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Engineering Technical Note

Technical Note
ETN-D-1-15

Tension Development and Lap


Splice Lengths of Reinforcing
Bars Under ACI 318-14
Introduction Provisions in the Code attempt to account for the
Section 26.6.1.1 in the ACI 318 Building Code many variables affecting the tension develop-
[2014] lists 9 design informational items that must ment length, ℓd , of a straight bar. These variables
be shown in construction documents, which in- include:
cludes project drawings and project specifica- • Bar size
tions. Five items, 26.6.1.1(b), (d), (e), (f) and (g), • Yield strength of the bar
are concerned with anchorage and splicing of re- • Compressive strength of the concrete
inforcement: • Lateral spacing of the bars
• Concrete cover
(b) Type, size, location requirements, detailing, • Bar position – “other” bar or “top” bar
and embedment of reinforcement; • Type of concrete – normal weight or light-
weight aggregate
(d) Location and length of lap splices; • Presence of transverse reinforcement
(stirrups or ties)
(e) Type and location of mechanical splices; • Uncoated or epoxy-coated bars

(f) Type and location of end-bearing splices; Since the 1971 Code, major changes were
made to the provisions for calculating ℓd in ACI
(g) Type and location of welded splices and oth- 318-89 and -95 [1989, 1995]. No major techni-
er required welding of reinforcing bars. cal revisions were introduced in the 1999 edition
through the current 2014 edition, i.e., the provi-
This Technical Note focuses on Items “(b)” sions for calculating ℓd in the 2014 Code are es-
and "(d)", i.e., on determining tension develop- sentially the same as those in the 1995, 1999,
ment lengths and tension lap splice lengths of re- 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 Codes. This Techni-
inforcing bars. A reinforcing bar must be “embed- cal Note discusses the provisions in ACI 318-14.
ded” or “anchored” a sufficient distance or length Several examples are presented to demonstrate
in concrete so the bar is capable of developing application of the two procedures for calculating
its design strength. The basic premise is the “an- ℓd .
chorage length” or “embedment length” must be
equal to or greater than the required tension de- 2014 ACI Building Code
velopment length of the bar given by the Code.
Under ACI 318-14, as with the 1995, 1999,
Regarding the other items, provisions in other
2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 Codes, the Architect
parts of the Code include performance require-
/ Engineer has a choice of two procedures for cal-
ments for mechanical and welded splices. Fur-
culating ℓd , which are presented in Code Sections
ther information on mechanical splices is pre-
25.4.2.2 and 25.4.2.3.
sented in the CRSI publication, Reinforcing Bars:
Anchorages and Splices. Commentary Section Section 25.4.2.2. This section provides a
R26.6.4 discusses welded splices. The ACI Code short-cut approach for calculating ℓd . The expres-
cites “Structural Welding Code – Reinforcing sions for calculating ℓd are reproduced in Table 1,
Steel (AWS D1.4/D1.4M:2011)” as the standard which is based on Table 25.4.2.2 of the Code. Use
for welding reinforcing bars. of Section 25.4.2.2 requires selection of the appli-
cable expression from the four expressions given
Development Length. The concept of “de- in Table 1. The applicable expression is based on:
velopment length” of reinforcing bars was intro- • Bar size; expressions are given for #3
duced in the 318-71 ACI Building Code [1971]. through #6 bars, and for #7 bars and larger.
Table 1 – Tension Development Length – Section 25.4.2.2 in ACI 318-14*
Conditions Bar Sizes #3 to #6 Bar Sizes #7 to #18
Clear spacing of bars or wires being developed or
lap spliced not less than db , clear cover not less
than db , and stirrups or ties throughout ℓd not less
than the Code minimum; or
Clear spacing of bars or wires being developed or
( )
fy ψt ψe
 db
25λ√fc´
(a) ( )
fy ψt ψe
 db
20λ√fc´
(b)

lap spliced not less than 2db and concrete cover not
less than db

Other cases
­­ ( )
3fy ψt ψe
 db
50λ√fc´
(c) ­­ ( )
3fy ψt ψe
 db
40λ√fc´
(d)

* The notation is defined in the discussion of Code Section 25.4.2.2.

• Concrete cover and clear spacing of the bars are


= 1.2 for epoxy-coated or zinc and epoxy dual
compared with the limiting values under the “Condi- coated bars with clear cover ≥ 3db,
tions” heading of Table 1. and clear spacing ≥ 6db
• If the structural member is a beam or a column, an- ψ = 0.8 for bar sizes #3 to #6
s
other consideration is the quantity of stirrups or ties
= 1.0 for bar sizes #7 to #18
being provided throughout the distance ℓd . ψ = 1.3 for “top” bars
t


= 1.0 for “other” bars
Section 25.4.2.3. This section presents a general ap-
The product of ψt ψe need not be taken greater than 1.7.
proach in which particular values of concrete cover and
bar spacing, as well as the amount of transverse rein-
Based on experience in fielding inquiries from design-
forcement, is taken into account. Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a in
ers and in presenting seminars, there seems to be a
Section 25.4.2.3 includes the effects of several of the
tendency among some Code users to categorize Sec-
major variables:

( ))
tion 25.4.2.3 as being applicable only to structural
3 fy ψ ψ ψ members with transverse reinforcement. Or that Sec-
t e s
ℓd = db (Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a) tion 25.4.2.3 is most advantageous for use with struc-
40 λ√f


c
´
( cb+Ktr
db
tural members having stirrups or ties. Presumably,
the presence of the K tr term in the denominator of
Eq. 25.4.2.3a has an influence for such actions.
The confinement term (cb + Ktr )/db is limited to a maxi-
mum value of 2.5.
The Code is clear as to the use or applicability of the
Atr = total cross-sectional area of all transverse rein- K tr term. At the end of Section 25.4.2.3, following the
forcement within the spacing s that crosses the equation for K tr , the Code states:
potential plane of splitting through the bars being
developed, in.2 “It shall be permitted to use K tr = 0 as a design sim-
cb = see discussion in text, in. plification even if transverse reinforcement is present.”
db = nominal diameter of bar, in.
Thus, for those structural members without trans-
f c´ = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
verse reinforcement, or if the stirrups in beams or the
fy = specified yield strength of reinforcing bars, psi ties in columns are ignored, the part of the denominator
/
K tr = 40 Atr sn, in. of Eq.25.4.2.3a with the K tr term reduces to determining
the value of (cb /db) for the particular conditions. The value
n = number of bars being developed or lap spliced
along the plane of splitting “cb” is the smaller of: (1) one-half of the center-to-center
spacing of the bars; and (2) the distance from center of the
s = center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforce-
bar to the nearest concrete surface. The definition of “cb”
ment within ℓd , in.
presents new concepts. Center-to-center bar spacing (ac-
λ = 1.0 for normal weight concrete tually one-half of the c.–c. spacing) is used rather than the
= 0.75 for lightweight concrete clear spacing, which is used in Section 25.4.2.2. Instead
ψ = 1.0 for uncoated and galvanized bars of concrete cover to the bar as used in Section 25.4.2.2
e


= 1.5 for epoxy-coated or zinc and epoxy dual and prescribed in Section 20.6, cover as used in Section
coated bars with clear cover < 3db, 25.4.2.3 is the distance from the center of the bar to the
or clear spacing < 6db nearest concrete surface.

2 Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-14 [ETN-D-1-15]
Table 2 – Tension Lap Splice, ℓst

Max. percent of
As,provided/As,required As spliced within
required lap length
Splice
Type
ℓst
Over Length of splice
50 Class A Greater of: 1.0 ℓd and 12 in.
≥ 2.0
100 Class B
Greater of: 1.3 ℓd and 12 in.
< 2.0 All cases Class C

Section 25.5.1. This section presents the Code require- Concrete cover = 2.0 in. or 2.7db
ments for tension lap splices, ℓst. Table 2, which is based From Table 1; under the heading “Conditions” with
on Table 25.5.2.1 in the Code, defines the conditions un- clear spacing > 2db , concrete cover > db , and bar size
der which lap Class A or B can be used, where Class A is #6, the applicable expression is:

( )
defined as 1.00 ld, and Class Bis defined as 1.3 ld. fy ψt ψe
ℓd =  db
Note that the 12 in. minimum is not imposed on ℓd if 25 λ√fc´
it is used to determine lap lengths, so the Code imposes
this limit after lap length has been calculated. For exam- For this example, the factors ψt , ψe and λ are equal
ple, if ℓd without the 12 in. minimum is determined to be to 1.0. Thus,
10 in., a Class A ℓst would be 1.0 x 10 = 10 in., increased (60,000)(1.0)(1.0)(0.75)
to 12 in. and Class B ℓst would be 1.3 x 10 = 13 in. Other ℓd = 
25 (1.0)√ 4,000
key points for lap splices:

= 28.5 or 29 in.*
• Tension lap splices are not permitted for #14 or #18
bars. If the bars are epoxy-coated, the coating factor, ψe ,
• Lap spliced reinforcing bars are permitted not to be has to be determined. Because the concrete cover val-
in contact, but the maximum center-to-center spac- ue of 2.7db is less than 3db , the coating factor ψe = 1.5.
ing of lap splices bars cannot be the lesser of one- Thus, for the #6 epoxy-coated bars:
fifth the required lap splice length and 6 in. ℓd = 1.5(28.5) = 42.7 or 43 in.

• When calculated for lap splice lengths, ℓd cannot
be reduced by ratio of As,provided /As,required. (B) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.3

Examples Determine the value of cb which is the smaller of:


2.0 + 0.75 / 2 = 2.4 in. √ governs: cb = 2.4 in.
The provisions in Section 25.4.2.3 can be used ad-
or 10 / 2 = 5.0 in.
vantageously for certain structural members and condi-
tions—those applications that may be ignored if K tr is Determine the value of (cb + K tr )/db where K t r = 0:
regarded as being relevant only to structural members
with transverse reinforcement. Generally, slabs, footings (cb + K tr )/db = (2.4 + 0)/0.75 = 3.2 > 2.5, use 2.5.
and walls, in which the reinforcing bars have relatively
large concrete cover and spacing, will be the candidates Calculate ℓd using Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a:
where the use of Eq. 25.4.2.3a and taking K tr = 0 will
often result in significantly shorter values of ℓd . ℓd = ( 3 fy
40 λ√f
c
´
ψ ψ ψ

(
t e

cb+Ktr
s
)) db

Example No. 1 db

Given: An 8-in. thick slab is reinforced with #6 Grade
60 uncoated bars with a center-to-center spacing of For this solution, the factor ψs = 0.8 for the #6 bars,
10 in. Concrete cover is 2 in.; normal-weight concrete and the factors ψt , ψe and λ are equal to 1.0. Thus,
with fc´= 4,000 psi.

Find: ℓd and ℓst for the #6 bars using Code Sections


ℓd =
3
( 60,000

40 (1.0)√ 4,000
(1.0)1.0(0.8)
2.5
0.75 )
25.4.2.2 and 25.4.2.3: = 17.1 or 17 in.
Solution: If the #6 bars are epoxy-coated, the coating factor
(A) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.2 ψ = 1.5 as determined in the preceding section:
e
Clear spacing of the bars = 10.0 – 0.75 ℓd = 1.5(17.1) = 25.6 or 26 in.

= 9.25 in. or 12.3db
*It is CRSI practice in technical publcations to round the development and lap splice lengths
up to the next whole number if the decimal is 0.2 or higher.

CRSI Technical Note 3


(C) ℓst by Section 25.4.2.2 spacing of the bars = (8.5 + 0.75) / 2 = 9.25/2 = 4.6 in.,
which is still greater than the governing value of cb= 2.4 in.
For uncoated bars, ℓd = 28.5 in.
If the concrete cover to the #6 bars was 3/4 in. rather
Class A ℓst = 1.0 x 28.5 = 28.5 = 29 in.
than 2 in., i.e., cast-in-place concrete not exposed to
Class B ℓst = 1.3 x 28.5 = 37.1 = 37 in. weather or earth (Code Section 20.6.1.3.1), the calcu-
For epoxy-coated bars, ℓd = 42.7 in. lated ℓd by Section 25.4.2.2 or Section 25.4.2.3 would be
Class A ℓst = 1.0 x 42.7 = 42.7 = 43 in. the same. Confirming this:
Class B ℓst = 1.3 x 42.7 = 55.5 = 56 in.
Using Section 25.4.2.2, the applicable expression for
ℓd from Table 1 is:
(D) ℓst by Section 25.4.2.3

For uncoated bars, ℓd = 17.1 in.


ℓd = (
fy ψt ψe
25 λ√fc´
 db )
Class A ℓst = 1.0 x 17.1 = 17.1 = 17 in.
Class B ℓst = 1.3 x 17.1 = 22.2 = 23 in. As in the previous Section 25.4.2.2 solution, the fac-
tors ψt , ψe and λ are equal to 1.0. Thus,
For epoxy-coated bars, ℓd = 25.6 in.
(60,000)(1.0)(1.0)(0.75)
Class A ℓst = 1.0 x 25.6 = 25.6 = 26 in. ℓd = 
Class B ℓst = 1.3 x 25.6 = 33.3 = 34 in. 25 (1.0)√ 4,000

= 28.5 or 29 in.
Comments: The results are summarized in Table 3. Note 

that ℓd for the uncoated #6 bars under Section 25.4.2.2 Using Section 25.4.2.3 and Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a:
is 71% longer than the ℓd required by Section 25.4.2.3.
For epoxy-coated #6 bars, Section 25.4.2.2 requires an cb is smaller of (0.75 + 0.75/2) = 1.1 in. √ governs
ℓd which is 65% longer than the ℓd required by Section or 10/2 = 5.0 in.
25.4.2.3. Similar results were observed for Class A and cb = 1.1 in.
Class B ℓst . (cb+ Kt r )/db = (1.1 + 0)/0.75 = 1.5 < 2.5, use 1.5

Table 3 – Results of Example No.1


Tension Development Length,
ℓd = ( 3 fy

ψ ψ ψ
t

(
e

40 λ√fc´ cb+Ktr))
s
db

2014 Code ℓd and Class A ℓst db



Section
Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Here again, as in the previous Section 25.4.2.3 solu-
25.4.2.2 29 in. 43 in. tion, the factor ψs = 0.8 for the #6 bars, and the factors
ψ , ψ and λ are equal to 1.0. Thus,
25.4.2.3 17 in. 26 in. t e

2014 Code
Section Uncoated
Class B ℓst
Epoxy-Coated
ℓd = (
3 60,000

40 (1.0)√ 4,000
(1.0)1.0(0.8)
1.5
)0.75

25.4.2.2 37 in. 56 in. = 28.5 or 29 in.


25.4.2.3 23 in. 34 in.
For 3/4 in. concrete cover, ℓd = 29 in. using Section
25.4.2.2 or Section 25.4.2.3.
A substantial reduction in reinforcement could be re-
alized by using Section 25.4.2.3 if the 8-in. thick slab had
The rationale for ℓd being the same value, based on
large plan dimensions and the #6 bars at 10 in. were
Section 25.4.2.2 or 25.4.2.3, is: the value of (cb + Kt r )/
typical reinforcement. Savings in reinforcement would
db in Eq.25.4.2.3a is equal to 1.5; then dividing the 3/40
result from shorter lap splice lengths, because tension
in Eq.25.4.2.3a by (cb + Kt r )/db and multiplying by ψs re-
lap lengths are multiples of tension development length:
sults in ((3/40)/1.5)0.8=0.04=1/25, which is the constant
Class A = 1.0 ℓd and Class B = 1.3 ℓd .
in the expression from Table 1.
The preceding calculated values of ℓd , using Sections
Example No. 2
25.4.2.2 and 25.4.2.3, would not be affected if the bars
Given: A spread footing has plan dimensions of
are lap spliced. Lap splicing would reduce the clear spac-
13'-6" × 13'-6" and an overall depth of 56 in. The footing
ing by one bar diameter, i.e., the clear spacing = 10 – 0.75
is reinforced with 17 – #10 Grade 60 uncoated bars each
– 0.75 = 8.5 in. or 11.3dd , which is still greater than the
way; normal-weight concrete with fc´ = 3,000 psi; the col-
clear spacing criterion of 2db in Table 1 (Section 25.4.2.2).
umn dimension is 2'-6" square.
And with regard to Section 25.4.2.3, one-half of the c.–c.

4 Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-14 [ETN-D-1-15]
Find: Check the required tension development length of
Calculate ℓd using Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a:

( ))
the #10 bars versus the available embedment.
Solution: 3 fy ψ ψ ψ
t e s
ℓd = db
40 λ√f
c
´
( cb+Ktr
db

For this example, the factors ψt , ψe , ψs and λ are equal


to 1.0. Thus,

ℓd =
3
( 60,000

40 (1.0)√ 3,000
(1.0)1.0(1.0)
2.5
1.27 )
= 41.7 or 42 in.

