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O emprego do tempo presente do indicativo, assim como todos os assuntos

relacionados ao universo gramatical, encontra-se em consonância com alguns


pressupostos predefinidos. Assim, partindo dessa premissa, dispomo-nos a
compreender um pouco mais acerca de tal procedimento linguístico, levando-se
em conta alguns aspectos tidos como relevantes.

Ao fazermos uso deste tempo, inferimos se tratar de uma enunciação


relacionada ao momento presente. Contudo, além dessa noção conceitual, torna-
se passível de menção outros fatores relacionados a tal emprego, dignos de se
incorporarem ao nosso conhecimento.

Assim sendo, estejamos atentos a algumas elucidações aqui formadas:

* O presente do modo indicativo é empregado quando se deseja retratar um fato


ocorrido no momento da fala, também chamado de presente momentâneo:

Aprecio boas leituras.

Estou contente com a notícia.

* É também utilizado para expressar processos habituais, regulares, ou que


possuem validade permanente:

Durmo regularmente.

O direito de ir e vir são concebidos a todos os cidadãos.

* O emprego também se deve ao ato de narrar fatos passados, de modo a


conferir-lhes atualidade. É também conhecido como o presente histórico:

“Em 58 a.C César invade a Gália e inicia uma das mais famosas campanhas da
história militar”.

* Sua utilização se encontra relacionada ao ato de indicar um fato no futuro


próximo, tido como uma realização certa:
Daqui a alguns instantes ele volta.
Viajo no próximo final de semana.

* Utilizado com valor imperativo, o uso do presente constitui uma ação delicada
e familiar de pedir ou ordenar algo:

Vê se vocês voltam logo, sim?

Filho, vê se não me chama antes do almoço.

PARTICÍPIO PASSADO
O particípio passado é usado nos tempos verbais compostos e na voz passiva.
FORMAÇÃO
O particípio passado é formado a partir do infinitivo, retirando-se a terminação -ar, -er
ou -ir e adicionando-se a terminação correspondente.
Exemplo:
Verbo dançar: danç(-ar) > danç(+ado).
Eles tinham dançado muito na festa.
Verbo vender: vend(-er) > vend(+ido).
Eles teriam vendido todos os ingressos, se tivessem feito uma boa divulgação.
Verbo partir: part(-ir) > part(+ido).
Meus pais tinham partido antes de eu chegar.
Particípio passado irregular:
Alguns verbos cujos particípios passados são irregulares:
Infinitivo Particípio
passado
Infinitivo Particípio
passado
abrir aberto ganhar ganho
cobrir coberto gastar gasto
descrever descrito pagar pago
dizer dito por posto
escrever escrito ver visto
fazer feito vir vindo
Alguns verbos apresentam duas formas de particípio passado, uma regular e outra
irregular. Geralmente a forma regular é usada nos tempos compostos e a forma
irregular na voz passiva.
Exemplo:
Verbo aceitar: aceitado / aceito
Ele não tinha aceitado a proposta de trabalho. (Tempo composto: mais-que-perfeito do
indicativo)
Ele foi aceito na Universidade do Texas. (Voz passiva)
Alguns verbos que apresentam duas formas de particípio passado.
Infinitivo Particípio
passado
regular
Particípio
passado
irregular
Infinitivo Particípio
passado
regular
Particípio
passado
irregular
aceitar aceitado aceito/aceite incluir incluído incluso
acender acendido aceso matar matado morto
eleger elegido eleito morrer morrido morto
entregar entregado entregue pagar pagado pago
enxugar enxugado enxuto pegar pegado pego
expressar expressado expresso prender prendido preso
expulsar expulsado expulso salvar salvado salvo
ganhar ganhado ganho secar secado seco
gastar gastado gasto soltar soltado solto
imprimir imprimido impresso suspender suspendido suspenso
Simple past
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The simple past, past simple or past indefinite, sometimes called the preterite, is the basic form
of the past tense in Modern English. It is used principally to describe events in the past, although
it also has some other uses. Regular English verbs form the simple past in -ed; however there are
a few hundred irregular verbs with different forms.

