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Suspension of inquiry into child sex abuse case sparks concern

By Andrew Carey - February 21, 2019

case sparks concern By Andrew Carey - February 21, 2019 Limerick Fianna Fail TD Niall Collins

Limerick Fianna Fail TD Niall Collins

A SPECIAL inquiry into the handling of one of the biggest paedophile investigations in the history of the State, will now not go ahead. Children and Youth Affairs Minister Katherine Zappone has told Limerick Fianna Fáil TD Niall Collins that she has been advised to postpone the

inquiry which was to have been carried out by Special Rapporteur on Child Protection Dr Geoffrey Shannon.

Deputy Collins said that suspending the review “will be a cause for concern”.

Minister Zappone commissioned the review on March 28, 2018 after 11 people were arrested during a Garda inquiry into the alleged sexual abuse and exploitation of 16 children in the Mid West.

The arrests were made after up to 20 alleged victims made complaints over an eight-month period.

The review was to look at the State’s handling of the case and the agencies involved after details of the alleged abuse first emerged more than 12 months ago.

Six women and five men, ranging in age from 20 to 70, were arrested and questioned but later released without charge.

The children at the centre of the alleged abuse and exploitation are subject of court imposed care orders.

Deputy Collins told the Limerick Post that “although it’s understandable in view of the fact that criminal proceedings are in progress, the suspension of Dr Shannon’s investigation into the handling of this case by Tusla will be a cause of public concern.”

While there is no evidence of any mishandling of the case by either Tusla or the Gardaí, the inquiry was intended to be a short, focused independent “serious incident” review of the actions taken in respect of the children involved and those suspected of the crimes.

Dr Shannon had been teamed with child welfare consultant Suzanne Phelan and Garda chief superintendent Padraig Kennedy to carry out

the review after Minister Zappone and Justice Minister Charlie Flanagan agreed its terms of reference.

Deputy Collins said that “people have a right to know if the State, through its child protection services, failed these vulnerable children over many years.

“The only way to ensure we get the truth is to resume the inquiry when the criminal proceedings have concluded,” Deputy Collins said.

Minister Zappone said that “matters may be revisited at a later date to determine if further action is warranted and, if so, the form that such action might take.”

https://www.limerickpost.ie/2019/02/21/suspension - of- inquiry - into- child- sex - abuse - case- sparks- concern/?fbclid=IwAR0c -

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Questioning of 12 as part of probe into what may be country's largest ever paedophile ring extended

may be country's largest ever paedophile ring extended Robin Schiller and Shane Phelan October 3 2018

Robin Schiller and Shane Phelan October 3 2018

Gardaí were last night continuing to question a dozen people arrested as part of an investigation into what is feared to be the largest paedophile ring the country has ever seen.

The 12, who include men and women aged from their 20s to their 70s, were all arrested over several hours on Monday at various locations in Munster.

They were brought to different Garda stations in the southern and western regions.

Most of them were previously quizzed earlier this year as part of the same probe, which is examining fears up to 16 children in four families were abused.

Eleven people were arrested back in March but all were released without charge.

Yesterday morning senior gardaí extended the periods of detention for all 12 people currently in custody.

Detectives have been quizzing them in relation to child sexual abuse and child exploitation offences.

The suspects in the probe are all closely linked to each other but are spread across three counties.

A team of gardaí, including specialist interviewers, are conducting what has

been described as a "massive" investigation which is being led by a superintendent.

The case has attracted much attention, with Fianna Fáil leader Michéal Martin telling the Dáil earlier this year that what was alleged was "shocking and may represent a first in this country".

A separate review, focusing on the handling of the case by Garda and Tusla

authorities, has yet to get underway.

This review was announced in March by Children's Minister Katherine Zappone and Justice Minister Charlie Flanagan.

It came after the Dáil heard claims a whistleblower in the welfare sector had

voiced concerns over the urgency of the response of State agencies when allegations first came to light.

It is understood that terms of reference have been agreed between the

Department of Justice and the Department of Children and Youth Affairs.

However, these have been referred to the Attorney General, who has yet to sign off on them. All involved are anxious to ensure the review does not interfere with the ongoing Garda probe.

The review is to be chaired by Special Rapporteur on Child Protection Dr Geoffrey Shannon.

Issues in relation to co-operation and the exchange of information between various agencies are set to come under microscope.

Dr Shannon previously uncovered major inadequacies in the way that information was shared between gardaí and Tusla during an examination of the exercise of Garda powers to remove children from the home under Section 12 of the Childcare Act.

A source familiar with the investigation said it will be the biggest abuse case in

the history of the State, and explosive for the State agencies.

Ms Zappone has described the case as "complex and serious".

In response to a parliamentary question, she said it involved the "alleged child abuse and neglect" of 16 children in four families.

The minister said that while there was no evidence of any serious mishandling

of the case by Tusla or An Garda Síochána, she considered it good practice to

arrange for a short, focused, independent, serious-incident review of the

actions taken in the case.

She said the primary purpose of this would be that any learning from the review could inform future work.

https://www.independent.ie/irish - news/questioning- of- 12- as- part - of- probe-

into- what - may- be- countrys- largest - ever- paedophile- ring - extended-


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Tusla in the dock over paedophile ring inquiry

By Andrew Carey - March 28, 2018

paedophile ring inquiry By Andrew Carey - March 28, 2018 Minister for Children Katherine Zappone THREE

Minister for Children Katherine Zappone

THREE special investigators have been appointed by Children’s Minister Katherine Zappone to examine the circumstances

surrounding the State involvement in a child sex abuse scandal, the Limerick Post can reveal.

The review will be carried out by a panel of three experts. It will be Chaired by Special Rapporteur on Child Protection Dr Geoffrey Shannon, and include Suzanne Phelan, Child Welfare Consultant, and retired Chief Superintendent Pádraig Kennedy nominated by the Minister for Justice and Equality. The investigation is understood to be centring around the involvement of Tusla, the Child and Family Agency, in its handling of victims at the centre of a suspected Mid West child exploitation scandal that came to light last year.

Upwards of 15 children, across an extended family network, are believed to be the victims of the some of the most horrific paedophilic abuse, neglect and exploitation in the history of the State.

Earlier this month, 11 people, including six women, were arrested as part of a wider Garda investigation but they were all released without charge as Gardaí continue their probe into the shocking details that emerged from the interviews.

Some of the children were found to be in such a state of neglect that emergency treatment and extensive medical care was required. All the suspected victims are now the subject of court orders for the State to provide them with statutory care under the Children’s Act.

In the days after the arrests were made, the matter was raised in the Dáil by Fianna Fail leader Micheal Martin who said that the matter was “deeply shocking” and raised the prospect of an inquiry to

determine that every measure was taken at the earliest possible opportunity to ensure the safety of the children involved.

The Limerick Post understands that the special investigator appointed by Minister Zappone’s office will concentrate on Tusla’s involvement in the cases from when the allegations first emerged.

On Wednesday night, Minister Zappone said: “There have been some media reports and public comments about a complex and unusual case of severe neglect and alleged child sexual abuse. Tusla, the Child and Family Agency and An Garda Síochána have been closely involved. Other State bodies have also been involved to some extent.

“I, along with my colleague, the Minister for Justice and Equality, have been briefed extensively on this case. We have agreed that while there is no evidence of any serious mishandling of the case by either Tusla or An Garda Síochána, due to the complexity of the current case it would be good practice to arrange for a short, focused independent ‘Serious Incident’ review of the actions to date.

“The independent ‘Serious Incident’ review will examine the management of the case including the inter-agency activity and co- operation which primarily involved Tusla and An Garda Síochána. The primary purpose of the review is to ensure that any learning which may arise is captured at the earliest possible opportunity and informs future work.

“I am assured that all the children identified as victims of this abuse have been taken into care. No specific details of the case can be discussed and I am conscious that it is illegal under the Child Care Act, 1991, to publish information that could lead to the identification of a child in care.”

Both Ministers are conscious that it will be important to ensure that this non-statutory review does not risk prejudicing the on-going

investigation and criminal prosecution. With this in mind, the Special Rapporteur on Child Protection, Dr Geoffrey Shannon will assist with drafting the terms of reference. The Terms of Reference will be subject to the receipt of advice by the Attorney General’s Office before they are finalised.

It is intended that the review will be completed as soon as possible after terms of reference have been agreed. The Review Team will submit a report to the Ministers for Children and Youth Affairs and Justice and Equality. A further update will be provided to the Cabinet at that stage. Publication of the review will be considered in due course and will be subject to legal advice.



Survivors of institutional abuse call for notorious Bessborough Mother and Baby Home in Cork to be declared a crime scene amid cover-up fears

Exclusive: Fresh fears of a cover-up were raised after a structure near the plot where the bodies of countless babies are believed to be buried was flattened last week


17 MAR 2019

was flattened last week BY SYLVIA POWNALL 17 MAR 2019 Ann O'Gorman, Ballynanty, Limerick who had

Ann O'Gorman, Ballynanty, Limerick who had been in a Mother and Baby Home

Survivors of institutional abuse have called for the notorious Bessborough Mother and Baby Home to be declared a crime scene after bulldozers moved on to the site. Fresh fears of a cover-up were raised after a structure near the plot where the bodies of countless babies are believed to be buried was flattened last week.

Demolition work has now been halted and a planning

probe by Cork City Council is under way – but outraged survivors want answers. Ann O’Gorman, who first shared her story in the Sunday Mirror two weeks ago, gave birth to baby Evelyn at Bessborough in 1971. She was told her infant died although there are discrepancies in both her birth and death certificate and she was never shown where the body was buried.

birth and death certificate and she was never shown where the body was buried. Angel's Plot

Angel's Plot at Bessborough bulldozed

Angel's Plot at Bessborough bulldozed Ann fears she will die without learning the truth and

Angel's Plot at Bessborough bulldozed

Ann fears she will die without learning the truth and said news the Angel’s Plot may have been dug up has left her broken.

She told the Sunday Mirror: “I am gutted. They are ripping my heart out all again. I’m not able to sleep since I heard about it.

“Nobody knows how much damage has been done. They should not be touching it. It is a horror story what they are doing, it would turn your stomach.”

Limerick woman Ann, 65, believes the excavation is just another part of the cover-up by nuns – and she fears her speaking out may have spurred them into action.

She said: “I feel they’re covering up something. It’s sticking out a mile. It happened just after I shared my story about Evelyn and not knowing what happened to her.

“I have a feeling now that they will dig up the tiny bodies during the night. Under cover of darkness they will take the bodies of the babies.

“They don’t care. Didn’t they do it in Tuam? They’re burying our files for 75 years. It’s a cover-up.”

“They don’t care. Didn’t they do it in Tuam? They’re burying our files for 75 years.
“They don’t care. Didn’t they do it in Tuam? They’re burying our files for 75 years.

The demolition of the historic folly near the burial plot was earlier this week described by historian and councillor Kieran McCarthy as an attack on the city’s DNA.

Cork City Council heard an enforcement file has been opened into Bessborough, which had the highest infant mortality rate of any religious-run institution. The historic Castle Folly is owned by the Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and is on the site of the nuns’ burial plot. Demolition work began last week after a sign was erected on the gate stating the two- storey structure dating back to the 1800s presents a “major health and safety hazard”.

The Mother and Baby Homes Commission confirmed it had been notified of the “maintenance works” and accepted the structure was in poor condition.

The Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary confirmed their intention to sell the property in 2017 but said the cemetery and remembrance site would not be sold. Last month Children’s Minister Katherine Zappone said the Commission had carried out “initial testing” at the site which “may lead to more invasive test excavations” if necessary.

Burial arrangements at Bessborough were due to be outlined in a report which was due to be submitted to Ms Zappone on Friday.

Minister for Chidren & Youth Affairs Katherine Zappone The plot contains the graves of a

Minister for Chidren & Youth Affairs Katherine Zappone

The plot contains the graves of a number of nuns as well as a plaque commemorating infants who died at the home. Catherine Coffey, who escaped from Bessborough in 1989

after being brought there by social workers as a child, visited the site on Friday and was ordered to leave. She has now lodged a formal complaint with Cork City Council and with the Commission of Inquiry into Mother and Baby Homes. She told the Sunday Mirror: “This is two fingers from the nuns to the birth mothers, the commission and the Government. “This just shows you the disrespect and disregard this Order actually has for anyone who went through the gates of Bessborough. “The bottom line is the commission does not represent the mothers. They took a walk around Bessborough, which is 100 acres by the way, and decided there was no need for any excavation before these works started. There are plans for a park and a playground here – do they want to have families picnicking on top of babies’ graves? They cannot build anything on Bessborough until it is investigated.

https://www.irishmirror.ie/news/irish-news/survivors- institutional-abuse-call-notorious-14147796



Joe Little: Priest says abuse scandal 'almost fatally destroyed' Catholic Church

Updated / Thursday, 9 Feb 2017

Catholic Church Updated / Thursday, 9 Feb 2017 Fr Gerry O'Hanlon said the loss of the

Fr Gerry O'Hanlon said the loss of the church's moral authority here once the abuse scandal was publicly exposed was what he called the 'crucial' factor

By Joe Little Religious & Social Affairs Correspondent

The Catholic Church in Ireland has been "almost fatally destroyed" by the clerical child sexual abuse scandal, according to a former Provincial of the Jesuit Order here.

Fr Gerry O'Hanlon SJ told an Australian inquiry into abuse that the loss of the church's moral authority here once the scandal was publicly exposed was what he called the "crucial" factor. He said the Irish hierarchy was forced in the 1990s, "not least due to media intervention and the intervention of public opinion to be more proactive" about the crisis. He said the bishops here owe a lot to survivors and victims who have spoken out on the issue. But he added that "Rome didn't seem to quite get it" probably well into the current millennium and that the Catholic Church was poorly prepared to examine abuse complaints because the priest was perceived "as in some sense superior". He made his remarks by video-link from Dublin to Australia's Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse which is sitting in Sydney.

Responses to Child Sexual Abuse which is sitting in Sydney. For four years now, a six-member

For four years now, a six-member Royal Commission

has been investigating how institutions of all sorts with a responsibility for children managed and responded to allegations and instances of child sexual abuse. Appearing early this morning, Fr Gerry O'Hanlon spoke about his church's experience of the unfolding scandal here. He told Gail Furness, counsel for the Commission, he thought the issue of child sexual abuse by clergy and religious probably first came to his attention in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and later during the six years after 1998 when, as Provincial of the Irish Jesuits, it was "a very important part of (his) responsibility". He agreed with counsel that it was part of his job to deal with claims and allegations in relation to the Jesuits. He recounted setting up a small committee, comprising "a psychologist, a legal person - a judge - and a Jesuit" and said they advised him throughout his six years as Provincial on the various issues which came up. He continued: "We tried, in addressing those issues, to combine what we called a pastoral approach with a legal approach. So on different occasions I met a number of the people who had been abused, and I think that was probably the best learning experience for me. I had read literature, I had attended conferences, but I think that the most relevant learning occurred when I sat down, sometimes for long periods, with people who had been abused and who told me their story.” He said that among the things he had learned was

"the devastation (the abuse) had wreaked on their lives, not just with regard to their own life, but the lives their families. "I recall in particular one person talking to me about the impact it had had on his own family life and his difficulty, for example, in touching his own children and expressing intimacy in a physical kind of way, and the great relief that came to him when he found that he was able to do that with his grandchildren. "But I was so struck by the fact that for most of his adult life, he had been imprisoned, if you like, in that inability to express himself in a most normal way with his own children. It struck me what an awful effect that had had on his life, and obviously he was one of many." Asked by counsel whether speaking to survivors like that man had affected the way that he approached claims that were made to him, Fr O'Hanlon said his committee was advising him, and very often I wasn't in the frontline. "But, yes, it did. We were already committed at that point to very strongly doing what we could to redress the terrible damage that had been done. But certainly from my own point of view, it added to my determination to do the very best that we could do to right the terrible wrong that had been done to these people by Jesuits." Asked about the government-established Murphy Report which was published in 2009, Fr O'Hanlon said it made him reflect more intensely on how the church was organised. He said that despite the reforms proposed by the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) it had retained a

"very much … top-down model of authority". "That was particularly emphasised during the pontificate of John Paul II, who did marvellous things, added extra if you like, with regard to the church, particularly with regard to relations with communism and (the) Solidarity (Movement)…. in Poland, but internally was very firm about the strong monarchical model of papacy and centralisation." He said he believed this centralised model of authority was unhealthy and "a contributing factor to the delay and the poor response of the Catholic Church to the emergence of the clerical child sexual abuse scandal". Citing the Dominican theologian Yves Congar's reference to "a creeping infallibility" in the church, he said "everything that came from Rome was taken as gospel, and local bishops didn't take their own responsibility seriously enough; they looked over their shoulder all the time to Rome. This constant recourse to Rome and the fact that the organisation was very top-down and tightly controlled served the church poorly when the issue of child sexual abuse emerged, because what happened there was that at the very top, certainly at the level of priests, a grievous injury was being inflicted on the church, and the church was poorly prepared to examine the complaints that were coming in because it was used to seeing the priest as in some way, if you like, above reproach and perceived within the church, not just by priests but also by laypeople, as in some sense superior. "So, in that sense, there weren't other voices being introduced. And I think allied to that - and it ties in

with the business of a tightly controlled organisation - there was a real lack of freedom of speech and public opinion within the church. So when people wanted to speak - and I'm not just talking about clerical child sexual abuse but about other issues in the church that might have been considered to be controversial - if they weren't following what was perceived as orthodoxy, often defined in the very narrow sense, then they were liable to censure of one sort or another. That was particularly so in the area of sexuality and gender. So there was a particularly tight rein, if you like, kept on opinion in those areas. "When priests or laypeople were accused of stepping out of line (regarding child sexual abuse), the procedures for redress were not robust. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has a number of procedures which they have outlined in an instruction, which was updated in the late 1970s, with regard to a just way of proceeding with regard to complaints, but in fact most canon lawyers looking at that would say that they fail to meet the standard of ordinary secular justice and they don't give a good hearing to people. "So there was an overall culture within the church of lack of freedom of speech, deference to priesthood, bishops, if you like, almost a sense that they were right, and that was a very unhealthy situation, which Ladislas Orsy, the American canon lawyer, has referred to as a lack of a vigorous immune system within the church, " Fr O'Hanlon said. Counsel asked if he had understood that there were any particular instructions, not necessarily of a formal type, from Rome as to how the Irish church

authorities should deal with clerical child sexual abuse. He replied: "Yes, there is some evidence during the 1990s of toing-and-froing between Rome - and qualifying what I said about the bishops not taking up their own responsibility, I think they were forced in the 1990s, not least due to media intervention and the intervention of public opinion - the bishops were forced to be more proactive about the whole situation. "They did engage with the situation, and at a certain point, it would seem, in the toing-and-froing between them and Rome that Rome was certainly learning rather than the bishops learning. In other words, at some point during that period - and I would say lasting until the end of the 1990s and probably well into the 2000s - Rome didn't seem to quite get it. They were very reluctant, for example, to approve the proper reporting to civil authorities and there is evidence that a number of Irish bishops were very unhappy with that, and the Irish bishops went ahead, anyway… " The Commission's Chair, Justice Peter McClellan asked Fr O'Hanlon if the church would have brought down the wrath of the society on itself if it had identified abuse early on in the scandal as a crime and taken it to the civil authorities. He responded that that would not have been the crucial thing. "I think the loss of moral authority in Ireland, which had already happened once this scandal came out into the open, was altogether the crucial thing. I think where it might be argued along the lines you are suggesting is that for them to admit it was a crime,

and in that sense go legal, they would incur all kinds of financial liabilities and so on, and I think there's certainly some possibility that that was a factor. But I've no hesitation in saying there was an institutional defensiveness around reputation. I think it pertained as much to the moral arena as the legal arena. "I think it's a defensiveness that you will find in many other organisations. We are finding it, for example, in England at the moment with regard to as different a field as professional football, soccer. We find it in different organisations. But of course it was all the more egregious coming from an organisation which, if you like, in a good sense, prided itself on doing what was good and what was right and favouring the weakest. For an organisation like that to have been shown to be so at fault and so in error, I think the reputational damage was enormous, and that was so whether it was simply a moral issue or had also criminal ramifications, which it clearly had." Fr O'Hanlon agreed that secrecy, deference to priests and, in turn, deference of the bishops to the Pope clearly effected the institutional response of the church to allegations. But he added that he thought, over the long run, what had happened was that the Catholic Church, "certainly in Ireland - I can only speak for Ireland, but I also see signs of it happening in Rome as well" - had "come up with a very vigorous response to child sexual abuse, and their guidelines are recognised to be very progressive, and the resources that they have put in in terms of pastoral, psychological, legal, monetary, have been considerable." Turning to the legal aspect of the scandal, Fr

O'Hanlon said that if the church had been left to its own devices, they probably would not have reported to the civil authorities. "I think they owe a lot to the voices of the survivors, the voices of those who still describe themselves as victims, and the media for putting the kind of pressure on that allowed the church, in the end, to do the right thing and to understand - in a way that formally they may have done so, but operatively they hadn't done so - the intrinsic and legal implications of what was involved. Certainly in Ireland, it's no longer an issue. Things are reported to the legal authorities very, very quickly."


Shocking abuse statistics released

Shocking abuse statistics released Nov 20, 2008 Joanne McCarthy

Nov 20, 2008 Joanne McCarthy

One in every four people who reported to rape crisis centres in 2007 was abused by more than one abuser. Furthermore, 60% of people abused in Ireland in childhood were abused for longer than a year.

The statistics were published by the Rape Crisis Network Ireland (RCNI) yesterday, who analysed reports of 1,691 survivors of sexual violence crimes who attended 14 rape crisis centres in


Fiona Neary, director of the RCNI, said that rape, child sexual abuse and incest continue to damage Ireland today. Almost 7% of childhood abuse was perpetrated on girls under the age of four, she said.

“We can see clearly that girls and boys are abused differently and also that the nature of abuse can change with the age of the victim,” said Ms Neary. Girls are much more likely to be abused by a family member. More than half (55%) of the abuse carried out on girls is perpetrated by a family member, compared to one third of the abuse committed on boys. Younger girls are more likely to be abused by family members than girls aged over 11. Boys are much more likely than girls to be

abused by an authority figure, which may include a youth leader, priest, or sports coach. Girls are twice as likely as boys to be abused both as children and as adults. While the risk to sexual violence greatly decreases for boys as they grow up, no such safe haven is available to women, as the risk of sexual violence only decreases by 10% in adulthood. According to the statistics, for adult women the abuser is a partner or ex partner in almost one quarter of cases. The family home remains ‘singularly unsafe for girl children and adult women’, Ms Neary stressed. In 86% of child abuse cases, the abuser is likely to be well known to the family, if not a family member. Offenders are overwhelmingly male, at


One of the most shocking revelations contained in the report is the nature of abuse that is reported to Gardaí. “Women are least likely to report one of the most common forms of adult rape, that by a partner or ex partner and most likely to report to the Gardaí the least likely rape, that perpetrated by a stranger,” Ms Neary stressed. The least likely of all sexual abuse to be reported to the Gardaí is abuse of a child by a family member, which is one of the most common forms of abuse.

“It is clear that the relationship of the perpetrator to the victim is extremely significant in the victim’s decision of whether or not to report. We must ask ourselves how we can change this,” Ms Neary continued. The Rape Crisis Network National Statistics 2007 is available at www.rcni.ie under ‘publications’. To contact the Rape Crisis Centre at any time, freephone 1800 778888.


778888. http://www.irishhealth.com/article.html?id=14649 A history of child abuse in Ireland Thursday, September 18,

A history of child abuse in Ireland

Thursday, September 18, 2014

The mistreatment of children is not new in Ireland, writes Aileen Lee. In the 18th and 19th centuries they were kidnapped for use as beggars, robbed of their clothes, or sold as servants and transported to British colonies in America

THE last two decades have revealed a culture of abuse of children, by Church and State, in 20th-century Ireland. We are still coming to terms with that dark chapter of our history, as the survivors push for recognition and justice.

But this abuse is not new — the 18th and 19th centuries are replete with stories of Irish children who were kidnapped and trafficked out of the country.

News reports from the time show that Irish children were seen as economic commodities — kidnapped and sold as indentured servants; stripped of their clothing; used as cheap labour; or physically deformed for begging. In some of these cases, the children met a brutal end.

This abuse predates the Victorian concept of childhood as precious, highlighting the myriad of ways that children were targeted to make money.

James Kelly, Cregan professor of history at St Patrick’s College, Drumcondra, has researched child kidnapping and trafficking in Ireland.

At a recent international conference on the history of Irish childhood, from the medieval to the modern age, Professor Kelly presented a paper, ‘An Infamous Trade:

the Kidnapping of Children, 1740-1820’.

His research revealed “a stream of press reports of the kidnapping of children, between the ages of three and seven, beginning in the 1730s and continuing, fitfully, into the early decades of the 19th century”.

To set the scene: this was the era of the penal laws, of Protestant ascendancy, of the development of the landed gentry and the ‘Big House’. It was also a time of dire poverty — the famine of 1740-41 was of a similar magnitude to An Górta Mór (1845- 1852) — rebellion, and factional violence.

“We will never know the true numbers of the children who fell victim to these criminal actions,” Kelly says, “as the incidents of child kidnapping that made it into the press were reflective only of those perpetrators who were caught in the act, or facing sentence. However, it is clear that it was a serious problem,” he says.

Britain’s control in the Americas extended across 13 colonies along the eastern seaboard. The colonies’ purpose was to enrich Britain and to do this they needed cheap labour. That need, combined with the increased capacity for passengers on ships, allowed for a market to open in the kidnapping and transportation of Irish children as indentured servants.

On arrival, an employer would purchase the agreed indenture from a sea captain, and the child would be obliged to work for between four and seven years. The indentures were binding in the local courts in America. The work was harsh, with a high death rate among the servants.

Kelly says it is likely that hundreds of children were kidnapped and transported to North America.

The main perpetrators identified in news reports were “strolling beggars, female vagabonds and avaricious ships’ captains”. The kidnapping appears to have been highly organised.

In September and October of 1750, for example, The Munster Journal reported three separate kidnappings of five children, with the intention being to ship them privately to America.

There was money to be made in the trade. Bridget Mooney, one of three women arrested in the space of a week, in 1781, for kidnapping children for transportation, said that she had received £30 from a sea captain in the harbour for supplying children. In today’s money, that is about 4,000.

Following the colonists’ victory over the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775 – 1783), there was a surge in emigration from Ireland. With the number of passengers greatly increased, and the cost of passage with it, ship captains had no difficulty in filling their ships.

While, as a consequence, there was a lull in child kidnapping, it resumed in 1785, as evidenced by the statement in the Dublin Morning Post, on May 12, 1785, that “the infamous practice of kidnapping children is continued with impunity through this city”.

Not all abducted children were transported — some were used for cheap domestic labour, for example as chimney sweeps.

“In a small number of instances,” Kelly says, “the perpetrators were mothers with alcohol addictions, who sold their children on for ‘a guinea and a crown’s worth of drink’.”

Kelly also says that in cases where beggars kidnapped children without the intention of selling them onto ship captains, the “most compelling alternative explanation” is that they “kept them to assist them in their ongoing quest for alms”.

Kelly also says that beggars often broke the limbs of children “to distort them, and move compassion”, as reported in the Dublin Morning Post (1791).

Children were also kidnapped to be stripped of their clothes. An adult, generally a woman, would lure the child away with the help of sweets, fruit, ginger bread or the promise of a toy or reward. Once away from their home, the child was defenceless to prevent the adult stripping them of their clothes, before being abandoned.

“Though direct physical violence was seldom employed in these cases, it could be invoked if the child resisted,” Kelly says.

In a newspaper report in the Volunteer Evening Post (June 2, 1787), the daughter of a linen draper, from Mary Street in Dublin, was threatened with murder if she resisted.

At a time when the population was extremely poor, and clothing expensive, there was a big market in the pawning and selling of second-hand clothes.

For example, in Mary Conolly’s trial at the Dublin Quarter Sessions, in 1794, for the kidnapping of John Stockdale’s daughter, the three items of clothing she stole — a bonnet, coat and shift — were valued at five shillings 5d [pence] by the court (approximately 34).

Typically, children aged between three and six years were targeted, and it seemed to be more of an urban than rural issue, as the majority of recorded instances occurred in Dublin.

Take the following examples, reported in the Hibernian Journal on August 21, 1789:

“At about one o’clock last Monday [17 August 1789], a little girl, the daughter of a grocer in King Street, standing [at] the shop door, was decoyed [lured away] by a female, and brought into an entry near the place, and robbed of her earrings, frock, skirt and buckles; and, the same day, the daughter of an ale-draper in Exchequer Street, a fine child of about five years old, was seduced in like manner from her

parents’ door into an entry in said street, where the little creature was completely stripped and left naked.”

THE punishment of perpetrators by the authorities varied: some were publicly whipped, others fined and imprisoned.

News reports show that the public enacted their own punishment: giving perpetrators severe duckings, as in the case of Mary Spencer, who “made it a practice of stealing children”. She was caught at St Kevin’s Port trying to lure a four-year-old boy away (Freeman’s Journal, March 26, 1768).

In another example, from 1781, a woman was caught in Thomas Street, Dublin, with

five children whom she had lured away with gingerbread cakes.

A group of people stripped her, dragged her about the street and cut off her ears, after

which she confessed to having kidnapped at least 27 children and indicated where they could be found.

“Public anger was not unjustified. A substantial proportion of the children taken were never recovered,” Kelly says. He also speculates that the purpose of stripping children “cannot be completely divorced from child sale, child murder or paedophiliac intent”.

A child’s life could be brutally taken, as a horrific report in the Belfast Newsletter


The body of a child aged about three or four years old, who was taken by a “strolling woman” in the summer of 1788, near Omagh, was found “lying at the back of a ditch near the town, with its throat cut from ear to ear, and stabbed in many parts of the body”.

In 1815, the authorities began imposing a sentence of seven years’ transportation for stripping offences, and it seems to have had the desired effect, as no incidents of children being stripped were reported after 1819.

Child kidnapping continued intermittently, until it became identified with slavery in the 1840s. From then on, the only identifiable incidents of kidnapped children were abroad.

These crimes highlight a society that was often callous in its treatment of children.

Kelly gives the example of the Foundling Hospital, in Dublin — near where St James

Hospital is located — which was charged with the care of the orphaned and

illegitimate, and which had a mortality rate of 95% in 1791.

“Six years later, Sir John Blaquiere, the MP who had originally highlighted the issue,

reported that 98.86% of the children admitted to the hospital in the six years to March,

1796, were either dead or unaccounted for,” says Kelly.

The older children in the city’s Protestant charter schools were also prey to

exploitative labour practices, physical abuse and poor care, the penalty for being

‘illegitimate’. Being poor was also penalised. Some children were not ‘illegitimate’,

but were from destitute families, and, once removed from their families, it was

difficult for them to be claimed back, as the authorities used a system of

transplantation, moving children to schools in different districts.

Various official inspections confirmed these abuses, but they remained in operation

until they petered out in the mid-19th century.

The closure of Ireland’s industrial schools and mother-and-baby homes has not

heralded an end of the brutal abuse of children in this State.

Modern-day slavery exists here — almost half of the people trafficked in Ireland in

2012 were children. In 2013, 16 out of the 44 people formally identified as having

been trafficked in the country were also children.

Denise Charlton, chief executive of the Immigrant Council of Ireland, says that in the

past two years 30 children have been “detected as being trafficked in Ireland for the

purpose of sexual exploitation”.



Jan O Sullivan In Irish Independent to burying our files of Child Abuse for another 75 years.

Ireland's forgotten mixed-race child abuse victims

Feb 24, 2017

Rosemary Adaser was one of many mixed-race children considered illegitimate who was brought up in institutions run by the Catholic church in Ireland between the 1950s and 1970s.


Father Thomas Doyle on the Irish Child Abuse Report

Posted on May 27, 2009 by Michael I read a great article by Father Thomas Doyle entitled Irish abuse report demands decisive action with his observations on the recently released report in Ireland that came from the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse and covered a 60-year-period from 1936 to the present. It raised serious questions about Catholic institutions that permitted and fostered climates of sustained abuse by priests and nuns.

Father Doyle is a canon lawyer and has been a steadfast advocate for victims of abuse. He is a Dominican Priest. He is a godsend to people like me.

Read the article, it is your current homework assignment.

My favorite passage from his article is the simple yet powerful summation of the attitude of the Catholic Church:

The official reaction is predictable. Denial, minimization, blame shifting and finally limited acknowledgment followed by carefully nuanced “apologies” has been the standard fare. At no time has the leadership of any part of the institutional Church ever owned up to any systemic accountability. The standard responses are totally unacceptable because they are devious and irrelevant. Those who still hold to the institutional Church as their source of emotional security may well bray about anti-Catholicism, media sensationalism and exaggeration of what they claim to be an aberration. Such responses are mindless but far worse, they inflict even more pain on the thousands whose lives have been violated.

Can someone tell me why the laity of the Catholic Church remains in their lethargic daze? Why aren’t people screaming, pounding on the doors of Chanceries, withholding donations and seeking reform? I am at a loss!



Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin

Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin Cover Part 1


Signatures (after Part 1 cover)



Commission of Investigation Report into the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin July 2009 DACOI Part 1 beginning



DACOI Part 1



The Mother and Child Scheme was introduced by the Minister for Health to provide mothers with free maternity treatment and their children with free medical care up to the age of 16


report by Commission of Investigation into the handling by Church and State authorities of allegations and suspicions of child abuse against clerics of the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.



Supplementary Report into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin


Charter for the Protection ofChildren and Young People




Cynthia Owen : Irelands Garda A - Operating A Paedophile Network ?

Sunday Tribune 2-10-07 "IT TOOK a jury at an inquest just under four-and-a-half hours to decide what gardaA- have been investigating for 34 years.

to decide what gardaA- have been investigating for 34 years. At the four-day inquest held at

At the four-day inquest held at Dublin County Coroner's Court last week, Cynthia alleged she was raped repeatedly from the age of seven or eight into her teenage years by four different people. And she wasn't the only one making accusations. Her three sisters and a niece made allegations of sexual abuse also, as did two of her brothers, both now dead. All the horrific details of sodomy and incest were not reported in the newspapers. No one could bear to read it. But it's what remained unsaid at the coroner's hearing that may be more shocking than the alleged sexual assault.

Why did 11-year-old Cynthia - who said she had just watched her mother kill her baby that night and then attempt to drown

her - not run into the arms of gardaA-? "I can't go into that, " she told the court quietly when questioned. Coroner Dr Kieran Geraghty was quick to interject. "There are reasons outside this inquest why she couldn't go to gardaA-, " he informed the jury, who looked puzzled. It seemed strange to them that she'd rather go home to a house where she said she suffered systematic rape on a regular basis than seek police help. Implications hung heavy in the air about why she would fear some members of the gardaA- more than members of her own family."

(Quote from Jim Cairns!) Note how the Sunday Tribune journalist inserts a capital A in many words and names in the article- is he/she inferring that the A represents an occult symbol?



Cloyne Report - In Detail

Updated / Wednesday, 13 Jul 2011 23:27

Bishop John Magee 
 Government News Conference Church News Conference The Cloyne Report scrutinises how

Bishop John Magee

Government News Conference Church News Conference The Cloyne Report scrutinises how both Catholic Church and State authorities handled allegations of abuse against 19 clerics in the Co Cork diocese. Judge Yvonne Murphy and two fellow commissioners were not tasked with establishing whether child sexual abuse took place or whether there was a basis for suspicions or concerns.

Cloyne Report in full Helplines

The inquiry was ordered by the Government in 2009, following revelations that child protection practices in the diocese were inadequate and in some respects dangerous. The report refers to the priests using pseudonyms, among them Fr Baird, Fr Caden, Fr Calder, Fr Corin, Fr Drust, Fr Flan, Fr Kael, Fr Moray, Fr Ronat and Fr Tarin.


Main findings from the Commission of Investigation Bishop John Magee misled a previous inquiry and gave a false account of how he was handling allegations Between 1996 and 2005, the diocese failed to report nine out of 15 complaints made against priests, which 'very clearly should have been reported' 'The most serious lapse was the failure to report the two cases in which the alleged victims were minors at the time the complaint was made' While the dioceses ostensibly supported child protection procedures, it was 'never genuinely committed to their implementation' The 'diocese put far too much emphasis on the concerns of the alleged offenders' The report says Bishop John Magee must take primary responsibility for the failure to implement the procedures The Catholic Diocese of Cloyne was ignoring the church's own guidelines on child protection as recently at 2009 In most cases gardaí were not informed of child

abuse allegations against clergy Monsignor Denis O'Callaghan 'stymied' the implementation in Cloyne of child protection policy, and told the Commission he was 'very disappointed' with it Monsignor O'Callaghan first withheld the identity of a perpetrator from authorities and then attempted to have a particular garda officer investigate it In what the report said was 'clearly and unequivocally' a child sexual abuse case, the Commission says it cannot understand how the Monsignor concluded no sexual abuse had occurred The Vatican and its representatives are also criticised - the Commission says the Papal Nuncio replied to its request for information by saying he was 'unable to assist you in this matter' The garda response comes under the Commission's microscope - on one case the Commission says it does not accept there was a proper investigation of the complaints, despite the fact the gardaí insist an investigation took place The Commission also reveals how an allegation was made against Bishop Magee himself in 2008 by an 18-year-old who claimed he was embraced and kissed on the forehead by the bishop

While the behaviour was deemed inappropriate, it was found not to be abusive by church and State authorities. The report concludes the case was dealt with appropriately Details and reaction:

2230 A spokesman for the Department of Foreign

Affairs said the Tanaiste was seeking a meeting as soon as possible with the Papal Nuncio.

1920 Minister for Justice, Equality and Defence Alan

Shatter that the Government will decide in the early autumn if inquiries will have to be held into child sex abuse in other dioceses. Speaking on RTE's Six-One News, Mr Shatter said audit results are expected in September from the church's own abuse watchdog, Ian Elliot and from the HSE and an assessment of the need for further judicial investigations will be made then. Mr Shatter said it was scandalous that the Church in

Cloyne was not implementing its own guidelines in the years following publication of the new framework document in 1996.

1755 The priest who walked from the Cloyne diocese

to Dublin to call for Bishop Magee's resignation has said the Papal Nuncio has questions to answer about

the Vatican's 'appalling' attitude to the Irish church's mandatory reporting policy. Fr Michael Mernagh told RTÉ News that he was surprised and very disappointed with the revelation that the Vatican described the guidelines on reporting child abuse allegations to the civil authorities as 'merely a study document'. The Augustinian friar said that if the Vatican regarded the guidelines as study notes and as unimportant, one would really have to ask what power the Irish church authorities had in implementing their 1996 guidelines.

1710 All-Ireland Primate Cardinal Sean Brady has

said the publication of the report was a very bad and dark day for the Catholic Church in Ireland.

Speaking at the Drumcree Pastoral Centre in

Portadown, the Cardinal said he had not considered resigning as a result of the report and said he would welcome the Murphy Commission into the Armagh diocese if it chose to come.

1705 President Mary McAleese has said that lessons

still have to be learned in the welfare and protection

of area. She added: 'The chastening truth revealed in the Cloyne Report about such recent facts and events must compel the strictest future adherence by church, state and citizens to all laws and best

practice protocols around child protection, and further steps in this regard are being taken by the Government. 'Every effort must be expended so that we can firmly consign this shameful period to history and be sure that our children do in fact come first.'

1655 Fianna Fáil Spokesperson on Children Charlie

McConalogue said that what was done to the children

was 'shocking, awful and unforgivable'.

'The effort to cover up the abuse was appalling. The pain and full horror of this abuse of trust will leave people across our country deeply upset and angry,' he added.

1650 Sinn Féin's Caoimhghín O Caoláin described

the report as a 'damning indictment' of the Catholic Church and of the Vatican, who had covered up abuse. Mr O Caoláin said the Papal Nuncio should be called in to be told of the Government's anger on the issue. He pledged Sinn Féin support for the Government's planned legislation on mandatory reporting.

1620 Fianna Fáil's Billy Kelleher described the report

as 'horrendous', and said the Church authorities must now co-operate fully with investigations into abuse. Mr Kelleher also called for the establishment of a National Forum, which could hear the views of the victims of abuse.

1614 Minister for Children Frances Fitzgerald is to

publish the new 'Children First' national guidance document on Friday. She said a raft of measures will be in place, including imprisonment and fines, for failure to comply with the child protection code.

The Minister said: 'Never again will someone be allowed to place the protection of their institution above the protection of children'.

1606 The Archbishop of Cashel and Emly, Dr Dermot

Clifford said he was appalled by the depth of damage and suffering and that it was a very sad day for all the priests and people in the diocese. Dr Clifford said that a number of structures were now in place so that people will have full and adequate information on the safeguarding of children.

1605 The Garda Commissioner has apologised to the

victims in the Cloyne report whose cases were not properly investigated by the gardaí. Martin Callinan said it was a matter of regret that people did not receive the attention and action to which they were entitled. 1603: Fr Baird: An anonymous complaint was made to Bishop Magee in 1997 about Fr Baird's behaviour. He was a teacher in a boarding school and regularly invited students to his room, where they would drink until the early hours of the morning.

There was one complaint of sexual abuse made

against Fr Baird in 2002. The priest denied the allegation but while the matter was being investigated he was suspended from his ministry and removed from the school. Fr Baird died in 2004, aged 44, after a serious illness.

1557 Monsignor Denis O'Callaghan said: 'I

acknowledge and I am sorry that, in responding to the allegations of abuse, I, in some instances, became emotionally and pastorally drawn to the plight of the accused priest, to the detriment of the pastoral response I intended to make to

complainants.' Msgr O'Callaghan said it was never his intention to add to the immense burden being carried by those who had already been abused.

1555 The Commission says Monsignor O'Callaghan

'stymied' the implementation in Cloyne of the Irish

hierarchy's policy despite having the immediate responsibility for reporting to the civil authorities. He told the Commission he was 'very disappointed' with the policy and that 'the bishops had rolled over under pressure from the media and they expected Rome to endorse the new policy'. The Commission says the Vatican described the 1996 guidelines as 'merely a study document', a stance which 'comforted and supported' dissenters from the Irish bishops' collective

1553 Bishop Magee: The inquiry also dealt with a

personal complaint against the former Bishop himself. The report said concerns had been raised about Bishop John Magee's own interaction with a 17-year-

old youth named as Joseph. As a result of the complaint, the Bishop had to receive 'boundary counselling'. The concerns relate to a meeting the young man had alone with the Bishop after he had decided not to take up a priestly vocation. Joseph reported that the bishop embraced him tightly

for around a minute and at the same time asked if it 'felt good.' Joseph also said the bishop kissed him on the forehead, and that Magee told him he loved him and that he dreamt about him.

1547 Bishop John Magee has said he was

particularly saddened when reading accounts of the complainants describing their abuse, 'knowing that I contributed to their distress.' He said: 'The people, who were so terribly abused by

priests, found the courage to come forward to talk to me, or to my delegate, Msgr O' Callaghan who was representing me, and in many cases, we failed them. 'I am sorry that this happened and I unreservedly apologise to all those who suffered additional hurt because of the flawed implementation of the Church procedures, for which I take full responsibility.'

1544 Cardinal Seán Brady said the publication of the

report represented 'another dark day in the history

of the response of Church leaders to the cry of children abused by Church personnel'.

1541 Between 1996 - when the Irish bishops

introduced guidelines for mandatory reporting - and 2005, the Diocese failed to report nine out of 15 complaints against priests which 'very clearly should have been reported'. The Commission says 'the most serious lapse was

the failure to report two cases in which the alleged victims were minors at the time of the complaint'. Between 1996 and 2008 the diocese failed to report any complaints to the health authorities.

1538 One In Four has responded to the report,

saying it covers 'the same shocking, distressing ground as its predecessors, the Ferns, Ryan and Murphy Reports.' 'It documents a familiar saga of priests sexually abusing children with impunity, protected by senior Churchmen conspiring to cover up the abuse with an astounding indifference to the safety of children.'

1529 Fr Drust: In this case the diocese did

immediately, in 2002, report the complaint to gardaí,

even though Monsignor O'Callaghan made it clear that he did not think this was appropriate. The abuse is alleged to have occurred between 1967 and 1971. The woman first made a complaint in 1990 and again in 2002.

Fr Drust was formally removed from ministry but the perception was that he was a retired priest rather than one removed from ministry, and he continued music classes with children. The DPP decided to prosecute in the case but was prohibited because of exceptional circumstances on the application of Fr Drust. However, the dioceses continued to state that the DPP decided not to prosecute.

1524 Fr Flan: This chapter deals with one of only two

cases in the report where the complaint was made concerning a person who was still a child. Fr Flan admitted to Monsignor O'Callaghan that he

had a relationship with a 16-year-old girl, after which

his activities were restricted but no investigation was carried nor was Bishop Magee informed. The priest later eloped with a married woman, and Monsignor O'Callaghan told that Commission that in hindsight he 'should have gone straight to the gardaí.'

1523 Fr Moray: The Commission found that

procedure was not followed when a complaint was made about deceased priest Fr Moray, in 1997 and again in 2002. Monsignor O'Callaghan told the Commission reporting complaints about dead priests did not exist

until 2003 - the commission did not accept that. The complaint about Fr Moray was made by 'Skyla',

who alleged that she and her brother (who later took his own life) had been sexually abused by the priest. The diocese provided help with counselling costs but when a civil action began claimed it had 'no legal liability.'

1521 The Government is to refer the Commission's

report to the Garda Ombudsman after it expressed concern about the approach adapted by gardaí in three cases. The Garda Commissioner has appointed an Assistant Commissioner to examine whether further

action can be taken against the abusers in the report.

1519 The report does not include a single

instance of contemporaneous reporting of abuse by the abused person.

All were adults at the time of disclosure. In some cases, the abuse was disclosed only when it became public knowledge that others had been abused.

1513 Fr Calder: Gardaí were hampered in their

investigations by the failure of anyone to make a formal complaint until 1998, and even then the complaints related to adults not children. The fact that the evidence of Garda John who was the garda most closely connected to these events, differed considerably from his written reports made many years earlier about the age of particular complainants is a cause of concern to the Commission. The Commission is also concerned about the failure of Supt Murray to keep records of his conversations with Monsignor O'Callaghan.

1507 Minister for Justice Alan Shatter has published

the Scheme of a Bill to make it a criminal offence for

anyone not to pass information on to Gardai about possible sexual abuse of a child.

The Government has approved the drafting of the Bill as a matter of priority. Drafting is already at an advanced stage.

1504 The Diocese of Cloyne has paid for counselling

for six complainants. It made its first payment in 2007 and up to 2010 had made compensation payments to a total of four people, with a number of other claims being processed. Monsignor Denis O'Callaghan, who was parish priest in Mallow, dealt with complaints of child sexual abuse during the period of the Commission's remit. The Monsignor made payments for counselling from the parish account and during the period 1996 to 2007 a total of 30,000 was paid from parish funds, but was later reimbursed from the Diocesan 'child protection fund'. A local charitable trust made the payments to abuse

survivors because 'direct payment to complainants

might be construed as an admission of liability on the part of the Diocese'. The Diocese has contributed 12,000 to the counselling service Faoiseamh which was setup up by CORI.

1503 Although Bishop John Magee was aware of

concerns about a priest since 1997 and had a report about his unsuitability for ministry, it was not until 2009 that he reported the matter to Rome. The Report also criticises two gardaí for their handling of complaints about this priest - named as

Father Calder. It finds it regrettable that a Garda Superintendent did not take a note of a meeting with a senior churchman.

1502 There are 46 parishes in the Diocese of Cloyne,

in 1996 there were 163 priests in the diocese, 12 of

them came within the remit of the report.

1501 The Commission says in its report that the

Papal Nuncio replied to a request for information relevant to its investigation by saying he was 'unable to assist you in his matter'. The Nunciature did not he said determine the handling of cases of sexual abuse in Ireland and would not be in a position to assist. The Commission says that the Department of Health claimed privilege over a number of documents relevant to its investigation. The report notes that the Diocese of Cloyne, in particular Archbishop Clifford and Bishop Magee fully co-operated as did the Gardai and HSE. But it did note that in one case Gardai were unable to

assist because 'these complaints were investigated but files cannot be found'. 1500 The Commission held 55 formal hearings during its inquiry both at its offices and at other locations around the country. The Commission says its work in the Cloyne Diocese cost 1.9m, which does not include third party costs.


Child Abuse Scandal: How the Irish Government protected the Catholic Church

Abuse Scandal: How the Irish Government protected the Catholic Church Excerpt from Beyond Belief: The Catholic

Excerpt from Beyond Belief: The Catholic Church

and the Child Abuse Scandal, by David Yallop (Constable & Robinson, 2010). Reprinted with permission from the author.

From Part 2: Ratzinger: Confronting the Secret System

In April 2009, Archbishop Diarmuid Martin of Dublin publicly warned all Irish Catholics to brace themselves for the publication of the Ryan Report in May. This was a monumental investigation, named after Chairperson Judge Sean Ryan, begun in 1999 and concluded ten years later. Entitled ‘The Report of the Commission on Child Sexual Abuse’, it dealt in great detail within its 2,600 pages with clerical abuse reaching back to before the Second World War. The Commission’s brief was to investigate all forms of child abuse in Irish institutions for children. The majority of allegations it investigated focused upon the system operated in some sixty residential ‘Reformatory and Industrial Schools’ operated by Catholic Church Orders, more often than not run by the Christian Brothers. The report should be made compulsory reading for the wide range of apologists not only for the current Pope, it is a truly shocking indictment. The report establishes that the system within these schools treated children ‘like prison inmates and slaves’ devoid of any legal rights. The report identified sub- human behaviour that repeatedly records beatings and rapes, subjection to naked beatings in public, being forced to perform oral sex, and even beatings after failed rape attempts by Christian Brothers. Adjectives including ‘systemic’, ‘pervasive’,

‘chronic’, ‘excessive’, ‘arbitrary’ and ‘endemic’ are used by the Commission to describe the indescribable. Those apologists will search in vain for evidence that what occurred was perpetrated by

a very small minority, although even one perverted

degenerate would be one too many. It is clear from the details contained within this document that we are confronted with a widespread evil that went on year after year, decade after decade.

It is mystifying therefore that the late Karol Wojtyla

dismissed the clerical abuse of children as ‘an American problem’. Anyone who shares that level of self-delusion and therefore concludes, for example, that what confronted the Ryan Commission was first ‘an Irish problem’ should reflect that wherever the Christian Brothers went – be it Canada, Australia or elsewhere – they brought with them their version of Christianity, which included systematic brutality. The report contains forty-three conclusions and twenty recommendations. The former include:

Overall: physical and emotional abuse and neglect were features of the institutions. Sexual abuse occurred in many of them, particularly boysinstitutions. Schools were run in a severe regimented manner that imposed unreasonable and oppressive discipline on children and even on staff. Physical abuse: the Reformatory and Industrial Schools depended on rigid control by means of severe corporal punishment and fear of such punishment, which permeated more of the institutions and most of those run for boys.

Children lived with the daily terror of not knowing where the next beating was coming from. Sexual abuse: sexual abuse was endemic in boys’ institutions. The schools investigated revealed a substantial level of sexual abuse of boys in care that extended from improper touching and fondling to rape with violence. Perpetrators of abuse were able to operate undetected for long periods at the core of institutions. When confronted with evidence of sexual abuse, the religious authorities’ response was to transfer the offender to another location where, in many instances, he was free to abuse again. Although girls were subjected to predatory sexual abuse, it was not systemic in girls’ schools. There is a belief in some circles that this secret system of moving a molester is a gambit that began in the 1980s, but the long reach of this investigation, back to testimony that is pre-Second World War, exposes this canard. The evidence extends much further and ranges from 1914 onwards. Over 25,000 children attended these institutions. Approximately 1,500 came forward with complaints to the Commission. Doubtless that number would have been far greater if others had lived to tell their tale; still others did not testify for a variety of reasons, ranging from shame to fear. The effect of these abuses upon the children is there for the rest of their lives. It was not easy for any of them to testify to strangers; that would take extraordinary courage. They talked of the neglect, the poor

standards of physical care, of the gnawing hunger day after day, struggling to survive with minimal food that was inedible and badly prepared. They described the lack of heating in bleak rooms, and the emotional as well as the physical abuse. Going to the toilet would often be seized upon as an opportunity for degradation and humiliation. They recalled that the criticism was incessant, as was the verbal abuse, which was invariably accompanied with shouting of how worthless they were. The Commission also established that successive governments had conspired with the perpetrators. The Department of Education inspectors were ‘fundamentally flawed and incapable of being effective’. The department did not apply the standards laid out in the rules and their own guidelines when investigating complaints but ‘sought to protect and defend the religious congregations and schools’. The department dealt inadequately with complaints about sexual abuse, ‘which were generally dismissed or ignored’. The Commission’s recommendations were limited by the Irish Government to just two categories. In short, the Irish taxpayer picked up the bill for the costs of the inquiry and any compensation but remained in ignorance of exactly who was to blame. It was a situation that would endure because of previous undertakings given to the Christian Brothers, including the promise that there would be no prosecutions even though the evidence of criminal acts was overwhelming. It had been intended that there would be a policy of

‘name and shame’, but that was blocked by a legal challenge made by the Christian Brothers. The Brothers sought and received permission to deal with abusers anonymously. Thus, the report does not state whether all abusers were members of religious orders in charge of schools, or whether external parties were involved. Notwithstanding the straightjacket imposed on the Commission, the report had a profound impact in Ireland and beyond. But a sustained wailing and gnashing of teeth in the face of such sustained criminal behaviour is worthless unless at the end there is a measure of justice for the victims. Without that there would be little to show other than a pile of platitudes. In the event ‘no naming and shaming’ was followed by the revelation of a further twisting of the knife. An ‘indemnity deal’ had been signed between two representatives of the Conference of Religious of Ireland (CORI), an umbrella group representing 138 religious congregations, on behalf of eighteen religious orders that had run the residential institutions, and the then Minister of Education, Michael Woods. It would not have been unreasonable to expect that many of those responsible for the acts condemned by the Commission would end up in court, then in prison. Instead, the deal that had been cut between the government and CORI not only ensured immunity and privacy, it went even further: the religious orders were also indemnified from any legal action, whereby any costs would now be met by the Irish taxpayers in return for a transfer of property and

assets to the sum of 128 million. No representatives of the victims had been involved in any of these negotiations. The sum of 128 million did not even cover the cost of the Commission, leaving nothing to compensate the victims. This deal remained secret until revealed by the news media in January 2013. It had been completed by a caretaker government at the time of the 2012 election, on the last possible day of business. As such the agreement had neither Cabinet approval nor the benefit of a debate on the issues within the Dáil. The overall cost to the Irish taxpayer has been put at 1 billion. This currently is what passes for justice in Ireland for the victims of sexual and physical abuse. In June 2009, Pope Benedict yet again demonstrated that he inhabits a very rarefied area untouched by reality. Talking to the Irish bishops Martin and Brady, the Pope urged them:

To establish the truth of what has happened, ensure that justice is done for all, put in place the measures that will prevent these abuses happening again, with a view to healing for survivors. This meeting between Benedict and the two bishops took place a month after the Ryan Report had been published. The Pope’s appeal was directed not just at the two men sitting before him but to the entire Catholic Church of Ireland and to its priests and nuns. Quite simply, he was asking the Church to find a satisfactory solution. Many priests within that Church would appear to have concluded in the lights of the various clauses in the

‘indemnity deal’ that they already had a satisfactory solution. This was not and is not a problem confined to the orphanages, schools of correction and institutions. In Ireland there were wider lessons to be learned. Even after the meticulous detail contained within the Ryan Report was published the apologists continued to deny the truth, doubtless motivated by a sentiment shared by many within the Vatican and other places ‘for the good of Mother Church’. They hid behind a quiver of curious arguments: ‘This was

only a small minority of priests … These children who were allegedly abused, well nothing has been proved in court … They were all ne’er do wells, part of the criminal class … this survey only looked at children being held in residential institutions and industrial schools.’ That last argument had particular resonance for the traditional Catholic. ‘Take a survey of the Dublin Archdiocese and you will get a quite different picture’, went the argument. Sometimes life is well written. Next up for consideration was the Murphy Report, again named after its Chairperson, Judge Yvonne Murphy, with the mandate to report on the handling by Church and State authorities of a representative sample of allegations and suspicions of child sexual abuse against clerics operating under the aegis of the Archdiocese of Dublin over the period 1975 to


Judge Murphy and her Commission were appointed in November 2005; their report was published in November 2009. Publication was delayed for some

six months by the government, and was only eventually released because the Irish High Court ruled that it should be. At the eleventh hour, the Irish Government, who where of course fully aware of the report’s contents, asked the Court to further delay publication. The Court declined the application. The Murphy Commission was working to a much smaller compass than the Ryan Report. Its time- frame was confined to twenty-nine years, and the representative sample of cases investigated was confined to the activities of forty-six priests. The report’s introduction couched in calm neutral language calmly reveals quite shocking facts. It is important in the Commission’s view not to equate the number of complaints with the actual instances of child sexual abuse. While a significant number of priests against whom allegations were made admitted child sexual abuse, some denied it. Of those investigated by the Commission, one priest admitted to abusing over 100 children, while another accepted that he had abused on a fortnightly basis during the currency of his ministry which lasted over 25 years [a minimum of 650 separate sexual acts of abuse on children]. The total number of documented complaints recorded against those two priests is just over seventy. In another case, there is only one complaint but the priest has admitted abusing at least six other children. Officials of the Archdiocese of Dublin conveyed to the Commission that the various cases that had

come to light over the previous thirty-five years had left the Church, in common with the general public, taken by surprise by the volume of the revelations … Church authorities have repeatedly claimed to have been, prior to the late 1990s, on a “learning curve” in relation to the matter. Having completed its investigation, the Commission does not accept the truth of such claims and assertions. Yet again, the spectre of suppression of the truth for the good of Mother Church raises its head. The Dublin Archdiocese’s pre-occupations in dealing with cases of child sexual abuse, at least until the mid 1990s, were the maintenance of secrecy, the avoidance of scandal, the protection of the reputation of the Church and the preservation of its assets. All other considerations, including the welfare of children and justice for victims, were subordinated to these priorities. The Archdiocese did not implement its own canon law rules and did its best to avoid any application of the law of the State. Not much comfort for the apologists is to be found in those conclusions. Indeed, as can be seen, although the area of investigations differed vastly from Justice Ryan’s epic investigation of industrial schools and orphanages, the evidence and the conclusions to be drawn from the respective reports have an overwhelming symmetry. As for the ‘learning curve’ pleading of ignorance, Archbishop McQuaid was dealing with such cases in the 1950s and 1960s. There have been bishops all over the world who have used this defence during the past

thirty years. Any adult male – be he a bishop or a man in any other walk of life – who did not know long before this scandal became public knowledge that grown men having sex with children is wrong and insidiously harmful to children is either an idiot or a liar or both. Excerpted from Beyond Belief by David Yallop. Copyright © 2010, 2013 by David Yallop. All rights reserved. David Yallop is widely considered to be the world’s leading investigative writer. In the course of his career, he has met with some of the world’s most powerful and most dangerous men, often he has uncovered truths that they had wanted to keep buried. He is the author of amongst others, In God’s Name, The Power and the Glory, and Beyond Belief.



This World: The Shame of the Catholic Church


nly Father Flanagan of Boys Town shouted stop to child abuse in Ireland

John Fay


May 15, 2018

Father Edward Flanagan sings carols with some of the children at Boys Town. Today we

Father Edward Flanagan sings carols with some of the children at Boys Town.

Today we remember the rebellious and kind Monsignor Edward Joseph Flanagan, founder of Boys Town, Nebraska, who was born in Leabeg, County Roscommon on this day (July 13) 1886.

Monsignor Edward Joseph Flanagan, founder of Boys Town made famous by the Spencer Tracy movie "Boys Town," was a lone voice in condemning Ireland’s industrial schools back in the 1940s and the treatment afforded to orphans and those born outside marriage generally. He was viciously castigated by the Irish Church and Irish government for doing so.

His treatment at the hands of clergy and politicians makes it very clear both powerful arms of the state were determined to stick to secrets and lies and cover-ups when it came to the mistreatment of youths and babies. When he arrived back in America after a 1946 trip to Ireland he let it be known he was appalled by the abuse of children in the institutions he had visited. Though he mainly focused on the industrial schools, which worked young children to the bone, he widely criticized the entire range of Catholic institutions that dealt so viciously with the most vulnerable of Irish children.

so viciously with the most vulnerable of Irish children. 4 A plaque dedicated to the 796


A plaque dedicated to the 796 infants believed to be buried at Tuam.

When he came back to America Flanagan, addressing the Irish clergy and political leaders, said: "What you need over there is to have someone shake you loose from your

smugness and satisfaction and set an example by

punishing those who are guilty of cruelty, ignorance, and

neglect of their duties in high places

God's judgment will be with reference to those who hold the deposit of faith and who fail in their God-given stewardship of little children."