Because the ℓd of 42 in. is less than the available em-


bedment length of 63 in., the #10 bars are satisfactory
according to Section 25.4.2.3. The results are summa-
rized in Table 4.
Figure 1 – Spread Footing—Side Elevation
Table 4 – Results of Example No. 2
(A) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.2
Bar spacing and concrete cover: 2014 Code Available Properly
ℓd
c.–c. spacing #10 bars Section Embedment Anchored?
= [(13.5)(12) – (2)(3) – 1.27 ] /16 = 9.7 in. 25.4.2.2 70 in. 63 in. No
Clear spacing = 9.7 – 1.27 = 8.4 in. or 6.6db 25.4.2.3 42 in. 63 in. Yes
Concrete cover = 3.0 / 1.27 = 2.4db
Example No. 3
Given: This example demonstrates the use of Sections
The applicable expression from Table 1 is:
25.4.2.2 and 25.4.2.3 for calculating ℓd for beam bars with

(
ℓd =
20 λ√fc´
)
fy ψt ψe
 db
stirrups. Grade 60, uncoated bottom bars in the interior
span of a continuous beam. Other data are: bw = 24 in.;
h = 30 in.; concrete cover to the stirrups is 1.5 in.; normal-
For this example, the factors ψt , ψe and λ are equal to weight concrete with fc´ = 4,000 psi; #4 U-stirrups are
1.0. Thus, spaced at 13 in. on center and provided throughout ℓd .
(60,000)(1.0)(1.0)(0.75)
ℓd = 
20 (1.0)√ 3,000

= 69.6 or 70 in.

Maximum factored moment occurs at the face(s) of


the column. Thus, the available embedment length for
the #10 bars = (13.5)(12)/2 – (15 + 3) = 63 in. Because
the available embedment length of 63 in. is less than the
calculated ℓd of 70 in., the #10 straight bars are unac- Figure 2 – Beam Cross-Section
ceptable according to Code Section 25.4.2.2. (If the rein-
forcement were changed to 22 – #9 bars, ℓd , according Find: Compute the tension development length for the
to the Table 1 expression would be 62 in. Because ℓd of 5 – #10
62 in. is less than the available embedment, the #9 bars
would be acceptable.) Solution: From Figure 3, dimension X is the larger of:

(B) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.3 2dbt = 2(0.5) = 1.0 in. √ governs


dbl /2 = 1.27/2 = 0.64 in.
cb is smaller of (3.0 + 1.27/2) = 3.6 in. √ governs
or 9.7/2 = 4.9 in.
(cb + K tr )/db = (3.6 + 0)/1.27 = 2.8 > 2.5, use 2.5

CRSI Technical Note 5


(
ℓd =
3 60,000

40 (1.0)√ 4,000
(1.0)1.0(1.0)
2.0
1.27)
= 45.2 or 46 in.

If K tr is taken as zero:
(cb + K tr )/db = (2.25 + 0)/1.27
= 1.8 < 2.5, use 1.8
Figure 3 – Assumed Location of #10 Bar at Then ℓd = (45.2)(2.0)/1.8 = 50.2 or 51 in.
Corner of #4 Stirrup
This example shows a reduction in ℓd using Section
25.4.2.3 instead of Section 25.4.2.2 of 25% when taking
Bar spacing and concrete cover: the #4 stirrups into account, and 16% when the stirrups
From side face of beam to center of outermost #10 are neglected. The results are summarized in Table 5.
bar, the distance is: 1.5 (cover) + 0.5 (stirrup diameter)
+ 1.0 (X) = 3.0 in. Table 5 – Results of Example No. 3
c.–c. spacing of the 5 – #10 bars 2014 Code Section ℓd
= (24 – (2)(3))/4 12.2.2 61 in.
= 4.5 in. 25.4.2.3 (with K tr = 0.25) 46 in.
Clear spacing = 4.5 – 1.27 = 3.2 in. or 2.5db 25.4.2.3 (with K tr = 0) 51 in.
Concrete cover = 1.5 + 0.5 = 2.0 in. or 1.6db
Example No. 4
(A) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.2 Given: Consider the base slab of a cantilever retaining
wall. The concrete is normal weight with fc´ = 3,000 psi.
The applicable expression from Table 1 is: Assume that the #11 bars, spaced at 8 in. c. to c., are

( fy ψt ψe
)
required to resist the factored moment at Point A, i.e., the
ℓd =  db tension ℓd cannot be reduced by the ratio of As (required)
20 λ√fc´
to As (provided).
For this example, the factors ψt , ψe and λ are equal to
Figure 4 – Base Slab of Retaining Wall
1.0. Thus,
(60,000)(1.0)(1.0)(1.27)
ℓd = 
20 (1.0)√ 4,000


= 60.2 or 61 in.

