limit Pr 19.26
Symmetrical
voltage error
dead band
Pr 19.25

The power analyzer is used to measure the power when using the closed loop references.

19.30 Reactive reference


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range ±1000
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter is used to set the reactive reference. Changing this parameter may cause additional power modules to be switched on or off.
The units of the reactive reference change depending on the reactive reference mode. See Pr 19.29 for more information.
When the reactive current reference is used it is dominant over the active current due to possible contractual obligations to provide reactive power to
the energy authority. This means that the active current limit will be reduced to allow the reactive current to be generated, such that the vector sum of
the active and reactive currents will not exceed the connected modules continuous current rating.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

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  Total 
current 
(A)    
Pr 4.01  
Active 
current 
(A) 
Pr 4.02   Ø

Reactive 
current 
(A) 
Pr 4.17  

19.38 Closed loop reactive limit enable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default On (1)
Update rate 4 ms Read

When reset to 0 (OFF), 100 % of the rated reactive current reference is available for the closed reactive current control loop used when Pr 19.29=1,
2, 3, 4 or 5. When set to 1 (On), 20 % of system rated reactive current limit is applied to the closed reactive current control loop, this may be used to
limit the control loop response in the event of a power analyzer failure.

19.39 End of day active power shutdown disable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read

When reset to 0 (OFF), after the first 15 minutes of operation, if the power analyzer measures active power import from the grid, the SPV will turn off.
This is the standard behavior at the end of a day.
When set to 1 (On), the active power is not used to turn off the system, allowing reactive power to be generated even after sunset, provided the
system was still running when the array voltage collapsed at the end of the day, since the system is started using energy from the array. When this is
set to 1 (On), the only mechanisms to turn the system off will be error conditions or if the user enable is removed via Pr 18.31, or a power limit is set
to 0. This also prevents power module cycling since the act of shutting down allows the power modules to be re-assigned as current slave and voltage
master.

19.40 Closed loop linear reactive power resolution select


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
When reset to 0 (OFF), the system will modify the percentage of system rated reactive power in the smallest steps possible i.e. 0.1 %, regardless of
the number of connected power modules. When set to 1 (On), the system will modify the percentage of system rated reactive power in steps scaled
such that the number of power modules connected will scale the reference e.g. for a 6 module system with one power module connected the smallest
step will be 0.6 % x 1 module = 0.6 %, but when 6 modules are connected the reference step will be 0.1 % x 6 modules = 0.6 %.

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19.41 Chopper installed


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default On (1)
Update rate 4 ms Read

This is set by the user to indicate whether the system has a chopper installed or not.
When set to 1(On);
The system is informed that a chopper is installed, which means that tr61 and tr62 will be allowed, and Pr 19.21 bit8 will indicate that the health of the
chopper resistor, Pr 19.20 bit5 will indicate when the resistor protection has switched on.
When reset to 0 (OFF);
The SPV will only be allowed to start if the array DC voltage is <825 V. All chopper trips are cancelled and all chopper alarm bits will report OK status.
The output which enables the chopper is disabled when Pr 19.41=0 i.e. Pr 18.47=0 and SM-IO Plus relay 1 output is turned off.

19.42 GFDI (ground fault detector and interrupter) select


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
GFDI Select.
When reset to 0 (OFF), the system assumes that an isolated ground leakage detection system is connected and that there is no action required when
the digital output from the ground leakage monitor to Pr 18.44 is set high indicating a ground fault.
When set to 1 (On), the system knows that a GFDI is connected and that in the event of the GFDI indicating that there is a fault, Pr 18.44 = ON, the
system must shut down and will not be restarted until the fault is cleared. i.e. Pr 18.44 = OFF. When a GFDI fault happens the system can only reset
the E-stop relay if the GFDI fault is fixed and if the manual E-stop reset function is triggered Pr 18.39 = OFF to ON.
This mode may be required for American and Canadian systems.

19.43 User E-stop trigger relay active


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Update rate 4 ms Read

Indicates when the user E-stop trigger relay has been operated, causing the main E-stop relay to operate. This relay is controlled by user software in
the HMI data transfer module. The system can only be reset after a user E-stop has been triggered, by resetting the user E-stop relay (Pr 19.43 =
OFF), and toggling Pr 18.39 = OFF to ON. (Manual system E-stop reset).

19.44 Reactive voltage feedback source select


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
When reset to 0 (OFF), and when in reactive reference 3 or 5 (Pr 19.29 = 3 or 5), the voltage feedback for reactive power control is via Pr 19.23.
When set to 1 (On), and when in reactive reference 3 or 5 (Pr 19.29 = 3 or 5), the voltage feedback for reactive power control is via Pr 18.02.

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19.45 Disable reactive power feed forward


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read

When reset to 0 (OFF), the reactive power feed forward term is used, allowing rapid and large reactive power changes with closed loop trim for
accuracy.
When set to 1 (On), the reactive power feed forward is disabled, such that the rate of change of reactive power can be slowed down by setting the
reactive rate of change limit Pr 19.28.
If Pr 19.38 is set to 1 (On) and Pr 19.45 is set to 1 (On), the maximum reactive current capability will be 20 % of the system rating.

19.46 Active power ramp on start enable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter enables ramping of the output active power from the inverter on start up.
If this parameter is set to OFF (0), then as soon as the SPV inverter is enabled it will immediately start to output the maximum output active power that
is available from the PV array.
If this parameter is set to On (1), then when the SPV inverter is enabled it will ramp up the output active power at a rate of 10% of the rated power of
the SPV inverter per minute until it reaches one of the following conditions:
• The maximum power available from the PV array
• The overall output power limit defined by Pr 18.19
• One of power limits defined by Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 if active
If at any point while the SPV inverter is ramping up the output active power the DC voltage from the PV array exceeds 795 Vdc, the ramp rate will be
increased to 20 % of the rated power of the SPV inverter per second to ensure that the SPV does not trip on an over voltage condition. When the DC
voltage from the PV array has fallen below 795 Vdc the original ramp rate of 10 % of the rated power of the SPV inverter per minute will be used
again.

19.48 Reset all power module trip logs


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter clears the trip log in all the power modules.
A power module can be prevented from starting if the trip log in the power module contains a HF trip or a Solution Module trip (i.e. SLx.yy trips). This
parameter will clear all trips including HF and Solutions Module trips from the trip logs on all power modules in the SPV inverter. If a power module
has tripped on a HF trip, then this HF trip must be cleared by cycling the power to the SPV inverter (including auxiliary supplies) before Pr 19.48 can
be used to clear the trip log.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

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19.49 Active power mode enable


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read
When set to a 1 (On), this parameter will enable the active power control mode selected by Pr 19.15. When set to a 0 (OFF) this parameter will
disable the active power control mode selected by Pr 19.15.
When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 0, the value set in this parameter will be overwritten by the parameter of the same number in
the HMI data transfer module. When Pr 20.20 on the HMI data transfer module is set to 1, the value set in this parameter is not overwritten by the
parameter of the same number in the HMI data transfer module, allowing local control via this parameter on the System controller module.

19.50 Load parameter defaults


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On(1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms Read

When set to 1 (On), this parameter will load default values in the system controller parameters, provided the system is in the idle state (Pr 18.01=1).
When the defaults have been applied, this parameter will be reset to 0 (OFF). A parameter save is performed automatically.

20.10 AC settling time count


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to Pr 19.17
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter indicates the current AC supply settling time progress in seconds, 0 to the time set in Pr 19.17.

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20.11 System shutdown word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This indicates the state of all control mechanisms and flags responsible for causing the PV System to shut down such that the user is able to
determine the reason why the system has shut down for commissioning / diagnostic purposes. The value in Pr 20.11 is only updated as the
PVControl exits state 11. Each discrete bit has its own function which is described in the following table:

Bit Description
When set, one of the user power limits, (Pr 18.19 to Pr 18.23), was set to 0 at the time that the system shut down. When any of
0 these power limits are set to 0, the system will shut down since no power is required. Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 have an associated digital
input to trigger the limit; see Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23 for more details.
1 When set, the power analyser comms have failed and the system has shut down since this is a system critical component.
When set, the system controller module has tripped, causing the system to shut down. If Pr 18.31 is reset to 0 or OFF Pr 20.11 will
2
become reset to 0, therefore it is important to read Pr 20.11 before resetting the system by Pr 18.31 = 0 or OFF.
When set, the system has automatically shut down because negative active power has been drawn, the system has run for more
3
than 15 min and only a single power module is active.
When set, the internal combined system enable has been requested to shut the system down. So this can be further examined, bits
4
5 to 11 are provided which are ANDed together to create this bit.
5 When set, the user enable (Pr 18.31) has been reset, shutting the system down.
When set, the voltage and/or frequency relay has tripped shutting the system down. When this shut down mechanism happens it is
6
likely that bits 9, 12, 13, and 14 will also become set.
When set, the E-Stop button has been pressed, shutting the system down. When this shut down mechanism happens it is likely that
7
bits 12, 13, and 14 will also become set.
8 When set, the voltage and frequency relay supply MCB has tripped, shutting the system down.
9 When set, the E-Stop relay has tripped, shutting the system down.
When set, the GFDI fuse indicator shows that there is a blown fuse, shutting the system down. This can only cause a system
10
shutdown when Pr 19.42 = 1.
When set, the user E-Stop relay has been triggered, shutting the system down. This relay is controlled by the user software SM-
11
Applications Plus module resident in Slot 3 of the HMI data transfer module.
When set, the system has shut down because the voltage master has failed during operation. So this can be further examined the
12
following bits (13 and 14) are used to generate a voltage master system shut down.
13 When set, the voltage master is not engaged. This is the equivalent of voltage master status word 1 (Pr 19.21 bit 2).
When set, the voltage master is not available for work. This may be due to a CTNet comms failure, the power module may have
14 been disabled by setting Pr 19.01, the power module may have tripped, the local fan supply MCB may have tripped, or the high
speed E-Stop relay healthy line to the power module SM-Applications Plus module has gone low.
15 Reserved

20.12 System DC section temperature


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

This shows the temperature from a 4-20 mA DC section sensor connected to the System Controller module analog input 3 (T8). The temperature is
shown in 0.1 °C units only.
NOTE

This sensor is only installed to SPV’s with complete metal covers i.e. UL compliant systems.