I wonder what

However, his words fell on stony ground. He wasn't simply ignored. He was taken to pieces by the Irish establishment. The then-Minister for Justice Gerald Boland said in the Dáil (Ireland's parliament) that he was “not disposed to take any notice of what Monsignor Flanagan said while he was in this country because his statements were so exaggerated that I did not think people would attach any importance to them.” Flanagan was a devout Catholic, a man who Catholics and non-Catholics worldwide had deemed a hero. He was the Mother Theresa of his day. Flanagan was born on July 13, 1886, in the townland of Leabeg, County Roscommon, to John (a herdsman) and Honoria Flanagan. In 1904, he immigrated to the United States. Unlike many others, Flanagan became a priest after he had arrived in America. He was ordained in 1912. In 1917 he was living and working in Omaha, Nebraska, when he hit upon the idea of a "boy’s town," which would offer education and a home for the poor and wayward boys of Omaha.

4 Father Flanagan photographed with some children at Boys Town. However, demand for the service


Father Flanagan photographed with some children at Boys Town.

However, demand for the service was so great that he soon had to find bigger premises. Boys Town, built on a farm 10 miles from Omaha, was the result. The center was open to all. There were no fences to stop the boys from leaving. Fr. Flanagan said he was “not building a prison." "This is a home," he said. "You do not wall in members of your own family.” Boys Town eventually became so well-known – and so well-respected – that Hollywood and the U.S. President came calling. Spencer Tracy and Mickey Rooney starred in the 1938 movie "Boys Town," and it made a national hero out of Fr. Flanagan. He was internationally renowned as “the world’s most foremost expert on boys’ training and youth care.”

When World War II ended in 1945, President Truman asked Flanagan to tour Asia and Europe, to see what could be done for the many children orphaned and made homeless by the war.

for the many children orphaned and made homeless by the war. 4 Father Flanagan surrounded by


Father Flanagan surrounded by World War II troops.

Flanagan decided to return to the land of his birth in 1946 to visit his family and to visit the “so-called training schools" run by the Christian Brothers to see if they were "a success or failure.” The success of the film "Boys Town" meant Flanagan was treated like a celebrity upon his arrival. His visit was noted by the Irish Independent, which said that Flanagan had succeeded “against overwhelming odds,” spurred on by the “simple slogan that 'There is no such thing as a bad boy.'”

But Flanagan was unhappy with what he found in Ireland. He was dismayed at the state of Ireland's reform schools and blasted them as “a scandal, un- Christ-like, and wrong.” And he said the Christian Brothers, founded by Edmund Rice, had lost their way.

Speaking to a large audience at a public lecture in Cork’s Savoy Cinema he said, "You are the people who permit your children and the children of your communities to go into these institutions of punishment. You can do something about it." He called Ireland’s penal institutions "a disgrace to the nation," and later said "I do not believe that a child can be reformed by lock and key and bars, or that fear can ever develop a child’s character."

Despite that, the Irish church and the Irish government felt comfortable ignoring Fr. Flanagan, ignoring the fact that he was considered to be an expert in the matter of providing for the education and upbringing of boys who were otherwise considered to be “lost causes.” Again, his efforts fell on stony ground.

What was it about the Irish church and the Irish government that made them so insular that they felt comfortable dismissing someone of Fr. Flanagan's stature? Even though Fr. Flanagan was a popular hero to many Irish people, his words had no sway with those in authority, whether in the government or the church.

And, once those who endorsed the industrial school model survived Fr. Flanagan's broadsides, they must have known that no one would challenge them again. They were right, for 50 years anyway.


Ex-garda lifts lid on decades of child abuse in Gaeltacht

New book says clergy ignored sex crimes

1 Eugene Greene: Former priest is due for release in December Anita Guidera April 4


Eugene Greene: Former priest is due for release in December

Anita Guidera April 4 2008

A retired garda has called for an independent inquiry into four decades of child sexual abuse in a remote corner of the Gaeltacht.

From the 1960s to the 1990s, dozens of children were being abused by four paedophiles in the area, which stretched from Gortahork, on the north Donegal coast, south to Leitermacaward and Glenties, and west to Annagry and Kincasslagh.

In a shocking new book, 'Breaking the Silence', former garda Martin Ridge, who investigated the horrific cases of priest Eugene Greene and teacher Denis McGinley, has accused the Catholic Church of turning a blind eye on the decades of devastation.

"An inquiry would show that members of the clergy had to know what was going on. We know they were made aware of it," he said.

He added that the hurt in the communities was being compounded by the release and pending release of the perpetrators.

Greene, who violently abused altar boys in different parishes for 17 years, was sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment in 2000 and is due for release in December.

In 2002, McGinley, who Mr Ridge said abused "a conveyor belt of victims", was sentenced to 30 months on 21 sample charges and has since been released.

A third man -- who was never named -- abused young boys in the 1970s and 1980s in the Annagry area. He received a 12-year sentence in September 1999 and is due for release in August.

And Jimmy O'Donnell, who used his dwarf stature to gain the trust of the local community in Kincasslagh, was sentenced to four years on 26 sample counts of abuse. He was released last December.

Mr Ridge, who retired from the Garda Siochana in 2002, spent the last five years of his career working with colleague Detective John Dooley exposing four decades of abuse.

The book, which will be launched tonight, details the painstaking work carried out by the gardai in tracking down and building the confidence of scores of abuse victims.


He said that many were addicted to alcohol and drugs and had broken relationships and marriages. There was also evidence that some victims had died by suicide.

But the book also reveals complaints that went unheard and unheeded, leaving the perpetrators free to abuse with impunity for decades.

Ridge said an inquiry would also reveal church documents which they were unable to access at the time.

In 1976, a complaint was made to another priest in Gortahork about Greene.

He disappeared for a period of time but returned, to the surprise of the family, who were told that he would not "interfere" with their son again. But the abuse continued.

The current bishop, Dr Philip Boyce,said in a television documentary that he was first made aware of an allegation against Greene in 1998.

In the case of McGinley, a parent complained to a local curate in June 1984. McGinley was teaching again that September and continued to abuse boys in the school for 11 years.






Irish child abuse: The Ryan Report cover-up

By Steve James 26 May 2009

For all the details of sadistic physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect and brutalisation of children in Ireland’s industrial school system, the report of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (CICA) is a cover up. Nine years of hearings, the probing of hundreds of childhood hells, have resulted in a huge report—five volumes and 3,000 pages—which will not lead to the prosecution of those individually or collectively guilty of crimes against thousands of children.

Neither has political responsibility been attributed. The report by Judge Sean Ryan continues to obscure the role of the Catholic Church, which is an essential element of the Irish state, and successive governments in operating a cruel workhouse system through which at least 170,000 children passed through in the middle decades of the twentieth century.

Even the publication of the report was characterised by official arrogance, contempt and indifference to former inmates who braved hearings and interviews, including cross examination by representatives of the religious orders in whose schools they were

incarcerated and brutalised. Paddy Doyle, wheelchair bound, attempted to attend publication of the report last week in the Conrad Hotel, Dublin and was confronted by locked doors, PR and security men. When other victims of abuse managed to force their way into the hearing, police were called. Co-ordinator of the campaign group Survivors of Child Abuse,

John Kelly, told the press from the steps of the hotel, “There is nothing by way of justice in any means significant in this report,


former Taoiseach to open our wounds. We did this and they’ve been left gaping open.”

The Irish state has consistently refused to take any real action against the perpetrators. This is not only because it is complicit, by its silence, in the abuses. More fundamentally, it was dependent upon the Catholic Church to force submission onto numerous poor children exploited as cheap labour in its industrial school system.


were encouraged by this commission and by the

The report was only commissioned in 1999 following decades in which the appalling conditions in the industrial religious schools were common knowledge. From as early as 1961 news broadcasts, films, plays and countless personal experiences led to numerous complaints being filed against schools. Yet only in 1999 did then Taoiseach Bertie Ahern commission the CICA inquiry under Judge Mary Laffoy. Laffoy published interim reports and reportedly won respect from the survivor groups, but found her investigations hampered by the Department of Education and the Church. Laffoy resigned in 2003 and Judge Sean Ryan was appointed.

In 2004, Ryan struck a deal to ensure continued participation from the religious orders, agreeing not to name those accused of abuse. The hundreds of religious brothers, nuns and lay persons accused of abuse have been given pseudonyms in the CICA report. Only those previously convicted of child abuse are named. Another deal in 2002 limited the financial liability of the orders to compensation claims to a maximum of 128 million.

The CICA report nevertheless does make clear the horrifying crimes of the child-care system. Dealing mainly with the period between 1930 and 1970, the commission interviewed 1,090 former residents of 216 schools, reformatories and day schools—90 percent of whom said they had been physically abused and over 500 sexually abused.

Compiling other information from the Department of Education, the Vatican and the schools themselves, the commission concluded that some 800 individuals were identified as having physically or sexually abused children in their care.

Nothing more clearly condemns the political system that emerged from the partition of Ireland, the accommodation reached between the Irish bourgeoisie, the Catholic Church, and the former imperialist master in Britain, than the protracted existence of a children’s gulag intended to provide cheap pliant, unskilled, largely agricultural, Catholic labour. Ireland maintained the industrial school system, run by various Catholic, orders until the 1970s. Journalist Bruce Arnold wrote in the Irish Independent, “The report contains nothing about the steady flow of reform in the British system of childcare, begun by Winston Churchill when he was Home Secretary and continued throughout the grim period in which Tomas Derrig was our Minister for Education. From 1932, Derrig placed an iron fist on top of the smouldering drum of industrial school illegality and did nothing at all. Irregularly, cases came up in the court, the press and in the Dail. They cried out for investigation. Derrig always refused. Investigation was generally refused by other ministers. Nothing is said of this in the report.”

Arnold also noted that the report contains no serious assessment of the role of the District Courts, from which children were committed to the schools. The young people forced into the system—some 1.2 percent of the childhood population between 1936 and 1970—were from the poorest backgrounds. At any time between 5,000 and 6,000 were held in around 50 or so boarding institutions.

Children would be referred by the courts for begging, having no visible means of subsistence, no obvious guardian, being in the charge of parents who were in prison, or had criminal or otherwise dubious reputations. Others were referred for petty offences including non-attendance at school. Young girls who had been raped were sent to reformatories.

Most of the industrial schools held around 250 children. The largest, Artane near Dublin, held around 800. They were universally characterised by violence, fear, neglect, hunger, poor clothing, cold and miserable conditions, bullying, poor education, emotional, physical and sexual abuse.

The greatest numbers of industrial schools were run by the Christian Brothers, which opened its first school in Dublin in 1870 and expanded operations to the UK, Australia, Canada, Gibraltar, India and the United States and still operates in 26 countries.

The Christian Brothers recruited young, often badly educated men from the age of 14 onwards, who took permanent vows of chastity and silence from the age of 25. They were entirely untrained, learning only by the primitive and brutal practice of their elders. The report notes, “The Christian Brothers became a powerful and dominant organisation in the State and were responsible for providing primary and post primary education to the majority of Catholic boys in the country.”

Industrial Schools were funded on a per-capita basis, encouraging the orders to cram in as many children as possible. The section on Artane notes reasons for committal between 1940 and 1969: 1,374 children were committed for “improper guardianship”, 1,045 for bad school attendance, 720 for destitution, 227 for being homeless, 220 for larceny, 90 for other crimes.

These children were plunged into a medieval environment, with the report compiling a vast litany of atrocities. A few examples are enough.

A letter from the head of the school warns Brother Beaufort, “You are passionate in your dealings with the boys. In fact at times you show so little control of your temper that you are in danger of inflicting serious bodily harm on the boys by your manner of correcting them.”

One victim was picked up and thrown around a class by Brother Beaufort, knocked unconscious, and was only saved by the intervention of another Brother. The child suffered lacerations, broken teeth, eye and neck injuries.

All the staff carried leather straps which were freely used on children. A Brother Oliver repeatedly beat children with particular violence. One victim reported, “I was running trying to get away from him. He hit me, it didn’t matter where, legs, back, head, anywhere ”

Oliver forced one 12-year-old child to lick excrement from his shoes.

Instruments of punishment included rubber from a pram wheel, hurley sticks, hurley balls, fists, finger nails and fan belts. One

child’s hand was held in boiling water. Boys were repeated pulled around by the hair, punched, strapped for crimes such as being left handed, being slow, tearing a blanket, having worn out shoes.

Another inmate commented, “You don’t seem to understand, the place was built on terror, regular beatings were just accepted. What you’re hearing about is the bad ones, but we accepted as normal run of the mill from the minute you got up, that some time in that day you would get beaten.”

Sexual abuse was rife. Artane’s staff hosted a number of Brothers who had repeatedly been warned for “embracing and fondling” boys. Two such paedophiles went on to be hung for child murder in Canada. Others accused of rape, beat or bribed their victims into silence. Accused Brothers were invariably excused, lightly admonished or, typically, moved to other institutions where they were free to continue abusing children for decades.

The children provided cheap labour for running the institutions. A 1957 report by the Department of Education complained, “These lads really make the running of Artane possible yet in all the apartments devoted to the farm and the trades there is not a single toilet or wash-basin for these boys. They come into their meals in a shocking condition, hands, faces and clothes are covered with the grime of the trades, boots, stockings and portions of the trousers often soaking from working in the cowhouse or the manure pit.”

St Vincent’s Industrial School, Goldenbridge featured in two broadcasts, “Dear Daughter” and “States of Fear”, which undermined the official silence on the schools. Run by the Sisters of Mercy, young girls were held in conditions of neglect and near starvation, subject to repeated beatings. One victim summed up the lasting impact of their experience. Their comments could apply to the entire system.

“The screaming of children, the screaming of children will stay with me for the rest of my life about Goldenbridge. I still hear it, I still haven’t recovered from that. Children crying and screaming, it was just endless, it never never stopped for years in that place.” The report is available from here:


Official Ireland remains in denial about its child abuse legacy

Updated / Tuesday, 13 Feb 2018

about its child abuse legacy Updated / Tuesday, 13 Feb 2018 "For decades, the State failed

"For decades, the State failed to implement child protection frameworks in national schools"

By Conor O'Mahony UCC

in national schools" By Conor O'Mahony UCC Opinion: Ireland's long history of failing to protect

Opinion: Ireland's long history of failing to protect vulnerable children continues in the shape of the state's efforts to fight survivors of abuse tooth and nail 2017 was another bad year in Ireland’s long history of failing to protect vulnerable children. The "Grace"

case involved a young woman with intellectual disabilities who was left in the care of a foster family for 20 years despite physical abuse, gross neglect and possible sexual abuse. This led to the publication of two separate reports, the establishment of a Commission of investigation and a settlement of 6.3 million in compensation. The revelations of babies buried in a mass grave in Tuam has been subsumed into a separate Commission of Investigation examining Mother and Baby Homes. It is only right that significant, if belated, efforts are being made at bringing about justice in these cases. But other worthy victims of Ireland’s systemic failure to protect children are being denied any form of justice. For decades, the State failed to implement child protection frameworks in national schools. The European Court of Human Rights has already ruled that this was partly to blame for abuse in those schools, but the State continues to fight survivors of abuse tooth and nail.


From RTÉ Radio One's This Week, Colm Ó Mongáin reports on the independent report commissioned by the HSE into the funding of the care of the vulnerable young woman known as Grace That ruling occurred in the Louise O’Keeffe case in 2014. Louise was a pupil in Dunderrow National School and was one of 21 girls abused by the school principal, Leo Hickey, on almost 400 occasions in the early 1970s. When a parent complained, Hickey

resigned his post and took up another in Ballincollig, where he taught for another twenty years. In February 2017, Hickey was convicted of fresh sex abuse charges in Ballincollig between November 1991 and June 1992. All of this occurred without so much as an eyebrow being raised in the Department of Education. A guidance note issued by the department instructed schools to direct complaints to school managers – i.e. parish priests – with no department involvement (see para 168 of the judgment). The department had a laissez faire approach to National Schools, with a hands-off inspection regime and a "see no evil, hear no evil" attitude to child abuse. The risk of such abuse was clear to see. As early as 1931, the Carrigan Report had identified "an alarming amount of sexual crime increasing yearly, a feature of which was the large number of cases of criminal interference with girls and children from 16 years downwards". On advice from the Department of Justice, the Carrigan Report was never published. The European Court of Human Rights ruled in 2014 that State was or ought to have been aware of the risk of abuse and should have taken reasonable measures to prevent it. Only seven compensation payments have been made to date, even though there are 360 known victims. The O’Keeffe judgment ought to have been a watershed moment in which the State’s role in facilitating heinous sex crimes against pupils in national schools was fully acknowledged and accepted. Instead, the State immediately went into

damage limitation mode. Taoiseach Enda Kenny’s apology to Louise O’Keeffe pointedly referred to children "in the location where she was", failing to acknowledge that the judgment concerned a systemic failure to supervise child protection in national schools rather than a specific failure to respond to a complaint in Dunderrow. This pattern continued when a redress scheme was established for victims of sexual abuse in national schools as part of the State’s implementation of the judgment. The scheme limited redress to those victims who could establish that their abuse had occurred in the aftermath of a prior complaint which had not been acted upon. First, this distorts the true basis of liability in the O’Keeffe judgment. As the Court observed (at para 168 of its judgment), the State’s obligations were "not fulfilled when the Irish State … continued to entrust the management of the primary education of the vast majority of young Irish children to non-State actors (national schools), without putting in place any mechanism of effective State control against the risks of such abuse occurring". The emphasis was on risk and the need for preventive measures, not on investigation of actual abuse. To say otherwise is equivalent to saying that a search party is an adequate substitute for a stable door.

The Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission and the Child Law Clinic at UCC have

The Irish Human Rights and Equality Commission and the Child Law Clinic at UCC have both made submissions to the Council of Europe on this point, and it has been further criticised by the Ombudsman for Children. Second, the requirement of proving that a prior complaint had been made ignores reality. Although Leo Hickey abused over 20 children, only one of them complained at the time. When his latest victim was asked by defence counsel if he had spent 25 years making up his allegation of abuse, he replied that he had spent 25 years blocking it out. The fact is that children didn’t complain of abuse. On the rare occasions when they did, how can they prove it decades later? And why is the original complainant, along with any children abused prior to the complaint, any less worthy of redress? The emphasis was on risk and the need for preventive measures, not on investigation of actual abuse As seen in the State’s latest action plan, only seven compensation payments have been made to date,

even though there are 360 known victims. That Hickey has been convicted of abusing in a separate school highlights – yet again – the effect of the State’s wilful ignorance of matters of child protection in National Schools. The State remains in denial about this, providing token redress while fighting other victims in the courts and threatening to pursue them for costs. It is long past time for the State to acknowledge its failures in a meaningful way by providing redress to the victims in an inclusive manner. If this does not happen, then it is entirely possible that another Louise O’Keeffe will come along and the State will once more be shamed before the European Court of Human Rights.

Dr Conor O’Mahony is a deputy director of the Child Law Clinic at UCC which supported Louise O’Keeffe’s legal team during her application to the European Court of Human Rights, and is currently providing support to the legal teams of other victims of abuse in national schools.

The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent or reflect the views of RTÉ


Communication from Ireland concerning the case of O'KEEFFE v. Ireland State’s latest action plan, only seven compensation payments have been made to date, even though there are 360 known victims. 29 th January 2018


Case of O'Keeffe v. Ireland distorts the true basis of liability in the O’Keeffe judgment. As the Court observed (at para 168 of its judgment), the State’s obligations were "not fulfilled when the Irish State …


28 July, 2015- Government approves approach for those who discontinued their legal proceedings but who come within the terms of the ECtHR Judgment in Louise O’Keeffe

Minister O’Sullivan announced that the Government approved her proposal to offer ex- gratia payments to those who initiated legal proceedings in cases of school child sexual abuse against the State but who subsequently discontinued their claims against the State where the circumstances of the claims come within the terms of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) judgment and where the claims were not statute barred prior to the proceedings being discontinued.

The State Claims Agency has reviewed its case files and those of the Chief State Solicitor’s Office and some 210 potential school child sexual abuse cases have been identified. To be eligible for an ex-gratia payment survivors will have to establish that:

They had instituted legal proceedings against the Minister for Education in respect of school child sexual abuse and that those proceedings were not barred under the Statute of Limitations prior to their being discontinued; and

They were sexually abused while at school by a primary or post- primary school employee in respect of whom there was a prior complaint of sexual abuse to the school authority (or a school authority in which the employee had previously worked) prior to the issue of the Department of Education child protection guidelines to primary and post-primary schools in 1991/92.

Those who consider that they meet the criteria should contact the State Claims Agency and provide supporting evidence. Where there is a disagreement with the State Claims Agency as to whether the criteria are satisfied, the application may be reviewed by an independent assessor.

Where the State Claims Agency or independent assessor is satisfied that the criteria are met, the Department of Education and Skills will offer an ex-gratia payment up to a maximum of 84,000 plus a specified amount for costs to the survivor. This figure of 84,000 reflects the amount Ms O’Keeffe received from the State including the award from the Criminal Inquiries Compensation Tribunal and the amount the ECtHR decided the State should pay to her.

As this litigation was at various stages of progression and all of the cases within this category were discontinued against the State prior to a Court hearing, it is not possible to determine the number of survivors who are likely to satisfy the qualifying criteria for an ex-gratia payment. It is expected that there will be cases that will not satisfy the criteria.

Minister O’Sullivan said: “I am pleased that the Government has agreed to my proposal to treat those survivors who discontinued their proceedings in a similar fashion to those survivors whose cases are continuing against the State. While there is no legal obligation on

the State to address the situation of these survivors, I believe that the approach adopted is fair and balanced in addressing the position of these survivors.”

As with the current and future litigation, the Minister said that in making these ex-gratia offers the State is not covering the liability of the perpetrators, school patrons or other Co- Defendants. In the O’Keeffe case, no claim was made against the school manager or patron.

Similarly, these arrangements only concern those cases of school child sexual abuse where there was a prior complaint about the teacher concerned to school authorities as these were the circumstances on which the ECtHR judgment was based. None of the current child protection architecture applying to schools was in place in 1973, when Louise O’Keeffe suffered horrendous sexual abuse.

Minister O’Sullivan said: “There was a complaint to the school authorities in Ms O’Keeffe’s case which was not acted upon. The measures being taken are in response to the ECtHR judgment that the State failed in its Convention obligations to have effective mechanisms for the detection and reporting of child sexual abuse in the early 1970s when Ms O’Keeffe was abused.”

The Minister re-iterated her apology to all those who were sexually abused as school children for the horrific abuse which was inflicted upon them, and for our collective failure to protect them.

She welcomed the recent passing of the Teaching Council (Amendment) Bill, 2015 by both Houses of the Oireachtas, which introduces further additional measures to enhance child protection in the education sector and confirmed her commitment to continuing collaboration with her Cabinet colleagues to ensure effective responsive systems of child protection both in schools and more generally.



An updated report on the State’s implementation of the ECtHR judgment is being lodged with the Council of Europe and is available on the Department’s website-



Mandatory Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse – IAHIP

A Report by Brian Howlett on the IAHIP Information Day held on 23 March 1996

These are personal reflections on a well-attended Information and Discussion Day held on 23 March 1996 for members of the Irish Association for Humanistic and Integrative Psychotherapy (IAHIP). The event was chaired by Barbara Fitzgerald, the new Chairperson of IAHIP, and had been arranged so that IAHIP psychotherapists could be consulted on what response, if any, IAHIP should make to Putting Children First, the Government’s Discussion Document on the mandatory reporting of child abuse, published in February 1996. The day included the provision of information from social work and legal specialists (Kieran McGrath and John Collins respectively), small group discussions on the main questions and issues that the topic raises for psychotherapists, reports and recommendations from those small groups and some general conclusions and agreement for further action.

By the end of a very useful and productive day, my personal reckoning is that general agreement had been given as follows:


The IAHIP would submit a response to the Department of Health

on Putting Children First. A small committee from among those present was appointed to prepare and submit that response.

2. That, at least for the present, the response would confine itself to

current child sexual abuse and would endeavour to reflect such views from the group reports as had enjoyed a reasonable degree of consensus.

3. That whether or not mandatory reporting is introduced,

psychotherapists within IAHIP are bound by their own Code of Ethics to

put the protection of children currently at risk above all other considerations and interests.

4. That IAHIP would want to support any childcare system that is able to

protect children, facilitate rehabilitation and minimise or reduce future abuse. If mandatory reporting is the best way to support such a

childcare system, then IAHIP would endorse its introduction.

5. That mandatory reporting should not be introduced unless all appro-

priate childcare services are properly in place and in a position to act

effectively, not only in immediate investigative work but also in the pro- vision of on-going support and therapeutic services for child victims, perpetrators and the families affected.

6. That IAHIP would want the profession of psychotherapy to be of one

mind on this subject and on the role of psychotherapists in whatever statutory provisions are made for the care of children. To this end, the Irish Council for Psychotherapy (ICP) will be consulted before the IAHIP response is submitted and consideration will also be given to the need, whether or not mandatory reporting is introduced, of establishing guidelines and advice facilities for psychotherapists generally who are faced in their work with the question of reporting actual or suspected child sexual abuse.

As a practitioner with limited professional experience of working with minors, and no experience with clients reporting current sexual abuse, the day was a remarkable eye- opener for me. While I was aware of the enormity of the problem of child abuse, particularly sexual abuse, I had not appreciated how complex and difficult are the problems it poses, in regard to reporting, for professionals working in the field of childcare, particularly for those in psychotherapeutic and counselling services. It may be of help to readers, and a stimulus to further debate in the pages of Inside Out, if I outline a few of the issues that people had to face on that Information Day. In fairness to the authors of the Government’s Discussion Document, they too acknowledged in their document the existence of issues such as these and they did so, I believe, in a very fair and open-minded way. The issues that follow are my own selection from those that arose at the Information Day, and I alone am responsible for the opinions and comments that go with them.

1. Could mandatory reporting undermine the aims of psychotherapy and counselling, prevent victims or others from seeking therapeutic help and thus drive the problem of child sexual abuse further underground?

So strongly are the concepts of trust and confidentiality held as indispensable elements in the therapeutic relationship that any putting aside of them must be on grounds that demonstrably outweigh the potential loss of these therapeutic values. Those who fear to report should recall that the IAHIP code of ethics already requires reporting where, if the psychotherapist does not report, a child or other children would be left in further danger of sexual abuse. This ethical stance gives the psychotherapist freedom and discretion to consider with the client, assuming the client to be the victim, (or, as the case may be, with parents/guardians) how, when and by whom reporting should take place. For many clients, revealing sex abuse to the therapist may be the first step on a vital path towards acknowledging what has happened to them and retaking ownership of their lives and responsibility for dismantling the secrecy and concealment that can be so endemic to sexual abuse. The real danger for the client-therapist relationship would be a mandatory reporting code that left the therapist with no such scope for the sensitive management of reporting.

Another danger associated with mandatory reporting, and one that would certainly drive sex abuse problems underground, is that of a code that might put more emphasis on punishment than on cure. I believe in a childcare system that, subject to the protection of children at risk, will bend all its energies into rehabilitating the perpetrator, achieved, if at all possible, outside the legal system. Where it is necessary to prosecute, then I would like to see introduced – as I would also for other family law actions – a non-adversarial system of legal proceedings.

It is also probably true to say that the Kilkenny Incest case, heard in early 1993, and the subsequent Investigation headed by Judge Catherine McGuinness, along with the many well-publicised cases of clerical sexual abuse of children and the recent Report of the Irish Catholic Bishops’ Advisory Committee on Child Sexual Abuse by Priests and Religious will have done much to gain public acceptance of the idea of a legal obligation being imposed on professionals – and perhaps on citizens too – to report child sexual abuse. The statistics for the reporting of child abuse (including sexual abuse), all done in the absence of a mandatory code, speak for themselves: in 1984 the total number of cases reported to Health Boards amounted to just under 550; by 1994 that figure had grown to over 4,600, the major increases having started in 1988, just after the Department of Health had published its Child Abuse Guidelines, providing guidance generally for personnel working with children, and particularly for Health and Social Service agencies, on the identification, investigation and management of child abuse.

2. If mandatory reporting is introduced, will psychotherapists and counsellors be included among the ‘designated professionals’ obliged to report? Which is in the better interests of our profession – to be included or not to be?

There have been two major reports in Ireland on child sexual abuse, the Law Reform Commission Report (1990) and the Report of the Kilkenny Incest Investigation Team (1993). While both reports recommended mandatory reporting, they differed, inter alia, on who should be covered by the legal obligation to report. Neither of them, however, specifically named psychotherapists and counsellors as people to be mandated. In most countries where mandated reporters have been listed, the list includes mental health professionals such as psychologists, therapists and counsellors. It seems likely, therefore, that if mandatory reporting is introduced, those mandated to report, i.e. designated professionals, will include psychotherapists and counsellors.

Will that be in the better interests of the profession and the clients we serve? It can be argued that since our code of ethics already obliges us to report where we become aware of children currently at risk of sexual abuse, there is no need to bind us to a mandatory

code, particularly if such a code were crude or simplistic in its application. By that I mean

a code that might require automatic reporting, whether or not the abuse had already been

reported, whether or not a prosecution had already taken place and/or adequate remedial

action had already been taken to prevent further abuse; or whether there were circumstances in which a report would not be in the child’s best interests.

On the other hand, it can be argued that psychotherapists and counsellors would be better protected if reporting were mandatory. There would be much greater legal protection against charges of breach of confidentiality or defamation. We would be freer to report risks affecting non-clients, to whom (strictly speaking) we do not owe a ‘duty of care’. Our task would be made simpler in cases where clients are resistant to a report being made or are reluctant to take on reporting responsibilities themselves.

The overriding consideration on the question of reporting is the protection of children at risk. Whether members of our profession should act from within a self-regulated voluntary code or out of legal obligation depends on how sensitive a mandatory code can be to the complex and varied needs of victims and perpetrators.

3. Are there alternatives to mandatory reporting?

From what emerged at the Information Day, it appears that there are. While a number of European countries, including France and Italy, do have mandatory reporting systems in operation, others – notably the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany – have voluntary reporting systems in place. In the Netherlands there exists a Bureau of Confidential Doctors, and anyone suspecting that a child is being abused can contact them for advice on how to handle the situation or to refer the case to professionals, whereupon the confidential doctor verifies the request and organises the most adequate assistance among existing services. In the UK, there is as yet no system of mandatory reporting. In 1985 an interdepartmental working party in England came out strongly against any proposal for a compulsory reporting law on the grounds that it would be counterproductive and would increase the risks to children overall, first by weakening the sense of personal responsibility among professionals and secondly by casting the shadow of mere automatic reporting over their work.

It is a pity that the Childcare Policy Unit in our Department of Health, who produced the

discussion document Putting Children First, have not been able as yet to provide any evaluation of the non-mandatory reporting systems that operate in other countries, and I hope that such information might become available before final decisions are made about mandatory reporting in Ireland. The Childcare Policy Unit have provided detailed information about the impact that mandatory reporting has had in the USA. Among the criticisms of it that should receive careful attention here before final decisions are made are the following:

Mandatory reporting has led to an explosion in child abuse reports. However, the increase in the number of reported cases has not been matched by a commensurate increase in the number of substantiated cases. The number of unsubstantiated cases has risen from 35% in 1976 to 65% in 1992.

– Many critics feel that the increase in the volume of reports has resulted in the child protection system becoming ‘swamped’ to the extent that it is now in danger of collapse.

– It is argued that a disproportionate share of resources is being spent on investigations

rather than on services for children and their families. The majority of cases investigated by child protection agencies receive no additional services.

– Insufficient funding has been provided for the training of mandated reporters and for putting in place the infrastructure for providing the follow-up to reports of abuse.

I started this report by observing that the IAHIP Information Day had been a real eye- opener for me. If this report has the effect of opening other eyes to the difficult and complex issues – and I have touched on only a few of them – raised by the prospect of introducing mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse, a purpose will have been well served.

Complete Ferns Report SO Ireland"



Historical institutional child abuse in Ireland: survivor perspectives on taking part in the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (CICA) and the redress scheme




Child Abuse in Ireland: Policies and Legislation

n recent years, child abuse has been acknowledged as a growing problem in Ireland (DoHC, 1999). Since the publication of the Child Abuse Guidelines in 1987 (DoHC, 1987), a number of reforms have been introduced which aim to promote the protection and welfare of children. Healthcare professionals play an important role in child protection and care (Crisp and Lister, 2004). Community-based nurses, such as public health nurses, are frequently among the first to detect signs of child abuse and it is therefore important for them to have a full understanding both of their professional responsibilities in relation to this key role, and of relevant legislation, strategies and guidelines. In recent years, the Child Care Act 1991, Children Act 2001, Children First guidelines and the National Children’s Strategy have served to place children at the forefront of health and social care in Ireland.


There is a wide variety of legislation relating to children. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989) was the first legally binding document to address all aspects of human rights (i.e. civil, cultural, economic, political and social) in relation to children, and recognise that individuals under the age of 18 years require additional care and protection. The Convention states that the basic human rights of all children are: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life and is underpinned by 4 principles: non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life; and respect for the views of the child.

In Ireland, the main legislation relating to child care is the Child Care Act 1991, which contains provisions relating to the care, protection and welfare of children in Ireland (Government of Ireland, 1991). This Act contains 7 parts which covers the promotion of child welfare, including taking children into care, homeless children and adoption services; rules on the protection of children in emergencies and care orders; jurisdiction and procedures to ensure the welfare of the child is paramount in court proceedings; rules relating to children in care; and rules on the supervision of pre-school services and children’s residential centres. Under this Act, the Health Service Executive (HSE) has a duty to ensure the welfare of those children who are not receiving adequate care and protection through identification of children at risk, and the provision of child care and family support services.

Other key legislative provisions include the Domestic Violence Act 1996; Protection for Persons Reporting Child Abuse Act 1998; The Data Protection Act 1988; the Education Act 1998; the Non-Fatal Offences Against the Person Act 1997; and the Freedom of Information Act 1997.

Strategies and guidelines

The Children First: National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children guidelines (DoHC, 1999a) aim to offer assistance in identifying, reporting and responding to child abuse. Importantly, these guidelines promote an understanding of the relevant contribution of the different professions in cases of child abuse; in particular, the role of public health nurses in carrying out enquiries in cases where there are child protection concerns and where they already have a close relationship with the family involved. These guidelines highlight the need for family-centred child care and protection and the formation of effective partnerships for consistent service provision, as well as serving as a framework for multidisciplinary and inter-agency working practices. Throughout, the welfare of the child is emphasised as of paramount importance. Wider areas addressed within these guidelines include underage pregnancy, peer abuse, bullying, vulnerable children, abuse outside of the home, allegations of abuse against employees and volunteers, and organised abuse.

The Best Health for Children: Developing a Partnership with Families strategy (DoHC, 1999b) is based on a model that focuses on a holistic approach to child health promotion encompassing emotional and psychological aspects of health in addition to physical health. This strategy also acknowledges the importance of the family in this process, particularly the value of parental observations and concerns about their children. This report outlines a core programme for child health surveillance which documents the role of the public health nurse in making home visits soon after birth and throughout the child’s early development. A follow-up report published in 2005 (DoHC, 2005) has reviewed the original programme and made recommendations for greater observation of child behaviour and development and increased awareness of the determinants of child health, together with the formation of partnerships between parents and healthcare professionals to improve child health outcomes.

Role of the public health nurse

Public health nurses often carry out home-based parental assessment and ongoing surveillance, particularly working with high-risk families; however, in these situations, it can be difficult to build a trusting, supportive relationship if parents feel threatened, powerless, or concerned about possible action being taken against them. Marcellus proposed a framework of rational ethics to develop trusting relationships with high-risk families, based on four themes: mutual respect, engaged interaction, embodiment and creating environment (Marcellus, 2005).

Current legislation, guidelines and strategies emphasise the need for improved child protection and care to ensure the welfare of all children. The public health nurse can play a key role in surveillance of high-risk families and may be among the first to detect child abuse. Competence in procedures for identification, reporting and responding to child abuse are therefore essential. The public health nurse works as part of a multidisciplinary team and should promote effective inter-agency partnerships for optimum service provision for children and their families.


Crisp, B. R. & Lister, P. G. 2004, ‘Child protection and public health: nurses’ responsibilities’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 656-63.

Government of Ireland 1991, Child Care Act 1991. Retrieved 11 th December

2008 from: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1991/en/act/pub/0017/index.html

Government of Ireland 2001, Children Act 2001. Retrieved 11 th December

2008 from: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2002/en/si/0151.html

DoHC 1999a, Children First: National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children. Retrieved 11 th December from: http://www.dohc.ie/publications/children_first.html

DoHC 1999b, Best Health for Children: Developing a Partnership with Families. Retrieved 11 th December from: http://www.hse.ie/eng/Publications/Children_and_Young_People/Best_ Health_for_Children_Developing_a_Partnership_with_Families.pdf

DoHC 2005, Best Health for Children Revisited. Retrieved 11 th December from: http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=Best+Health+for+Children+ Revisited&btnG=Search&meta=

Marcellus, L. 2005, ‘The ethics of relation: public health nurses and child protection clients’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 414-20.

United Nations 1989, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: the articles. Retrieved 11 th December 2008


NI And South of Ireland The Inquiry into Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland


The Investigation Committee exercised this power by extending the beginning of the period back to 1936. The relevant period for the Confidential Committee was determined to be between 1914 and 2000.


Vaccine Trials Inquiry

The Vaccine Trials Inquiry was a Division of the Investigation Committee.

Judicial Review proceedings seeking, inter alia , a declaration that the Order which established the Vaccine Trials Inquiry was ultra vires the Act of 2000, were initiated in November 2003. On 25 November, 2003, an undertaking was given to the High Court, by the Commission, that it would not conduct any hearings in relation to the matters within the ambit of the Order, until the matter was settled. The practical effect of this undertaking was that the work of the Division was suspended at that point and never re-commenced, given the subsequent decision of the Court, that the Order was ultra vires the Act.

Consequently, the material below is, effectively, for archive/historical purposes only, as and from November 2003.

The Honourable Mr Justice Sean Ryan, Chairperson of the Commission

Professor Edward Tempany, retired consultant paediatrician

Functions of the Commission inrelation to Vaccine Trials

a. the 3 vaccine trials referred to in the Report of the Chief Medical Officer referred to the Commission by the Minister for Health and Children on 13 th November 2000 (detailed below), and

b. any other vaccine trial found by the Commission to have taken place in an institution between 1940 and 1987 based on an allegation by a person who was a child in that institution that he or she was the subject of such a vaccine trial.

Report on Clinical Trials

Report by the Chief Medical Officer of the Department of Health and Children, referred to the Commission by the Minister for Health and Children on 13 th November 2000, entitled

"Report on Three Clinical Trials Involving Babies and Children in Institutional Settings 1960/1961, 1970 and 1973".

Contacting the Commission With Information on Vaccine Trial

The Commission invites any person who alleges that as a child in an institution between 1949 and 1987 he or she was the subject of a vaccine trial to contact the Commission before Thursday 28 th March 2002 giving particular details (Please see Notice Board for Advertisement)

Public Hearings

Staff of the Vaccine Trials Inquiry

Mr Brendan Reedy, Registrar

Mr. Ciaran Patton, BL, Inquiry Officer

Ms. Aine Shannon, BL, Inquiry Officer

Ms Catherine Buckley, Administration


Ireland's hidden scandal: child vaccine trials

By Patricia McDonagh Friday, 20 August 2010



Suspicions that vaccine trials had taken place on vulnerable Irish children -- many of whom were in state care -- first surfaced in the early 1990s.

As the current decade dawned, former residents of children's homes began to publicly raise concerns that they had been the subject of experimental trials.

However, it was not until 1997 that the State gave an assurance that it would formally inquire into the issue.

Brian Cowen, who was then Health Minister, directed the chief medical officer at the Department of Health, Dr James Kiely, to investigate the allegations.

In 2000, a report -- entitled the "Report On Three Clinical Trials Involving Babies And Children In Institutional Settings, 1960/61, 1970 and 1973" -- was finally drawn up.

The document found that 211 children had been administered vaccines during three separate vaccine trials conducted on behalf of a drugs company, The Wellcome Foundation.

More than 123 of these infants and toddlers were residents in children's homes in Dublin, Cork and the midlands when the trials took place in the 1960s and 1970s.

Trial one involved 58 children in five children's homes in Dublin, Cork, Westmeath and Meath. The trial investigated what would happen if four vaccines -- diphtheria, pertussis (also known as whooping cough), tetanus and polio -- were combined in one overall four-in-one shot.

The trial was published in the 'British Medical Journal' in 1962. The final paragraph of it read: "We are

indebted to the medical officers in charge of the children's investigation on infants under their care."

for permission to carry out this

Trial two, which was conducted during the summer of 1970, saw 35 children administered with the intra-nasal rubella vaccine.

It involved children from St Anne's Industrial School in Booterstown, Co Dublin, and children living in the Killucan area of Westmeath.

Published in the 'Cambridge Journal of Hygiene' in 1971, the trial attempted to find out if German measles vaccine, administered intranasally, could spread to susceptible contacts.

Both trials were carried out by Professor Irene Hillery and Professor Patrick Meenan, from the department of Medical Microbiology in University College Dublin, and other doctors.

The final trial involved 53 children from institutional homes. The homes were: St Patrick's Home, Madonna House, Cottage Home, Bird's Nest and Boheennaburna. A further 65 children living at home in Dublin also took part.

The purpose of the trial was to compare commercially available batches of the three-in-one vaccine, Trivax and Trivax AD, with that of a modified vaccine prepared for the trial.

Dr Kiely's report said the decision to conduct such clinical trials was acceptable, given the diseases that the vaccines sought to counter.

But, crucially, he insisted the lack of documentation available meant it had not been possible to confirm if consent had been given by the parents or guardians of the children involved or what arrangements were arrived at with managers of the homes.

He added that this lack of information also meant he could not confirm if the Therapeutic Substances Act 1932 had been complied with in relation to the licensing of the trials.

The damning document was laid before the Houses of the Oireachtas on November 7, 2000.

On November 9, the then Health Minister Micheal Martin told the Dail an important part of the probe was to establish if the State had fulfilled its obligations to children in its care.

But he admitted that the report was incomplete.

"It raises as many questions as it answers. Some of those questions go to the heart of our attitudes to children and their rights," he said at the time

"The report is incomplete because in some areas, the most rigorous interrogation of the system failed to produce documentary records of the trials."

Mr Martin said the Government had no evidence that any child had contracted a serious illness as a result of the trials.

But he branded the lack of documentation "puzzling" and insisted that the report had to be the "beginning and not the end" of the matter.

The minister referred the report of the investigation to the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse -- known then as the Laffoy Commission.

A government order was subsequently made on June 19, 2001 to provide the commission with the

powers to create a separate module to formally investigate the issues involved.

The 'Vaccines Module' initially convened a public sitting on January 23, 2002, to outline its terms of reference. It then began investigating the trials.

It obtained documents from GlaxoSmithKline, the successor of Wellcome, which allowed it to

definitively identify the homes and people involved in the trials.

Investigators received so much information relating to trial one that they were able to identify the children given the 'four-in-one' vaccine.

It also conducted private interviews with witnesses to get a more accurate picture.

But just before the start of public hearings into the first trials, which were due to begin on June 17, 2003, the work of the commission was dealt a severe blow when the Supreme Court ruled that Prof Meenan did not have to give evidence.

Prof Meenan had appealed a High Court order requiring him to comply with the commission's direction

to give evidence about his involvement in the trial.

The inquiry received a further setback when the Government's order directing the Laffoy Commission probe was held to be invalid by the High Court in November 2003.

Mr Justice Aindrias O Caoimh gave his decision in a challenge brought by Prof Hillery. However, he ruled that other machinery could exist for an appropriate inquiry.

On November 25, 2003, an undertaking was given to the High Court by the commission that it would not conduct any hearings in relation to matters within the ambit of the order.

It had been hoped that the Government would appeal this decision. But on November 2006, Health

Minister Mary Harney ordered the vaccine module to be closed down.

Now, some of the victims have been left with no alternative but to seek redress in a US court after Ms Harney again firmly ruled out any further inquiries into existing or new allegations.

The victims' basic requests appear to be far from unreasonable; an apology for what was done to them; full medical screening to see if they have suffered any damaging long-term effects from the trials; and psychiatric counselling to help them get over their ordeal.

But even this, it appears, is beyond the capacity or willingness of the State to deliver.



Glaxo SmithKline

rning on Label Omits Deaths



Heart problems were mentioned in fine print, but not key

dosage data. By DAVID WILLMAN, Times Staff Writer Wednesday, December 20, 2000 | When the antibiotic Raxar was approved on Nov. 6, 1997, FDA officials knew that it too might cause irregular rhythm and

stop a patient's heart.

N. Meyerhoff, suspected that two of four patients who died after taking Raxar in clinical trials possibly suffered heart-rhythm

disturbances caused by the drug.

review that the drug manufacturer, Glaxo Wellcome Inc., said Raxar played no role in the deaths. But Meyerhoff wrote that the two cases posed an open question. Each patient who died had

taken 600-milligram doses.

68-year-old man who died a week after completing the clinical

trial, Meyerhoff wrote: "This patient may have been at higher risk for [fatal] arrhythmia due to QT interval prolongation from grepafloxacin," the chemical name of Raxar. The second patient

died five days after withdrawing from the clinical trial.

added in her review, dated November 1997: "Again it is not

clear that this event is unrelated to [Raxar]. Sudden death in a patient with no prior cardiac history is suggestive of an The label will need to have an adequate warning regarding the possibility of QT prolongation." Overall, she found a "significantly higher" rate of adverse events among patients who had taken 600 milligrams compared with lower


treating bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. The drug's label stated that "prolongation of the QT interval has been observed in healthy volunteers receiving

Regarding one of those patients, a

An agency medical officer, Dr. Andrea

Meyerhoff noted in her


With Meyerhoff's assent, the FDA approved Raxar for


in Meyerhoff's review. It said that "there were no deaths or permanent disabilities" among those who took Raxar in 400- milligram doses. The statement was true, if incomplete: All four of the study patients who died took Raxar in 600-milligram

doses. And Glaxo marketed the drug at doses of 200 milligrams,

400 milligrams and 600 milligrams. A total of 925 patients took

the 600 milligrams dose in the clinical studies.

But the label did not disclose the fatalities described

On Oct. 27,

1999, Glaxo pulled Raxar off the market.

In a subsequent

letter to doctors, Glaxo said that because of Raxar's effect on

"QT interval prolongation" the drug was unacceptably risky. In a separate statement, the company said it "is no longer convinced that the benefits of Raxar outweigh the potential risk to patients, given the availability of alternative


cited as a suspect in the voluntarily reported deaths of 13

patients. They ranged in age from 42 to 86; most of them were

under 70.

come off," said Dr. Raymond L. Woosley, the pharmacology

department chairman at Georgetown University who served on an FDA advisory committee in the 1980s. "It had been proven, over and over, that this QT prolongation predicts terrible


$23.5 million in U.S. sales. Securities analysts had predicted it

could be a $1-billion drug.

the market, why did the FDA expose patients to the risk of


indicated that the FDA sought to address the drug's cardiac risk

through precautionary language in its labeling.

that labeling did not acknowledge the deaths of patients who

took doses of 600 milligrams, Woodcock wrote that none of the

fatalities "was shown to be attributable to Raxar."

interview over the summer, Woodcock said the FDA's patience was gone for new drugs that prolong the QT interval. "We're

encouraging people, if there's QT prolongation, don't develop

it," she said.

December--less than two months after the withdrawal of Raxar--

Records filed with the FDA show that Raxar was

"[Raxar] goes on the market, kills people and has to

By the time of the withdrawal, Raxar had generated

With so many other antibiotics on

In a written response to questions, Woodcock

Asked why

In an

This would mark a turnabout.

Just last

the FDA approved a new antibiotic, called Avelox, despite the

drug's well-documented propensity in clinical studies to prolong

the QT interval.

On the 267th line of the

Avelox label, doctors are warned in bold type that it "has been

shown to prolong the QT interval."

Bayer Corp., has been prescribed for more than 300,000 patients in the U.S. The drug has been cited as a suspect in 18 deaths

here and abroad. A Bayer spokesman, Robert Kloppenburg, said that the company does not believe any of the fatalities were

infections, bronchitis and pneumonia.

Avelox was approved for treating sinus

So far, Avelox, made by

"attributable" to Avelox and that most of the patients had serious

preexisting conditions.

over many antibiotics because it need only be taken once daily

for five days to be effective against bronchial infections. Securities analysts predicted in February that Avelox would generate sales topping $1 billion within three


Avelox, he said, holds an advantage

Woodcock said the FDA approved Avelox because

"the extent of QT prolongation

was too small to pose a

significant risk in the face of the benefits." She noted that an

agency advisory committee recommended approval and said that "a conservative approach was taken in the label."


Clinical Trials Involving Babies And Children In Institutional Settings, 1960/61, 1970 and 1973

Child medical experiments

Hundreds of children are feared to have been subjected to the experimental trials while in the care of the Catholic Church.

[2012] Victim reveals horror of vaccine trials' secret legacy Hundreds of children are feared to have been subjected to the experimental trials while in the care of the Catholic Church. Now the victims' cases could be reopened, as calls for the Government to deal with the scandal intensifies. Legal action is being planned against GlaxoSmithKline and the Sacred Heart Order, which allowed the tests at the Bessborough Mother and Baby Home in Cork.

[2010 Aug] Ireland's hidden scandal: child vaccine trials 211 children had been administered vaccines during three separate vaccine trials conducted on behalf of a drugs company, The Wellcome Foundation. More than 123 of these infants and toddlers were residents in children's homes in Dublin, Cork and the midlands when the trials took place in the 1960s and 1970s. Trial one involved 58 children in five children's homes in Dublin, Cork, Westmeath and Meath. The trial investigated what would happen if four vaccines -- diphtheria, pertussis (also known as whooping cough), tetanus and polio -- were combined in one overall four-in-one shot. The trial was published in the 'British Medical Journal' in 1962. The final paragraph of it read: "We are indebted to the medical officers in charge of

the children's


the intra-nasal rubella vaccine.

for permission to carry out this investigation on infants under their

Trial two, which was conducted during the summer of 1970, saw 35 children administered with


Victim reveals horror of vaccine trials' secret legacy


http://www.independent.ie/irish - news/victim - reveals - horror - of - vaccine - trials - secret - legacy - 26674008.html

A CLERICAL child abuse victim revealed the full horror yesterday of the 'human guinea pig' drug trials carried out in church-run children's homes.

Hundreds of children are feared to have been subjected to the experimental trials while in the care of the Catholic Church.

Now the victims' cases could be reopened, as calls for the Government to deal with the scandal intensifies.

Legal action is being planned against GlaxoSmithKline and the Sacred Heart Order, which allowed the tests at the Bessborough Mother and Baby Home in Cork.

Campaigner and abuse survivor John Barrett, who was born at the home outside Cork city, was used as a 'human guinea pig' while in Lota industrial school, also in Cork.

"We didn't have a clue what was being done to us at the time," he said. "We only found out years later."

John, now 58, wants to know the truth behind the children's ordeal, who conducted the tests and why such experiments were allowed.

Hundreds of youngsters in children's homes are believed to have been used in trials in the Sixties and Seventies to improve vaccines for tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough.

John was used in four different experiments when he was aged 12 and 13 at the Lota home.

He said: "All of the boys of my age were taken off and given tests, X-rays and general examinations.

"Lists were made of those deemed to be 'healthy' and we would sometimes be lined up in one of the dormitories and given massive injections.

"We didn't know what we were being given. Later blood tests would be taken and those whose scars from the first injection had disappeared were given a second dose.

"Over a couple of years, this happened about four times. I don't think they were the normal injections you would expect.

"There is a major inquiry into child abuse so there should be a similar inquiry set up alongside it into medical experiments on children."

More than 25,000 youngsters spent time in Irish orphanages between 1960 and 1975, the period when the controversial one-in-four trials are believed to have taken place.

Kevin Cooney of the Adopted And Fostered Persons' Association said: "These orphans were society's most innocent and vulnerable people.

"The State participated in abusing the rights of children in their care. That is indefensible. There must be a full disclosure."

Meanwhile Health Minister Mary Harney has been called on to instruct her officials to make available all relevant information regarding the ongoing vaccine trials.

The call comes following Mari Steed, 50, breaking her silence on Friday, in the Irish Independent, into how she was subjected to a controversial vaccine trial as a baby without her mother's consent.

She said she the trial were carried out on her between December 1960 and October 1961, when she was between nine and 18 months old.

Ms Steed, who now lives in the US, and three others, are preparing to take legal action in US courts against the drugs company, GlaxoSmithKline.

Leas Ceann Comhairle Brendan Howlin, who was health minister in 1993, assured victims that an inquiry had found they suffered no ill effects from the experimental medical tests.

He admitted he did not remember the probe or its findings. The Department of Health said it was searching department archives in a bid to locate the documents.

Mr Reilly said yesterday that all the facts must be put on the table.

"It is totally unacceptable for children in the care of the State to be involved in a vaccine trial without proper information being made available, or the full consent of their parents or guardians.



Victim reveals horror of vaccine trials' secret legacy

Christian McCashin August 22 2010



GlaxoSmithKline settles charges it unlawfully promoted Advair and other popular drugs

The giant pharma will pay $105 million to settle charges that it misrepresented Advair, Paxil and Wellbutrin 06/04/2014 | By Truman Lewis

A former rep orter and bureau chief for broadcast outlets and

magazines, Truman Lewis has covered presidential campaigns, state politics and stories ranging from organized crime to environmental protection. Read Full Bio→ GlaxoSmithKline will pay $105 million to settle charges that

it unlawfully promoted its asthma drug Advair and antidepressants

Paxil and Wellbutrin. The payment settles charges brought by 45 state

attorneys general.

The attorn eys general alleged GSK violated state consumer protection laws by misrepresenting the proper use and qualities of Advair, Paxil and Wellbutrin and by marketing the drugs for “off- label uses,” or uses that were not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Admini stration (FDA).

“GlaxoSmithKline put its business interests ahead of what was best for vulnerable patients,” said Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan. “This settlement will put a stop to the illegal marketing practices the company used to boost its s ales.”

The case is the most recent in a long list of lawsuits and prosecutions that accused GlaxoSmithKline of unlawful conduct.

The attorneys general alleged GSK promoted Advair for off- label use to mild asthma sufferers. Mild asthmatics were steered to the drug for initial treatment, which was not a use approved by the FDA, even when substantially cheaper alternative medications were a better treatment option for these patients.

GSK also illegally marketed its antidepressant drug, Paxil, as safe and effective for children and teens, which the FDA had not approved, in spite of clinical trials that raised concerns the drug was associated with an increased risk of suicide.

Weight loss

The attorneys general alleged GSK also illegally marketed a secon d antidepressant drug, Wellbutrin, to children without FDA approval. GSK also unlawfully marketed Wellbutrin as an “off - label” drug for weight loss and to treat attention deficit disorder, addiction, anxiety and bi - polar disorder.

The settlement will req uire GSK to continue its so - called “Patient First Program” for five years. The Patient First Program reduces the level of financial incentives by the company to drug sales representatives in order to reduce deceptive marketing tactics.

The settlement als o requires scientifically trained personnel to develop and approve responses to health care provider questions to ensure their responses are unbiased and do not promote specific drugs.

http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news/glaxosmithkline - settles - charges - it - unlawfully - promoted - advair - and - other - popular - drugs -


VRM: The Confidenti al Case-files of GlaxoSmith Kline - Cover-up, Deferral & Denial of Responsibi lity for Vaccine-re lated Premature Deaths 7th April 2013 - By Joel Lord The Vaccine Industry measures human life in terms of the percentages of profits to be gained. They achieve this end by routinely skewing preliminary vaccine trial data; subsequently burying or denying reports of vaccine-derived neurological trauma & neuro-developmental disorders affiliated directly with the shots. Vaccine Manufacturers are legally immune from prosecution for infant deaths in cases involving potential vaccine related trauma. So as a result, mainstream Pediatricians, who admittedly receive financial kickbacks for pushing Big Pharma products on their patients, (a clear conflict-of-interest type relationship which is fostered beginning in Medical school through seminars, promotions, honorariums, grants & other lucrative incentives; an alliance which extends to private/public clinics & hospitals through major donations ie. supplying medical equipment,

upgrading infrastructure, passing off free samples etc; including highly coveted medical research positions in the field) are subsequently hamstrung in their capacity and/or willingness to attribute any association to these shots, despite often substantial evidence pointing to an immediate causal link. Regrettably, most Pediatricians are completely in dark on these crucial aspects of vaccine-derived synergistic heavy metal/excipient derived toxicity associated with early childhood immunization, the acute vulnerability of a baby’s brain & central nervous system properties (Myelin Sheath, Blood-brain barrier, Meninges). Almost all mainstream Pediatricians are loathe to promote the benefits of holistic health, as it contravenes the bottom line business practice of peddling prescription drugs & vaccines on the community at large. Self- reliance & optimal natural immunity is not in their best interest. Their education is specifically limited & tailored to the scope of that which supports the advancing of the Industry food-chain of profits, under the banner of “herd immunity”. The human cost is typically overlooked and under-reported. The following confidential case-files pertaining to the GlaxoSmithKline vaccine, Infanrix hexa™, were recently uncovered; a glaring exposé into Vaccine Industry malfeasance, which reveal the systemic cover-up, deferral & denial of responsibility for vaccine-related premature deaths (among infants) by vaccine manufacturing giant GlaxoSmithKline. Bare in mind, this startling evidence only represents the tip of the iceberg, given the fact that a mere 5-10% of vaccine related adverse reports are ever submitted by families – what is termed ‘underreporting’. The average age of deaths among infants reported by the attending Pediatricians range from 7-weeks-old to 4-months-old. All the infants received multiple injections of Infanrix hexa™, averaging 2-3 doses. All reported deaths occurred within (2-11) days of receiving multiple vaccines, attributed to the “preferred term” Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), with subsequent autopsies found to be either “inconclusive” or showing “no obvious cause of death”.

Adverse effects compiled include the following: Cardiac arrest, Convulsion, Hypokinesia, Depressed level of consciousness, Mouth haemorrhage, Nasopharyngitis, Asphyxia, Apnoeic attack, Pallor, Oxygen saturation decreased, Heart rate decreased, Sepsis, Viral infection, Pyrexia, Loss of consciousness, Cyanosis, Metabolic disorder, Ataxia, Balance disorder, Diplopia, Strabismus, Nervous system disorder, Adverse drug reaction, Death. Excerpts from case files - ‘Two days after vaccinations, the subject died in bed. ‘ ‘Less than one day after vaccination, the subject experienced convulsions.’ ‘Four days after vaccination with Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar, the subject was brought to day care centre. At 12:00, the subject was nonresponsive and had blood in his mouth.’ ‘…sudden infant death in a 7-week-old female four days after vaccination with unspecified doses of Rotarix and Infanrix hexa™…subject experienced suffocation during sleep.’ ‘Approximately nine days post-vaccinations, the subject was found lifeless in bed in supine position covered by a cushion/pillow. An emergency physician was only able to certify death.’ ‘Approximately 3 days after vaccinations in the morning the subject experienced apnoea. When the emergency care team arrived the subject was unconscious. Cardiac arrest with apnoea and asystole was diagnosed. Resuscitation was unsuccessful.’ ‘Five days after vaccinations, the subject experienced ataxia, instability and diplopia (described as strabismus). The physician suspected a possible neurological alteration.’ ‘Eleven days after vaccination the subject experienced death NOS. The subject experienced adverse drug reaction and was found dead in her bed after her afternoon nap. The subject had no concomitant medication and no relevant medical history.’ ‘This case was reported by the German regulatory authority and described the occurrence of death in a 12-week-old male who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 9 January 2006. Approximately 11 days post-

vaccination, the subject died.’ ‘One day after vaccinations, the subject was hospitalised to a paediatric intensive care unit and reanimated, but died from unknown cause.’ ‘Next morning after vaccinations, the subject was normally drinking and was put in bed. Approximately two to three hours later, the subject was found lifeless in bed in supine position.’ ‘This case was reported by a physician and described the occurrence of possible SIDS in a 3-month-old male who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 29 December 2009. Later on in the evening, the subject was found dead under unknown circumstances in bed.’ ‘…sudden infant death syndrome in a 2-month-old male who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Infanrix hexa™, RotaTeq and Prevenar on 27 April 2010…Twelve hours after vaccination, the subject went dusky and experienced apnoea attack, reduced oxygen saturation and decreased heart rate…Three days after discharge, the subject had another episode of apnoea and could not be resuscitated. The subject died from sudden infant death syndrome 5 days after vaccination.’ ‘…occurrence of cardiovascular arrest in a 3-month-old male who was vaccinated with the 2nd dose of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 29 September 2009…Approximately three days post-vaccination, subject was found unconscious and the subject’s body was blue (cyanosis). Upon arrival of an emergency physician the pupils were medium wide, no pulse could be determined and oxygen saturation could not be measured. The subject was intubated and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. Under ongoing resuscitation the subject was transferred to a hospital. In hospital the subject was treated with adrenaline and atropine. Echocardiography and ECG both showed no detectable heart reaction. Body temperature, taken in the ear, was 39.4 degC. Resuscitation was without success and was stopped.’

‘The 2080 reports were received from 41 countries, mainly France (645 reports, 31%), Italy (602

‘The 2080 reports were received from 41 countries, mainly France (645 reports, 31%), Italy (602 reports, 28.9%) and Germany (339 reports, 16.3%). Based on the initial reporting source, 783 cases were received from healthcare professionals

and 1297 cases by non-healthcare professionals (consumers, regulatory authorities, representatives, literature, other).’ – Page


‘This analysis shows that the number of sudden death cases reported within 19 days of Infanrix hexa™ vaccination is below the number of cases expected for this time period in children under 2 years of age except when death occurred during the first three days after vaccination in the second year of life where the observed death number is almost equal to the number expected. The Company will continue to monitor these cases and their reporting frequencies.’ – Page 783 Case B0601431A – MedDRA Preferred Term (Sudden infant death syndrome): This case was reported by a healthcare professional and described the occurrence of cot death in a 3- month-old female who was vaccinated with the 2nd doses of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 21 October 2009. Two days after vaccinations, the subject died in bed. The parents found the baby lying on the belly. Autopsy did not reveal any cause of death. Company comment: Suspected case of SIDS, autopsy did not

reveal clear cause of death. No details on medical history available. The subject received concomitant vaccination with Prevenar. Case B0605003A – MedDRA Preferred Terms (Cardiac arrest, Convulsion, Hypokinesia): This case was reported by the Italian regulatory authority and described the occurrence of cardiac arrest in a 2-month-old female who was vaccinated with an unspecified dose of Infanrix hexa™ on 10 August 2009. Less than one day after vaccination, the subject experienced convulsions. The subject was hospitalised from 14 August until 19 August 2009. At the time of reporting, the event was resolved with sequelae. Last convulsion episode was on 18 October 2009. The baby showed a regular growth but a light motor retardation in respect of the age. Her weight was 7.10 kg. Diagnostic tests as karyotype, ultrasonography, computerized axial tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance were negative. She was treated with Luminalette. According to the follow up information received on 01 June 2010, the subject died due to a cardiac arrest at an unspecified time after vaccination. Company comment: (Case of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). The subject had a history of convulsions since 2-months of age, which started less than one day after vaccination with Infanrix hexa™. The final diagnosis was not reported, however, the child received anticonvulsive treatment. Cause of death was reported as cardiac arrest, but circumstances of death were not available. It was unknown whether an autopsy was performed. Case B0608494A – MedDRA Preferred Terms (Sudden infant death syndrome, Depressed level of consciousness, Mouth haemorrhage, Nasopharyngitis): This case was reported by a healthcare professional and described the occurrence of cot death in a 14-week-old male who was vaccinated with the 2nd dose of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 12 November 2009. The child was born at term and weighed 4120 g. The child had a history of viral infection before vaccination with the 1st dose of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar. In the beginning of November, 2

weeks before death, the subject had a common cold. The subject did not experience any adverse events after vaccination. Four days after vaccination with Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar, the subject was brought to day care centre. He had no fever. He burped well after being fed and was put into bed at 9:25 lying on the abdomen (with permission of the mother) and he was being checked every 20 minutes. At 12:00, the subject was nonresponsive and had blood in his mouth. Reanimation was started immediately and the the child was admitted to hospital. The child died on 16 November 2009 from sudden infant death syndrome. An autopsy was performed and did not reveal any cause of death found in autopsy or on toxicological investigation. Company comment: Possible case of SIDS. The subject had viral infections as medical history. No adverse events were reported after vaccinations. The subject was placed in prone position into bed. No clear cause of death was found on the autopsy. Case B0639243A – MedDRA Preferred Terms: (Sudden infant death syndrome, Asphyxia): This case was reported by a physician and described the occurrence of sudden infant death in a 7-week-old female four days after vaccination with unspecified doses of Rotarix and Infanrix hexa™. The reporter informed that the subject experienced suffocation during sleep. Company comment: Case of SUDI or suspected SIDS. No medical history and circumstances of death were reported. The subject, according to the reporter, experienced asphyxia during sleep. It was unknown whether an autopsy was performed. Case B0657890A – MedDRA Preferred Terms (Sudden infant death syndrome, Apnoeic attack, Pallor, Oxygen saturation decreased, Heart rate decreased): This case was reported by a healthcare professional and described the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome in a 2-month-old male who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Infanrix hexa™, RotaTeq and Prevenar on 27 April 2010. Concurrent medical condition included premature birth at 26 weeks of gestation. Twelve hours after vaccination, the subject went dusky and experienced

apnoea attack, reduced oxygen saturation and decreased heart rate. The subject was hospitalised. Relevant test results included: heart rate more than 100 bpm, pO2 over 94 %, normal cranial ultrasound and ophthalmological examination. The subject was treated with mechanical ventilation, stayed under observation for 48 hours and was discharged. Three days after discharge, the subject had another episode of apnoea and could not be resuscitated. The subject died from sudden infant death syndrome 5 days after vaccination. Company comment: Case of SUDI. The subject died due to apnoea attack, likely related to his severe prematurity. It was unknown whether an autopsy was performed. Case D0064259A – MedDRA Preferred Terms (Cardiac arrest, Sudden infant death syndrome, Sepsis, Viral infection, Resuscitation, Pyrexia, Loss of consciousness, Cyanosis): This case was reported by the German regulatory authority and described the occurrence of cardiovascular arrest in a 3-month- old male who was vaccinated with the 2nd dose of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 29 September 2009. The subject’s parents have separated about two weeks prior to the events. The subject was cared for by the father with the help of his sister-in- law and mother-in-law. The subject did not experience any adverse event between date of vaccination and date of death. Approximately three days post-vaccination, in the morning around 07:30 the subject appeared normal. About half an hour later, at around 08:00, the subject was supposed to be fed with a bottle. The subject was found unconscious and the subject’s body was blue (cyanosis). Upon arrival of an emergency physician the pupils were medium wide, no pulse could be determined and oxygen saturation could not be measured. The subject was intubated and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. Under ongoing resuscitation the subject was transferred to a hospital. In hospital the subject was treated with adrenaline and atropine. Echocardiography and ECG both showed no detectable heart reaction. Body temperature, taken in the ear, was 39.4 degC. Resuscitation was without success and was stopped. An autopsy was performed, but results were not

conclusive. According to autopsy both SIDS and viral infection were possible causes of death. External force and shaken baby syndrome were excluded by autopsy. Company comment: Case of SUDI. The subject died due to cardiac arrest 3 days after multiple vaccinations. The autopsy results were inconclusive and considered SIDS and viral infection as possible causes of death. Case D0064689A – MedDRA Preferred Term (Sudden infant death syndrome): This case was reported by the German regulatory authority and described the occurrence of SIDS in 3- month-old male subject who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Synflorix and Infanrix hexa™ on 04 November 2009. The subject has no underlying or concurrent medical conditions or other risk factors. The subject has received previous vaccination with Synflorix™ and Infanrix hexa™. It was unknown how previous vaccinations were tolerated. Approximately nine days post-vaccinations, the subject was found lifeless in bed in supine position covered by a cushion/pillow. An emergency physician was only able to certify death. Police reported that the children’s room was severely overheated and in the whole apartment people had been smoking. Autopsy was performed and showed age- corresponding state of development and very good state of care. Multipe punctual haemorrhages up to the size of a pinhead were found under the thymus capsule, subepicardial and on the surface of the lungs. Distinct disorder of blood distribution was seen in the lungs as well as increased fluid and blood content in the lungs and foam in the respiratory tract (pulmonary edema). Neither signs of external force by a third party nor signs of shaken baby syndrome have been detected. No signs of organic malformation have been detected. The cause of death could not be unambiguously determined. Punctual haemorrhages under the thymus capsule, subepicardial and on the surface of the lungs were normally seen within the scope of SIDS and therefore the autopsy performing physicians considered SIDS. Possible risk factors associated with SIDS included coverage with a pillow, severely overheating, not

feeding with breast milk and passive smoking. Furthermore autopsy showed increased water retention of the lungs as well as distinct disorder of blood distribution within the lungs, which could be signs of a beginning pulmonary infection. Microbiological examinations, performed on 20 November 2009, showed solitary St. aureus in both pulmonary swabs and a single St. aureus colony in the spleen swab as potential infectious agent, but this bacterium was also known as normal bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract. All other bacteria found belong either to physiological intestinal flora or were normal parts of the throat and skin flora. Therefore infectious events could be excluded with some probability. Company comment: Case of SUDI. The subject died 9 days after multiple vaccinations. The autopsy results were inconclusive and considered SIDS (in presence of numerous risk factors) and pulmonary infection as possible causes of death. Case D0065445A – MedDRA Preferred Term (Sudden infant death syndrome): This case was reported by a physician and described the occurrence of SIDS in a 3-month-old female one day after vaccination with the 1st dose of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 09 December 2009. The subject’s development and weight gain were normal, her medical history was unsuspicious. She was breast-fed for three months. Postvaccinations the subject did not experience fever. Next morning after vaccinations, the subject was normally drinking and was put in bed. Approximately two to three hours later, the subject was found lifeless in bed in supine position. The subject died on 10 December 2009 from SIDS. An autopsy was performed, but no results were available. Company comment: Suspected case of SIDS. The subject died 1 day after multiple vaccinations. Subject’s medical history was unsuspicious, no adverse event were reported after vaccinations. Autopsy was performed, but the results were not available. Case D0066068A – MedDRA Preferred Term (Sudden infant death syndrome): This case was reported by a physician and described the occurrence of possible SIDS in a 3-month-old male who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Infanrix

hexa™ and Prevenar on 29 December 2009. The subject had three healthy siblings. He was a healthy term baby and was breast-fed. The subject’s mother did not smoke. The subject had received the last meal, consisting of mother’s milk on 29 December 2009 in the evening. Later on in the evening, the subject was found dead under unknown circumstances in bed. An autopsy was performed. The results of autopsy were inconclusive and showed no obvious cause of death. Therefore cause of death was considered to be SIDS. Company comment: Possible case of SIDS. The subject died less than 1 day after multiple vaccinations. Subject’s medical history included healthy term baby, without underlying condition. Autopsy did not reveal clear cause of death. Case D0067790A – MedDRA Preferred Terms (Sudden infant death syndrome, Death, Apnoea, Cardiac arrest, Loss of consciousness, Resuscitation): This case was reported by the German regulatory authority and described the occurrence of SIDS in a 9-week-old male who was vaccinated with Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 31 March 2010. Complication during pregnancy included cranial haemorrhage of the mother due to cerebral artery aneurysm in the 19th week of gestation. The subject was born in the 33rd week of pregnancy by Caesarean section. At that time the subject was immature with a birth weight of 1805g with mild respiratory distress syndrome. Postnatal the subject showed good adaptation, but chest X-ray, performed on 28 January 2010, showed mixed picture of mild neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and wet lung. Repeated sonography and neonatal screening were normal. Concurrent medications included colecalciferol and iron salt. For the third child health check, performed on 04 March 2010, the subject showed normal development concerning weight, length and head circumference. The subject showed no pathologic findings except mild hydrocele. However, according to percentile curve of the WHO the subject was in reduced nutritional condition with a weight of 3700g and a height of 55cm. Approximately 3 days after vaccinations in the morning the subject experienced apnoea.

When the emergency care team arrived the subject was unconscious. Cardiac arrest with apnoea and asystole was diagnosed. Resuscitation was unsuccessful. Concurrent medical conditions included old contusion and hematoma on right side of chest. An autopsy was performed and macroscopically, did not reveal unambiguous cause of death. All autopsy findings were suggestive for SIDS. The findings not consistent with SIDS (skin fissures in the corner of mouth, ecchymoses in area of central chest wall, hemorrhage in capsule of adrenal gland and kidney) can be explained with plausibility by long and continuous resuscitation. Further toxicological examination could not identify the cause of death. According to the report on the histological examination, results largely confirmed the findings of the autopsy. Besides unspecific signs of death, punctuate haemorrhage of the organs’ connective tissue coatings and pulmonary emphysema were considered the essential findings. Acute emphysema could be interpreted as evidence of suffocation. It was concluded that definite cause of death could be identified, neither in histological examinations nor in toxicological tests. It was discussed that the toxicological tests covered a certain spectrum of substances only and would miss some rare and exceptional substances. Because of the combination of pulmonary emphysema and the fissures at the left corner of the mouth, which had been observed during the autopsy, death due to suffocation following violent obstruction of respiratory orifices could not be excluded. Likewise it could not be excluded that these findings were caused during the reanimation procedures. Company comment: Case of SUDI. Preterm subject, with respiratory distress in medical history, died approximately 3 days after multiple vaccinations. Autopsy did not reveal clear cause of death. Majority of findings were within SIDS, however violent obstruction of respiratory tract could not be excluded. Case B0661542A – MedDRA Preferred Terms (Metabolic disorder, Ataxia, Balance disorder, Diplopia, Strabismus, Nervous system disorder): This case was reported by a physician and described the occurrence of ataxia in a 6-month-

old male who was vaccinated with the 3rd doses of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar in March 2010. The subject’s medical history included episodes of shaking head, arms and legs several times a day, which occurred at the age of 5 months. Five days after vaccinations, the subject experienced ataxia, instability and diplopia (described as strabismus). The physician suspected a possible neurological alteration. The subject was hospitalized and some relevant tests (NMR, ECG, CSF, other unspecified laboratory tests, nasopharyngeal exudates) were performed and showed normal results. Catecholamine and muscular biopsy results were pending. The ataxia remained until the age of 9 months. The shaking moves have repeated in some occasions. The subject was hospitalized in an intensive care due to a possible aspiration from 16 to 24 June 2010. He underwent EEG in July 2010 and it showed 3 lesions compatible with metabolic disorder. The final diagnosis was a possible metabolic disease with very limited clinical picture. According to the follow-up information received in August 2010, the subject died in July 2010 due to a possible metabolic disorder of a mitochondrial origin. Company comment: The subject died due to a possible metabolic disorder of a mitochondrial origin several months after 3d vaccination with Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar. It was unknown whether an autopsy was performed. Case B0599802A- MedDRA Preferred Term (Death, Adverse drug reaction): This case was reported by a healthcare professional and described the occurrence of death NOS (not otherwise specified) in a 4-month-old female who was vaccinated with the 3rd dose of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 15 October 2009. Eleven days after vaccination the subject experienced death NOS. The subject experienced adverse drug reaction and was found dead in her bed after her afternoon nap. The subject had no concomitant medication and no relevant medical history. The subject was transferred to hospital. Hospital report was pending. No autopsy was performed. Follow-up information has been requested. Case D0063296A – MedDRA Preferred Term (Death): This

case was reported by the German regulatory authority and described the occurrence of death in a 12-week-old male who was vaccinated with unspecified doses of Infanrix hexa™ and Prevenar on 9 January 2006. The subject s mother suffered from epilepsy. The subject was exposed in utero to levetiracetam during about the first three months of pregnancy. The rest of pregnancy and birth was inconspicuous, except for fracture of a clavicle. Concurrent medical conditions included agitation and crying abnormal (whiny baby). Approximately 11 days post-vaccination, the subject died. The cause of death was not further specified. It was unknown whether an autopsy was performed. Case D0069211A – MedDRA Preferred Term (Death): This case was reported by a physician and described the occurrence of unspecified death in a child of unspecified gender who was vaccinated on an unspecified date with an unspecified 6-valent vaccine and unspecified pneumococcal vaccine (manufacturers unspecified). One day after vaccinations, the subject was hospitalised to a paediatric intensive care unit and reanimated, but died from unknown cause. An autopsy was performed. Follow-up information has been requested.

was performed. Follow-up information has been requested. Package Insert – Infanrix hexa™ (Combined Diptheria,

Package Insert – Infanrix hexa™ (Combined Diptheria, Tetanus and Acellular Pertusis, Hepatits B inhanced Inactivated Poliomyelitis Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine)

Infanrix hexa™ contains the following antigens adsorbed onto aluminium salts: diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, three purified pertussis antigens pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN; 69 kiloDalton outer membrane protein) , the purified major surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and purified polyribosyl-ribitol- phosphate capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), covalently bound to tetanus toxoid. It also contains three types of inactivated polio viruses (type 1:

Mahoney strain; type 2: MEF-1 strain; type 3: Saukett strain). The tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are obtained by formaldehyde treatment of purified Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Clostridium tetani toxins. The acellular pertussis vaccine components are obtained by extraction and purification from phase I Bordetella pertussis cultures, followed by irreversible detoxification of the pertussis toxin by glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde treatment, and formaldehyde treatment of FHA and PRN. The diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis components are adsorbed onto aluminium salts. The surface antigen of the HBV is produced by culture of genetically-engineered yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) which carry the gene coding for the major surface antigen of the HBV. This HBsAg expressed in yeast cells is purified by several physicochemical steps. The HBsAg assembles spontaneously, in the absence of chemical treatment, into spherical particles of 20 nm in average diameter containing nonglycosylated HBsAg polypeptide and a lipid matrix consisting mainly of phospholipids. Extensive tests have demonstrated that these particles display the characteristic properties of the natural HBsAg. The three polioviruses are cultivated on a continuous VERO cell line, purified and inactivated with formaldehyde. The Hib polysaccharide is prepared from Hib, strain 20,752 and after activation with cyanogen bromide and derivatisation with an adipic hydrazide spacer is coupled to tetanus toxoid via carbodiimide condensation. After purification the conjugate is

adsorbed on aluminium salt, and then lyophilised in the presence of lactose as stabiliser. Infanrix hexa™ meets the World Health Organisation requirements for manufacture of biological substances, of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and combined vaccines, of hepatitis B vaccines made by recombinant DNA techniques, of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines and of Hib conjugate vaccines. Infanrix hexa™ is indicated for primary and booster

immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b in infants from the age of 6 weeks and may be given to infants who received a first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth. The primary vaccination schedule (such as 2, 3, 4 months; 3, 4, 5 months; 2, 4, 6 months; 3, 5 and 11 or 12 months; 6, 10, 14 weeks) consists of three doses of 0.5 ml. An interval of at least one month should be respected between doses. If it is intended

to administer Infanrix hexa™ according to the EPI schedule

(Expanded Program on Immunisation; 6, 10, 14 weeks of age), then the vaccinee must receive a dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth.

A 0.5 ml dose of the vaccine contains not less than 30 IU of

adsorbed diphtheria toxoid, not less than 40 IU of adsorbed tetanus toxoid, 25 mcg of adsorbed PT, 25 mcg of adsorbed FHA, 8 mcg of adsorbed pertactin, 10 mcg of adsorbed recombinant HBsAg protein, 40 D-antigen units of type 1 (Mahoney), 8 D-antigen units of type 2 (MEF-1) and 32 D- antigen units of type 3 (Saukett) of the polio virus. It also contains 10 mcg of adsorbed purified capsular polysaccharide of Hib (PRP) covalently bound to 20-40 mcg tetanus toxoid (T).

See – GlaxoSmith Kline (GSK) Confidential to regulatory agencies file: http://ddata.over-blog.com/3/27/09/71/2012-

See – GlaxoSmith Kline (GSK) Confidential to regulatory agencies file:http://ddata.over-blog.com/3/27/09/71/2012-


The Vaccine Resistance Movement is currently launching its first ever educational DVD, the ‘Silent No More Project‘:

where-in parents of vaccine-injured children reveal intimate details of the impact vaccines had on their child’s primary early development. This ground-breaking event marked the first big push forward following the recent, highly controversial ‘VRM Vaccine Summit’

event marked the first big push forward following the recent, highly controversial ‘VRM Vaccine Summit’

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Global Influenza Strategy 2019, 20130 WHO launches new

global influenza strategy 11 March 2019



WHO unveils sweeping reforms in drive towards “triple billion” targets

6 March 2019 News Release


WHO today announced the most wide-ranging reforms in the Organization’s history to modernize and strengthen the institution to play its role more effectively and efficiently as the world’s leading authority on public health.

The changes are designed to support countries in achieving the ambitious “triple billion” targets that are at the heart of WHO’s strategic plan for the next five years: one billion more people benefitting from universal health coverage (UHC); one billion more people better protected from health emergencies; and one billion more people enjoying better health and well-being.

These changes include:

Aligning WHO’s processes and structures with the “triple billion” targets and the Sustainable Development Goals by adopting a new structure and operating model to align the work of headquarters, regional offices and country offices, and eliminate duplication and fragmentation.

Reinforcing WHO’s normative, standard-setting work, supported by a new Division of the Chief Scientist and improved career opportunities for scientists.

Harnessing the power of digital health and innovation by supporting countries to assess, integrate, regulate and maximize the opportunities of digital technologies and artificial intelligence, supported by a new Department of

Digital Health.

Making WHO relevant in all countries by overhauling the Organization’s capabilities to engage in strategic policy dialogue. This work will be supported by a new Division of Data, Analytics and Delivery to significantly enhance the collection, storage, analysis and usage of data to drive policy change in countries. This division will also track and strengthen the delivery of WHO’s work by monitoring progress towards the “triple billion targets” and identifying roadblocks and solutions.