(B) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.3


cb is smaller of 4.5/2 = 2.25 in. √ governs
or (1.5 + 0.5 + 1.27/2) = 2.6 in.
Find: Using Code Sections 25.4.2.2 and 25.4.2.3,
cb = 2.25 in.
calculate the tension ℓd for the #11 Grade 60 un-
 40At r /sn
K tr = coated bars in the top of the slab. And determine
= 40 (2) (0.20)/13(5) = 0.25 in. whether the bars can be anchored in the available
embedment length.
(cb + K tr )/db = (2.25 + 0.25)/1.27
= 2.0 ≤ 2.5, use 2.0
Solution:
(A) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.2
Calculate ℓd using Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a:

( ))
Clear spacing of the bars = 8.0 – 1.41
3 fy ψ ψ ψ = 6.59 in. or 4.7db
t e s
ℓd = db
40 λ√f Concrete cover = 2 in. or 1.4db


c
´
( cb+Ktr
db The applicable expression from Table 1 is:

For this example, the factors ψt , ψe , ψs and λ are


equal to 1.0. Thus,
(
ℓd =
fy ψt ψe
20 λ√fc´
 db)

6 Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-14 [ETN-D-1-15]
Table 7 – Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths for Bars in Walls, Slabs and Footings (ACI 25.4.2.3)
f’c = 3,000 psi

Concrete Cover = 0.75 in. Concrete Cover = 1.50 in. Concrete Cover = 2.00 in. Concrete Cover = 3.00 in.
Bar Lap
Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Uncoated Epoxy-Coated
Size Class
Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other
A 13 12 17 15 13 12 17 15 13 12 17 15 13 12 17 15
#3
B 17 13 22 20 17 13 22 20 17 13 22 20 17 13 22 20
A 22 17 28 25 17 13 23 20 17 13 23 20 17 13 23 20
#4
B 28 22 37 32 23 17 29 26 23 17 29 26 23 17 29 26
A 32 24 41 37 22 17 28 25 22 17 28 25 22 17 28 25
#5
B 41 32 54 47 28 22 37 32 28 22 37 32 28 22 37 32
A 43 33 56 50 26 20 34 30 26 20 34 30 26 20 34 30
#6
B 56 43 73 64 34 26 44 39 34 26 44 39 34 26 44 39
A 69 53 90 80 43 33 55 49 38 29 49 43 38 29 49 43
#7
B 90 69 117 104 55 43 72 64 49 38 64 56 49 38 64 56
A 86 66 112 99 54 41 70 62 43 33 56 50 43 33 56 50
#8
B 111 86 146 128 70 54 91 80 56 43 73 64 56 43 73 64
A 104 80 136 120 66 51 86 76 53 41 70 61 48 37 63 56
#9
B 135 104 176 155 86 66 112 99 69 53 90 80 63 48 82 73
A 125 96 163 144 81 62 106 93 66 51 86 76 55 42 71 63
#10
B 162 125 212 187 105 81 137 121 85 66 111 98 71 55 93 82
A 146 113 191 169 97 74 126 111 79 61 103 91 61 47 79 70
#11
B 190 146 248 219 125 97 164 145 102 79 134 118 79 61 103 91

Table – Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths for Bars in Walls, Slabs and Footings (ACI 25.4.2.3)
f’c = 4,000 psi
Concrete Cover = 0.75 in. Concrete Cover = 1.50 in. Concrete Cover = 2.00 in. Concrete Cover = 3.00 in.
Bar Lap
Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Uncoated Epoxy-Coated Uncoated Epoxy-Coated
Size Class
Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other Top Other
A 12 12 15 13 12 12 15 13 12 12 15 13 12 12 15 13
#3
B 15 12 19 17 15 12 19 17 15 12 19 17 15 12 19 17
A 19 15 24 22 15 12 20 17 15 12 20 17 15 12 20 17
#4
B 24 19 32 28 20 15 25 22 20 15 25 22 20 15 25 22
A 28 21 36 32 19 15 24 22 19 15 24 22 19 15 24 22
#5
B 36 28 47 41 24 19 32 28 24 19 32 28 24 19 32 28
A 37 29 49 43 22 17 29 26 22 17 29 26 22 17 29 26
#6
B 48 37 63 56 29 22 38 34 29 22 38 34 29 22 38 34
A 60 46 78 69 37 28 48 42 33 25 43 38 33 25 43 38
#7
B 78 60 102 90 48 37 62 55 42 33 55 49 42 33 55 49
A 74 57 97 86 47 36 61 54 37 29 49 43 37 29 49 43
#8
B 96 74 126 111 60 47 79 70 48 37 63 56 48 37 63 56
A 90 69 117 104 57 44 75 66 46 36 60 53 42 32 55 48
#9
B 117 90 153 135 74 57 97 86 60 46 78 69 55 42 71 63
A 108 83 141 125 70 54 92 81 57 44 74 66 47 36 62 55
#10
B 140 108 183 162 91 70 119 105 74 57 97 85 61 47 80 71
A 127 98 166 146 84 64 109 97 68 53 89 79 52 40 69 60
#11
B 165 127 215 190 109 84 142 125 89 68 116 102 68 52 89 79

Notes:
1. Tabulated values are based on a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi and normal-weight concrete. Lengths are in inches.

2. Tension development lengths and tension lap splice lengths are calculated per ACI 318-14, Sections 25.4.2.3 and 25.5.1, respectively, with bar
sizes limited to #3 through #11.
3. When the variable “cb” from ACI 25.4.2.3 was calculated, it was assumed that concrete cover controlled. That is, c.– c. spacing was assumed
to be greater than 1.0 db plus twice the concrete cover.
4. Lap splice lengths (minimum of 12 inches) are multiples of tension development lengths; Class A = 1.0 ℓd and Class B = 1.3 ℓd
(ACI 318 25.5.1). When determining the lap splice length, ℓd is calculated without the 12-inch minimum of ACI 25.4.2.1.
5. Top bars are horizontal bars with more than 12 inches of concrete cast below the bars.
6. For epoxy-coated bars, if the c.-c. spacing is at least 7.0 db and the concrete cover is at least 3.0 db, then lengths may be multiplied by 0.918
(for top bars) or 0.8 (for other bars).
7. For Grade 75 reinforcing bars, multiply the tabulated values by 1.25. For Grade 80 reinforcing bars, multiply the tabulated values by 1.33.
8. For lightweight concrete, divide the tabulated values by 0.75.

For this example, the bar location factor ψt = 1.3 for The available embedment length to the left of Point
top bars, and the factors ψe and λ are equal to 1.0. Thus A is 6 ft.-9 in. or 81 in. Because the required ℓd = 101 in.
is greater than the available embedment length, the #11
60,000)(1.3)(1.0)(1.41) bars cannot be anchored as straight bars according to
ℓd = 
20 (1.0)√ 3,000 Section 12.2.2.


= 100.4 or 101 in.

CRSI Technical Note 7


(B) ℓd by Section 25.4.2.3 Enter Table 8; for Lap Class A and “other” bars:
cb is smaller of (2.0 + 1.41/2) = 2.7 in. √ governs ℓd = 17 in. for uncoated bars
or 8/2 = 4.0 in. ℓd = 26 in. for epoxy-coated bars
cb = 2.7 in.
By inspection, the tabulated values are valid for this
(cb + K tr )/db = (2.7 + 0)/1.41 = 1.9 < 2.5, use 1.9 example because one-half of the c.–c. bar spacing
= 5 in., which is much greater than the concrete cover
Calculate ℓd using Code Eq. 25.4.2.3a: plus one-half of a bar diameter, i.e., 2.4 in.

ℓd = ( 3 fy
40 λ√f
c
´
(
ψ ψ ψ
t e

cb+Ktr
s
)) db For the second part of Example 1, the concrete cover
is only 0.75 in. From Table 8 for Lap Class A and “other”
db bars:

ℓd = 29 in. for uncoated bars
For this example, the bar location factor ψt = 1.3, and
the factors ψe , ψs and λ are equal to 1.0. Thus, Example No. 2T For the spread footing with uncoat-
ed #10 bars and concrete cover of 3 in. to the layer of
ℓd =
3
( 60,000