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20.13 System auxiliary section temperature


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This shows the temperature from the external 4-20 mA auxiliary section sensor connected to the system controller module analog input 2 (T7). The
temperature is shown in 0.1 °C units only.

20.14 Final active power limit


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 1000
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the final active power limit in 0.1% of system rated power units. This is the lowest of:
• The four user power limits (System Controller Pr 18.20 to Pr 18.23) if enabled
• The algorithm which limits active power in order to limit the DC current value set in the System Controller Pr 19.18
• The algorithm which reduces active power in order to give priority to reactive power if necessary
• The two frequency regulation modes selected with System Controller Pr 19.15 if enabled
• The active power ramp on start feature enabled with Pr 19.46, if active
The overriding maximum output power limit, Pr 18.19

20.15 HMI write pointer


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -1 to 9122
Update rate 4 ms Read

This indicates the HMI parameter write pointer in MMPP format where 1811 = Pr 18.11. Refer to HMI data transfer module Pr 20.15 for more details.

20.16 HMI write value


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This indicates the HMI parameter write value. Refer to HMI data transfer module Pr 20.16 for more details.

20.21 HMI read pointer and integrity check


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
The lower 16 bits are the read pointer value, and the lower byte of the upper 16 bits is for the comms integrity counter.

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20.22 HMI read value, integrity check and comms status word
Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
The lower 16 bits contain the value of the parameter pointed to by the lower 16 bits of Pr 20.21, the lower byte of the upper 16 bits is the returned
comms integrity check counter value, and the upper byte of the upper 16 bits is the comms status word where the following bits are assigned:

Bit Description
When set, this indicates that parameter writing at the system controller module has completed so it is ok to change the value to
write, and then to change the write pointer to a new value. It is important to make sure that writing has been disabled before altering
0
the write value to make sure that the last parameter written to is left with the last set value i.e. Pr 20.16 remains set in the parameter
pointed to by Pr 20.15. To stop writing, the user must set the parameter pointer directly to -1.
1 The current write pointer is an invalid location.
2 The current read pointer is an invalid location.

20.38 SM-I/O 32 input word


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read

This parameter shows the state of all the inputs on terminal -X6 via the SM-I/O 32 Solutions module installed in slot 2 of the System controller module.
Bit State of terminal Description
0 Reserved
1 -X6:2 User input 1
2 -X6:3 User input 2
3 -X6:4 User input 3
4 -X6:5 User input 4
5 -X6:6 User input 5
6 -X6:7 User input 6
7 -X6:8 User input 7
8 -X6:9 User input 8
9 -X6:10 User input 9
10 - 31 Reserved

20.40 Menu 18 condensed bit parameters


Location System controller module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range Signed 32bit
Update rate 4 ms Read
This parameter indicates the status of the menu 18 bit parameters in a condensed word format, where bit 0 = Pr 18.31, bit 1 = Pr 18.32, bit 2 =
Pr 18.33, to bit 19 = Pr 18.50.

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8.3 Power Module


The power module control software runs on an SM-Applications Plus module.
The power modules are connected to each other, to the System controller module, and to the HMI data transfer module via a CTNet network. The
power modules are also connected to one another by a CTSync network.
For information on any parameter in the power module not listed here, refer to the Unidrive SP Advanced User Guide under the regen drive mode.
NOTE
Power modules are not installed with SM-keypads as standard, therefore to change parameter values it will be necessary to use a keypad installed to
the PV system controller or HMI data transfer module.
8.3.1 Single line parameter descriptions
Parameter Range(Ú) Default(Ö) Type
15.49 PV Software version 0 to 32767 RO Uni NC
19.01 Local power module disable OFF (0) or On(1) 0 RW Uni NC PS
19.02 Local power module status word 1 -32768 to 32767 RO Bi NC
19.03 Local power module array DC voltage 0 to 1200 RO Uni NC
19.04 Local power module alarm code 0 to 114 RO Uni NC
19.05 Local power module state 0 to 12 RO Uni NC
±400 for SPV248
19.06 Local power module AC RMS Current RO Bi NC
±552 for SPV300 and larger
19.07 Local power module status word 2 -32768 to 32767 RO Bi NC
19.09 Power module external fan reference 0 to 32767 RO Uni NC
19.11 Pre-charge contactor closed override delay 0 to 2000 0 RW Uni US
19.12 AC contactor closed override delay 0 to 2000 0 RW Uni US
19.13 DC line contactor closed override delay 0 to 2000 0 RW Uni US
Starting current loop P gain SPV248=41
19.14 0 to 30000 RW Uni US
>=SPV300=53
19.15 Starting current loop I gain 0 to 30000 1000 RW Uni US
Running current loop P gain SPV248=41
19.16 0 to 30000 RW Uni US
SPV300=53
19.17 Running current loop I gain 0 to 30000 1000 RW Uni US
19.31 Close DC bus charging contactor indication OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
19.32 DC bus charging contactor closed OFF (0) or On (1) RW Bit US
19.33 Close AC contactor indication OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
19.34 AC contactor closed OFF (0) or On (1) RW Bit US
19.35 Close DC main contactor indication OFF (0) or On (1) RO Bit US
19.36 DC main contactor closed OFF (0) or On (1) RW Bit US
19.50 Load parameter defaults OFF (0) or On (1) OFF (0) RW Bit US
20.01 Close DC bus charging contactor 0 to 32767 RO Uni
20.02 Close AC main contactor 0 to 32767 RO Uni
20.03 Close DC main contactor 0 to 32767 RO Uni

8.3.2 Parameter descriptions


15.49 PV Software version
Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write
This shows the software version of the PV solution software in the power module where V1.13.24 = 11324

19.01 Local power module disable


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF(0) or On (1)
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms read

This parameter should be set to a 1 to prevent a power module from being selected by the System controller module. This parameter provides a
method to prevent a known faulty module from being selected by the System controller module. If this parameter is set to a 1 (On) when the module
is enabled, it will be disabled and disconnected.

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19.02 Local power module status word 1


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -32768 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the status of the local power module as shown overleaf.
The function of each of the used bit is shown in the table below:
Bit Description
0 Indicates the local power module is enabled (software and hardware)
1 Indicates the power module is not available to regenerate power
2 Indicates the local power module has successfully been enabled
3 Indicates the power module is ok (excluding UV trip)
4 Indicates the fan supply to the local power module is tripped.
This is the CTNet communications watchdog pulse. This has been slowed to 1 Hz to make the parameter readable as a decimal
5
value.
6 Indicates the DC bus is charged (Pr 3.07 = 1)
7 Indicates the local power module is a CTSync slave, and contact has been lost from the CTSync master
8 Indicates the power module is a voltage master. When not set, the power module is a current slave.
9 Indicates a power contactor on the local power module has failed to open
10 Indicates PV firmware is not loaded in to the power module
11 Indicates the user has disabled the local power module
12 Indicates the power module is active [Pr 10.02 = On (1)]
13 Indicates the power module is in short term over current trip recovery
14 Indicates that the local power module E-stop relay is ok [On (1) = ok]
Indicates that the local power module is pre-charged and that the AC contactor has closed when the power module is configured
15 as a current slave module. This indicates that this power module is ready to be synchronized to the AC main supply, prior to a
rapid start.

19.03 Local power module array DC voltage


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 1200
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter displays the DC voltage measured on the terminals of the PV array. This voltage is measured by the System controller and sent to the
power module via communications.

19.04 Local power module alarm code


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 114
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter displays the power module alarm code for diagnostic purposes. The possible values and a description of their meaning are provided
in the table overleaf:

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Parameter value
Description
(error code)
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a power module trip. Check
1
the power module trip log Pr 10.20.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a CTNet watchdog error. This
2 can be caused by a connection problem to the system controller, or an incorrect module assignment e.g. The CTNet module
must be >0 and <15.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
3
controller disable in master state 2. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
4
controller disable in master state 3. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
5
controller disable in master state 4. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
6
controller disable in master state 5. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
7
controller disable in master state 6. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
8
controller disable in master state 7. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the pre-charge contactor failed
9
to open.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main AC contactor failed to
10
open.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main DC contactor failed to
11
open.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was either the main AC or main DC
12
contactor opened while in the running state (state 8)
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a power module trip. Check the
101
power module trip log Pr 10.20
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a CTNet watchdog error. This
102 can be caused by a connection problem to the System controller, or an incorrect module assignment e.g. The CTNet module
must be >0 and <15.
103 The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a CTSync loss error.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
104
controller disable in slave state 2. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
105
controller disable in slave state 3. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
106
controller disable in slave state 4. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
107
controller disable in slave state 5. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
108
controller disable in slave state 6. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
109
controller disable in slave state 7. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
110
controller disable in slave state 8. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the pre-charge contactor failed
111
to open.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main AC contactor failed to
112
open.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main DC contactor failed to
113
open.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was either the main AC or main DC
114
contactor opened while in the running state (state 9)

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19.05 Local power module state


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 12
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the operating state of the local power module software, (when the CTNet module number is selected >0 and <15). All power
modules are capable of becoming either a voltage master or a current slave therefore bit 8 of the local power module status word, (Pr 19.02), must be
checked to determine if the local power module is in voltage master mode or current slave mode.
The operating states for voltage mode are as follows:
State Description
This is the idle state. The software will wait in this state until the System controller module sends an enable signal via the local
1 module control word. In this state all of the power contactor control bits are forced to 0 (OFF). A starting time is sampled here for
the timeout function.
The contactors are forced open, and it is verified that they are open. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the
2 local power module, the contactors will be opened, the System controller module will be informed that a contactor is stuck closed
[Pr 19.02 bit 9 = On (1)] and a t065 to t078 trip will be initiated.
The pre-charge contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.31 = On (1)] . The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the
following:
• Contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11)
3 • The power module DC bus charged parameter is set [Pr 3.07 = On (1)]
• (((Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)-10) & the current sensor trim has happened) or
(Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)+150) or (Pr 5.05 > 750))
If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened.
The pre-charge contactor is opened in this state, [Pr 19.31 = OFF (0)]. The contactor is then verified as being open by checking the
contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = OFF (0)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will
4
stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened. In the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller
module will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip (t065 to t078 trip).
The AC contactor is closed in this state (Pr 19.33 = 1 or On). The contactor is verified as being closed [either Pr 19.34 is set to On
5 (1), or the time set in Pr 19.12 has elapsed]. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and
the contactors will be opened.
This state enables the power module via the software enable [Pr 6.15 = On (1)], and the hardware enable which must be present all
of the time). It is verified that the local power module is enabled by checking that the output has become active (Pr 10.02 =1 or On).
6 It is checked that the array voltage is <825 Vdc. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module
and the contactors will be opened. In this state the PV array DC voltage is matched with the power module DC bus voltage before
the contactor is closed to prevent large currents from flowing due to a voltage difference.
The DC contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.35 = On (1)] The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the contactor
7 feedback, [Pr 19.36 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.13. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local
power module and the contactors will be opened.
This is the main running state. The software will remain in this state until the System controller module disengages the local power
8
module via the local control word, or if the local power module trips.
This state disables the local power module via the software enable Pr 6.15 = OFF (0). It is verified that the local power module is
9 disabled by checking that the output has become inactive (Pr 10.02 = 0 or OFF). The local power module will indicate via the status
word that the module is not available for work during the local power module shut down.
This state disables all power contactors [Pr 19.31, Pr 19.33, Pr 19.35 = OFF (0)]. The contactors are then verified as being open by
checking the contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32, Pr 19.34, Pr 19.36 = 0 (OFF)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11, Pr 19.12, Pr 19.13. In
10
the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller module will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip
(t065 to t078 trip).
This state implements a short turn on delay, implemented to prevent the system from turning the power module on immediately
11
after it has been turned off.

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The operating states for current slave mode are as follows:


State Description
This is the idle state. The software will wait in this state until the System controller module sends an enable signal via the local
1 module control word. In this state all of the power contactor control bits are forced to 0 (OFF). A starting time is sampled here for
the timeout function.
The contactors are forced open, and it is verified that they are open. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the
2 local power module, the contactors will be opened, the System controller module will be informed that a contactor is stuck closed
[Pr 19.02 bit 9 = On (1)] and a t065 to t078 trip will be initiated.
In this state CTSync is verified as working. If the CTSync network has not “initialized”, the timeout function will stop the local
3
power module and the contactors will be opened.
The pre-charge contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.31 = On (1)] . The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking
the following:
• Contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11)
4 • The power module DC bus charged parameter is set [Pr 3.07 = On (1)]
• (((Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)-10) & the current sensor trim has happened) or
(Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)+150) or (Pr 5.05 > 750))
If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened.
The pre-charge contactor is opened in this state, [Pr 19.31 = OFF (0)]. The contactor is then verified as being open by checking
the contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = OFF (0)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function
5
will stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened. In the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System
controller module will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip (t065 to t078 trip).
The AC contactor is closed in this state (Pr 19.33 = 1 or On). The contactor is verified as being closed [either Pr 19.34 is set to On
6 (1), or the time set in Pr 19.12 has elapsed]. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and
the contactors will be opened.
This state enables the power module via the software enable [Pr 6.15 = On (1)], and the hardware enable which must be present
all of the time. It is verified that the local power module is enabled by checking that the output has become active (Pr 10.02 =1 or
7 On). It is checked that the array voltage is <825 Vdc. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power
module and the contactors will be opened. In this state the PV array DC voltage is matched with the power module DC bus
voltage before the contactor is closed to prevent large currents from flowing due to a voltage difference.
The DC contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.35 = On (1)] The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the
8 contactor feedback, [Pr 19.36 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.13. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will
stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened.
This is the main running state. The software will remain in this state until the System controller module disengages the local power
9
module via the local control word, or if the local power module trips.
This state disables the local power module via the software enable Pr 6.15 = OFF (0). It is verified that the local power module is
10 disabled by checking that the output has become inactive (Pr 10.02 = 0 or OFF). The local power module will indicate via the
status word that the module is not available for work during the local power module shut down.
This state disables all power contactors [Pr 19.31, Pr 19.33, Pr 19.35 = OFF (0)]. The contactors are then verified as being open
by checking the contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32, Pr 19.34, Pr 19.36 = 0 (OFF)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11, Pr 19.12,
11
Pr 19.13). In the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller module will be tripped on a stuck closed power
contactor trip (t065 to t078 trip).
This state implements a short turn on delay, implemented to prevent the system from turning the power module on immediately
12
after it has been turned off.

19.06 Local power module AC RMS current


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
± 400 for SPV248
Range
± 552 for SPV300 and larger
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter displays the local power module active RMS current, with the offset present in Pr 4.02 corrected.

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19.07 Local power module status word 2


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -32768 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter indicates the status of the local power module as shown in the following table.

Bit Description
0 Indicates that the local power module has tripped over voltage (O V)
Indicates that the local power module has detected a difference greater than the maximum of the MPP test step or 10 V,
1
between the PV array voltage and the MPP voltage.
2 Indicates that the local power module is active and synchronized to the AC grid
Indicates that a trip with a trip code greater than or equal to 200 was seen in the trip log which could be a power module HF fault
or a Solutions Module fault, and that the power module cannot be run as part of the SPV system.
In the event of a HF trip, the SPV inverter must be disabled by setting Pr 18.31 to OFF (0) on the System controller module, and
the SPV inverter must be completely powered down (including removing any auxiliary power supplies) to clear the HF trip.
3 In the event of a fault :
• The system must be disabled [Pr 18.31 = 0 (OFF)] on the System controller module)
• The trip log must be cleared [Pr 6.28 set to a 1 (On) and then back to a 0 (OFF)] so that Pr 10.20 = no.tr.
• If the trip is an HFXX type, the power must be cycled to attempt to clear the fault
• If the trip is SLX.df (indicating that a new Solutions Module has been installed), parameters must be saved (Pr x.00 to 1000)
and the red reset button pressed.
4 Indicates that the local power module is in current limit.
5 Indicates that the local switching frequency is 3 kHz. When set indicates that the local switching frequency is 4 kHz.
6 Indicates the DC charge contactor operated correctly but the DC voltage did not rise to the turn on threshold of √2 x Vac +35.
7 Indicates that the local power module has gone in to high speed ride-through mode.
Indicates that there is >10 % difference between Pr 4.02 and Pr 4.04 that has been present for longer than 5 s. This indicates a
8
potential hardware problem.
Indicates that there is >10 % difference between Pr 4.17 and Pr 4.40 that has been present for longer than 5 s. This indicates a
9
potential hardware problem.

19.09 Power module external fan reference


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write

This indicates the fan speed reference where 0 to 32767 represents 0 to 10 V. PV Inverter analog output 1 T9 uses this reference. When the power
module is running, this will be set to 32767. When the system is stopped there is a 5 minute fan overrun to ensure the hot power modules are cooled
before power is removed. This is only relevant if the system has individual centrifugal fans installed per power module.

19.11 Pre-charge contactor closed override delay


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 2000
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms write

Setting this parameter to zero will cause the power module to wait for a signal (via Pr 19.32) to confirm that the charging contactor has successfully
closed. If this parameter is greater than zero then the module will wait the number of milliseconds set here before assuming that the contactor has
closed.

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19.12 AC contactor closed override delay


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 2000
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms write

Setting this parameter to zero will cause the power module to wait for a signal (via Pr 19.34) to confirm that the AC contactor has successfully closed.
If this parameter is greater than zero then the module will wait the number of milliseconds set here before assuming that the contactor has closed.

19.13 DC line contactor closed override delay


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 2000
Default 0
Update rate 4 ms write

Setting this parameter to zero will cause the power module to wait for a signal (via Pr 19.36) to confirm that the DC line contactor has successfully
closed. If this parameter is greater than zero then the module will wait the number of milliseconds set here before assuming that the contactor has
closed.

19.14 Starting current loop P gain


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 30000
Default SPV248=41, >=SPV300=53
Update rate 4 ms write

Starting current loop P gain. This controls Pr 4.13 the current loop P gain when the power module state machine is in a lower numbered state than
running (<8 on voltage master and <9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune the behavior to the given supply on start up.

19.15 Starting current loop I gain


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 30000
Default 1000
Update rate 4 ms write

Starting current loop I gain. This controls the Pr 4.14 the current loop I gain when the power module state machine is in lower numbered state than
running (<8 on voltage master and <9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune the behavior to the given supply on start up.

19.16 Running current loop P gain


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 30000
Default SPV248=41, >=SPV300=53
Update rate 4 ms write

Running current loop P gain. This controls Pr 4.13 the current loop P gain when the power module state machine is in the running state or higher
numbered state (>=8 on voltage master and <9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune the behavior to the given supply when running.

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19.17 Running current loop I gain


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Range 0 to 30000
Default 1000
Update rate 4 ms write
Running current loop I gain. This controls Pr 4.14 the current loop I gain when the power module state machine is in the running state or higher
numbered state (>=8 on voltage master and >=9 on the current slave). This allows the user to tune the behavior to the given supply when running.

19.31 Close DC bus charging contactor indication


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter will be set to one when the power module charging contactor should be closed. Pr 20.01 bit 14 is set at the same time as Pr 19.31
where Pr 20.01 controls the digital output since it is a volatile parameter and cannot be saved to 1 (On).

19.32 DC bus charging contactor closed


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Update rate 4 ms read

This parameter indicates that the charging contactor has closed.

19.33 Close AC contactor indication


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter will be set to one when the power module AC contactor should be closed. Pr 20.02 bit 14 is set at the same time as Pr 19.33 where Pr
20.02 controls the digital output since it is a volatile parameter and cannot be saved to 1 (On).

19.34 AC contactor closed


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Update rate 4 ms read

This parameter indicates that the AC contactor has closed.

19.35 Close DC main contactor indication


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter will be set to one when the power module DC line contactor should be closed. Pr 20.03 bit 14 is set at the same time as Pr 19.35
where Pr 20.03 controls the digital since it is a volatile parameter and cannot be saved to 1 (On).

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19.36 DC main contactor closed


Location Power module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter indicates that the DC main contactor has closed.

19.50 Load parameter defaults


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1 1 1
Range OFF (0) or On (1)
Default OFF (0)
Update rate 4 ms read

When set to 1 (On), this parameter will load default values in the power module parameters.
When the defaults have been applied this parameter will be reset to 0 (OFF). A parameter save is performed automatically. Power module parameter
defaults must be loaded with the SPV in the idle state, Pr 18.31=0 (OFF).

20.01 Close DC bus charging contactor


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding

Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter will be set to 32767 when the inverter module charging contactor should be closed. Pr 20.01 is used since it is volatile and cannot be
saved to 1 (On).

20.02 Close AC main contactor


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding

Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms read
This parameter will be set to 32767 when the power module AC main contactor should be closed. Pr 20.02 is used since it is volatile and cannot be
saved to 1 (On).

20.03 Close DC main contactor


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding

Range 0 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms read

This parameter will be set to 32767 when the power module DC main contactor should be closed. Pr 20.03 is used since it is volatile and cannot be
saved to 1 (On).

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9 Diagnostics
This chapter details the various trip and alarm conditions for the SPV inverter.

Users must not attempt to repair an SPV inverter if it is faulty, nor carry out fault diagnosis other than through the use of the diagnostic
features described in this chapter.
If an SPV inverter is faulty, please contact an authorized Emerson Drive Center or distributor for repair.
WARNING

9.1 Trip indications


If the system controller module trips, then all Power modules are disabled. If a Power module configured as a current slave trips, then the SPV
inverter will continue to run and reset the tripped module. If it is not possible to reset the tripped module, then a different Power module will be
enabled as a current slave. If a Power module that is configured as a voltage master trips, then the SPV inverter will stop and will try and reset the
Power module. If it is not possible to reset the Power module, the system controller module will reconfigure the SPV inverter to use a different power
module as a voltage master as long as additional power modules are available.
If the system controller module or a Power module trips, the upper display indicates that a trip has occurred and the lower display shows the trip.
Trips are listed alphabetically in Table 9-1 and Table 9-4.

9.2 System controller module trip


When a system trip is instigated by the System controller module then all power modules are disabled immediately. If there is a chopper installed for
high open-circuit voltage applications then this will also be disabled after the enable has been removed for the power modules.
9.2.1 System controller module trip indications
Table 9-1 System controller module trip indications
Trip Description
C.Acc SMARTCARD trip: SMARTCARD Read / Write fail
Ensure that the SMARTCARD is installed correctly.
185
If the fault persists, replace the SMARTCARD.
C.Err SMARTCARD trip: SMARTCARD data is corrupted
Ensure that the SMARTCARD is installed correctly.
182
If the fault persists, replace the SMARTCARD.
EEF EEPROM data corrupted
This trip can only be cleared by loading default parameters and saving parameters.
Follow the procedure below to do this.
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1233 and reset the module
31 • Set Pr 17.23 to 100 for the System Controller or 101 for the HMI data transfer module
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1001 and reset the module
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1070 and reset the module
• Set Pr 19.50 to 1
HF01 to HF13 Data processing error
Hardware fault – contact an Emerson Drive Centre or distributor
HF17 to HF32 Hardware error
217 to 232 Hardware fault – contact an Emerson Drive Centre or distributor
O.CtL Control board over temperature
Check enclosure fans are still functioning correctly
Check enclosure ventilation paths
23
Check enclosure door filters
Check ambient temperature
O.Ld1 Digital output overload: total current drawn from 24 V supply and digital outputs exceeds 200 mA
26 Check total load on digital outputs (terminals 24, 25 and 26) and +24 V rail (terminal 22)
PS Internal power supply fault
Remove any Solutions Modules and reset
5
Hardware fault - return drive to supplier
PS.10V 10 V user power supply current greater than 10 mA
Check wiring to terminal 4
8
Reduce load on terminal 4
PS.24V 24 V power supply overload
9 Ensure that the 24 V supply to the module is within specification

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Trip Description
PSAVE.Er Power down save parameters in the EEPROM are corrupt
Indicates that the power was removed when power down save parameters were being saved.
The nodule will revert back to the power down parameter set that was last saved successfully.
37
Perform a user save (Pr xx.00 to 1001 and reset the module) to ensure this trip does or occur the next time the module is
powered up.
SAVE.Er User save parameters in the EEPROM are corrupt
Indicates that the power was removed when user parameters were being saved.
The module will revert back to the user parameter set that was last saved successfully.
36
Perform a user save (Pr xx.00 to 1001 and reset the module) to ensure this trip does or occur the next time the module is
powered up.
SLX.dF Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module type installed in slot X changed
204, 209, 214 Save parameters and reset
SLX.Er Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module in slot X has detected a fault
202, 207, 212 Refer to the user guide for the solutions module in the relevant slot
SLX.HF Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module X hardware fault
Ensure Solutions Module is installed correctly
200, 205, 210
Return Solutions Module to supplier
SLX.nF Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module has been removed
Ensure Solutions Module is installed correctly
203, 208, 213 Reinstall Solutions Module
Save parameters and reset
SLX.tO Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module watchdog timeout
Press reset.
201, 206, 211
If the trip persists, contact the supplier of the power module
t042 No power modules detected in the system on power up
Check CTNet network physical connections.
42
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of all the power modules.
t043 All start attempts have been used
43 Check power module trip logs and local power module alarm code Pr 19.04
t044 All master start attempts have been used
44 Check power module trip logs and local power module alarm code Pr 19.04
t045 CTNet network discovery has timed out
Check CT Net network physical connections.
45
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of all the power modules.
t046 All of the CTNet modules detected on system have a watchdog failure
Check CT Net network physical connections.
46
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of all the power modules.
t047 CTNet module 1 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
47
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t048 CTNet module 2 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
48
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t049 CTNet module 3 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
49
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t050 CTNet module 4 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
50
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t051 CTNet module 5 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
51
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t052 CTNet module 6 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
52
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.

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Trip Description
t053 CTNet module 7 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
53
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t054 CTNet module 8 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
54
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t055 CTNet module 9 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
55
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t056 CTNet module 10 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
56
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t057 CTNet module 11 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
57
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t058 CTNet module 12 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
58
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t059 CTNet module 13 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
59
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t060 CTNet module 14 is no longer present on the network
Check CT Net network physical connections.
60
Check that 24 V is present between terminal 1 (0 V) and 2 (+24 V) on the control terminals of the power module.
t061 Chopper has failed to operate, before the system timed out
61 Check for chopper resistor over-temperature, faulty chopper unit, faulty interface relays and fault SM-I/O Plus relay.
t062 Chopper was tripped when the DC bus voltage was >825 Vdc
62 Check for chopper resistor over-temperature, faulty chopper unit, faulty interface relays and fault SM-I/O Plus relay.
t063 The minimum load relay failed to close before the system timed out
Check for minimum power test resistor over-temperature, faulty interface relay, faulty contactors and faulty System controller
63
module relay.
t064 The minimum load relay failed to open before the system timed out
Check for minimum power test resistor over-temperature, faulty interface relay, faulty contactors and faulty System controller
64
module relay.
t065 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 1
65 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t066 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 2
66 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t067 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 3
67 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t068 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 4
68 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t069 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 5
69 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t070 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 6
70 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t071 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 7
71 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t072 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 8
72 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t073 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 9
73 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t074 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 10
74 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.

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Trip Description
t075 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 11
75 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t076 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 12
76 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t077 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 13
77 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.
t078 A contactor has been detected that is stuck in the closed position on module 14
78 Refer to the local power module error log (Pr 19.04) for details of the exact contactor and replace as necessary.

9.2.2 System controller module alarm indications


If the System controller module enters an alarm condition, the 2nd row of the display will flash alternately between with the alarm indication and the
data displayed. If action is not taken to eliminate the alarm, the module may eventually trip.
Table 9-2 System controller module alarm indications
Alarm Description
Hot Module over temperature alarm is active
The ambient temperature around the control PCB is approaching the over temperature threshold (see the O.CtL trip).

9.2.3 System controller module status indications


Table 9-3 System controller module status indications
Status Description
inh Inhibit
The SPV inverter is inhibited.
This indicates that either the voltage or frequency monitoring relay has opened, or an E-stop button has been pressed.
rdY Ready
The SPV inverter is ready to run or is running.
triP Trip condition
The module has tripped. The trip code appears on the lower display.

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9.3 Power Module trip


In the event of a voltage master or current slave trip, except an under voltage (UV) trip, the PV software will immediately disable the power module,
and then disconnect all power contactors for that power module (pre-charge, main DC and main AC).
The PV software checks for a power module trip on every scan of main system task.
In addition to the trips, alarms and status indications listed here, more information about the operating state of the power module is available in
Pr 19.02, Pr 19.04, Pr 19.05 and Pr 19.07 on the power module as shown below.
19.02 Local power module status word 1
Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -32768 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the status of the local power module.
The function of each bit used is shown in the following table.
Bit Description
0 Indicates the local power module is enabled (software and hardware)
1 Indicates the power module is not available to regenerate power
2 Indicates the local power module has successfully been enabled
3 Indicates the power module is ok (excluding UV trip)
4 Indicates the fan supply to the local power module is tripped.
5 This is the CTNet communications watchdog pulse. This has been slowed to 1 Hz to make the parameter readable as a decimal value.
6 Indicates the DC bus is charged (Pr 3.07 = 1)
7 Indicates the local power module is a CTSync slave, and contact has been lost from the CTSync master
8 Indicates the power module is a voltage master. When not set, the power module is a current slave.
9 Indicates a power contactor on the local power module has failed to open
10 Indicates PV firmware is not loaded in to the power module
11 Indicates the user has disabled the local power module
12 Indicates the power module is active [Pr 10.02 = On (1)]
13 Indicates the power module is in short term over current trip recovery
14 Indicates that the local power module E-stop relay is ok [On (1) = ok]
Indicates that the local power module is pre-charged and that the AC contactor has closed when the power module is configured as a
15
current slave module. This indicates that this power module is ready to be synchronized to the AC main supply, prior to a rapid start.

19.04 Local power module alarm code


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 114
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter displays the power module alarm code for diagnostic purposes. The possible values and a description of their meaning are provided
in the table overleaf:

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Parameter value
Description
(error code)
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a power module trip. Check the
1
power module trip log Pr 10.20.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a CTNet watchdog error. This
2 can be caused by a connection problem to the system controller, or an incorrect module assignment e.g. The CTNet module
must be >0 and <15.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
3
controller disable in master state 2. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
4
controller disable in master state 3. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
5
controller disable in master state 4. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
6
controller disable in master state 5. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
7
controller disable in master state 6. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
8
controller disable in master state 7. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all master states.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the pre-charge contactor failed
9
to open.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main AC contactor failed to
10
open.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main DC contactor failed to
11
open.
The local power module was a voltage master, and the last problem which caused it to stop was either the main AC or main DC
12
contactor opened while in the running state (state 8).
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a power module trip. Check the
101
power module trip log Pr 10.20
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a CTNet watchdog error. This can
102 be caused by a connection problem to the System controller, or an incorrect module assignment e.g. The CTNet module must
be >0 and <15.
103 The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was a CTSync loss error.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
104
controller disable in slave state 2. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
105
controller disable in slave state 3. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
106
controller disable in slave state 4. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
107
controller disable in slave state 5. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
108
controller disable in slave state 6. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
109
controller disable in slave state 7. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop when powering up was a timeout or
110
controller disable in slave state 8. See Pr 19.05 for the description of all slave states.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the pre-charge contactor failed to
111
open.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main AC contactor failed to
112
open.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was the main DC contactor failed to
113
open.
The local power module was a current slave, and the last problem which caused it to stop was either the main AC or main DC
114
contactor opened while in the running state (state 9)

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19.05 Local power module state


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range 0 to 12
Update rate 4 ms write
This parameter indicates the operating state of the local power module software, (when the CTNet module number is selected >0 and <15). All power
modules are capable of becoming either a voltage master or a current slave therefore bit 8 of the local power module status word, (Pr 19.02), must be
checked to determine if the local power module is in voltage master mode or current slave mode.

The operating states for voltage mode are as follows:


State Description
This is the idle state. The software will wait in this state until the System controller module sends an enable signal via the local
1 module control word. In this state all of the power contactor control bits are forced to 0 (OFF). A starting time is sampled here for
the timeout function.
The contactors are forced open, and it is verified that they are open. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the
2 local power module, the contactors will be opened, the System controller module will be informed that a contactor is stuck closed
[Pr 19.02 bit 9 = On (1)] and a t065 to t078 trip will be initiated.
The pre-charge contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.31 = On (1)] . The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the
following:
• Contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11)
3 • The power module DC bus charged parameter is set [Pr 3.07 = On (1)]
• (((Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)-10) & The current sensor trim has happened) or
(Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)+150) or (Pr 5.05 > 750))
If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened.
The pre-charge contactor is opened in this state, [Pr 19.31 = OFF (0)]. The contactor is then verified as being open by checking the
contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = OFF (0)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11). If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will
4
stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened. In the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller
module will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip (t065 to t078 trip).
The AC contactor is closed in this state (Pr 19.33 = 1 or On). The contactor is verified as being closed [either Pr 19.34 is set to On
5 (1), or the time set in Pr 19.12 has elapsed]. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and
the contactors will be opened.
This state enables the power module via the software enable [Pr 6.15 = On (1)], and the hardware enable which must be present all
of the time). It is verified that the local power module is enabled by checking that the output has become active (Pr 10.02 =1 or On).
6 It is checked that the array voltage is <825 Vdc. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module
and the contactors will be opened. In this state the PV array DC voltage is matched with the power module DC bus voltage before
the contactor is closed to prevent large currents from flowing due to a voltage difference.
The DC contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.35 = On (1)] The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the contactor
7 feedback, [Pr 19.36 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.13). If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local
power module and the contactors will be opened.
This is the main running state. The software will remain in this state until the System controller module module disengages the local
8
power module via the local control word, or if the local power module trips.
This state disables the local power module via the software enable Pr 6.15 = OFF (0). It is verified that the local power module is
9 disabled by checking that the output has become inactive (Pr 10.02 = 0 or OFF). The local power module will indicate via the status
word that the module is not available for work during the local power module shut down.
This state disables all power contactors [Pr 19.31, Pr 19.33, Pr 19.35 = OFF (0)]. The contactors are then verified as being open by
checking the contactor feedback, (Pr 19.32, Pr 19.34, Pr 19.36 = 0 or OFF, or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11, Pr 19.12, Pr 19.13).
10
In the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller module will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip
(t065 to t078 trip).
This state implements a short turn on delay, implemented to prevent the system from turning the power module on immediately
11
after it has been turned off.

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The operating states for current slave mode are as follows:


State Description
This is the idle state. The software will wait in this state until the System controller module sends an enable signal via the local module
1 control word. In this state all of the power contactor control bits are forced to 0 (OFF). A starting time is sampled here for the timeout
function.
The contactors are forced open, and it is verified that they are open. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local
2 power module, the contactors will be opened, the System controller module will be informed that a contactor is stuck closed [Pr 19.02 bit
9 = On (1)] and a t065 to t078 trip will be initiated.
In this state CTSync is verified as working. If the CTSync network has not “initialized”, the timeout function will stop the local power
3
module and the contactors will be opened.
The pre-charge contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.31 = On (1)] . The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the
following:
• Contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11)
4 • The power module DC bus charged parameter is set [Pr 3.07 = On (1)]
• (((Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)-10) & The current sensor trim has happened) or
(Pr 5.05 > (√2 x Pr 3.28)+150) or (Pr 5.05 > 750))
If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and the contactors will be opened.
The pre-charge contactor is opened in this state, [Pr 19.31 = OFF (0)]. The contactor is then verified as being open by checking the
contactor feedback, [Pr 19.32 = OFF (0)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11). If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop
5
the local power module and the contactors will be opened. In the event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller module
will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip (t065 to t078 trip).
The AC contactor is closed in this state (Pr 19.33 = 1 or On). The contactor is verified as being closed [either Pr 19.34 is set to On (1), or
6 the time set in Pr 19.12 has elapsed]. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and the contactors
will be opened.
This state enables the power module via the software enable [Pr 6.15 = On (1)], and the hardware enable which must be present all of
the time). It is verified that the local power module is enabled by checking that the output has become active (Pr 10.02 =1 or On). It is
7 checked that the array voltage is <825 Vdc. If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local power module and the
contactors will be opened. In this state the PV array DC voltage is matched with the power module DC bus voltage before the contactor
is closed to prevent large currents from flowing due to a voltage difference.
The DC contactor is closed in this state, [Pr 19.35 = On (1)] The contactor is then verified as being closed by checking the contactor
8 feedback, [Pr 19.36 = On (1)], or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.13). If the tests are not passed, the timeout function will stop the local
power module and the contactors will be opened.
This is the main running state. The software will remain in this state until the System controller module module disengages the local
9
power module via the local control word, or if the local power module trips.
This state disables the local power module via the software enable Pr 6.15 = OFF (0). It is verified that the local power module is
10 disabled by checking that the output has become inactive (Pr 10.02 = 0 or OFF). The local power module will indicate via the status word
that the module is not available for work during the local power module shut down.
This state disables all power contactors [Pr 19.31, Pr 19.33, Pr 19.35 = OFF (0)]. The contactors are then verified as being open by
checking the contactor feedback, (Pr 19.32, Pr 19.34, Pr 19.36 = 0 or OFF, or an elapsed time set in Pr 19.11, Pr 19.12, Pr 19.13). In the
11
event that the contactor is stuck closed the System controller module will be tripped on a stuck closed power contactor trip (t065 to t078
trip).
This state implements a short turn on delay, implemented to prevent the system from turning the power module on immediately after it
12
has been turned off.

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19.07 Local power module status word 2


Location Power Module
Bit SP FI DE Txt VM DP ND RA NC NV PT US RW BU PS
Coding
1
Range -32768 to 32767
Update rate 4 ms write

This parameter indicates the status of the local power module as shown in the following table.

Bit Description
0 Indicates that the local power module has tripped over voltage (O V)
Indicates that the local power module has detected a difference greater than the maximum of the MPP test step or 10V, between
1
the PV array voltage and the MPP voltage.
2 Indicates that the local power module is active and synchronized to the AC grid
Indicates that a trip with a trip code greater than or equal to 200 was seen in the trip log which could be a power module HF fault
or a Solutions Module fault, and that the power module cannot be run as part of the SPV system.
In the event of a HF trip, the SPV inverter must be disabled by setting Pr 18.31 to OFF (0) on the System controller module, and
the SPV inverter must be completely powered down (including removing any auxiliary power supplies) to clear the HF trip.
3 In the event of a fault :
• The system must be disabled [Pr 18.31 = 0 (OFF)] on the System controller module)
• The trip log must be cleared [Pr 6.28 set to a 1 (On) and then back to a 0 (OFF)] so that Pr 10.20 = no.tr.
• If the trip is an HFXX type, the power must be cycled to attempt to clear the fault
• If the trip is SLX.df (indicating that a new Solutions Module has been installed), parameters must be saved (Pr x.00 to 1000)
and the red reset button pressed.
4 Indicates that the local power module is in current limit.
5 Indicates that the local switching frequency is 3 kHz. When set indicates that the local switching frequency is 4 kHz.
6 Indicates the DC charge contactor operated correctly but the DC voltage did not rise to the turn on threshold of √2 x Vac +35.
7 Indicates that the local power module has gone in to high speed ride-through mode.
Indicates that there is >10 % difference between Pr 4.02 and Pr 4.04 that has been present for longer than 5 s. This indicates a
8
potential hardware problem.
Indicates that there is >10 % difference between Pr 4.17 and Pr 4.40 that has been present for longer than 5 s. This indicates a
9
potential hardware problem.

9.3.1 Power Module trip indications


Table 9-4 Power Module trip indications
Trip Description
EEF EEPROM data corrupted
This trip can only be cleared by loading default parameters and saving parameters.
Follow the procedure below to do this.
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1233 and reset the power module
• Set Pr 17.23 to the power module module number (1 to 14)
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1255
31 • Set Pr 0.48 (or Pr 11.31) to rEgEn (4) and reset the power module
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1001 and reset the power module
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1070 and reset the module
• Set Pr 19.50 to On (1)
• Set Pr 6.28 to On (1) and then to OFF (0)
• Set Pr 0.00 to 1001 and reset the power module
HF01 to HF13 Data processing error
Hardware fault – contact an Emerson Drive Centre or distributor
HF17 to HF32 Hardware error
217 to 232 Hardware fault – contact an Emerson Drive Centre or distributor

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Trip Description
L.SYnC Power module failed to synchronize to the supply voltage
The reasons for an L.SYnC trip are either because the supply frequency is out of range or the PLL (phase lock loop) within the
power module cannot synchronize to the AC waveforms. The power module will attempt to re-synchronize for 30 s before
tripping.
If an L.SYnC trip occurs, Pr 3.03 on the power module details the reason for the trip as follows.
Bit Status
39 0 Tripped during synchronization
1 Tripped while running
2 Reason for trip was supply frequency <30.0Hz
3 Reason for trip was supply frequency >100.0Hz
4 Reason for trip was PLL could not be synchronized

O.CtL Control board over temperature


Check enclosure fans are still functioning correctly
Check enclosure ventilation paths
23
Check enclosure door filters
Check ambient temperature
O.ht2 Heatsink over temperature
Check that the power module heatsink fans are functioning correctly
Check enclosure fans are functioning correctly
22 Check enclosure ventilation paths
Check enclosure door filters
Increase ventilation
Oht2.P Power module heatsink over temperature
Check that the power module heatsink fans are functioning correctly
Check enclosure fans are functioning correctly
105 Check enclosure ventilation paths
Check enclosure door filters
Increase ventilation
OI.AC Instantaneous output over current detected
Check that the AC supply is present and within specification for the inverter.
3
Check for AC supply based distortion.
OIAC.P Instantaneous output over current detected
Check that the AC supply is present and within specification for the inverter.
104
Check for AC supply based distortion.
OIdC.P Power module over current detected from IGBT on state voltage monitoring
Check AC and DC supply cable insulation.
109
Hardware fault - return power module to supplier
O.Ld1 Digital output overload: total current drawn from 24 V supply and digital outputs exceeds 200 mA
26 Check total load on digital outputs (terminals 24, 25, 26) and +24 V rail (terminal 22)
OV DC bus voltage has exceeded the peak level or the maximum continuous level for 15 seconds
Ensure that the maximum DC voltage from the PV array is within the specifications for the SPV inverter.
Ensure that the AC supply level is within the specifications for the SPV inverter.
Check DC main contactors are functioning correctly.
2
Check current loop gain settings, Power Module Pr 19.14 to Pr 19.17.
Inverter voltage rating Peak voltage Maximum continuous voltage level (15 s)
400 Vac 830 Vdc 815 Vdc
OV.P DC bus voltage has exceeded the peak level or the maximum continuous level for 15 seconds
Ensure that the maximum DC voltage from the PV array is within the specifications for the SPV inverter.
Ensure that the AC supply level is within the specifications for the SPV inverter.
Check DC main contactors are functioning correctly.
106
Check current loop gain settings, Power Module Pr 19.14 to Pr 19.17.
Inverter voltage rating Peak voltage Maximum continuous voltage level (15 s)
400 Vac 830 Vdc 815 Vdc
PH AC voltage input phase loss
32 Ensure all three phases are present and balanced
PS Internal power supply fault
Remove any Solutions Modules and reset
5
Hardware fault - return power module to supplier

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Trip Description
PS.10V 10 V user power supply current greater than 10mA
Check wiring to terminal 4
8
Reduce load on terminal 4
PS.24V 24V power supply overload
The total user load of the inverter and Solutions Modules has exceeded the internal 24 V power supply limit.
9
Ensure that the 24 V supply to the module is within specification
PSAVE.Er Power down save parameters in the EEPROM are corrupt
Indicates that the power was removed when power down save parameters were being saved.
The nodule will revert back to the power down parameter set that was last saved successfully.
37
Perform a user save (Pr xx.00 to 1001 and reset the module) to ensure this trip does or occur the next time the module is
powered up.
SAVE.Er User save parameters in the EEPROM are corrupt
Indicates that the power was removed when user parameters were being saved.
The module will revert back to the user parameter set that was last saved successfully.
36
Perform a user save (Pr xx.00 to 1001 and reset the module) to ensure this trip does or occur the next time the module is
powered up.
SLX.dF Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module type installed in slot X changed
204, 209, 214 Save parameters and reset
SLX.Er Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module in slot X has detected a fault
202, 207, 212 Refer to the user guide for the solutions module in the relevant slot
SLX.HF Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module X hardware fault
Ensure Solutions Module is installed correctly
200, 205, 210
Return Solutions Module to supplier
SLX.nF Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module has been removed
Ensure Solutions Module is installed correctly
203, 208, 213 Reinstall Solutions Module
Save parameters and reset
SLX.tO Solutions Module slot X trip: Solutions Module watchdog timeout
Press reset.
201, 206, 211
If the trip persists, contact the supplier of the power module
The local module has been found to be incorrect i.e. not PV variant. Only PV variants of Unidrive SP can be used in a
t040
PV system.
40 Replace power module control sub assembly with correct type.
th Line inductor thermistor trip
Check line inductor temperature
Check enclosure fans are functioning correctly
24 Check enclosure ventilation paths
Check enclosure door filters
Increase ventilation
Unid.P Power module unidentified trip
110 Hardware fault - return power module to supplier
UV DC bus under voltage threshold reached
The power module will be in this condition if the System controller module has not commanded the DC or AC contactors to
close.
1
Inverter voltage rating UV trip threshold UV trip reset threshold
400 Vac 330 Vdc 350 Vdc

9.3.2 Power module alarm indications


If the power module enters an alarm condition, the 2nd row of the display will flash alternately between with the alarm indication and the data
displayed. If action is not taken to eliminate the alarm except the module may eventually trip.
Table 9-5 Power module alarm indications
Alarm Description
Hot Module over temperature alarm is active
The power module heatsink temperature is approaching the over temperature threshold (see the O.ht2 trip), or the ambient temperature around the
control PCB is approaching the over temperature threshold (see the O.CtL trip).

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9.3.3 Power module status indications


Table 9-6 Power module status indications
Status Description
ACt Power module active
The power module is enabled and synchronized to the AC line
inh Inhibit
The power module is inhibited
SCAn Scanning
The power module is enabled and is synchronizing to the AC line
triP Trip condition
The module has tripped. The trip code appears on the lower display

9.3.4 Loss of CTNet


In the event that CTNet communications are lost, the local power module will disable its self, and disconnect all power contactors (pre-charge, main
DC and main AC). The module will remain shut down until CTNet communications resumes, after which the power module will be ready for duty.
9.3.5 Loss of CTSync on a Current Slave
In the event that CTSync communications are lost, the local current slave module will disable itself, and disconnect all power contactors (pre-charge,
main DC and main AC). The Power module will remain shut down until CTSync communications are reestablished, after which the power module will
be reactivated.

9.4 Trip history


The System controller module and the power modules contain a log of the last ten trips which have occurred in Pr 10.29 to Pr 10.29.
Pr 10.20 is the most recent trip or the current trip if the module is in a trip condition. Pr 10.29 is the oldest trip. Each time a new trip occurs, all the
parameters move down one, such that the current trip is stored in Pr 10.20 and the oldest trip is lost off the bottom of the log.
It is possible to clear the trip logs in all power modules by setting Pr 19.48 on the System controller module or HMI data transfer module to On (1). The
trip log in an individual module can be reset by setting Pr 6.28 in the module to On (1) and then back to OFF (1).

9.5 Isolation monitor


The SPV inverter contains an isolation monitor device to detect a ground fault on a normally floating PV array. If an isolation failure of the PV array is
detected the indicator mounted above the power analyzer will illuminate and bit 6 of Pr 19.21 on the System controller module will be set. The SPV
inverter will not be disabled and will continue to operate.

9.6 Ground fault detector and interrupter


If one leg of the DC connection from the PV array in connected to ground then the SPV inverter will contain a ground fault detector and interrupter
(GFDI). If a ground fault condition occurs the GFDI will trip the emergency stop circuit which will shutdown the SPV inverter and disconnect it from the
AC grid. In addition to this the indicator above the power analyzer will illuminate and bit 6 of Pr 19.21 on the System controller module will be set to 1.
To reset the GFDI the fuse will need to be replaced. The fuse installed is a Mersen fuse (CT part number C-4300-0000, Mersen part number
J075747). The 4 A current rating is installed as standard.

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10 Technical data 10.2.2 Installation (overvoltage) category


The inverter is designed for use in electrical installations with installation
10.1 Electrical data category up to III according to IEC 60664-1. The withstand voltage for
transient impulses (surges) between both AC and DC power terminals
10.1.1 Current and power ratings and ground is 6 kV, which is limited to 4 kV by the use of metal oxide
Table 10-1 SPV Current and power ratings (45 °C ambient varistors (MOVs). When used with a suitable isolation transformer it will
temperature) not normally be necessary to provide any additional voltage surge
Rated AC Rated DC Rated apparent power protection at the AC terminals. The surge protection device installed at
Model current current (at 340 Vac)* the DC side conforms to IEC 61643-11. The photovoltaic array
A A kVA installation must be provided with a correctly designed surge protection
SPV248** 246** 300** 145** arrangement in order to protect it from the effects of lightning. This is
beyond the scope of the inverter supplier.
SPV300 300 350 175
SPV600 600 700 350 10.2.3 MPPT voltage (also DC operating voltage)
SPV900 900 1050 530 The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) voltage range is the DC
SPV1200 1200 1400 700 operating voltage with a range of (√2 x AC voltage) + 30V to 800 Vdc
with an absolute range of 400 Vdc to 800 Vdc.
SPV1500 1500 1750 880
SPV1800 1800 2100 1060 10.2.4 Maximum DC switch-on voltage
SPV2100 2100 2450 1230 • With 1000Vdc turn-on (chopper) option: 1000 Vdc
• Without 1000Vdc turn-on (chopper) option: 800 Vdc
SPV2400 2400 2800 1410
If the open circuit voltage of the PV array exceeds 1000 Vdc with the
SPV2700 2700 3150 1590
1000 Vdc turn-on option installed or 800 Vdc without the 1000 Vdc turn-
*Apparent power rating for other AC voltages is given by the following on option installed, then the SPV inverter will not attempt to start.
equation;
10.3 AC frequency ratings
Apparent power rating = AC voltage line to line x √3 x rated AC current The nominal AC frequency range is: 50 Hz to 60 Hz
**SPV248 ratings at 40 °C.
The absolute maximum AC frequency range is: 30 Hz to 100 Hz
Table 10-2 SPV current and power ratings (50 °C ambient (normally restricted to required limits)
temperature)
Rated AC Rated DC Rated apparent power 10.4 Power factor
Model current current (at 340 Vac)* The SPV power factor is fully controllable, priority is given to reactive
A A kVA current over active current. The maximum reactive current before active
current is limited (in order to maintain the SPV total current rating) is
SPV248 208 252 122
approximately the vector difference of inverter current rating and active
SPV300 285 332 166 current. i.e.
SPV600 570 665 332
Ireactive_max2 = Irated2 - Iactive2
SPV900 855 997 503
SPV1200 1140 1330 665 For example, an SPV600 operating at 500 A active current has a
SPV1500 1425 1662 836 maximum reactive current of 332 A before any reduction in active
current occurs. Beyond this point the SPV will provide further reactive
SPV1800 1710 1995 1007
current up to rated current, the impact this has on active current is
SPV2100 1995 2327 1168 approximated by the following;
SPV2400 2280 2660 1339
Iactive_max2 = Irated2 - Ireactive2
SPV2700 2565 2992 1510
*Apparent power rating for other AC voltages is given by the following In terms of power factor, a PF of 0.95 lagging or leading will result in
equation; approximately 5 % reduction in available active power. This reduction in
Apparent power rating = AC voltage line to line x √3 x rated AC current. available active power can be avoided by over sizing the SPV by 5 %
during the planning stage.
10.1.2 AC grid connection short circuit current
rating NOTE

The maximum symmetrical fault current of the AC grid connection must Adjustment of voltage relay thresholds may be necessary due to the
be limited to 100 kA. rise/fall of AC voltage due to power factor settings other than unity, refer
to section 6.12.6 AC Voltage management on page 75.
10.1.3 Input of short circuit current to the grid
The SPV inverter produces a maximum peak short circuit current of 10.5 MV / HV transformer requirements
260% of the rated current of the SPV. In the case of an SPV1800, the The SPV has an ac filter installed which means the current is virtually
rated current is 1800 A, which results in a short circuit current of 4680 A. sinusoidal, therefore there are no special requirements for the
This current is interrupted by the power semiconductors and decays to a transformer other than the points below;
negligible value within 4 ms. The non ride-through version ceases
• The low voltage star point of the transformer must not be grounded.
operation at this time. The ride-through version produces reactive
IT type grounding must be used.
current up to 100% of the SPV rated current.
• Each SPV system installed on a site must either have a separate
10.2 Voltage ratings isolating transformer or a separate isolated winding on a common
transformer.
10.2.1 AC voltage • Additional consumers must have galvanic isolation from the SPV
The SPV inverter is available in four models suitable for the following inverter.
voltages; 260, 300, 340 and 400 Vac ±10%. • Suitable MV / HV transformers typically have 4.5 to 6.5 % per unit
reactance.

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10.6 Protective class 10.9 Maximum number of DC landing


The SPV inverter is protective class I according to IEC 62103 and IEC points
61140. The P.E/ground terminal provided must be connected to an
The table below shows the maximum number of DC landing points
appropriate ground as described in section 5.3 Grounding electrical
possible with each SPV model. The actual number is customized for
installation. each application depending on the array configuration.
10.7 Power circuit grounding Table 10-4 DC landing points
AC grounding: Ungrounded floating system (IT) only. Maximum number Maximum number
Model
DC grounding: The DC bus can be floating or grounded at either the of fuse carriers of landing points
positive or negative legs (array isolation monitoring or ground fault SPV248 4 2
detector and interrupter is provided).
SPV300 4 2
SPV600 12 6
10.8 Number of available AC grid SPV900 18 9
connection points SPV1200 24 12
The number of available AC grid connection points are detailed in the
SPV1500 30 15
following table. Each connection point can accept a single 185 - 300
SPV1800 36 18
mm2 cable.
SPV2100 42 21
Table 10-3 AC grid connection detail SPV2400 48 24
Model Connection points per phase SPV2700 54 27
SPV248 2*
SPV300 2*
10.9.1 DC landing point protection
SPV600 3 If DC fuse protection is specified at the ordering stage the following fuse
SPV900 4 carriers are supplied. Customer cables from the string connection boxes
SPV1200 5 should be directly connected to the fuse carrier (SIBA part no. 2102801).
The poles (+/-) are identified beside the fuse carrier.
SPV1500 6
SPV1800 7 The mechanical dimensions are shown in Figure 10-1 below.
SPV2100 8
SPV2400 9
SPV2700 10
* AC connection is made directly to the fuse carrier on models SPV248
and SPV300
Figure 10-1 SIBA fuseholder detail

257 mm (10.12 in)


232 mm (9.13 in) M10x30
137mm (5.39in)

82 mm (3.22 in)
35 mm (1.37 in)

205 mm (8.07 in) 55 mm (2.16 in)

Electrical Characteristics of the fuse holder:


• Rated voltage: 1100 Vdc (L/R=10ms)
• Breaking capacity: 30 kAdc
• Rated current: 50 A - 200 A
• Maximum torque rating: 32 N m

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10.9.2 Recommended fuses


SIBA produce fuses for photovoltaic applications that mechanically fit the fuse carrier. The part number is 2002820.XXX. Technical data for these
fuses is shown in Table 10-5 below.

The fuse must be correctly chosen to match the characteristics of the cable used.

WARNING

Table 10-5 SIBA technical fuse data


Rated current Pre-arcing I2t value Total I2t value Test voltage Power loss

A A2s A2s (time constant L/R) W


50 480 3200 12
63 900 6200 14
80 1900 13000 16
100 3600 24500 1000 Vdc (10 ms) 19
125 6700 45400 21
160 11200 76500 30
200 20000 144000 34

Figure 10-2 Fuse characteristic curves

104

103

102
200
1 00

1 25
160
50
63
80
A
A
A

A
A
A
A

Virtual 101
pre-arcing
time (s)

100

10-1

10-2

101 102 103 104 105

Prospective RMS current (A)

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10.10 Total harmonic current distortion NOTE


(THD) ITHD as displayed by most power analyzers, is based upon a
The total harmonic current distortion is typically less than 2.28%. The percentage of the fundamental frequency current (50 Hz or 60 Hz). At
typical harmonic current data below is expressed as %In and applies at low current it may appear that there are very high levels of harmonics,
the inverter low-voltage terminals and also at medium and high voltage. when in fact the amplitude of the fundamental current has reduced
The data is based on measurements of actual operating plant. The making the background harmonics level a higher proportion of the total
harmonic currents generated by the inverter are so low that the actual and increasing the %ITHD value.
values are influenced strongly by the harmonic voltage present in the For most systems the harmonic current levels must be quoted based
power network, and are likely to vary depending on network conditions. upon the current level for the point of common connection, not at low
Table 10-6 Harmonic current distortion current levels. See the following graph.

Order %IN Order %IN Variation of ITHD with active current, shown as a proportion of
rated current and actual current
1 100.00 26 0.083 35
2 0.751 27 0.057
30
3 0.791 28 0.137
25
4 0.378 29 0.099
20
5 1.779 30 0.033
15
6 0.135 31 0.124
10
7 0.677 32 0.075
8 0.075 33 0.065 5

9 0.040 34 0.059 0
10 30 50 70 90
10 0.040 35 0.092 %Active Current Output
11 0.149 36 0.030 ITHD (% of fundamental) ITHD (% of rated)

12 0.028 37 0.054
13 0.096 38 0.019
14 0.034 39 0.012
10.11 Flicker
Flicker can be caused in an SPV inverter installation by three
15 0.034 40 0.012
mechanisms:
16 0.022 41 0.028
17 0.113 42 0.009 1. Natural fluctuations in irradiance, e.g. from clouds. This is a region-
and site-specific effect, evidence from countries with a large installed
18 0.016 43 0.022
base suggests that it is insignificant.
19 0.103 44 0.013
2. The action of the maximum power point tracking function (MPPT).
20 0.020 45 0.014 3. The action of automatic island detection and protection according to
21 0.019 46 0.011 IEEE 1547 and VDE 0126-1-1 - only if this option is enabled (system
22 0.017 47 0.011 controller module Pr 18.41 = 1).
23 0.165 48 0.010 Item 1 is beyond the scope of the inverter supplier.
24 0.022 49 0.009
For item 2, the SPV inverter causes a flicker severity value PST of 0.023
25 0.175 50 0.013
for each 1 % of source resistance (based on the inverter rating). This
The values in Table 10-1 and Table 10-2 can be used to estimate a means that flicker is negligible for any realistic value of source
particular harmonic current in amps for any SPV inverter, an example is resistance.
shown below;
For item 3 (only when this option is enabled), for each 1 % of source
Example reactance the SPV inverter causes a PST of:
Estimate the third harmonic current for an SPV300 inverter 0.0625 for an injection frequency of 1 Hz (VDE 0126-1-1 anti-island).
In = 300 A 0.109 for an injection frequency of 2 Hz (IEEE 1547 anti-island).
%In = 0.791 % Notes:
0.791 x 300/100 = 2.37 A • Since the inverter operates continuously PST and PLT (short-term
and long-term severity values) are identical.
• A PST of 0.5 is generally accepted as tolerable without considering
possible cumulative effects with other flicker sources. The maximum
tolerable value of PLT considering all sources is 0.8.

10.12 Standby power loss


The standby night time power loss is less than 100 W.

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10.13 Turn on/off power


Turn on
The power level at which the SPV inverter will turn on at the beginning of the day is approximately 900 W but varies slightly depending on the SPV AC
voltage model.
Min power test resistor
AC voltage SPV model Turn on power
R46 value
Vac Ω W
260 180 902
300 180 1170
340 330 806
400 330 1091
Turn off
After the SPV has been running for at least 15 min, turn off will occur if import active power is detected for 10 s continuously (assuming system
controller Pr 19.39 is set to default value of 0).

10.14 Efficiency ratings


Figure 10-3 SPV 300 Efficiency
SPV 300 Efficiency
100

98

96

94
Efficiency (%)

92

90

88 Min DC (511Vdc)
Mid DC (655Vdc)
86 Max DC (800Vdc)

84

82
Output (%)
80
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

EU weighted efficiency (at Min DC) (%) 97.64 Note: System auxiliary losses are not included in the calculation


EU weighted efficiency (at Mid DC) (%) 96.87 MV transformer losses are not included in the calculation
EU weighted efficiency (at Max DC) (%) 95.93 Ambient temperature 25°C
EU weighted efficiency (average of min, mid and max DC) (%) 96.82 AC Voltage  340
CEC weighted efficiency (average of min mid and max DC) (%) 97.14
Peak efficiency (%) 98.09

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Figure 10-4