Investing in a dynamic and diverse workforce through new initiatives including the WHO Academy, a proposed state-of-the-art school to provide new learning opportunities for staff and public health professionals globally. Other measures include a streamlined recruitment process to cut hiring time in half, management trainings, new opportunities for national professional officers, and previously-announced improvements in conditions for interns.

Strengthening WHO’s work to support countries in preventing and mitigating the impact of outbreaks and other health crises by creating a new Division of Emergency Preparedness, as a complement to WHO’s existing work on emergency response.

WHO, And European Vaccine Action Plan 2015–2020 (2014)




Information sheet – European Vaccine Action Plan 2015–





World Cancer Day: action for protection against cervical cancer

01- 02- 2019

Get the facts, get the HPV vaccine: the personal story of an HPV vaccination advocate

Cervical cancer is among the most common types of cancer affecting women in the WHO European Region, with 69 000 new cases and 30 000 deaths estimated for 2018 alone. Yet unlike most other types of cancer, it is vaccine-preventable.

On World Cancer Day, WHO/Europe aims to raise awareness that timely vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in combination with regular screening for cervical cancer is the best way to protect girls’ futures from this tragic disease.

Success in controlling cervical cancer requires action by individuals, health-care professionals and policy-makers at national and global levels to ensure that everyone has easy access to the facts, the vaccines and the screening they need.

Building on a good start

Countries of the Region are making steady progress in protecting girls and women from the most common HPV strains, which are responsible for up to 90% of cervical cancer cases worldwide.

Starting with several countries that were among the first to introduce HPV vaccination globally, 37 of the 53 European Member States now include HPV vaccination of girls aged 9–14 in their routine immunization schedules. Some also offer the vaccine to boys to help reduce transmission of the HPV strains in the vaccine.

Unfortunately, uptake of the vaccine varies. Some countries have reached over 90% coverage of the target group, while others face challenges that have limited uptake to 20%. About 80% of those who are not vaccinated will be infected with 1 or more types of the virus at some time in their lives. Girls who miss the opportunity to prevent HPV- related cancers through vaccination will be vulnerable to contracting and passing on this virus when they become sexually active.

Individual action: vaccine advocates

Being well informed and drawing appropriate health-related information from credible, evidence-based sources empowers individuals to make decisions that can save their own and others’ lives.

Laura Brennan was diagnosed with terminal cervical cancer in 2017. Realizing that the HPV vaccine could have protected her if she had received it, she decided to dedicate her life to health advocacy to empower girls and their parents to choose vaccination against HPV.

By actively encouraging parents to get the facts and by spreading the message that “the HPV vaccine is the best tool we have to prevent this cancer from happening”, Laura has greatly contributed to the efforts of the Irish Health Service Executive (HSE) to reassure parents about the benefits of the vaccine.

The work of Laura and advocates like her around the world is helping to ensure that those who have the opportunity to vaccinate embrace it to protect their future and that of their children.

National success: Portugal

Portugal was among the first countries in the world to introduce HPV vaccination after the first HPV vaccine was licensed globally in 2006. In November 2018, the national vaccination programme celebrated 10 years of success in sustaining about 90% coverage among the designated target groups (birth cohorts of girls 1992–2006).

At the celebration, Dr Ana Leça from the Technical Commission on Vaccination explained that Portugal owes its success to “support from the scientific community, health-care

workers and the media; a strategic communication campaign; and a well functioning national immunization programme”.

Global goal: cervical cancer elimination

WHO recognizes cervical cancer as a public health problem. In May 2018, the WHO Director-General announced a global call to action towards its elimination.

The Director-General highlighted the role of appropriate, good-quality, safe and innovative technologies and strategies to reach all girls with HPV vaccination and to reach women with cervical cancer screening, early diagnostics and effective treatment services for both precancerous lesions and invasive cancers, including palliative care – all embedded within universal health coverage strategies. Additional political commitment globally will be decisive in making this a reality.

WHO/Europe works closely with countries in the Region to prepare for the introduction of the HPV vaccine, improve access to vaccines at an affordable price, assess progress, and address the spread of misinformation about the vaccine and the diseases it causes.

The virus and the vaccine

Virtually all cervical cancer cases are linked to genital infection with HPV. HPV is also linked to other types of anogenital cancer, head and neck cancers, and genital warts in both men and women. Most HPV infections are transmitted through sexual contact.

Three different vaccines are available to prevent infection, all of which have been proven both safe and highly effective in reducing rates of precancerous cervical growths. Of the 3 vaccines, 2 also protect against genital warts.

Reinforcing a corporate approach to resource mobilization aligned with strategic objectives and driving new fundraising initiatives to diversify WHO’s funding base, reduce its reliance on a small number of large donors and strengthen its long-term financial stability.

“The changes we are announcing today are about so much more than new structures, they’re about changing the DNA of the organization to deliver a measurable impact in the lives of the people we serve,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “Our vision remains the same as it was when we were founded in 1948: the highest attainable standard of health for all people. But the world has changed, which is why we have articulated a new mission statement for what the world needs us to do now: to promote health, keep the world safe and serve the vulnerable.”

The new measures were developed following an extensive period of consultation with staff, and were developed jointly by WHO’s Global Policy Group, which consists of the Director- General and each of the organization’s six regional directors: Dr Matshidiso Moeti (Regional Director for Africa), Dr Carissa Etienne (Regional Director for the Americas), Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh (Regional Director for South-East Asia), Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab (Regional Director for Europe), Dr Ahmed Al-Mandhari (Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean) and Dr Takeshi Kasai (Regional Director for the Western Pacific).

WHO’s new corporate structure is based on four pillars which will be mirrored throughout the organization.




Questions and answers about HPV vaccination



Cervical cancer Vaccine WHO, AND EU Accelerating cervical cancer elimination Report by the Director-General CERVICAL CANCER- A GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH PRIORITY 2018


The Programmes pillar will support WHO’s work on universal health coverage and healthier populations. The Emergencies pillar will be responsible for WHO’s critical health security responsibilities, both in responding to health crises and helping countries prepare for them. The External Relations and Governance pillar will centralize and harmonize WHO’s work on resource mobilization, communications. The Business Operations pillar will likewise ensure more professionalized delivery of key corporate functions such as budgeting, finance, human resources and supply chain.

The four pillars will be supplemented by the Division of the Chief Scientist at WHO Headquarters in Geneva to strengthen WHO’s core scientific work and ensure the quality and consistency of WHO’s norms and standards.

Underpinning the new structure, 11 business processes have been redesigned, including planning, resource mobilization, external and internal communications, recruitment, supply chain, performance management, norms and standards, research, data and technical cooperation.



Report of the Inter-Departmental Group on Mother and Baby

Report of the Inter-Departmental Group on Mother and Baby Homes July 2014 Department of Children and Youth Affairs



report was commissioned by the Inter-Departmental

Health. Jonathan Wolff ʼ s work was supported by the UCL Ethics of Risk Project, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council.

Group for the Valuation of Life and


Executive Summary Executive Summary

(approximately 3.9% of

Referrals from Mother

and Baby Homes


of the Inter-Departmental Committee


STOP HPV Vaccine Trial


Irish Children Subjected to Vaccination Experiments in 1930s

Children Subjected to Vaccination Experiments in 1930s Managing Editor's Note: I'm pretty jaded after 18+

Managing Editor's Note: I'm pretty jaded after 18+ years in the autism/vaccine injury community, but this story, this horrible story knocked me for a loop. Imagine this horror in a Catholic nation, on innocent children, under the "care" of the religious and ask yourself, "Could that happen today - in a world of medicine for profit?" Has the current vaccination schedule ever been tested for cumulative safety? Do we know the long term ramifications of delaying common, survivable childhood disease such as chicken pox and measles? Are children circa 2014 healthier than their peers decades ago? Also, Dan Olmsted informed me that Diptheria was the first mercury preserved vaccine in the 1930's.

Thousands of children in Irish care homes at centre of 'baby graves scandal' were used in secret vaccine trials in the 1930s

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Scientists secretly gave 2,051 children and babies diphtheria vaccine. They were used as guinea pigs for drugs giant Burroughs Wellcome in 1930s. Academic Michael Dwyer uncovered shock truth in old medical records. He found no evidence of consent, nor of how

many died or were affected. Comes as Irish PM intervenes from U.S. over scandal of mass baby grave. Hundreds of babies are believed to have been buried at former baby home

Enda Kenny says he's ordered his officials to examine 'if there are others.'

Scientists secretly vaccinated more than 2,000 children in religious-run homes in suspected illegal drug trials, it emerged today.

Old medical records show that 2,051 children and babies in Irish care homes were given a one-shot diphtheria vaccine for international drugs giant Burroughs Wellcome between 1930 and


There is no evidence that consent was ever sought, nor any records of how many may have died or suffered debilitating side- effects as a result.

The scandal was revealed as Irish premier, Enda Kenny, ordered ministers to see whether there are more mass baby graves after the discovery that 800 infants may be buried in a septic tank outside a former mother and baby home in Tuam, Co. Galway.

Children at Sean Ross A bbey in Tipperary are thought to have been used in

Children at Sean Ross Abbey in Tipperary are thought to have been used in secret drug trials in the 1930s

thought to have been used in secret drug trials in the 1930s Children's homes are under

Children's homes are under the spotlight since it emerged that 796 babies may be buried at the former mother and baby home at Tuam, Co. Galway - Enda Kenny has ordered officials to see if other mass graves exist

The Irish premier has ordered his officials to examine the possibility that there may be

The Irish premier has ordered his officials to examine the possibility that there may be other mass graves, too

Posted by Age of Autism on June 07, 2014 at 05:46 AM in Current Affairs, Nightmares, Vaccine Safet

The Global Policy Group stressed the role of working with partners. Dr Tedros said WHO must develop a new mindset to seek out and build partnerships that harness the combined strength of the global health community - both in the public and private sectors. One example of this is a new Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being for All, under which 12 partner organizations are working together to achieve health-related Sustainable Development Goals.

The Taioseach intervened from the United States yesterday to say that he had ordered his officials to 'see what the scale is, what's involved here, and whether this is isolated or if there are others around the country that need to be looked at.'

Michael Dwyer, of Cork University’s School of History, found the child vaccination data by trawling through tens of thousands of medical journal articles and archive files.

He discovered that the trials were carried out before the vaccine was made available for commercial use in the UK.

Homes where children were secretly tested included Bessborough, in Co. Cork and Sean Ross Abbey in Roscrea, Co. Tipperary, both of which are at the centre of the mass baby graves scandal.

Other institutions where children may also have been vaccinated include Cork orphanages St Joseph’s Industrial School for Boys, run by the Presentation Brothers, and St Finbarr’s Industrial School for Girls, run by the Sisters of the Good Shepherd.

In Dublin, it is believed that children for the trials came from St Vincent’s Industrial School, Goldenbridge, St Joseph’s School for Deaf Boys, Cabra, and St Saviours’s Dominican Orphanage.

But Mr Dwyer said: 'What I have found is just the tip of a very large and submerged iceberg.

'The fact that no record of these trials can be found in the files relating to the Department of Local Government and Public Health, the Municipal Health Reports relating to Cork and Dublin, or the Wellcome Archives in London, suggests that vaccine trials would not have been acceptable to government, municipal authorities, or the general public.

'However, the fact that reports of these trials were published in the most prestigious medical journals suggests that this type of human experimentation was largely accepted by medical practitioners and facilitated by authorities in charge of children’s residential institutions.'

Horror: The scandal of the babies in the mass grave was discovered by local historian,

Horror: The scandal of the babies in the mass grave was discovered by local historian, Catherine Corless

Innocence: Academic Michael Dwyer found out about the secret drugs trials by going through old

Innocence: Academic Michael Dwyer found out about the secret drugs trials by going through old medical records - children from the Sean Ross Abbey home in Tipperary, pictured, are thought to have been involved

A spokesman for GSK – formerly Wellcome – said: 'The activities

that have been described to us date back over 70 years and, if

true, are clearly very distressing.

'We would need further details to investigate what actually took place, but the practices outlined certainly don’t reflect how modern clinical trials are carried out. We conduct our trials to the same high scientific and ethical standards, no matter where in the world they are run.'

A spokeswoman for the Sisters of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and

Mary, the order that ran Bessborough and Sean Ross Abbey, said that like GSK, they would also welcome an independent inquiry.

Fianna Fáil leader Micheál Martin called on the Irish government to add vaccine trials into the investigative remit of any inquiry into the mother and baby homes.

He said: 'We need to start with an independent investigation into the mother and baby homes which would be followed by a wider separate investigation into the vaccine testing.'

Historian Catherine Corless, whose discovery of the suspected mass baby grave at Tuam was revealed by the Mail earlier this week, said her study of death records for the St Mary's home run by Catholic Bon Secours nuns from 1925-1961 pointed to the existence of the mass grave.

from 1925-1961 pointed to the existence of the mass grave. Children's homes in Ireland were often

Children's homes in Ireland were often the only place where a woman pregnant out of wedlock could go

Children were looked after by nuns and often adopted abroad - now it seems they

Children were looked after by nuns and often adopted abroad - now it seems they were used in drugs trials, too

The Irish PM interrupted a trade visit to San Francisco to order an inquiry in the Tuam home and others, saying that Dublin must decide what is the 'best thing to do in the interest of dealing with yet another element of our country's past.'

St Mary's was one of several such 'mother and baby' homes for 'fallen women' who had become pregnant outside marriage in early 20th century Ireland.

Another such institution was the Sean Ross Abbey in Tipperary, was where Philomena Lee gave up her son for adoption in the 1950s. Her story was made into the Oscar-nominated film 'Philomena' last year.

The 'mother and baby' homes accommodated women who were ostracised from their own families and had nowhere else to turn.

Under conservative Catholic teaching of the time, children born outside of marriage were not baptised and were therefore denied a Catholic burial on consecrated ground.




Danish health literacy campaign restores confidence in HPV vaccination



VRM: Birth of Medical & Scientific Dictatorship – Future Scenarios


VRM: H1N1 Bio-weaponry Incorporated


VRM: Aids & The WHO Connection – Criminal Intent


VRM: Morgellons Syndrome & Chemtrails


VRM: Council On Foreign Relations 10/16/09- Major Influence on Government Vaccine Policy


VRM: Closed Door CDC Meeting Reveals Industry Cover-up Of Heavy Metal Toxicity In Vaccines


VRM: The Rockefeller Foundation Drafts A Post-Pandemic Scenario


VRM: World Health Organization & Vaccine Manufacturers Implicated In Massive H1N1 Financial Scam Involving Kickbacks & Cover-ups


VRM Live – 01/28/11: Vaccine Resistance Movement founder



Lord discusses Synthetic Genomics, cloned cell vaccine

& the death of natural immunity, gutter

journalism & Dr.

Wakefield’s imminent vindication with

‘Truth to Power’ host Paul



power-thursday VRM Live - 11/04/10: Vaccine

founder Joel Lord lays out the whole vaccine

Paul Mabelis; including heavy metal toxicity,


health at risk. http://www.blogtalkradio.com/show.aspx?userurl=empradio&ye


VRM Live - 09/24/10:

Founder Joel Lord & activist/radio

all out tonite. Topics include the VRM

Study, Scientific/Medical dictatorship, Natural Rights & Vaccine Industry fraud exposed. Special thanks to host Paul




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Child Abuse Vaccine Trials GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Confidential to regulatory agencies,


Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Vaccine Trials Inquiry Questionnaire


Vaccine Trials Rulings and Directions




CICA-Executive Summary


Ferriter Report- Page Report by Dr Diarmaid Ferriter, St. Patrick’s College, DCU


An Assesment of Health Status Children Detained In Irish Industrial Schools 1940 to



Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act, 2000, the Commission published its First Interim Report on 22nd of May, 2001.


The Second Interim Report of the Commission was published on 30th November, 2001.


child abuse The Third Interim Report of the Commission was published on 30th January,



Vaccine Trials Rulings and Directions To Download a Ruling please click on the Reference Number. Reference Number Description VACCINE TRIALS DIVISION RULING DATED 5th JUNE, 2003

This ruling sets out the decision of the Vaccine Trials Division of the Investigation Committee (the Division) on the following applications for legal representation heard at a procedural hearing of the Division held in public on 30th May, 2003




Committee – Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse 18 January, 2005



A Position Paper on Identifying Institutions and Persons under the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act 2000



Judge Ryan's Statement



Statement of Chairperson, Mr. Justice Sean Ryan on news of the death of Ms. Christine Buckley, institutional abuse campaigner and co-founder of the Aislinn Centre

11th March, 2014

“I am greatly saddened to learn of the death of Ms Christine Buckley. Her contribution to the understanding of institutional abuse of children going back for so many years cannot be overestimated. At considerable personal cost she brought to public attention some of the most painful and disreputable wrongs that happened to children with the authority of the State. She was an indefatigable champion of those who were abused as children and disbelieved as adults. Ms Buckley worked tirelessly over many years to achieve justice and she leaves a legacy of achievement. The nation owes her an enormous debt of gratitude and respect.

On a personal level, Ms Buckley was a pleasure to meet and to deal with. In difficult and sensitive circumstances in the Child Abuse Commission, she always behaved in a most courteous and professional manner.

My deepest sympathies go to Ms Buckley’s family on their loss.”

Vaccine Trials records dismantlement

23rd August, 2012

The Commission has commenced the administrative process that will lead to its eventual closure.

One of the initial stages of this process is the dismantlement of the records of the Vaccine Trials Division of the Commission whose work ceased in 2003 following a High Court ruling that the work of the Division was ultra vires the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act 2000.

A key element of this dismantlement process is the return of records supplied to the Vaccine Trials Division to their original sources. The Commission has commenced this process.

Ireland on child sexual abuse, the Law Reform Commission Report (1990) and the Report of the Kilkenny Incest Investigation Team (1993). While both reports recommended mandatory reporting

Settlement of 3rd Party Legal Representation Costs

The Commission wishes to notify all parties who may be entitled to legal representation costs, for matters which were the subject of inquiry by its Investigation Committee, that the deadline for submission of fees, from their legal representatives, is Friday, 28 October, 2011.

After this time, no costs will be considered or processed by the Commission, which is the statutory body with sole authority in these matters.

The Comission has taken this decision in order to facilitate the timely completion of its work and so it can plan, accordingly, for adequate resources to meet any outstanding liabilities. The Costs Team will write this week to all solicitors on record with it, if costs have not yet been settled, to advise of this decision.

The Commission published its report in May 2009 and before and since then, has settled legal costs as it went along. As such, ample time has been allowed to all parties to formulate their reasonable costs.

Commission Report in Irish Sign Language

Extracts from the Commission's Report, as well as the Executive Summary, are now available in Irish Sign Language. The Report is on DVD and a copy of same can be obtained from the "Catholic Institute for Deaf People", or from the "Irish Deaf Society". This version of the Report contains the Commission's findings in relation to the following institutions:

Mary Immaculate School for Deaf Children, Beechpark St. Mary's School for Deaf Girls, Cabra St. Joseph's School for Deaf Boys, Cabra

To obtain a copy, please contact Mr. Liam O'Dwyer of the Catholic Institute for Deaf People, at (01) 8300 522 or via their website - www.cidp.ie, or Ms. Pauline McMahon of Deaf Communications Ltd., at (086) 257 3366, or via their website - www.deafcommunications.net.


The Commission is working with the “Catholic Institute for Deaf People” to produce relevant extracts from its report, as well as the Executive Summary, in Irish Sign Language. The purpose is to assist the deaf community access information about the Commission’s findings in relation to children who were hearing impaired and in residential institutions during the relevant period. It is expected that this version of the Report, on

disk, will be available from end-November 2009. All queries in relation to this should be directed to Mr. Liam O’Dwyer at the Institute. Contact details for the Institute are:

Ph: (01) 8300 522

Email: info@cidp.ie

Web: www.cidp.ie


Investigation Committee Public Hearing


Investigation Committee Public Hearing- ISPCC



Investigation Committee Public Hearing- Department of Education and Science



Investigation Committee Public Hearing- St. Conleth's Reformatory School, Daingean


Investigation Committee Public Hearing- Sisters of Charity






A Commission of Investigation into Mother and Baby Homes and a representative sample of County Homes has been established by Order of Government.

The Commission would like to hear from anyone who was resident in or who worked in any of the Mother and Baby Homes or County Homes which are the subject of the investigation. We would also like to hear from people who have personal knowledge about the homes, for example, family members of residents, regular visitors or those who supplied services to the homes.