40 (1.0)√ 3,000
(1.3)1.0(1.0)
1.9
1.41 ) bars nearest the bottom, normal-weight concrete with
fc´ = 3,000 psi...
= 79.3 or 80 in.
Enter Table 7; for Lap Class A and “other” bars:
Because ℓd = 80 in. does not exceed the available em- ℓd = 42 in. for uncoated bars
bedment length of 81 in., the #11 bars can be anchored
as straight bars. This example clearly demonstrates the Example No. 3T Tables 7 and 8 are not intended for
significant reduction in ℓd that is possible, under certain and consequently are not applicable for closely-spaced
conditions, by using Section 25.4.2.3 instead of Section bars in beams. For the beam in Example 3, the value of
25.4.2.2. The computed ℓd of 80 in. by Section 25.4.2.3 cb would be governed by one-half of the c.–c. spacing of
is 21% shorter than the 101 in. computed by Section the bars, i.e., 2.25 in., rather than by the concrete cover
25.4.2.2. The results are summarized in Table 6. plus one-half of a bar diameter, i.e., 2.6 in.

Table 6 – Results of Example No. 4 Example No. 4T For the base slab of the cantilever
retaining wall with uncoated #11 bars spaced at 8 in. c.–
2014 Code Available Properly c., concrete cover of 2 in., normal-weight concrete with
ℓd
Section Embedment Anchored? fc´ = 3,000 psi...
25.4.2.2 101 in. 81 in. No
25.4.2.3 80 in. 81 in. Yes Enter Table 7; for Lap Class A and “top” bars:
ℓd = 79 in. for uncoated bars

Summary
Tabular Values Based on Section 25.4.2.3
This Technical Note discusses the provisions in Sec-
Tables 7 and 8 give values of ℓd , based on Code Sec-
tions 25.4.2.2 and 25.4.2.3 of the 2014 ACI Building
tion 25.4.2.3 and Eq. 25.4.2.3a, for walls, slabs and foot-
Code for determining the tension development lengths,
ings. The values for “Lap Class A” are also the values of
ℓd , of reinforcing bars. Several examples are presented
ℓd , because the required lap length for a Class A tension
to complement the discussion. The examples serve to
lap splice is 1.0 ℓd .
identify some of the conditions and the structural mem-
bers for which the more rigorous provisions in Section
An important restriction on the use of Tables 7 and
25.4.2.3 can be used advantageously.
8 is described in Note 3, i.e., it is assumed that the
value “cb“ in the quantity, (cb + K tr )/db, in Code Eq.
25.4.2.3a is governed by concrete cover rather than
by one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bars.

The preceding examples are re-considered using


Tables 7 and 8, and identified with a "T".

Example No. 1T For the slab with #6 bars spaced at


10 in. c.–c., concrete cover of 2 in., normal weight con-
crete with fc´ = 4,000 psi...

8 Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-14 [ETN-D-1-15]
References American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318
[2008], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con-
American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318 crete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08),
[1971], Building Code Requirements for Reinforced American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan,
Concrete (ACI 318-71), American Concrete Institute, 465 pp.
Detroit, Michigan, 78 pp.
American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318
American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318 [2011], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con-
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Concrete (ACI 318-77), American Concrete Institute, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan,
Detroit, Michigan, 103 pp. 473 pp.
American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318 American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318
[1983], Building Code Requirements for Reinforced [2014], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con-
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Detroit, Michigan, 111 pp. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan,
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[1989], Building Code Requirements for Reinforced American Welding Society [2011], Structural Welding
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American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan, 353 pp. Welding Society, Miami, Florida, 72 pp.
American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318 Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute [2008], Reinforc-
[1995], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con- ing Bars: Anchorages and Splices, 5th Edition, Concrete
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American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan, 369 pp.

American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318


[1999], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con-
crete (ACI 318-99) and Commentary (ACI 318R-99),
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan,
391 pp.

American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318


[2002], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con-
crete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary (ACI 318R-02),
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan,
443 pp.

American Concrete Institute – ACI Committee 318


[2005], Building Code Requirements for Structural Con-
crete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05),
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan,
430 pp.

Contributors: Dr. David P. Gustafson, P.E., S.E. and Anthony L. Felder, P.E., with subsequent
contributions from Neal S. Anderson, P.E., S.E..

Keywords: development, lap splices

Reference: Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute-CRSI [2015], “Tension Development and Lap
Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars Under ACI 318-14,” CRSI Technical Note ETN-D-1-15, Con- 933 North Plum Grove Rd.
crete Reinforcing Steel Institute, Schaumburg, Illinois, 8 pp. Schaumburg, IL 60173-4758
p. 847-517-1200 • f. 847-517-1206
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