The term "simple" is used to distinguish the syntactical construction whose basic form uses the
plain past tense alone, from other past tense constructions which use auxiliaries in combination
with participles, such as the past perfect and past progressive.

Contents
 1 Formation
 2 Usage
 3 See also
 4 References

Formation[edit]
Regular verbs form the simple past end-ed; however there are a few hundred irregular verbs with
different forms. For details see English verbs § Past tense.

Most verbs have a single form of the simple past, independent of the person or number of the
subject (there is no addition of -s for the third person singular as in the simple present). However,
the copula verb be has two past tense forms: was for the first and third persons singular, and
were in other instances. The form were can also be used in place of was in conditional clauses
and the like; for information on this, see English subjunctive. This is the only case in modern
English where a distinction in form is made between the indicative and subjunctive moods in the
past tense.

Questions, other clauses requiring inversion, negations with not, and emphatic forms of the
simple past use the auxiliary did. For details of this mechanism, see do-support. A full list of
forms is given below, using the (regular) verb help as an example:

 Basic simple past:


o I/you/he/she/it/we/they helped
 Expanded (emphatic) simple past:
o I/you/he/she/it/we/they did help
 Question form:
o Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they help?
 Negative:
o I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not (didn't) help
 Negative question:
o Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they not help? / Didn't I/you/he/she/it/we/they help?

Usage[edit]
The simple past is used for a single event (or sequence of such events) in the past, and also for
past habitual action:

He took the money and ran.


I visited them every day for a year.

It can also refer to a past state:

I knew how to fight even as a child.

For action that was ongoing at the time referred to, the past progressive is generally used instead
(e.g. I was cooking). The same can apply to states, if temporary (e.g. the ball was lying on the
sidewalk), but some stative verbs do not generally use the progressive aspect at all – see Uses of
English verb forms § Progressive – and in these cases the simple past is used even for a
temporary state:

The dog was in its kennel.


I felt cold.

However, with verbs of sensing, it is common in such circumstances to use could see in place of
saw, could hear in place of heard, etc. For more on this, see can see.

If one action interrupts another, then it is usual for the interrupted (ongoing) action to be
expressed with the past progressive, and the action that interrupted it to be in the simple past:

Your mother called while you were cooking.

The simple past is often close in meaning to the present perfect. The simple past is used when the
event happened at a particular time in the past, or during a period which ended in the past (i.e. a
period that does not last up until the present time). This time frame may be explicitly stated, or
implicit in the context (for example the past tense is often used when describing a sequence of
past events).

I was born in 1980.


We turned the oven off two minutes ago.
I came home at 6 o'clock.
When did they get married?
We wrote two letters this morning.
She placed the letter on the table, sighed, and left the house.
Contrast these examples with those given at Uses of English verb forms § Present perfect. Note
also that for past actions that occurred before the relevant past time frame, the past perfect is
used.

Various compound constructions exist for denoting past habitual action. The sentence When I
was young, I played football every Saturday might alternatively be phrased using used to (... I
used to play ...) or using would (... I would play...).

The simple past also has some uses in which it does not refer to a past time. These are generally
in condition clauses and some other dependent clauses referring to hypothetical circumstances,
as well as certain expressions of wish:

If he walked faster, he would get home earlier.


I wish I knew what his name was.
I would rather she wore a longer dress.

For more details see the sections on conditionals, dependent clauses and expressions of wish in
the article on uses of English verb forms.

For use of the simple past (and other past tense forms) in indirect speech, see Uses of English
verb forms § Indirect speech. An example:

He said he wanted to go on the slide.


Negativas Interrogativas
I do not / I don’t Do I …?
You do not / you don’t Do you …?
He does not / he doesn’t Does he….?
She does not / she doesn’t Does she…?
It does not / it doesn’t Does it…?
We do not / we don’t Do we…?
You do not/ you don’t Do you …?
They do not / they don’t Do they...?

Ex.: